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					             Religious Conflict and Warfare:
                 The Age of the Crusades

Terms:
      • Pilgrimage= iter or peregrinatio (Latin)
                    pelerinage (French)
      • Holy War = bellum sacrum
                    guerre sainte
      • Expedition of the cross = expeditio crucis
      • Takers of the cross = cruces signati
          Justification for Warfare


Just war principles established by St. Augustine in the 5th
   century

War must
• Have a just cause based on past or present aggression
  (causa justa)
• Be authorized by legitimate authority (auctoritas
  principis)
• Be waged for right intention (intentio rectus)
  – Must be only practical alternative
  – Participants must have pure motives
              Prelude to the Crusades


Important events:
  • Arab conquests 7th & 8th centuries
  • Conversion of the Turks to Islam
  • Collapse of Abbasid dynasty c. 950
  • Battle of Manzikert in 1071
      • Loss of Anatolia
  • Alexius’ letter to Pope Urban asking for help regaining
    lost territory
  • Council of Clermont, 1095
Map of the Eastern Mediterranean
        in the 12th Century
             Key Personalities


Alexius I Comnenus (1081-1118)
Pope Urban II (1088-1099)
Godfrey de Bouillon, duke of Lower Lorraine
Baldwin of Bourg, his brother
Raymond of St. Gilles, count of Toulouse
Bohemond of Otranto
Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy
Stephen of Blois, count of Anjou
Peter the Hermit
               First Crusade 1096–1099


• Conditions for a valid Crusade
   – Authorized only by pope (legitimate authority or
     auctoritas principis)
   – Crusader vow (votum)
      • Cross sewed on clothing, signifying vow
   – Privileges
      • Indulgence (spiritual reward for danger of journey)
      • Protection of church (clerical status)
      • Immunity from seizure (lands, chattels)
      • Freedom from tolls or obligations
   – Excommunication for failure to fulfill vow
          First Crusade 1096–1099


Byzantine Empire under attack from Muslim Turks
1071 – Battle of Manzikert, Turks seize Anatolia
1094 – Alexis I appealed to Pope Urban II for help
1095 – Urban II’s speech at Clermont
1096 – Peasants’ Crusade (unofficial)
1096 – Official crusade launched
1099 – Crusaders capture Jerusalem
First Crusade 1096–1099
             Second Crusade 1147–1149


1147 – Muslims defeat Europeans at Edessa, which
  catalyzed the 2nd Crusade
Preached by Bernard of Clarivaux
Foolish decisions lead to disaster for the crusaders
Crusades now included an expansionist mission in
  addition to a pilgrimage
Origin of Military Orders: Templars, Hospitalers,
  Teutonic Knights
                   Crusader States:
                  Outremer, 1099–1187

• County of Eddessa, founded
  by Baldwin of Boulogne
  (1097–1144)
• Principality of Antioch,
  founded by Bohemond of
  Sicily (1098)
• Kingdom of Jerusalem
  (1099–1187)
• County of Tripoli, founded by
  Raymond of St. Giles (1102)
Krak des Chevaliers:
  Crusader Castle
            Third Crusade 1188–1192


Muslim leader Saladin reconquers Egypt and most
  crusading states
1187 – Conquers Jerusalem, which precipitated the
  Third Crusade
Byzantium makes a pact with Saladin
Leaders:     Richard I of England
             Philip II (Augustus) of France
             Frederick I (Barbarossa), Holy Roman
             Emperor
Crusade disintegrated through lack of cooperation
            Fourth Crusade 1202–1204


Pope Innocent III organized crusade under papal
  auspices
Crusaders never reached the Holy Land
  Diverted by Venetians to Zara
Byzantium victim of the 4th Crusade
  Cause: dynastic intrigue & greed
1204: Crusaders sacked Constantinople
Crusades’ Overview

				
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