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					            Memory
Pre- Class: Please complete the “Test your
Memory” quiz in your packets. When you
are done, please sit quietly and wait for the
rest of the class
          What is memory?
• Memory is the
  process by which
  we recollect prior
  experiences,
  information, and
  skills learned in
  the past.
 3 Kinds of Memory
• Episodic (flashbulb)
• Generic
• Procedural
                 Episodic
• Memory of a specific event
• Like an episode of a T.V Series

Ex. What did you have for dinner?
    What did you do over the weekend?
    How did you celebrate your 16th birthday?
    What did you do on your last family vacation?
           Flashbulb Memory
• Ability to recall events in great detail


  Ex. Distinctive and Powerful memories
    General Knowledge Memory
• Memory of Generic Information


Ex. Who was the 1st President??

You remember the answer, but not when or where you learned it
       Procedural Memory
• How to perform
  certain skills
                 Closing
• Looking back at the Pre-class activity,
  please label each question to describe which
  type of memory each represents.
3 Processes of Memory
• 1. Encoding
   • Visual, Acoustic, Semantic
• 2. Storage
• 3. Retrieval
                1. ENCODING
• Your brain is Like a Computer
   – What happens when you hit „save‟?

  Saves information, but you can‟t see it
         Encoded in a different „language‟
        OTTFFSSENT
Turn your packets to the last page. On the
 bottom of the page, rewrite the pattern from
 memory

     Did you remember??? How??
                    Visual
• See an image of the pattern in your head and you
  remember
                   Acoustic
• Read and repeat
  pattern to yourself
                      Semantic
• Make meaning out of a pattern

     You do this all the time in school-
            Vocabulary
            Foreign Language
            Science
            Math
O T T F F S S E N T
N   W   H   O   I   I   E   I   I   E
E   O   R   U   V   X   V   G   N   N
        E   R   E       E   H   E
        E               N   T
                  2. STORAGE
• Maintenance of encoded information over a
  period of time


Repeat info over and over
The more time spent rehearsing, the longer you will remember




 Make the information relevant to already known info
                    Storage
• Organizational
  Systems
  – As memory
    develops, it is
    organized into files
    within files

  – Sometimes errors
    occur… affects next
    step in memory
    process
          3. RETREIVAL
• Locates information and bringing it
  into conscious thought
Retrieval- Depends on circumstances
• Context Dependent Memory

    Need to be in the same place in order to remember
     State-Dependent Memory
• Have to be in the same emotional state to
  remember something

  – Ex. When you are sad, you remember other sad
    things. When you are happy, you remember
    happy things
    Tip of the Tongue Memory
• You know you
  know something,
  but you can‟t
  verbalize

• Sometimes you try
  to summon words
  with similar
  meanings or sounds
  until you remember
 3 Stages of Memory
• 1. Sensory
• 2. Short-term
   • Primacy effect
   • Recency effect
   • Chunking
   • Interference
• 3. Long-term
          1. Sensory Memory
• Immediate, initial recordings of information
  through our senses
  – All senses have sensory registers

           Snapshots
           Accurate, photographic but only last a few minutes

          Ability to remember visual stimuli for a long time
          5% of Children (Cam Jensen)
          Nearly gone by adolescence

           Mental traces of sounds
           Easier to remember sounds than visuals
       2. Short Term Memory
• Working Memory
• Information fades rapidly and must be
  repeated to be retained

         13569291-0499583092
              Remember the first items in a series


               Remember the last items in a series
SHORT TERM MEMORY

            Organization of items into familiar and
            manageable units




Businesses use letters or repeating numbers to
help customers remember their phone number
   SHORT TERM MEMORY
                        In football….
                        In memory…
                     Occurs when new information appears in
                     Short term memory and takes the place
                     of what already exists
                     -Can cause you to forget


Short term Memory is like a shelf….
  Once it is full, you can‟t put anything else on it until
something comes off or transfers into Long Term Memory
    3. LONG TERM MEMORY
• MAINTENCE REHEARSAL
• ELABORATIVE REHEARSAL

Memory has not been found to have a capacity…

          Mental representations that we form of the
          world by organizing information into
          knowledge
        Basic Memory Tasks
• Recognition- Identification of objects or
  events that have been encountered before
        Basic Memory Tasks
• Recall- Bring information back into mind
        Basic Memory Tasks
• Relearning
     Does not take long to recall information
  previously learned
      Forgetting
• Repression
• Decay…diseases like
  Alzheimer’s
• Amnesia
                Decay
• Fading away of a memory
               Repression
• Forgetting things on purpose without being
  aware that you are doing it
• Freud- Some memories are so painful or
  scary that you feel guilt, anxiety, or shame
                   Amnesia
• Infantile
  – Can‟t remember anything before the age of 3
     • Hippocampus does not develop fully until 2
                 AMNESIA
• Anterograde
  – Prevents someone from forming new memories

    • Usually happens after an accident or brain trauma
               AMNESIA
• Retrograde
  – Cannot remember information from before the
    accident
               AMNESIA
• Disassociative
  – Caused by Psychological Trauma
Alzheimer‟s Disease


     Dementia
     Improving Memory
•   Drill & Practice
•   Relating: “I” before “e”/weird
•   Unusual Associations:
•   Construct Links: Pay-so (Peso)
•   Mnemonic Devices: ABC order,
    numerical order, acronyms (HOMES)
    – RATSLEG …. ROYGBIV

				
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posted:9/21/2011
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