AP Chemistry 2011 summer assignment by nuhman10


									                                           AP Chemistry 2011-2012
                                            Summer Assignment

 The following assignment needs to be completed by the first day of school.
  It will be collected and graded. Keep something in mind, this is your first
 assignment for AP Chemistry, it doesn’t look too good when you show up for
        school and, “left it at home,” or “didn’t have time to finish it.”

 Plan for Lab Orientation at Thomas More College on Friday, August 19 from
                         3:00 till approximately 5:00.

You should be able to find any information you need in your notes from last year and in your AP chemistry
book. This packet contains information which is review of material that has already been covered in Honors
Chemistry- we work hard to provide you a strong foundation so that we don’t have to cover the basics over
again. AP chemistry is an intense course by nature; it requires a great deal of maturity on your part and time
outside of class, on your own, working through the material. We want to have as much time as possible for
new material; therefore, it’s important that we move through “review” material quickly.

You may work together this summer on the assignment (consider it training in forming good study groups),
but be aware- YOU are responsible for this material. There will be a test very soon after we come back to
school which will cover chapter 1- soon to follow those, will be chapters 2 and 3. Keep in mind- they are
review!!! The summer work isn’t too bad but you may have to look things up in your book- don’t be afraid to
search for the answer! Just because you don’t know what to do right away doesn’t mean you can’t look it up
and figure it out!

Two last things- my notes which cover chapters 1, 2, and 3 will appear on the internet at my website; you can
refer to these or the notes from last year should you need any help. If you lose your summer work packet,
there will be additional packets available in my mailbox at the school and posted on the schools webpage!

Have a fun and safe summer!!
Ms. Buroker

*Note: It’s best to wait until towards the end of the summer before attempting these problems- if you do
them too early in the summer, the point of refreshing your memory will be lost! 
AP Chemistry                                                Name ____________________________________

Summer Work
Matter and Measurement
*Please do all work NEATLY on a separate sheet of paper if necessary!
1.   Identify the following changes as physical or chemical changes:
     a. Baking soda reacts with vinegar to produce carbon dioxide.
     b. The copper sheath on the Statue of Liberty turns green.
     c. Addition of salt melts ice on the highway.
     d. Steam condenses on the windowpane.
     e.   Epoxy resin cures and hardens.
     f.   Sugar dissolves in a cup of coffee.
     g.   Natural gas burns in a furnace.

2.   a.   Calculate the density of lead if a 10 kg block has a volume of 885 cm3.
     b.   What is the volume of a 100 g bar of aluminum if its density is 2.70 g·cm-3?
     c.   Calculate the mass of 100 cm3 of uranium (density 19.07 g·cm-3).

4.   Convert:
     c. 25C to K

6.   Define extensive and intensive physical properties.

     Which of the following physical properties are extensive?
     a. heat of fusion                                      d. viscosity
     b. melting point                                       e. conductivity
     c. color                                               f. density

7.   Write the names of the following elements:
     a.   N             b. Ca               c.   K               d.   P             e.    V

8.   Write the symbols for the following elements:
     a. silicon       b. chlorine         c. iron          d. sodium             e. silver        f. sulfur

9.   Convert, using dimensional analysis:                   c.        8,768 mg into g
     a. 1342 mL into L                                      d.        400 cm3 into m3
     b. 3.26 x 10-6 km into mm                              e.        3600 sq. in. into sq. ft.
10. Write the following numbers in scientific notation showing three significant figures:
    a. 1,327           b. 0.00562           c. 2.76         d. 0.166           e. 0.09911

11, Measurements of the boiling point of a liquid were taken by two laboratory technicians (A and B). The
    actual boiling point was 92.3. Which technician achieved the most accurate result and which technician
    was the most precise?
    A: 92.0 92.1 92.4 92.2
    B: 91.9 92.5 92.6 92.0

12. Match the prefix with the correct multiplier:
     milli              mega                kilo              micro              centi              pico

      10-6                103               10-2               106               10-12              10-3

13. Evaluate the following expressions. Express the answers in scientific notation with the correct number of
    significant figures and the correct units.
    a. 0.0045 in + 1.0098 in + 0.987 in + 23.08 in
    b. (3.45 cm3 x 2.70 g·cm-3) + (7.433 cm3 x 1.677 g·cm-3)
    c. 2.703 g/(1.376 cm x 2.45 cm x 3.78 cm)

14. A 12.3 g block of an unknown metal is immersed in water in a graduated cylinder. The level of water in
    the cylinder rose. The level of water in the cylinder rose exactly the same distance when 17.4 grams of
    aluminum (density 2.70 g·cm-3) was added to the same cylinder. What is the unknown metal’s density?

15. If one pound is 453.59 grams, how many grams are there in one ounce? How many ounces are there in one
    kilogram? Use dimensional analysis.

16. A sample of gold alloy contains 5.6% silver by mass. How many grams of silver are there in 1 kilogram of
    the alloy?
AP Chemistry

Writing Formulas and Naming Compounds
Writing formulas and naming compounds can be confusing because there are different types of compounds that
follow different rules. Additionally, some compounds (H2O, NH3, CH4, etc.) simply have common names that
must be memorized.

The two types of compounds we will focus on first are ionic compounds (formed from positive and negative
ions) and binary nonmetal compounds (molecular compounds). Later we will add acids. So… you must
recognize the type of compound before you try to name it. [Note: + ion = “cation” and – ion = “anion”.]

                                 Ionic                                    Binary Nonmetal
              + ion before – ion                       usually the less electronegative atom is first
              ex: NaCl (NH4)2SO4 Al2S3                 ex: CO      CO2         N2O
              Name of cation + name of anion           Indicate the number (mono, di, tri, and kind of atoms.
                                                       First element is simply name of element. Second
             sodium chloride                           element name ends with “ide”
      Naming       ammonium sulfate
                               aluminum sulfide        carbon monoxide
                                                              carbon dioxide
                                                                     dinitrogen monoxide

I.        Naming Ionic Compounds
       Cation                Anion               Formula                                Name
         Cu2+                 OH
         Ba2+                 SO42
        NH4+                 Cr2O72
         Ag+                 C2H3O2
         Fe3+                  S2

II.       Writing Formulas of Binary Nonmetal Compounds
            Name                       Formula                  Name                       Formula
      nitrogen trifluoride                              phosphorus trichloride
      nitrogen monoxide                                phosphorus pentachloride
        nitrogen dioxide                                  sulfur hexafluoride
      dinitrogen tetroxide                               disulfur decafluoride
      dinitrogen monoxide                                 xenon tetrafluoride
III.      Naming Binary Nonmetal Compounds
                 Name                  Formula             Name                   Formula
                                         CCl4                                       HBr
                                         P4O10                                      N2F4
                                         ClF3                                       XeF3
                                         BCl3                                          PI3
                                         SF4                                        SCl2

IV.       Practice for Both Types of Compounds
   Formula                     Name              Formula                  Name
        HCl                                                           carbon dioxide
        PCl5                                                       ammonium carbonate
        K2S                                                          sulfur dichloride
       NiSO4                                                          calcium iodide
        ClF3                                                         boron trifluoride
        OF2                                                        phosphorus triiodide
       Al(OH)3                                                    magnesium perchlorate
        NCl3                                                      potassium permanganate
  (NH4)3PO4                                                        aluminum phosphate
        S2Cl2                                                       dioxygen difluoride
AP Chemistry                                                         Name____________________________

Chemical Equations and Stoichiometry
                                                                BALANCING EQUATIONS

1.      __LaCl3 + __Na2CO3  __La2(CO3)3 + __NaCl
2.      __NH4Cl + __Ba(OH)2  __BaCl2 + __NH3 + __H2O
3.      __Ca(OH)2 + __H3PO4  __Ca3(PO4)2 + __H2O
4.      __C4H10 + __O2  __CO2 + __H2O
5.      __C7H6O2 + __O2  __CO2 + __H2O
6.      __P4O10 + __H2O  __H3PO4

1. How many moles of potassium hydroxide are needed to completely react with 3.47 moles of aluminum
     sulfate according to the following BALANCED equation?

                                     6 KOH + Al2(SO4)3  2 Al(OH)3 + 3 K2SO4

2. Calcium carbonate and sodium chloride react to produce sodium carbonate and calcium chloride according
     to the following BALANCED equation. How many moles of calcium chloride will be produced if 13.0 g of
     calcium carbonate are reacted?

                                        CaCO3 + 2 NaCl  Na2CO3 + CaCl2

3. When mercury (II) nitrate is heated, it decomposes to form mercury (II) oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen
gas according to the following BALANCED equation.

                                     2 Hg(NO3)2  2 HgO + 4 NO2 + O2
     a. How many grams of mercury (II) oxide will be produced if 27.0 g of mercury (II) nitrate react?

     b. How many moles of oxygen gas will be produced if 3.5 g of nitrogen dioxide are produced?

     c. When 12.0 g of mercury (II) nitrate are decomposed in the lab, it is found that 7.56 g of mercury (II)
        oxide are produced. What is the actual yield, the theoretical yield, and the percent yield?
4. If 5.6 g of copper (II) oxide are reacted with 8.6 g of hydrogen according to the following BALANCED
reaction, how many grams of copper metal will be produced?

                                              CuO + H2  Cu + H2

The limiting reactant is __________, and the excess reactant is __________. The amount of excess reactant
that remains when the reaction stops is _______.

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