headway-advanced-key-units-1-5 by stariya

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                                Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

                               HEADWAY ADVANCED - KEY / JOHN & LIZ SOARS


1a / 2b / 3d / 4c / 5 hello, namaste, hallo, bonjour, Gutentag / 6d / 7 vocabulary, news listening, watching tv,
internet searching, reading books / 8c / 9a / 10c / 11 daffodil, church, anxious, pin, accelerate / 12 paint it, hang it
on the wall as a piece of art, use it as a ball, massage s.o. with it / 13 to talk with them through the internet, to
talk with them when I travel to Alaska, to understand language, for etymology, to learn the way they see their
world / 14a / 15c / 16 old woman, child, man, youth, husband / 17 male                               Outcome: 146

1. I agree but up till some amount I also disagree, the test is too short and too rough. But despite this it is a
   rather good description of me learning a language. Although I am not going on a holiday especially to learn
   another language.

2. It seems to me that it is good to guess at the meaning of words because it shows you have some feeling for
   language. On the other hand I believe that even if you do not guess right it does not mean you are not a good
   language learner. It certainly is good to be able to see patterns in a language. If you do you learn a language
   much quicker. I think that can be the difference between someone with a natural feeling for language and
   someone who has to study very hard to learn the language. It is not only a good memory what makes you
   learn a language, but it sure comes in handy.

3. Communication can also take place by sending letters or e-mails to each other. Sign language is another
   example of communication without words (not only used by the deaf). If you know a person very well you
   sometimes need only a way of looking at eachother to communicate. Communication by making music, by
   dancing (e.g. Indian temple dancers).

4. That good language learners do not mind beging in situations they cannot handle seems not completely true
   to me. Are they prepared to take more risk than is normal? I doubt it. Sometimes it just seems more natural
   that someone who is a good learner of practical things is more at ease in such situations than a language

5. Women have a better memory for language, they have more feeling for it.

6. Ofcourse first of all you have to have confidence in your own abilities. If you are a rather shy person you have
   the disadvantage of not speaking so easily. The ones that are more extrovert and outgoing, sociable people so
   to speak, do certainly have an advantage. Most of all you have to be a rather patient person because you do
   not learn a language in one or two weeks. Be an inquisitive guy or girl and you discover at a quick rate what
   the difficulties of the language are.

 Vocabulary

bread 3        fear 18      wood 8       noise 17        cheap 1       wise 15
steak 13       wear 19      bath 5       round 16        ham 4         bird 11
suit 9         hut 10       rose 14      chip 2          more 7        fox 6

Practice 1
Thump                    Slimy                  scrape                   giggle                  sluggish
Munch                    Grumble                miaow                    smooth                  wobble
Snif                     mumble                 howl                     squeeze
Squeamish                scratch                gaggle                   slouch
                                Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

a.thumping b.sniffing c.scrape d.slimy e.scratch f.squeamish g.smooth
PAGES 10/11

Language Study

1. Tenses and verb forms
a. Haven’t seen you / have you done / saw
b. Am looking forward / arriving / to have been / getting / be coming
c. arrived / forgot to turn / had poured / phoning / to see / to be
d. Had told / did not like / would have made / shall I do
e. Is raining / said / will get / would wrap
f. Have liked / had been / are / to go / will go
g. Have not been / moved / were / decorating / wanted / lost
h. Was taken / lost / hoped / would soon be
i. To finish writing / did not have
j. Would have gone / just heard / was cancelled / will just stay

2. Correcting mistakes

Dear Anna,
Thank you for your letter, (which) came yesterday. I do like to hear from you. The news of your interview is very
interesting. You did not say (if) you got the job. I hope so. I was sorry to hear that you have been burgled again.
How many times has this happened to you? 500 Pounds is a lot of money. Does the police know who did it?

You wanted me to tell you (about) what I am doing in Edinburgh and (what my life is like here). Well, I (am
enjoying) it very much. The course is good, but harder than I thought. At first I (did not have any friends), but (I
soon got) to know the people who are in the same department (as me). (At the moment) I am spending (the
whole time) trying to buy the books that I need to read for my course as they are difficult to find. I am sure I will
find them soon. When I have bought them I will be very busy!

I (must) finish now. A friend of mine has to write a letter in French and I said I would help him. Write to me or
phone me soon. I you (come) to Scotland you must visit me, but remember to (bring) some warm clothes. (It’s
such cold weather here).
                                 Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Unit 1 - The Best Days of your Life?

Comprehension check
1. The contrast that Churchill makes on his first day is that of a wonderful school and the awful feeling he has to
   be there.
2. Some of his fears were to spill his cup and to be left alone
3. He gave them to the Headmaster because he asked him to
4. He did not understand the task because all the new Latin words looked like eachother. I do not think he knew
   what Latin was.
5. The Form Master threatens to punish Churchill because he finds him somewhat impertinent.
6. It was supposed to be the very last thing in schools / miserable at the idea of being left alone / now it was to
   be all lessons / bleak apartments / gloomy evening

 Vocabulary 1

1. synonyms in context
a. terrific, fantastic, gifted             d. invalidity                               g. changes
b. convincing                              e. manage                                   h. leadership
c. correspondation                         f. deceive                                  i. strategy

2. Synonyms and their associations
a. Someone you share your deepest thoughts with you can call your friend. A comrade is someone you
b. To talk is easy, to babble you will have to speak 120 words in 60 seconds.
c. Look over there, and see if it is allright.
d. You are worried if your child is home late,
e. To say I love you goes a lot deeper than to say I like you a lot.
f. To hate someone can be temporarily, to despise a person is
g. Break
h. You mend a car when it has broken down and you heal a person’s wounds.
i. For me a woman can be attractive and a man can be good-looking.
j. I am mad, you are insane.

 Reading: Summerhill

If I look at the pictures of Summerhill school I think it is differing from a regular school in the way of less discipline,
more playlike, friendlier, loosened up a bit etc.

Questions for prediction
1. I think the children can choose what lessons they go too, certainly yes.
2. I do think though there is a timetable, otherwise it would be total anarchy.
3. Children would have classes according to their interests.
4. No I do not think they have special teaching methods, the way of teaching is being influenced by the children
5. Most of the children will be happier I think.
6. I think there is a certain degree of authority and I do not think all decisions are made democratically.
7. I do not think Neill finds it easy to influence the children at Summerhill because he thinks that they are
   already so wise themselves.

Questions for discussion
1. My predictions were not all right. For instance I thought they would have classes according to their interests
   but they have classes more according to their age. I was not really surprised by the answers and I think I have
                                  Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

     a rather good impression of this school. In my thoughts I am comparing it a little bit with the Dutch “Vrije
     School” although I think that is a school with less freedom than Summerhill school.
2.   Usually the child has to fit a school in a rather definitive way, there are few choices to be made. The only
     choice of course is a certain way of special education like “Vrije School” or a “Montessori” school. Summerhill
     fits the child to a great extent I think, otherwise there would not be so much happy children coming out of it.
3.   The main freedom is that they can choose whether they follow classes or not. Furthermore most decisions
     are made democratically.
4.   I agree with both views. I also believe in the innate qualities of a child, the ways adults are interfering with
     education and learning from the first day after they are born so to speak and the way children are most often
     put in a straitjacket. On the other hand parents and other adults are doing their best to raise the child in the
     society of nowadays. When children are raised and educated on schools that do not fit in with society you can
     ask yourself if that is not going te be a problem for the child in later years. It is known for instance that
     children from the Dutch “Vrije School” are to a certain degree well behind compared to pupils from regular
5.   “Indeed, the absence of fear is the finest thing that can happen to a child.” This last sentence of the abstract
     shows mainly two things. The first thing is that on Summerhill school the children are evidently free of fear
     during their education. On the other hand Mr. Neill probably takes it for granted that fear plays an important
     role on regular schools.
6.   A. I agree with the idea that education should be a preparation for life. For it is very easy if what I would call
     “school-society” is geared to normal society. That to find happiness is the same as to find interest I do not
     agree with. The aim of life could certainly be to find happiness but a lot of people do that in different ways.
     B. I do not believe in the fact that most of the school work done by adolescents is a waste of time, I think a lot
     of good work is being done on schools. This is too much of a generalization for me. Furthermore you must ask
     what has to be achieved by schooleducation. Do we want children to fit in society or do we want children that
     are very happy but are getting frustrated because they do not fit in this dazzling society.
     C. Maybe this was true in 1921 but nowadays I think traditional education is more concentrated on the
     preparation for society.

 Vocabulary 2

1. Spelling and Pronunciation (see copy from headway)
3. Rhymes:
Waste / paste / raced                  raise / mace / place                          sword / lord / cord / sort
rain / drain / main                    pause / because / across                      floor / flaw / more / yore

 Language Focus - Noun Phrases

Compound nouns:
Football                                   Mortarboards                              Sixpence
Football and cricket grounds               Headmaster
School treats                              Steam engine

Prepositional phrases:
?The very last thing in schools            ?Tea with the Headmaster                  Sound of my mother’s departing
Boys in a class                            Fear of spilling                          wheels
M.A.’s in gowns and                        Idea of being left alone                  ?Different types of print
mortarboards                               A collection of soldiers                  ?A number of words

Participle clauses
Everything provided by the                 Apartments reserved for…                  Covered book filled with
authorities                                Accomodation of the pupils                words…
                               Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Language Study

a.   He bought a eighty thousand pounds farmhouse with three acres of land.
b.   A twelve year old girl came into the room and she was wering a clown’s outfit.
c.   I need some six inches long steel nails.
d.   The Concorde is the fastest plane in the world and it can carry hundreds of passengers,
e.   Have you seen those Swiss army knives? They can be gadgets for everything,
f.   She is a muchrespected economics lecturer at Bristoll University.
g.   She has just started a job with a firm of accountants in New York and she earns fifteen pounds a year.
h.   He bought a three hundred years old picture of two men working in the field.
i.   We had a splendid four courses meal with two bottles of wine for less than fifteen pounds.
j.   It was a long twelve hours with stop-overs in Delhi and Moscow.
k.   The forty cars pile-up on the M1 caused by yesterday’s freak weather conditions has finally been cleared by
l.   Those Pan Am Airways passengers who are flying to New York can expect three hours delays.

This walk is 20 miles adj.                A 20-mile walk
The girl is 2 years old                   A 2-year-old girl (hyphens!)

Compound nouns can be: 2 words, 2 hyphenated words, 2 words together

If the past or present participle still has a verbal meaning it can not be put before the noun. E.g. A book written in

 Language Focus

Practice p. 21                            f.   have not / will                      l.    would
a. could not                              g.   is/will does                         m.    did not had not!
b. am                                     h.   would was/were                       n.    would not
c. did                                    i.   would have                           o.    could might
d. will                                   j.   would                                p.     - would
e. have not had not!                      k.   should


1. We say an umbrella because “an” is followed by a vowel-sound (mbrel) and we say a uniform because
   “a” is followed by a consonant-sound (junifm)

A university                                                   An MP
A used car                                                     A UFO
An honest man                                                  An uncle
A human being                                                  An unfair result
An X-ray                                                       An urgent message
An umpire                                                      A unilateral declaration
A European                                                     A united country
A useful tool

2. the is pronounced /ðI/ before a vowel sound
3. Exercises done
                                 Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Unit 2 - Literature

1-4, 2-8, 3-5, 6-9, 7-10

 Language Focus
Real time and grammatical time do not match exacty.

                                                   I have been

Past before the past                        past                   present                       future

                                           I was              I am
                                                I am here now
                                                I was here in 1995
                                                I have been here for 17 minutes

                                        When I came in you had been here for 17 minutes
                            If Berthe had not been ill I would not have been standing here

Past Simple                 Used to narrate past events in chronological order

Past Perfect                Used to express an action that happened before a definite time in
                            the past
Past Continuous &
Past Perfect Continuous Expresses ideas of activity in progress or repeated activity

The Future in the Past      Expresses the future as seen from a specific point in the past

1.   Narrative tenses (1)
a.   woke                                 i.   was finishing                      q.   had
b.   did                                  j.   was looking                        r.   drove
c.   had been                             k.   was interrupted                    s.   considered
d.   had done                             l.   thought                            t.   knew
e.   was wearing                          m.   had to see                         u.   had arranged
f.   fell                                 n.   wanted                             v.   was controlling
g.   came                                 o.   noticed                            w.   was going to
h.   had gone                             p.   had put

 Writing

Comprehension check
1.  Dorian’s main fear is growing old.
2.  His wish is that the picture that has been painted of him by Basil Hallward will grow old and that he will stay
3.  The first impression I have of Dorian is that he is a naive narcissistic person.
4.  The painted portrait is changing slowly and it seems to be that Dorian’s wish has come out.
5.  It do not seem to be that he is imagining it but I think he is.
6.  The choice Dorian has to make is whether to believe that he can go on living without turning old or not. Can
    he do anything he likes or is it just a dream out of which he is gong to wake up soon.
7.  The sort of life he is going to lead will be one with all the pleasures you can think of: sex and drugs and rock
    ‘n roll! The prospect of such a life is a real ecstacy for Dorian.
                               Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

8.    You can say that the painting is going to play the role of his conscience.
9.    He goes to the picture particularly after he has sinned because he seeks the confirmation of his not growing
      old and he wants to see his own beauty in the mirror again and again.
10.   What goes through his mind as he is looking at the picture is the incredible thought of living at the edges of
      life and not growing old at all. It is the corruption of his soul where he is thinking of.
11.   I think Dorian is slowly but certainly growing a little mad, he is forgetting about the real world and is living
      more and more in his own subjective world.
12.   The portrait had been like conscience to him because he had killed the painter of the portrait. The picture
      was the only left evidence (after he had disposed the body of Basil Hallward) that could mark him as the
13.   By destroying the portrait even this last evidence was destroyed and he would not be reminded of Basil
14.   The two men sneered because they probably were aware of the lifestyle of Dorian Gray.
15.   In the end the portrait and Dorian exchanged places again so to say. The picture again showed Dorian as a
      young men and Dorian had turned into an old withered man.

1. In fact Dorian died by his own hands.
2. I really would choose a more open ending of the novel. So the reader would have to fill in how he died and
   what happened in the end. The story in itself makes it clear enough I think.
3. From the world of matter all things travel forward to the world of spirit. Everything becomes less dense.
4. He is filled with remorse towards the end of his life.

 Language Focus

2. Narrative tenses (2)

1. Lines 1-11                                                   Lines 64-77
  would be = future in the past                                    Had come = past perfect
    was = past simple                                              Had been made = past perfect
    would pass = future in the past                                Had decided = id.
    would mar = id.                                                Was to have = future in the past
    would become = id.                                             Was to bear = id.
    thought = past simple                                          Was = past simple
    struck = id.                                                   Would be = future in the past
    made = id.                                                     Would be = id.
    deepened = id.                                                 Would be = id.
    came = id.                                                     Had revealed = past perfect
    felt = id.                                                     Would reveal = future in the past
    had been = past perfect                                        Came upon = past simple
                                                                   Would still be = future in the past

2. would in lines 78-99 refers to a past habit.

3. Reflexive Pronouns
1. See attached copy.
2. A. when you just have let someone in your house
   B. When you tell someone that it is allright to take sth.
   C. When someone asks you to do sth but you do not have the time.
                               Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

    D. When someone is gripped by fear.
    E. When you are not willing to do sth because it is very difficult and you do not think you can do it.
    F. When you have done sth stupid.
    G. When you invite someone to have a drink on your expenses.
    H. When you just bought some new shoes.
    I. When you offer someone something and you tell him/her to choose sth.
    J. When you want to know if there is a D.I.Y. nearby and where it is.

 Vocabulary

1. Positive / Negative
   N - Dreadful, hideous, uncouth
   P - Delicate

   N – evil, ageing, corruption, monstrous, terrible, hideous, wrinkling, coarse,
   bloated, misshpaen, failing
   P – fair, young, pleasure, beauty

   N – withered, wrinkled, loathsome
   P – splendid, exquisite, beauty

2. Dramatic style
hideous / ugly                                                 burdened / loaded down
quiver / tremble                                               melancholy / sadness
shuddering / shaking                                           glistened / shone
to linger / to remain                                          seized / picked up
flashed / came suddenly                                        agony / pain
infinite / endless                                             exquisite / beautiful, excellent
the verge / the edge

 Vocabulary

Bow             /b/           The bow of Robin Hood was made out of the best wood.
                /ba/           When the audience clapped their hands he bowed to them.

Tear            /t/           Tears rolled down her cheeks when she saw what had happened.
                /te/           “Tearing us apart” is Tina Turners’ best rock song.

Row             /r/           At an English bus stop all people queue up and stand in a row                /ra/
                                They had a row and shouted firmly at each other.

Lead            /led/           Our water pipes are mainly made out of lead.
                /lid/          Lead me out of here, it is getting to dark.

Polish              l
                /p /          He is from Poland, so he is polish.
                /pl/                  Please polish your shoes, they will look so much better.

Used            /juzd/         He was used to getting up early, he had done it all his life.
                               Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

                /   /           I was going to take a look on all the used cars.

Live            /laf/          U2 was playing live on stage.
                /lv/           I have lived here all my life

Wind            /wnd/                 The wind was blowing hard.
                /wand/         You can wind me around your finger.

Wound           /wnd/          The soldier was terribly wounded in battle.
                /wand/         You have wound me around your finger

Close           /klez/         Close the door please, it is getting cold.
                /klez/         You have brought this to a good close.

- I was terribly disappointed about the first results, so she gave me some console behind the console in the
- Entranced I walked to the entrance and before I knew it I was inside.
- I refused to go with her, I wanted to stay home to do sth about the refuse in the garden.
- I am content in my new job, what I like especially are the contents.
- Extract some juice from an orange and what you get is some orange-extract.
- In the desert the soldier deserted at last.
- The louche building contract was not the only thing we had to look into carefullyetal had contracted in the
- I objected to bringing in all these objects.
- Incense is sth that burns, it produces all kinds of nice smells. I felt incensed about the quantity of incense being
   used in my sleeping room.
- Due to his personality defect he defected to the Serbs.
- The slides were projected on the wall, they were pictures of his latest project.
- He frequently visited his mother and after these visits he mostly frequented the bar that was next to his
   mothers place.


beat beat beat                          feel felt felt                             raise raised raised
bend bent bent                          fly flew flown                             rise rose risen
bet bet bet                             grind?                                     shrink shrank shrunk
bite bit bitten                         hang hanged hanged                         sink sank sunk
bleed bled bled                         hang hung hung                             stick sticked sticked
blow blew blown                         hurt hurt hurt                             swear swore sworn
burst burst burst                       lay laid laid                              swell swelled swollen
creep crept crept                       lead led led                               tread tred tred?
deal dealt dealt                        lend lent lent                             Weep wept wept
draw drew drawn                         lie lied lied
fall fell fallen                        lie lay lain

2. They can be both regular and irregular, with two spellings and two pronunciations.
                                Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Unit 3 - What is Normal?
 Vocabulary

1.   Idioms
a.   I felt like a fish out of water                               zich als een vis op het droge voelen
b.   When in Rome, do as the Romans do                             meehuilen met de wolven in het bos
c.   I suppose, birds of a feather flock together                  soort zoekt soort
d.   He is a law unto himself                                      leven volgens je eigen wetten
e.   I stuck out like a sore thumb                                 uit de toon vallen

Biblical idioms are examples of idioms which are used in many languages.
Being the same as everyone else: b and c / Being different: d and e

2.   Words with similar meaning
a.   an eerie storm
b.   an eerie voice, a weird voice, an uncanny voice
c.   it sound really eerie, uncanny
d.   idiosyncratic, freakish, weird, eccentric
e.   an eccentric design, a fantastic design
f.   uncanny, eerie
g.   idiosyncratic, deviant

3. Collocation
Weird                 all of the words
Eerie                 dream, feeling, sound
Deviant               behaviour, style of painting, person, appearance
Fantastic             dream, experience, style of painting, feeling, person, sound, place
Eccentric             behaviour, style of painting, person, fashion, appearance, clothes
Freak                 behaviour, person
Idiosyncratic         behaviour, person, style of painting, appearance

Pre-reading task
1. New York: extremely big city in USA. Underground, Empire State Building. Marathon. Martha’s Vineyard,
    Frank Sinatra’s song, Art Galleries
2. The writer’s opinion of Americans generally is a positive one, he still thinks it is the country in which dreams
    can come true for everybody. On the other hand he refers to the extremely competitive atmosphere in the
    USA, which means he thinks people are running too fast, leading a life on the fast lane. Mr.Redman is a kind
    of beacon of rest in this crowd of crazy running people.
3. The Tarzan of Central Park seems to me someone who is living within the boundaries of the park, a man with
    no roof above its head, totally gone wild.

Comprehension check
1. If you would go visit New York where would the writer of the article like you to be?
2. Where does one of the stories that are told about Central Park refer to ?
3. Since when had Mr. Redman lived in the park?
4. How many treehouses did he build?
5. What does he especially like about living in the treetops?
6. Where did he build his houses with?
7. With what kind of things did he camouflage his tree-houses?
8. Who long did it take for the wardens or the sleuths of the park to find his last house?
9. What was the most marvelous thing about the structure of the treehouses?
                                 Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Vocabulary guessing
Tom-toms                        kind of African drum          Hoisted them up                Haul them up
Lurking                         crawling, hiding              Scale                          carry
Touching                        moving                        Sleuths                        detectives
Elaborate and lavish            well-made and excessive       Mournfully                     disappointed
To scrounge                     to get hold of                Dismantle                      tear apart

 Vocabulary
a.    Zimbabwe              Rhodesia                          e.   Belize               British Honduras
b.    Sri Lanka             Ceylon                            f.   Ghana                The Gold Coast
c.    Tanzania              Tanganyika                        g.   Ethiopia             Abysinnia
d.    Zaire                 The Belgian Congo

Listening and Vocabulary - Mad Dogs and Englishmen
Clime                    Detest                  impale                     Beats                 Swamps
Citizens                 Screens                 shame                      Garb                  Romps
Perspire                 Glare                   earth                      Creased               Snooze
Obey                     Hats                    hilarity                   Foam                  Seldom
Sultry                   Swoon                   bandit                     Rabbit
Huts                     effete                  shun                       Strike
Nuts                     impervious              Scotch                     Gun
Firmly                   glee                    Jungle                     Inmate

 Language Focus
1. As
Seven examples of as in the text:
…be regarded as a misfortune…                                 …as long as a year…
…as well as wooden benches…                                   As the officers formed a huddle…
…as many as 12 people…

-    as is a conjunction and is followed by a clause, like is a preposition and is followed by a noun
-    as is used to state the role, job, or function of a person or thing
-    as is commonly used after certain verbs
-    as……as expresses quality - not as/so…as… expresses inequality
-    as is used in a similar way to because, however it places less emphasis
-    as is used to talk about actions that take place at the same time.

As & Since: conjunctions meaning "because", used when the subclause precedes the headclause.
        e.g.: As she was ill she couldn't go out. / Since she was ill she couldn't go out.

Because is used when the headclause precedes the subclause. E.g.: She couldn't go out because she was ill.

a. as                                                         d. as; like
b. as; like                                                   e. like; as
c. as; as

‘As…as’ for comparison
a. Alan does not enjoy his work so much as she does.          d.
b. Not one day in my life was as happy as this one.           e.
c. He does not like to talk as much as he used to.            f.
                             Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

a. many                                                    d. long
b. much                                                    e. soon
c. good                                                    f. far

 Language Focus
a.   used                                                  e. reminded
b.   have decided                                          f. avoided
c.   don’t mind                                            g. stopped
d.   want

Future Forms
1a. will                            expresses a neutral future
                                    e.g. She will arrive tomorrow.

1b. will as modal aux.              expresses willingness and at the same time creates a
                                    distance between you and who you are talking to
                                    e.g. Will you do that?

                                    Will is used for all persons, shall is used for 1st person singular & plural:
                                    Shall I, Shall we, I shall, We shall…

2. going to                         a. plan: I am going to write a book.
                                    b. what is likely: It is going to rain.

3. Present Continuous to be + ing an arrangement
                                  e.g. I am leaving for Rome tonight

4. Present Simple                   timetable / calendar
                                    e.g. Work starts at 8 AM.

5. Future Continuous                actions in the future
                                    e.g. I will be working tomorrow at 9 AM.

6. Future Perfect                   something that will have been finished before a definite
                                    e.g.I'll have finished my work by the time you get back.

            a. 6                       d. 7                            g. 1
            b. 4                       e. 2                            h. 9
            c. 3                       f. 5                            i. 8

present continuous                  e
future continuous                   g/h
will+infinitive                     a/b
present simple                      f
going to+infinitive                 c/d
future perfect                      i
                                 Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

a.   are you going to do
b.   are going
c.   are going to stay / will be staying
d.   is not
e.   will come
f.   are going to do
g.   are going to visit
h.   will be lying
i.   will be
j.   starts
k.   will be
l.   are you going to stay
m.   are you going to do
n.   am going
o.   will have improved
p.   are you going to do
q.   will have to see
r.   will be going
s.   are you going to do
t.   am going to meet
u.   are you going to do
v.   will have sold
w.   will be making
x.   are you going to do
y.   will let
                                Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Unit 4 - From the Cradle to the Grave
In order to learn intonation you have to listen to TV (+ceefax 888).

General mistakes in grammar:
 Construct your sentences like the example automatically and try to speak like this for the coming period of

He / gave / her / a kiss / in the park / yesterday.
Sbj/ pred / io /di.o / adv.place / adv.time

   To think in Dutch but to speak in English. Your thoughts are not important anymore. Try to speak correct

If a child lives with criticism she learns to condemn.
If a child lives with hostility he learns to fight.
If a child lives with ridicule she learns to be shy.
If a child lives with shame he learns to feel guilt.
If a child lives with tolerance she learns to be patient.
If a child lives with encouragement she learns to have faith.
If a child lives with praise she learns to appreciate.
If a child lives with fairness he learns justice.
If a child lives with security he learns confidence.
If a child lives with approval he learns to like himself.
If a child lives with acceptance and friendship he or she learns to find love in the

Good parents should try not to criticise their children too much, because if they do their children will be
condemning them.

 Vocabulary

1. Word building                                               f.   intolerant, critical +disapproving
a. condemned                                                   g.   disapprovingly
b. hostile, discouraging +unfair                               h.   unfair, ridiculous +unacceptable
c. justifiable                                                 i.   appreciative
d. fair                                                        j.   discourage
e. intolerable

2. Prepositions
a. about; of
b. to; in
c. about; for; of                                               to be critical of
d. with; of                                                     to show tolerance of
e. with; in                                                     to show appreciation of
f. of; of                                                       to be ashamed of
g. to; to                                                       in fairness to
h. in; of
                                Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Relationships between parents & children up until the middle of the 20th century:
                - intimidation of children
                - punishment
                - he was scolded at
                - he grew scared of everything

Influence of Freud: not by discipline but by loving your children
Influence of Dewey: children don’t have to be forced to learn, they are wild to learn

Dr. Spock’s interpretation of Dewey:
                 - translate him into ordinary language (home situations)
                 - trust your children, no more intimidations in the last 25 years

The effect of these influences on children are they grow to be more mature and independent.

Comprehension Check
   1. T                     3. F                    5. F                    7. F                    9. F
   2. F                     4. T                    6. T                    8. T                    10. F

 Vocabulary

1. disadvantaged senior citizen                                9.    manly man
2. disabled                                                    10.   lower income brackets
3. retirement pension                                          11.   under the weather
4. leisure garden                                              12.   low IQ
5. pass away                                                   13.   unemployment benefit
6. taking industrial action                                    14.   Ministry of Defence
7. withdrawing our services                                    15.   Have a dialogue
8. working to rule                                             16.   Companion animal

A work-to-rule is a form of protest in a job.

Language Study

1. Modal auxiliary verbs, present and future
One of the main uses of modal verbs is to express varying degrees of likelihood or probability. In order of certainty:

1. Will / Won't (auxiliaries of tense - to put sth between yourself and the fact)
                     to predict a future event which is seen as certain.
                     Also used to express what we believe or guess to be true about the present.
2. Must / Can't
                     To assert what we infer or conclude to be the most logical or rational interpretation of a
                         situation or events. Less certain than will.
3. Should
                     Expresses what may reasonably be expected to happen
                     Also carries the meaning that what we want whatever is predicted to happen. Not used to
                         express negative ideas.
4. May
                     Expresses the possibility that sth will happen or is already happening (possibility)
                               Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

5. Might
                      Might, like may, expresses possibility, but in a more tentative way. (remote possibility)
6. Could
                      Could is used in similar way to might (or the past of cannot).
                      Could not is not used to express a future possibility. The negative of could in this use is
                       might not.
                      Couldn't has a similar meaning to can't only slightly weaker.

Practice                                                        Permission: a/i
1. B/d/g/h/j/k/m/n/p                                            Ability: c
2. Certainty: d/g/p                                             Willingness: e/f
    Probability: h/m/ b(=non-probability)
  Possibility: j/k/n                                            Probable is somewhat surer than possible.
3. Obligation: l/o

2. Modal auxiliary verbs in the past (modal +have +past)
All the modal verbs given above can be used with the perfect infinitive to express varying degrees of certainty
about the past. Again will/would is the most certain and might/could is the least certain.

3. Other uses of modal auxiliary verbs

1. Obligation
                      Strong: must or had to
                      Milder: should or should have
2. Permission
                      May or allowed to
3. Ability
                      Can or could
                      Was able to or managed to is used to express a particular ability on one occasion in the
4. Willingness
                     Won’t or wouldn’t
5. Characteristic behaviour
                     Will or would
6. Past forms of ‘need’
                     Needn’t have (+pp): action that was completed but wasn’t necessary
                     Didn’t need to (+inf): action that wasn’t necessary, but we do not know if it is complete or

a. She could/couldn’t ski really well when she was five.
b. I was able/managed to finish it by Friday, but it wasn’t easy.
c. Shakespeare can’t/couldn't have lived in that house. It wasn’t built until 1840.
d. I was allowed to leave the room because I didn’t feel well.
e. I had to check the oil before we left.
f. It must have been raining. The ground is wet.
g. You needn’t have given me a lift, but it was very kind.
h. He didn’t need to collect me from the station. I walked.
i. You might have passed.
j. He should have stopped smoking before it was too late.
k. I could have visited you last Sunday.
l. It will have been Paul.
                               Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

m. He would sit in the armchair for hours.
n. I wonder where they are. They may have been lost.

a.   I don’t have to
b.   Might (possibility)
c.   must be (less certain)
d.   I will have to
e.   won’t (willingness)
f.   I should get up
g.   Might
h.   might not be, can’t be
i.   Should have put out
j.   I really must get up
k.   Must have hidden
l.   We should have trained / we should train
m.   we did not have , need to
n.   Alan might be
o.   Won’t he take
p.   We could have got


Reply questions
a. Do you?
b. Haven’t you?
c. Does she?
d. Did you?
e. Do you?
f. Had he?
g. Would he?

a.   How wonderful! Has he?
b.   Pity for you. Have you?
c.   Do you? How awful.
d.   Did you? Were you frightened?
e.   Didn’t you? What a shame.
                                   Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced

Unit 5 - War and Peace
1. c                                      4. f                                          7. g
2. i                                      5. a                                          8. h
3. e                                      6. d                                          9. b

 Vocabulary

1.   Shield                    schild                        9.     barbed wire                 prikkeldraad
2.   Moat                      gracht                        10.    minefields                  mijnenveld
3.   Fortress                  fort                          11.    trench                      geul
4.   Armour                    bewapening                    12.    sandbag                     zandzak
5.   Drawbridge                ophaalbrug                    13.    bullet-proof vest           kogelvrij vest
6.   Parapet                   brugleuning                   14.    air-raid shelter            bunker
7.   Helmet                    helm                          15.    fall-out shelter            atoombunker
8.   gas-mask                  gas-masker

Gap filling
1. boys                       4.    comrades'               7.     boys                        10. head
2. bloody                     5.    glorious                8.     legs                        11. mad
3. war                        6.    seen                    9.     completely                  12. served

Language Study

a. What we doubt is his sincerity                           e.     Their self-righteousness that is what is annoying
b. It is the efficiency of the Swiss that I admire          f.     Spain is where you should go to for your holidays
c. To get up at 6 o'clock in the morning is what she        g.     What I like about London is its parks
   hates                                                    h.     Losing is what nobody likes
d. What is important is his approval of the scheme

a.   What I admire is the fact that he never makes a fuss
b.   What I appreciate is the fact that she's always on time
c.   What irritates everybody is the way the government has treated the HS
d.   What is of no consequence is the fact that the HS wastes less money than it used to.

a. Working until midnight occasionaly is fine but working until midnight is quite something else.
b. Being woken by a birdsong is one thing but being woken by a pneumatic drill is quite another.
c. Living in a caravan when I am holiday is one thing, but living in it permanently is quite another.

2. Review of tenses
a. had been going on                    i.   help                                 q.    thought
b. took place                           j.   were buried                          r.    lasted
c. were seen                            k.   were borrowed                        s.    has been visited
d. were heard                           l.   were strengthened                    t.    have kept
e. joined in                            m.   had felt                             u.    believes
f. were singing                         n.   would never have happened            v.    will be fought
g. met                                  o.   is known
h. were formed                          p.   continued
                                Melanchthon CAE - Headway Advanced


                      PAST   no link    PRESENT
                       X                   x
               I stood here yesterday
               The poet Keats died very

PRESENT PERFECT (a continuity)

                      PAST   linked    PRESENT
                       X                  x
               I have not seen him yet
               I have taught English for 5 years

MIND: With the -ing-form you describe an action that can be stopped any moment.


                      PAST   linked    PRESENT
                       X                  x
               I have read the book (so I can talk about it)

Did you read the book? - When you ask this you're not interested in the contents.
Have you read the book?- Now you're interested in the contents.

PAST PERFECT (a result)

PAST PERFECT linked           PAST             PRESENT
     X                          X                 x

Linked: When I met you yesterday I had been standing here for an hour
Resultative: Yesterday I asked him if he had read the book.

Revision Practice
a. have decorated it (ourselves)/ have had it decorated (by someone else); bought some new things
b. have never tried one
c. had spent the whole night watching tv
d. had reigned for a long time
e. will have them repaired (=perfect in the future)
f. had stolen money / had been stealing for years
g. did you do / have you done
h. had been
i. will have been married
j. has been towed
k. had been blown
l. has been withdrawn; has shown

a.   A correct / B. Did it say
b.   A correct / B. When did you ever go skiing or: When have you ever skied.
c.   Correct
d.   C. have heard
e.   Have been learning

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