Drunk Driving

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					                                   Drunk Driving
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Between 2003 and 2005 the percent of high school males who report driving after
drinking dropped slightly, from 15 percent to 12 percent, continuing an ongoing trend.
(See Figure 2)

Importance

Alcohol use among youth is associated with a wide variety of risky behaviors,1 including
driving while under the influence of alcohol. The American Medical Association reports
that “all alcohol consumption, even at low levels, has a negative impact on driver skills,
perceptions, abilities, and performance and poses significant health and safety risks.”2 In
addition, drivers who have been drinking are less likely to use seat belts.3

Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young drivers (15- to 20- year
olds).4 In 2002, twenty four percent of young drivers who were killed in an automobile
accident had been drinking and were legally intoxicated.5 Drinking and driving or riding
in a car with someone who has been drinking are clearly significant health risks for
America’s youth.

Trends

The percentage of high school students who reported riding in a car in the past month
with someone who had been drinking dropped from 37 percent in 1997 to 29 percent in
2005. Similarly, the percentage of students who reported driving after drinking has
dropped from 17 percent in 1997 to 10 percent in 2005. (See Figure 1)

Male students are more likely than females to report driving after drinking alcohol. (See
Figure 2) In 2005, 12 percent of high school males reported driving after drinking
alcohol, compared with 8 percent of females. (See Table 2)

Differences by Gender

Male and female students report similar rates of riding with a driver who had been
drinking alcohol (27 percent and 30 percent, respectively, in 2005). Male students,
however, are more likely than females to report driving after drinking alcohol. (See
Figure 2) In 2005, 12 percent of high school males reported driving after drinking
alcohol, compared with 8 percent of females. This difference exists for all racial and
ethnic groups. (See Table 2)
Differences by Race and Ethnicity6

Hispanic students are more likely than non-Hispanic white and black students to report
riding in a car with a driver who had been drinking alcohol (36 percent versus 28 percent
and 24 percent, respectively, in 2005). (See Table 1) Non-Hispanic white students and
Hispanic students are more than twice as likely as non-Hispanic black students to report
driving after drinking alcohol (11 percent, respectively, versus 5 percent in 2005). (See
Table 2)

Differences by Grade

The percentage of high school students who drive drunk is higher among older students
than it is among younger students. In 2005, the percent of students who drove after
drinking nearly triples from sixth to 12th grade (6 percent in the ninth grade (when few
students have licenses) to 17 percent by grade 12). (See Figure 3)

No significant difference occurred by grade for the percentage of students who rode in a
car with a driver who had been drinking. (See Figure 3)

State and Local Estimates

2005 estimates of drinking and driving among high school students (Grades 9-12) are
available for select states and cities from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), Table
5 at: http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm

International Estimates

None Available

National Goals

Through its Healthy People 2010 initiative, the federal government has set a national goal
to reduce the number of high school students who report riding with a driver who had
been drinking from a 1999 baseline of 33 percent to 30 percent by 2010. To reach this
goal, the government encourages school-based and community programs that work to
reduce adolescent drinking and driving and increase law enforcement.

More information is available at:
http://www.health.gov/healthypeople/document/html/objectives/26-06.htm
(See Goal 26-6)

Definition

Students are asked if they “rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol” or “drove
after drinking alcohol” one or more times in the last thirty days.
Data Source

Data for 1991: YRBSS: Youth Online, Comprehensive Results. Retrieved May 24, 2004
from URL: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance Summaries:
Data for 1993: March 24 1995. MMWR 1995; 44(No. SS-1): Table 2.
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/MMWRFile/ss4401.htm#00001016.htm
Data for 1995: September 27, 1996. MMWR 1996; 45 (No. SS-4): Table 2.
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/MMWRFile/ss4504.htm#00001916.htm
Data for 1997: August 14, 1998. MMWR; 47(No. SS-3): Table 2.
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/MMWRFile/ss4703.htm#00003343.htm
Data for 1999: June 9, 2000. MMWR 2000; 49(No. SS-5): Table 4.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss4905a1.htm#tab4
Data for 2001: June 28, 2002. MMWR 2002; 51(No. SS-4): Table 4.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5104a1.htm#tab4
Data for 2003: May 21, 2004. MMWR 2004; 53(No. SS-2): Table 4.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5302a1.htm#tab4
Data for 2005: June 9. 2006. MMWR 2006. 55 (No. SS-5); Table 4.
http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/ss5505a1.htm

Raw Data Source

Youth Risk Behavior Survey
http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dash/yrbs/index.htm

Approximate Date of Next Update

Summer 2008

1
  National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 1997. “Youth Drinking: Risk Factors and
Consequences.” Alcohol Alert No. 37.
 http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa37.htm
2
  “AMA Policies on Alcohol: Operating Vehicles Under the Influence of Alcohol or Other Drugs --
Underage Drinking and Driving.” American Medical Association, Office of Alcohol/Drug Abuse, May 8,
2002: H-30.945. Available online at:
 http://www.ama-assn.org/ama1/pub/upload/mm/388/underage_drnkndrive.pdf
3
  “Traffic Safety Facts 2002: Young Drivers.” U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration: DOT HS 809 619. Available online at
http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/pdf/nrd-30/NCSA/TSF2002/2002ydrfacts.pdf
4
  Marin, Pilar S. and Brown, Brett V. (2005). Are Teens Driving Safer? Child Trends, Cross Currents,
October 2005 (4). Available online at: http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org/PDF/teen%20driving.pdf
5
  “Teen Tipplers: America’s Underage Drinking Epidemic.” The National Center on Addiction and
Substance Abuse at Columbia University, Revised February 2003. Available online at
http://www.casacolumbia.org/absolutenm/articlefiles/379-teen_tipplers.pdf
6
  Race/ethnicity estimates from 1999 and later are not directly comparable to earlier years due to federal
changes in race definitions. In surveys conducted in 1999 and later, respondents were allowed to select
more than one race when selecting their racial category. Estimates presented here only include respondents
who selected one category when choosing their race.
Figure 1                     Percentage of Students in Grades 9 to 12 Who Reported
                                 Driving After Drinking Alcohol or Riding with a
                               Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol,1 1991-2005
              50

              45
                              40                                 39
              40
                                                35                                 37
                                                                                                    33
              35
                                                                                                                     31
              30                                                                                                                    30
                                                                                                                                                    29
    Percent




              25

              20
                              17                                                  17
                                               14                15                                                 13
              15                                                                                   13
                                                                                                                                    12
              10                                                                                                                                    10

               5

               0
               1989       1991             1993             1995             1997             1999             2001            2003          2005        2007

                                     Rode in a Car with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking                               Drove After Drinking Alcohol


1
 One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance Summaries, June 9. 2006. MMWR 2006. 55 (No. SS-5); Table 4.
Figure 2
                       Percentage of Students in Grades 9 to 12 Who Reported Driving After Drinking Alcohol or
                             Riding with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol,1 by Gender, 1991-2005


               45


               40


               35


               30


               25
     Percent




                                                                                                                                       Male (Riding)
               20                                                                                                                      Female (Riding)
                                                                                                                                       Male (Drove)
                                                                                                                                       Female (Drove)
               15


               10


                5


                0
                    1991        1993             1995             1997             1999            2001             2003        2005



 1
  One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
 Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance Summaries, June 9. 2006. MMWR 2006. 55 (No. SS-5); Table 4.
Figure 3
                                Percentage of Students in Grades 9 to 12 Who Reported
                                    Driving After Drinking Alcohol or Riding with a
                                Driver Who Had Been Drinking Alcohol,1 by Grade, 2005
           50

                                     Ninth Grade                   Tenth Grade                   Eleventh Grade                Twelfth Grade

           40



                           28             28            28             30
           30
 Percent




           20                                                                                                                                  17

                                                                                                                                 12

           10
                                                                                                                        7
                                                                                                            6


            0
                Rode in a Car with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking                                               Drove After Drinking Alcohol

  1
   One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
  Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance Summaries, June 9. 2006. MMWR 2006. 55 (No. SS-5);
  Table 4.Table 4.
Table 1

                                                                                                                                                        1
 The Percentage of High School Students Who Rode in a Car with a Driver Who Had Been Drinking,
                                    Selected Years, 1991-2005
                                                 1991             1993            1995             1997            1999             2001            2003       2005
All Students                                     39.9             35.3            38.8             36.6            33.1             30.7            30.2       28.5
                   2
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White                               40.5             34.1            37.7             36.9            32.4             30.3            28.5      28.3
 Non-Hispanic Black                               35.5             39.3            37.1             33.5            34.4             27.6            30.9      24.1
 Hispanic                                         46.9             42.3            49.4             42.8            39.5             38.3            36.4      36.1
Grade
  9                                               34.9             31.5            37.6             33.3            31.0             30.4            28.2      27.9
 10                                               37.7             34.3            37.3             32.3            33.3             30.6            29.3      27.8
 11                                               42.4             35.8            37.4             39.4            30.7             29.1            30.5      28.0
 12                                               44.7             39.3            42.2             40.5            37.2             32.8            33.3      30.1
Male                                              40.0             36.3            39.5             38.3            34.4             31.8            29.2      27.2
                   2
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White                               40.2             34.7            37.9             38.9            33.0             31.2            27.3      26.2
 Non-Hispanic Black                               37.5             41.3            41.6             37.3            34.0             31.2            31.8      24.3
 Hispanic                                         47.2             45.1            49.2             44.6            41.8             37.1            32.8      37.4
Grade
   9                                              33.9             30.0            39.1             31.8            29.9             29.2            26.4      25.8
  10                                              36.6             33.0            35.1             35.6            34.8             31.5            27.6      26.2
  11                                              45.0             38.8            38.7             42.9            33.4             32.8            30.3      27.7
  12                                              44.7             42.5            44.8             41.7            39.7             34.5            34.0      29.5
Female                                            39.8             34.5            37.8             34.5            31.7             29.6            31.1      29.6
                   2
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White                               40.9             33.5            37.3             34.5            31.7             29.4            29.8      30.4
 Non-Hispanic Black                               33.8             37.3            33.0             29.8            34.7             24.2            29.8      24.0
 Hispanic                                         46.7             39.7            49.7             40.6            37.3             39.3            40.0      34.7
Grade
  9                                               36.0             33.1            35.4             34.9            32.0             31.3            30.2      30.1
 10                                               38.8             35.9            39.6             28.2            32.0             29.9            31.0      29.5
 11                                               39.7             32.8            36.0             35.1            28.1             25.4            30.7      28.1
 12                                               44.8             36.1            39.2             39.1            34.8             31.3            32.6      30.7
Note: Estimates do not include youth who dropped out of school and therefore may not reflect total national values
 1
   One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey.
2
  Race/ethnicity estimates from 1999 and later are not directly comparable to earlier years due to federal changes in race definitions. In surveys conducted
in 1999 and later, respondents were allowed to select more than one race when selecting their racial category. Estimates presented only include
respondents who selected one category when choosing their race.
Source: Data for 1991: YRBSS: Youth Online, Comprehensive Results. Retrieved May 24, 2004 from
URL: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance
Summaries , Data for 1993: March 24 1995. MMWR 1995; 44(No. SS-1): Table 2; Data for 1995:
September 27, 1996. MMWR 1996; 45 (No. SS-4): Table 2; Data for 1997: August 14, 1998. MMWR;
47(No. SS-3): Table 2; Data for 1999: June 9, 2000. MMWR 2000; 49(No. SS-5): Table 4. Data for
2001: June 28, 2002. MMWR 2002: 51 (No. SS-4); Table 4. Data for 2003: May 21, 2004. MMWR
2004:53(No. SS-2): Table 4. Data for 2005: June 9. 2006. MMWR 2006. 55 (No. SS-5); Table 4.
Table 2



          The Percentage of High School Students Who Drove After Drinking Alcohol,1 Selected Years 1991-2005
                                                1991              1993             1995              1997              1999              2001            2003     2005
All Students                                     16.7              13.5             15.4              16.9              13.1              13.3            12.1     9.9
                   2
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White                              18.7              14.6             16.8              18.9              14.6             14.7             12.9    11.3
 Non-Hispanic Black                               9.8               9.8             10.5               9.4               7.9              7.7              9.1     4.9
 Hispanic                                        17.0              13.4             15.3              18.1              12.7             13.1             11.7    10.5
Grade
  9                                               6.0               5.0              9.6               9.7               5.3              6.6              6.2     5.5
 10                                              11.9               8.6             10.4              11.5              10.1             10.4              9.2     6.6
 11                                              20.5              15.1             16.1              19.9              16.4             16.7             15.3    12.1
 12                                              28.2              23.8             24.0              25.3              22.8             22.1             19.8    17.1
Male                                             21.5              17.6             18.5              21.0              17.4             17.2             15.0    11.7
                   2
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White                              23.3              18.5             19.4              22.8              18.7             18.6             15.2    12.4
 Non-Hispanic Black                              14.0              14.5             16.1              14.3              10.6             12.5             13.4     6.5
 Hispanic                                        25.1              19.5             17.1              24.2              17.2             15.8             14.9    14.6
Grade
   9                                              8.6               6.9             11.4              11.7               6.1              9.9              7.2     6.5
  10                                             16.1              10.8             10.9              14.8              15.0             12.5             11.3     8.3
  11                                             26.4              19.5             18.9              25.1              20.5             22.1             19.5    14.7
  12                                             34.5              31.6             32.0              30.4              31.2             27.2             25.6    19.2
Female                                           11.7               9.1             11.9              12.0               8.7              9.5              8.9     8.1
                   2
Race/Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White                              13.6              10.3             13.6              14.0              10.3             10.9             10.3    10.1
 Non-Hispanic Black                               6.2               5.3              5.3               4.8               5.4              3.3              4.6     3.5
 Hispanic                                         9.5               7.3             13.6              11.0               8.3             10.5              8.6     6.4
Grade
  9                                               3.3               2.9              7.0               7.5               4.5              3.7              5.1     4.5
 10                                               7.3               6.4              9.8               7.5               5.3              8.4              6.9     4.8
 11                                              14.3              10.3             13.2              13.6              12.3             11.1             11.1     9.5
 12                                              21.7              15.8             15.8              18.8              14.4             17.3             13.6    15.0
Note: Estimates do not include youth who dropped out of school and therefore may not reflect total national values
1
  One or more times during the 30 days preceding the survey
2
  Race/ethnicity estimates from 1999 and later are not directly comparable to earlier years due to federal changes in race definitions. In surveys conducted in
1999 and later, respondents were allowed to select more than one race when selecting their racial category. Estimates presented only include respondents who
selected one category when choosing their race.
Source: Source: Data for 1991: YRBSS: Youth Online, Comprehensive Results. Retrieved May 24, 2004
from URL: http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/yrbss/. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Surveillance
Summaries, Data for 1993: March 24 1995. MMWR 1995; 44(No. SS-1): Table 2; Data for 1995:
September 27, 1996. MMWR 1996; 45 (No. SS-4): Table 2; Data for 1997: August 14, 1998. MMWR;
47(No. SS-3): Table 2; Data for 1999: June 9, 2000. MMWR 2000; 49(No. SS-5): Table 4. Data for 2001:
June 28, 2002. MMWR 2002: 51 (No. SS-4); Table 4. Data for 2003: May 21, 2004. MMWR 2004:53(No.
SS-2): Table 4. Data for 2005: June 9, 2006. MMWR 2006: 55 (No.SS-5); Table 4.

				
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