Government - Egypt by stariya


									              Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum
Grade: 6

Unit: Egypt - Government                           Day 25-30 – Pacing Guide 5/2003

VSC Standards: Social Studies Skills 6.F: Analyze social studies information, Social
Studies Skills 6.A.3: Use strategies to monitor understanding and make meaning from
text – problem solving, Political Science 1.1: Examine the necessity and purpose of
government, Political Science 1.B.1: Analyze the methods used by individuals and groups
to shape governmental policy and actions, Peoples of the Nations and World 2.A.b:
Describe the social, political, and religious societies in early world history.
       Technology Connection:

Concept: Compare and contrast Egyptian government system with the United States
government system

Text/Instructional Materials: Ancient History Simulations, Hand outs – The Role of
the Pharaoh, The U.S. Federal System of Government, Egyptian/U.S. Govt. Problems to
Solve & The Compare and Contrast Egypt/U.S. Govt. Chart

Student Outcome: Students will describe how religion and government are connected
in ancient Egypt and the socio-economic ranks within Egyptian society. Students will
solve Egyptian and U.S. government problems to evaluate the necessity and purposes
of these governments.

Purpose                 Activity                                              Time
Anticipatory Set        Students will participate in a simulation (Re’s       15 min.
    Communicate        Riches – Teacher Created Materials, # 2102
      Outcomes          Ancient History Simulations) that will demonstrate
                        uneven distribution of power in ancient Egyptian
                        society. Role cards to be distributed are: One of
                        pharaoh, Vizier, Priest, Noble and enough peasant
                        and Craftsman/Merchant cards for the rest of the
                        class. Follow the simulation procedure.
                        Teacher directed discussion:
                           1. Explain that the pharaoh was considered a
                               living god on earth and owned all the land.
                           2. How was the social ranking different here in
                               Egypt for the craftsman/merchants than it
                               was in Mesopotamia? (They were
              Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum
                                independent of the govt., richer and more
                                powerful in Mesopotamia.)
                            3. Teacher explains how the Egyptian
                                government shared the wealth as shown in
                                the M& M distribution.
Introduce new               1. Students read “The Role of the Pharaoh in    20 min.
concept(s), content or          Ancient Egypt” (see attached hand out or
skills                          read in A Message of Ancient Days.)
     Lecture               2. Students review The United States
     Reading                   government information sheet (see attached)
                            3. Students then complete the Compare and
                                Contrast Egyptian/U.S. Government chart.
                                (Teachers will need to fill it out on the
Guided and               Students are organized into cooperative groups,    20 min.
or/independent           each group receiving one of the three problems to
practice with teacher    solve – from the Egyptian or U.S. government point
feedback                 of view. Students complete their section of the
                         attached chart. When all groups have reported
                         how their country would solve the problem, the
                         chart should be completed as a class.

Making Connections          1. In their journals, students should write down 35 min.
and Assessment, and            the Egyptian and U.S. definition of
Closure                        governmental power.
    Application            2. Students will then take the position as to
                               which government system seems to be the
                               most effective or efficient in solving the
                               three problems and cite examples to
                               support your position.
                            3. For closure - Compare and contrast the
                               purposes of government of ancient Egypt
                               with the United States.
                                    Kate de Barros/Magothy River Middle School Revised 6/2005
                   Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum
                                Re’s Riches Simulation
        The Nile River provided ancient Egypt with enormous economic wealth. Since the Pharaoh was
considered the god-king, all was owned by him.

         Added to that, government officials, such as the vizier and priests, required taxes in the form of crops and
labor in order to provide buildings for the pharaoh and food for his court.

         Priests were in charge of the buildings and care taking of the temples of the gods and naturally had to be
supported. The nobles were also paid crop taxes from the peasants for managing the land. The peasants felt
that they were gaining immortality by pleasing the gods through the taxes they paid the pharaoh, priests and

    1. Handout the character cards – pharaoh, vizier, priest, noble and remaining cards which are craftsmen
        and merchants.
    2. Seat the pharaoh, vizier, priest and noble in chairs in front of the room.
    3. Count off remaining students into eight groups of 4.
    4. Distribute four empty cups to the people in the chairs, one per person.
    5. Distribute eight bags of random M&M candies of red, brown, yellow, orange, green, and blue to the
        groups, one bag per group – about 15-20 candies per bag.
    6. Vizier instructs peasant groups to give the pharaoh 5 brown candies from their bag. One student in each
        group spoons out the candies into the empty cup and takes it to the pharaoh. The pharaoh has 40 brown
        candies in his cup if each group had 5 to give.
    7. Vizier instructs peasant groups to give him 5 yellow candies following same procedure.
    8. Priest instructs groups to give him 5 orange candies.
    9. Noble instructs groups to give him 5 red candies.
    10. Peasant groups and leaders can eat the candies, noting which people have the most.

Analyzing the Simulation:
   1. Teacher asks if the peasants of ancient Egypt would have felt it unjust to have given their crops away as
        a tax? Class discussion follows.
   2. What role did religion play in an ancient Egyptian’s life? Compare to a country like Iran where there is a
        state religion which dictates the way of life like in ancient Egypt versus the concept in the United States of
        the separation of church and state. What does that concept mean to the average U.S. citizen? What
        problems could you see if the church dictates what religion you must follow?

                                                 Modified from Ancient History Simulation, TCR, Inc. – K. de Barros/MRMS/2003
       Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum

                   Re’s Simulation Roles

Vizier says:
     “The great pharaoh, son of Re, almighty god of the sun,
has need of your annual tribute to pay for his temples. Each
group needs to bring him 5 brown M&M’s.”

      “Bring 5 yellow candies forward unto me, the pharaoh’s
vizier, that I may ensure the will of the pharaoh will be done
throughout this government.”

Priest says:
     “The great god Re needs to sustain his worship on earth
and the worship of all gods under him. Bring 5 orange candies
forward and place them in my cup.”

Noble says:

      “As the person who manages the land you live and farm
on, I expect a share of your taxes. Bring 5 red candies forward
and place them in my cup.”
             Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum
                The Role of the Pharaoh in Ancient Egypt

      Following the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt, the rulers of
ancient Egypt were referred to as pharaohs. Early pharaohs worked to
build unity in the country and played a central role in the government,
religion and economy of the country. Therefore, the pharaoh was viewed
as a ruler, priest and god.

      Because of the size of the empire, the pharaoh appointed the most
powerful local rulers as nomarchs, or the head of each region, called
nomes. These leaders were in charge of collecting taxes in their areas and
served as local judges. In addition, they made sure that the precious
flood waters were shared fairly among farmers through the use of
irrigation devices (canals, reservoirs) and the shared technology of the
      As the years went by, Egyptians believed that the pharaoh was child
of their sun god, Ra. Therefore, he not only had great political power,
but also great religious power and was worshipped as a god. Just as the
Egyptians believed that Ra gave life to Earth, so they believed that the
pharaoh gave life to Egypt and its people.

      Since the pharaoh was considered a god, all things in Egypt belonged
to him. This put the pharaoh in the center of the Egyptian economy. The
surplus produced by the farmers was divided between the farmer’s family,
the nobles, the priest and the pharaoh. The pharaoh collected a large
             Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum
part of every farmer’s crops each year as taxes. Egyptian craft-workers,
merchants and artists depended on the pharaoh for their jobs. This was
different in Mesopotamia as many of those skilled workers and merchants
became wealthy in their own right. Many of the Egyptian craft-workers
spent most of their time working to keep Egypt’s temples supplied. For
their efforts, craft-workers received food and clothing.

     The pharaoh provided the people of Egypt with the feeling of safety
and confidence in their land. The people of Egypt depended on the
pharaoh to protect their land from invasion. The pharaoh had a Vizier
whose job it was to advise the pharaoh and see that his orders were
carried out. The pharaoh also had other advisors (Tax Advisor, Army
General, Head Priest) to assist him in carrying out his wishes. The
pharaoh’s word was always law.

                     The pharaoh also looked out for the welfare of his
people by creating granaries to store the surplus food, providing food for
the low Nile years when farming was not extremely plentiful. The pharaoh
also carried out certain rituals, most of which were close to nature, to
increase the prosperity of Egypt. The people of Egypt had faith that
these rituals would bring rich soil, crops, and safety to the land.

                                                E. Downer, K. de Barros/MRMS/2003
                                Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum

                                   The United States Federal System of Government
                               Separation of Powers of the Three Branches of Government

          Popular sovereignty – authority to govern comes from the people not from pharaohs, kings, presidents, etc.
          Federal system of government – power is divided among federal and state governments
          Three equal branches of government which check and balance each other thereby making sure that no one
           branch becomes more powerful than the other two
          Freedom of religion is guaranteed in the first Amendment to the Constitution. This means that there is no
           religion set by the government that everyone in the country must follow.

                                Executive Branch (President)
                                    enforces the laws
                                    operates the federal government
                                    can call up the National Guard for domestic
                                    can veto bills from Congress
                                    can make treaties with foreign countries

Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)                                          Legislative Branch (Congress)
    Interprets the law                                                      Can make laws and pass taxes
    Can declare executive or legislative action                             Can declare war
      unconstitutional                                                       Can impeach executive & judicial
                                                                             Can investigate domestic problems
                                                                                (Congressional Inquiry)
                                                                                     Kate de Barros/Magothy River Middle School/2003
               Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum

Egyptian Government Problem One:
Your country is being invaded.

Egyptian Government Problem Two:
Your government is being taken over by the military.

Egyptian Government Problem Three:
Your government has raised taxes causing a food


US Government Problem One:

Your country is being invaded.

US Government Problem Two:
Your government is being taken over by the military.

US Government Problem Three:
Your government has raised taxes causing a food
                Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum

                  Egyptian/United States Governments
                           Problems to Solve

                          Egypt                     United States

from foreign

Take-over of
by own

Taxes raised
so high that
occurring and
people are

                                                       K. de Barros/MRMS/2005
               Ancient Civilizations – 6th Grade Curriculum
         Egyptian/United States Governments - Problems to Solve Key
Problem                     Egypt                               United States
Invasion from foreign       Pharaoh in charge – head of         Congress declares war
country                     everything in Egypt, including      Congress can raise taxes to pay for the
                            army – Can raise taxes to pay for   war
                            the war                             President is Commander in Chief of the
                            Advisor – Vizier directs the head   armed forces
                            of the Army (General)               The Joint Chiefs of Staff - head of each
                            Army General directs the army       branch of the armed forces (army, navy,
                                                                air force, marines, coast guard) directs
                                                                the war
                                                                President can make treaty to end the war

Internal take-over of       Pharaoh can crush the coup if he    President could call in the National
government by military      can gather enough support –         Guard to put down a military coup
(coup)                      everyone involved in the coup       President could call in the other
                            would be killed without a trial     branches of government, in his role as
                            Vizier would be advising the        the Commander in Chief of the armed
                            Pharaoh                             forces
                            The tax collector and the priests   Congress can investigate and put people
                            would have to decide which side     on trial
                            they were on
                            The Pharaoh was considered a god
                            on earth so to challenge him
                            would be very serious

Taxes raised so high that   Pharaoh can raise or lower taxes    President can recommend to Congress (a
food shortages occurring    without any questions               tax relief bill) to lower taxes
and people are rioting      Pharaoh can adjust the food         Congress can lower taxes
                            distribution process to allow for   Presidential advisors (Cabinets –
                            more food                           Department of Health & Human
                            Pharaoh can adjust the tax to be    Services) can open food banks or
                            paid more in labor of the people    outreach programs
                            than food                           President can call in the National Guard
                            Pharaoh has control of the army     to put down riots
                            and can put down riots

                                                                                 Kate de Barros/MRMS/2005

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