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AP Chemistry 2011-2012 Summer Assignment The following assignment needs to be completed by the first day of school. It will be collected and graded. Keep something in mind, this is your first assignment for AP Chemistry, it doesn’t look too good when you show up for school and, “left it at home,” or “didn’t have time to finish it.” Plan for Lab Orientation at Thomas More College on Friday, August 19 from 3:00 till approximately 5:00. You should be able to find any information you need in your notes from last year and in your AP chemistry book. This packet contains information which is review of material that has already been covered in Honors Chemistry- we work hard to provide you a strong foundation so that we don’t have to cover the basics over again. AP chemistry is an intense course by nature; it requires a great deal of maturity on your part and time outside of class, on your own, working through the material. We want to have as much time as possible for new material; therefore, it’s important that we move through “review” material quickly. You may work together this summer on the assignment (consider it training in forming good study groups), but be aware- YOU are responsible for this material. There will be a test very soon after we come back to school which will cover chapter 1- soon to follow those, will be chapters 2 and 3. Keep in mind- they are review!!! The summer work isn’t too bad but you may have to look things up in your book- don’t be afraid to search for the answer! Just because you don’t know what to do right away doesn’t mean you can’t look it up and figure it out! Two last things- my notes which cover chapters 1, 2, and 3 will appear on the internet at my website; you can refer to these or the notes from last year should you need any help. If you lose your summer work packet, there will be additional packets available in my mailbox at the school and posted on the schools webpage! Have a fun and safe summer!! Ms. Buroker *Note: It’s best to wait until towards the end of the summer before attempting these problems- if you do them too early in the summer, the point of refreshing your memory will be lost! AP Chemistry Name ____________________________________ Summer Work Matter and Measurement *Please do all work NEATLY on a separate sheet of paper if necessary! 1. Identify the following changes as physical or chemical changes: a. Baking soda reacts with vinegar to produce carbon dioxide. b. The copper sheath on the Statue of Liberty turns green. c. Addition of salt melts ice on the highway. d. Steam condenses on the windowpane. e. Epoxy resin cures and hardens. f. Sugar dissolves in a cup of coffee. g. Natural gas burns in a furnace. 2. a. Calculate the density of lead if a 10 kg block has a volume of 885 cm3. b. What is the volume of a 100 g bar of aluminum if its density is 2.70 g·cm-3? c. Calculate the mass of 100 cm3 of uranium (density 19.07 g·cm-3). 4. Convert: c. 25C to K 6. Define extensive and intensive physical properties. Which of the following physical properties are extensive? a. heat of fusion d. viscosity b. melting point e. conductivity c. color f. density 7. Write the names of the following elements: a. N b. Ca c. K d. P e. V 8. Write the symbols for the following elements: a. silicon b. chlorine c. iron d. sodium e. silver f. sulfur 9. Convert, using dimensional analysis: c. 8,768 mg into g a. 1342 mL into L d. 400 cm3 into m3 b. 3.26 x 10-6 km into mm e. 3600 sq. in. into sq. ft. 10. Write the following numbers in scientific notation showing three significant figures: a. 1,327 b. 0.00562 c. 2.76 d. 0.166 e. 0.09911 11, Measurements of the boiling point of a liquid were taken by two laboratory technicians (A and B). The actual boiling point was 92.3. Which technician achieved the most accurate result and which technician was the most precise? A: 92.0 92.1 92.4 92.2 B: 91.9 92.5 92.6 92.0 12. Match the prefix with the correct multiplier: milli mega kilo micro centi pico 10-6 103 10-2 106 10-12 10-3 13. Evaluate the following expressions. Express the answers in scientific notation with the correct number of significant figures and the correct units. a. 0.0045 in + 1.0098 in + 0.987 in + 23.08 in b. (3.45 cm3 x 2.70 g·cm-3) + (7.433 cm3 x 1.677 g·cm-3) c. 2.703 g/(1.376 cm x 2.45 cm x 3.78 cm) 14. A 12.3 g block of an unknown metal is immersed in water in a graduated cylinder. The level of water in the cylinder rose. The level of water in the cylinder rose exactly the same distance when 17.4 grams of aluminum (density 2.70 g·cm-3) was added to the same cylinder. What is the unknown metal’s density? 15. If one pound is 453.59 grams, how many grams are there in one ounce? How many ounces are there in one kilogram? Use dimensional analysis. 16. A sample of gold alloy contains 5.6% silver by mass. How many grams of silver are there in 1 kilogram of the alloy? AP Chemistry Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds Writing formulas and naming compounds can be confusing because there are different types of compounds that follow different rules. Additionally, some compounds (H2O, NH3, CH4, etc.) simply have common names that must be memorized. The two types of compounds we will focus on first are ionic compounds (formed from positive and negative ions) and binary nonmetal compounds (molecular compounds). Later we will add acids. So… you must recognize the type of compound before you try to name it. [Note: + ion = “cation” and – ion = “anion”.] Ionic Binary Nonmetal + ion before – ion usually the less electronegative atom is first Formula ex: NaCl (NH4)2SO4 Al2S3 ex: CO CO2 N2O Name of cation + name of anion Indicate the number (mono, di, tri, and kind of atoms. First element is simply name of element. Second sodium chloride element name ends with “ide” Naming ammonium sulfate aluminum sulfide carbon monoxide carbon dioxide dinitrogen monoxide I. Naming Ionic Compounds Cation Anion Formula Name Cu2+ OH Ba2+ SO42 NH4+ Cr2O72 Ag+ C2H3O2 Fe3+ S2 II. Writing Formulas of Binary Nonmetal Compounds Name Formula Name Formula nitrogen trifluoride phosphorus trichloride nitrogen monoxide phosphorus pentachloride nitrogen dioxide sulfur hexafluoride dinitrogen tetroxide disulfur decafluoride dinitrogen monoxide xenon tetrafluoride III. Naming Binary Nonmetal Compounds Name Formula Name Formula CCl4 HBr P4O10 N2F4 ClF3 XeF3 BCl3 PI3 SF4 SCl2 IV. Practice for Both Types of Compounds Formula Name Formula Name HCl carbon dioxide PCl5 ammonium carbonate K2S sulfur dichloride NiSO4 calcium iodide ClF3 boron trifluoride OF2 phosphorus triiodide Al(OH)3 magnesium perchlorate NCl3 potassium permanganate (NH4)3PO4 aluminum phosphate S2Cl2 dioxygen difluoride AP Chemistry Name____________________________ Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry BALANCING EQUATIONS 1. __LaCl3 + __Na2CO3 __La2(CO3)3 + __NaCl 2. __NH4Cl + __Ba(OH)2 __BaCl2 + __NH3 + __H2O 3. __Ca(OH)2 + __H3PO4 __Ca3(PO4)2 + __H2O 4. __C4H10 + __O2 __CO2 + __H2O 5. __C7H6O2 + __O2 __CO2 + __H2O 6. __P4O10 + __H2O __H3PO4 Stoichiometry: 1. How many moles of potassium hydroxide are needed to completely react with 3.47 moles of aluminum sulfate according to the following BALANCED equation? 6 KOH + Al2(SO4)3 2 Al(OH)3 + 3 K2SO4 2. Calcium carbonate and sodium chloride react to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride according to the following BALANCED equation. How many moles of calcium chloride will be produced if 13.0 g of calcium carbonate are reacted? CaCO3 + 2 NaCl Na2CO3 + CaCl2 3. When mercury (II) nitrate is heated, it decomposes to form mercury (II) oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen gas according to the following BALANCED equation. 2 Hg(NO3)2 2 HgO + 4 NO2 + O2 a. How many grams of mercury (II) oxide will be produced if 27.0 g of mercury (II) nitrate react? b. How many moles of oxygen gas will be produced if 3.5 g of nitrogen dioxide are produced? c. When 12.0 g of mercury (II) nitrate are decomposed in the lab, it is found that 7.56 g of mercury (II) oxide are produced. What is the actual yield, the theoretical yield, and the percent yield? 4. If 5.6 g of copper (II) oxide are reacted with 8.6 g of hydrogen according to the following BALANCED reaction, how many grams of copper metal will be produced? CuO + H2 Cu + H2 The limiting reactant is __________, and the excess reactant is __________. The amount of excess reactant that remains when the reaction stops is _______.
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