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Cleaning and Sanitizing

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					Cleaning and
Sanitizing
Cleaning vs. Sanitizing
 • Process of          • Process of
   removing food &       reducing the
   other types of soil   number of
   from a surface        microorganisms
                         on a surface to
                         safe levels




                                           2
Food-Contact Surface
 A food-contact surface is:
 – a surface that food normally touches or
 – a surface where food might drain, drip, or
   splash into a food or onto a surface that
   normally touches food


 Examples:
 – Utensils, cutting boards, slicers, countertops,
   storage bins, baking sheets, refrigerator
   shelves
                   Cleaning and Sanitizing           3
Food-contact Surface or Not?




               Cleaning and Sanitizing   4
Food-contact Surface or Not?




               Cleaning and Sanitizing   5
Food-contact Surface or Not?




               Cleaning and Sanitizing   6
Food-contact Surface or Not?




               Cleaning and Sanitizing   7
Factors Affecting the Cleaning
Process
 • Type of soil
 • Condition of soil
 • Water hardness
 • Water temperature
 • Cleaning agent and surface being
   cleaned
 • Agitation or pressure
 • Length of treatment
                                      8
Types of Soil to be Removed

 • Food deposits (CHONs & CHOs)
 • Mineral deposits (salts)
 • Microorganisms (bacteria, viruses,
   fungi)
 • Fats and oils
 • Dirt and debris



                                        9
Cleaning Agents
 • chemical compounds which remove
   food, soil, rust stains, minerals, or other
   deposits
 • Types:
   Detergents – water-soluble, alkaline
    preparation containing surfactants
   Solvent cleaners – degreasers; alkaline
    detergents that contain a grease-dissolving
    agent

                                                  10
Cleaning Agents
   Acid cleaners – cleaners with pH below 7.0
    used on mineral deposits & other soils that
    alkaline cleaners cannot remove
   Abrasive cleaners – cleaners that contain
    scouring agent that helps scrub-off hard-
    to-remove soils




                                                  11
Methods of Applying Cleaning Agents

 • Soaking
 • Spray methods
 • Clean-in-place method – automated
   cleaning systems with permanent
   welded pipeline systems
 • Abrasive cleaning – used only for firmly
   attached soil on surface


                                              12
Sanitizing
    Heat Santizing        Chemical Sanitizing
 • Raising the            • Exposing an object
   temperature of a         to a sanitizing
   food-contact surface     solution for a
   to 165ºF (74ºC) or       specific period of
   above to kill            time to reduce the
   microorganisms           number of
                            microorganisms on
                            its surface


                                                 13
Chemical Sanitizing
 • Common types: chlorine, iodine &
   quaternary ammonium compounds
   (quats)
Do not use any sanitizer on a food-
  contact surface unless it is EPA
            approved.



                                      14
  Advantages & Disadvantages of Common
                Sanitizers
Types      Advantages                   Disadvantages

Chlorine   Most commonly used           Less effective in pH ranges outside
           sanitizer                    6 to 7.5
           Kills a wide range of        Dirt quickly inactivates these
           microorganisms               solutions
           Leaves no film on surfaces   Corrosive to some metals
           Least expensive              Adversely affected by temperatures
           Effective in hard water      above 46ºC
Iodine     Effective at low             Less effective than chlorine
           concentrations               Less effective at pH levels above
           Not as quickly inactivated   5.0
           by dirt as chlorine          Becomes corrosive to some metals
           Color indicates presence     at temperatures >49ºC
                                        More expensive than chlorine
                                        May stain surfaces
        Advantages & Disadvantages of
             Common Sanitizers
Types    Advantages                              Disadvantages

Quats    Not as quickly inactivated by dirt as   Leaves a film on surfaces
         chlorine                                Does not kill certain
         Remains active for a short period of    types of microorganisms
         time after it has dried                 Hard water reduces
         Non-corrosive                           effectiveness
         Non-irritating to skin
         Works in most temperature & pH
         ranges
Factors Affecting Effectiveness of Sanitizers

 •   Contact time
 •   Selectivity
 •   Temperature
 •   Concentration




                                                17
   General Guidelines for Some Common
            Chemical Sanitizers
Sanitizer             Chlorine         Iodine           Quats
Min. Concentration
•For Immersion        50 ppm           12.5–25.0 ppm 220 ppm
•For Spray Cleaning   50 ppm           12.5–25.0 ppm 220 ppm
Temperature of        Above 24ºC       29ºC             Above 24ºC
Solution              Below 46ºC       Will leave
                                       solution at
                                       49ºC
Contact Time
•For Immersion        7 seconds        30 seconds       30 seconds –
•For Spray Cleaning   Follow           Follow           some products
                      manufacturer’s   manufacturer’s   require longer
                      directions       directions       time
 General Guidelines for Some Common
          Chemical Sanitizers
Sanitizer      Chlorine      Iodine        Quats

pH             < 8.0         < 5.0         Most effective at
                                           7.0, but varies
                                           with compound
Corrosiveness Corrosive to   Non-corrosive Non-corrosive
              some
              substances
Reaction to    Quickly       Made less     Not easily
Organic        inactivated   effective     affected
Contaminants
in Water
 General Guidelines for Some Common
          Chemical Sanitizers
Sanitizer       Chlorine            Iodine         Quats

Reaction to     Not affected        Not affected   Some
hard water                                         compounds
                                                   inactivated –
                                                   read label;
                                                   hardness .500
                                                   ppm is
                                                   undesirable
Indication of   Test kit required   Amber color   Test kit required
proper                              indicates
strength                            presence; use
                                    test kit to
                                    determine
                                    concentration
Machine Warewashing
           • Used for sanitizing and
             cleaning most tableware,
             utensils & even pots &
             pans
           • Types:
             – High-temperature machines
             – Chemical-sanitizing
               machines


                                           21
High Temperature Machines
 • Rely on hot water to clean & sanitize
 • Has built-in thermometer
 • Final sanitizing rinse temp.: at least
   180ºF (82ºC); 165ºF (74ºC) for
   stationary-rack single temperature
   machines



                                            22
Chemical-Sanitizing
 • Often wash at lower temperatures
   (<120ºF or 49ºC)
 • Rinse-water temp.: 75ºF – 120ºF (24ºC
   – 49ºC)
 • Items washed may take longer to air
   dry



                                           23
Factors Affecting Effectiveness of
Warewashing Program
 • Sufficient water supply
 • Well-planned layout
 • Separate area for cleaning pots & pans
 • Indicator water pressure & temperature
 • Automatic dispenser of detergent &
   sanitizer
 • Protected storage areas
 • Trained employees
                                            24
General Procedure of Machine
Warewashing
 1. Check machine for cleanliness
 2. Make sure detergent & sanitizer dispensers
    are properly loaded
 3. Scrape, rinse, or soak items before washing
 4. Load warewasher racks correctly & use
    racks designed for the items being washed
 5. Check temperatures & pressure
 6. Check each rack for soiled items as it comes
    out of the machine
 7. Air dry all items
 8. Keep your warewashing machine in good
    repair
                                                   25
Parts of a Manual Warewashing Station

 • Area for scraping or
   rinsing food
 • Drain boards to hold
   soiled & clean items
 • Thermometer in
   each sink
 • Clock with a second
   hand



                                        26
27
Steps in Manual Warewashing
1.   Rinse, scrape, or soak items
2.   Wash items in 1st sink in detergent solution that is at
     least 110ºF (43ºC).

         DO NOT SOAK WOOD SURFACES IN
        DETERGENT OR SANITIZING SOLUTION.
3.   Immerse or spray-rinse items in 2nd sink using water
     that is at least 110ºF (43ºC).
4.   Immerse items in 3rd sink in hot water (at least 171ºF
     or 77ºC for 30 s) or a chemical-sanitizing solution
5.   Air dry on a drain board



                                                               28
Cleaning Stationary Equipment
 1.   Turn off & unplug equipment
 2.   Remove food & soil from under & around the
      equipment
 3.   Remove detachable parts & manually wash them
 4.   Wash & rinse fixed food-contact surfaces with clean
      cloth, then wipe with chemical-sanitizing solution
 5.   Air dry
 6.   Reassemble
 7.   Resanitize food-contact surfaces that were touched
      during reassembling



                                                            29
Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)
 • Right-to-Know or HAZCOM
 • Requires employers to tell their employees
   about chemical hazards to which they may be
   exposed to at the establishment
 • Includes:
   – Inventory of hazardous chemicals used at the
     establishment
   – Chemical labeling procedures
   – Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
   – Employee training
   – Written plan addressing hazard communication
     standards

                                                    30
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
        SHOULD BE PROVIDED BY THE CHEMICAL
            MANUFACTURER OR SUPPLIER
•   Information about safe use & handling
•   Physical, health, fire, & reactivity hazards
•   Precautions
•   Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE)
•   First-aid information
•   Manufacturer’s name, address, & phone #
•   Date the MSDS was prepared
•   Hazardous ingredients & identity information

                                                  31
Implementing a Cleaning Program
 • Prerequisite to an effective HACCP-
   based food-safety program
 • Basic steps:
   – Identify cleaning needs
   – Create a master cleaning schedule
   – Choose cleaning materials
   – Train employees
   – Monitor the program

                                         32
Master Cleaning Schedule
             •   What should be cleaned?
             •   Who should clean it?
             •   When it should be cleaned?
             •   How it should be cleaned?




                                              33
Monitoring the Cleaning Program
 • Supervise cleaning
 • Monitor completion of tasks
 • Review master schedule
 • Request employee input on the
   program
 • Conduct spot inspections



                                   34
References
 National Restaurant Association. (1999).
  ServSafe Coursebook. USA: National
  Restaurant Association Educational
  Foundation.
 National Restaurant Association. (1999).
  ServSafe Essentials. USA: National
  Restaurant Association Educational
  Foundation.

                                            35

				
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