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					 Environmental Statement
 The Forge Recycling Centre,
Stourport Road, Kidderminster




                    Prepared for:
    Lawrence’s Skip Hire Limited


                    Prepared by:
                      ENVIRON
                Birmingham, UK

                          Date:
                       May 2011

         Project or Issue Number:
                       65-C10555
           Contract/Proposal No:              65-C10555

           Issue:                             3

           Author:                            James Magor
           (signature):




           Project Manager/Director:          Matt Royall
           (signature):




           Date:                              May 2011



        This report has been prepared by ENVIRON with all reasonable skill, care
        and diligence, and taking account of the Services and the Terms agreed
        between ENVIRON and the Client. This report is confidential to the client,
        and ENVIRON accepts no responsibility whatsoever to third parties to
        whom this report, or any part thereof, is made known, unless formally
        agreed by ENVIRON beforehand. Any such party relies upon the report at
        their own risk.

        ENVIRON disclaims any responsibility to the Client and others in respect of
        any matters outside the agreed scope of the Services.



VERSION CONTROL RECORD
Issue   Description of Status                     Date       Reviewer     Authors Initials
                                                             Initials
A       First Draft                               01/04/11   MDR           JM/SH/AM/BS
1       First Client Issue                        06/04/11   MDR           JM/SH/AM/BS
2       Second Client Issue                       08/04/11   MDR           JM/SH/AM/BS
3       Third Client Issue                        25/05/11   MDR           JM/SH/AM/BS
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                              Environmental Statement
                                                              Forge Recycling




Contents
                                                                       Page

1       Introduction                                                       1 
1.1     Background                                                         1 
1.2     Previous Assessment                                                2 
1.3     Structure of this Report                                           3 

2       The Consented Development                                          4 
2.1     Introduction                                                       4 
2.2     The Consented Development                                          4 
2.3     Soils, Geology and Contamination                                   5 
2.4     Ecology and Nature Conservation                                    6 
2.5     Noise                                                              6 
2.6     Archaeology and Cultural Heritage                                  7 
2.7     Traffic and Transport                                              7 
2.8     Water Quality and Hydrology                                        7 
2.9     Air Quality                                                        8 

3       The Proposed Development                                          10 
3.1     Introduction                                                      10 
3.2     The Proposed Development                                          11 
3.3     Evaluation of Alternatives                                        18 

4       Assessment Methodology                                            20 
4.1     Objectives                                                        20 
4.2     Legislative Background                                            20 
4.3     Assessment Criteria                                               21 
4.4     The Scope of the EIA                                              22 

5       Planning Policy Framework                                         24 
5.1     Introduction                                                      24 
5.2     National Planning Policy Guidance                                 25 
5.3     The Development Plan                                              28 
5.4     Wyre Forest District Local Plan                                   30 
5.5     Other Material Considerations                                     32 
5.6     Conclusion                                                        36 

6       Air Quality (Bioaerosol, Dust and Odour)                          40 
6.1     Introduction                                                      40 
6.2     Assessment Methodology and Limitations                            40 
6.3     Assessment Criteria                                               41 
6.4     Identification of Potential Impacts                               44 
6.5     Dust Impact Assessment                                            48 
6.6     Potential for Risk from Bioaerosol Exposure                       49 
6.7     Control of Dust                                                   51 



65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                       Environmental Statement
                                                                       Forge Recycling




6.8     Bioaerosol Mitigation Controls                                             53 
6.9     Odour Management                                                           53 
6.10    Conclusions                                                                55 

7       Noise                                                                      58 
7.1     Introduction                                                               58 
7.2     Scope and Assessment Methodology                                           59 
7.3     Existing Noise Conditions                                                  59 
7.4     Noise Impact Assessment                                                    62 
7.5     Conclusion                                                                 64 

8       Ecology and Nature Conservation                                            71 
8.1     Introduction                                                               71 
8.2     Assessment Methodology                                                     71 
8.3     Baseline environmental conditions                                          75 
8.4     Assessment of Impacts                                                      82 
8.5     Recommendations                                                            82 
8.6     Conclusions                                                                85 

9       Townscape and Views                                                        87 
9.1     Introduction                                                               87 
9.2     Assessment Methodology                                                     87 
9.3     Baseline Conditions                                                        89 
9.4     Predicted Effects                                                         100 
9.5     Summary and Residual Effects                                              101 

10      Soils, Geology and Contamination                                          103 
10.1    Introduction                                                              103 
10.2    Assessment Methodology                                                    103 
10.3    Baseline Site Conditions                                                  104 
10.4    Intrusive Site Investigation Works                                        109 
10.5    Internal Remediation Works                                                110 
10.6    Proposed Mitigation Measures                                              112 
10.7    Conclusions                                                               112 

11      Water Quality and Hydrology                                               115 
11.1    Introduction                                                              115 
11.2    Assessment Methodology                                                    115 
11.3    Baseline Environmental Conditions                                         118 
11.4    Operational Impacts and Proposed Mitigation Measures                      120 
11.5    Overall Summary and Conclusions                                           126 

12      Traffic and Transport                                                     127 
12.1    Introduction                                                              127 
12.2    Baseline Environmental Conditions                                         127 
12.3    Proposed Traffic Generation                                               128 
12.4    Summary and Conclusions                                                   130 


65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                 Environmental Statement
                                                                                 Forge Recycling




13      Cumulative Impacts                                                                  131 
13.1    Introduction                                                                        131 
13.2    Cumulative Effects of Individual Impacts                                            131 
13.3    Cumulative Impacts from the Proposed Development together with the Consented
        Development                                                                         132 
13.4    Overall Conclusions                                                                 133 

Glossary                                                                                    135 

Annex 1.1:       Scoping Opinion
Annex 3.1:       Operating Statement
Annex 6.1:       Bioaerosol Risk Assessment
Annex 8.1:       Phase 2 Bat Survey
Annex 8.2:       Plant Species List
Annex 8.3:       Target Notes
Annex 8.4:       Ratcliffe Criteria
Annex 8.5:       SSSI Citation
Annex 9.1:       Development Plans




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                         Environmental Statement
                                                                         Forge Recycling




1     Introduction

1.1     Background
ENVIRON UK Limited (ENVIRON) was commissioned by Lawrence’s Skip Hire Limited (‘the
Client’) to undertake an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) at the Forge Recycling
centre, Stourport Road, Kidderminster, UK (‘the Site’). The location of the proposed
development site is shown in Figure 1.1 (NGR 382120, 273660).

Figure 1.1: Site Location




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Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                   Environmental Statement
                                                                                   Forge Recycling




The EIA is required in support of two planning applications which together comprise a single
project at The Forge (the “proposed development”). The key elements of the proposed
development comprise:

        Section 57 Planning Application:
             1. External operation of mobile crushing plant;
             2. External storage of aggregates;
             3. External storage of woodchip;
             4. External operation of soil manufacturing using compost; and
             5. Amendment to access and parking arrangements.

        Section 73 Planning Application:
             1. Addition of garden and park waste (EWC code 20 02 01) and
                biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste (EWC code 20 01 08) to the
                MRF waste stream;
             2. Variation of condition 11 of planning permission ref 407664 to read:
                “no operation authorised or required by this permission shall take
                place within the external areas of the application site outside the hours
                of 05:30 to 22:00 Mondays to Fridays and 05:30 to 17:30 Saturdays
                with no working anywhere on the application site on Sundays.”; and
             3. Deletion of Conditions 8 and 9.

A Screening Opinion was received from Worcestershire County Council (WCC) on 25th
August 2009 (refer to Annex 1.1), which confirmed that the proposal to amend planning
application reference 407664 to permit the external operation of mobile crushing plant and
external storage of materials at the Forge Recycling centre constitutes EIA development.


1.2     Previous Assessment
ENVIRON was previously commissioned by the Client to undertake an Environmental
Impact Assessment (EIA) in support of planning application for “Change of use of a foundry
to a Material Recycling Facility and associated external sand and aggregate storage areas”
(application ref: 407664) at the subject site. An Environmental Statement (ES) was prepared
by ENVIRON (reference: 65-C10555, dated January 2007, herein referred to as the ‘2007
ES’) and submitted to WCC. Planning permission for the scheme was granted on 14th
September 2007, herein referred to as the ‘Consented Development’.

At the outset of the 2007 EIA, an Environmental Scoping Study was carried out to identify
the key environmental issues associated with the proposed development and to prepare and
agree an assessment methodology. The Scoping Report, which was submitted formally to
Worcestershire County Council, involved consultation with the following statutory bodies:

 •    the Environment Agency (EA);
 •    Natural England (NE);

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Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                            Environmental Statement
                                                                            Forge Recycling




 •    Wyre Forest District Council (WFDC); and
 •    English Heritage (EH).

In addition, the following non-statutory bodies were consulted:

 •    British Waterways;
 •    the Worcestershire Biological Records Centre;
 •    the Worcestershire Badger Society; and
 •    the Worcestershire Wildlife Trust.


1.3     Structure of this Report
The scope of this ES was determined by consultation with WCC and review of the
requirements of WCC as detailed in the Screening Opinion letter received on 25th August
2009 (refer to Annex 1.1). In addition, relevant sections of the 2007 ES and the 2007
Scoping Study were considered.

The following sections of the ES provide a description of the Consented Development
(Section 2), which forms the baseline for the assessment, and the proposed development
(Section 3). Details of the assessment methodology (Section 4) is provided, followed by a
summary of how the development proposals sit within current national, regional and local
planning policy (Section 5).

Sections 6 – 12 present the assessments undertaken in relation to air quality (dust and
bioaerosols), ecology and nature conservation, townscape and views, noise, soils, geology
& contamination, water quality and hydrology and traffic and transport. An assessment of
cumulative impacts is provided in Section 13.

This Environmental Statement (ES) has been prepared by ENVIRON, with assistance and
input from other members of the Project Team, as follows:

 •    Stansgate Planning LLP – Section 5: Planning Policy Framework and
      Section 12: Traffic and Transport, as well as development plans and elements of
      Section 9: Townscape and Views; and
 •    Acoustic Associates – Section 7: Noise.




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                       3
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                 Environmental Statement
                                                                                 Forge Recycling




2     The Consented Development

2.1     Introduction
The proposed development site is located on Stourport Road, approximately 2.5 km to the
south of Kidderminster town centre.

The site occupies an area of approximately 6.3 hectares (ha) and currently comprises the
Forge Recycling centre; a material recycling facility (MRF). The site was formerly occupied
by Folkes Foundry, a metal forge which operated on site from the 1960s until 2000. The site
buildings were unoccupied from 2000 until planning permission for the Forge Recycling
centre was granted in September 2007. The buildings on-site comprise four large industrial
units, with ancillary offices fronting Stourport Road to the west. The buildings occupy
approximately 30% of the site area, with the remaining external areas comprising asphalt
and concrete hardstanding, with an area of trees and open ground in the yard area which
forms the eastern section of the site. The surfacing in the eastern section of the site
comprises concrete roads and crushed demolition materials, generated by internal
refurbishment works and repair of site infrastructure undertaken in 2007. The eastern site
boundary is formed by the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, whilst the western
boundary is formed by Stourport Road.

Topographically the site is relatively flat and lies at an average elevation of approximately
43 metres above ordnance datum (AOD), although the eastern section of the site slopes
steeply downwards toward the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal which is situated at
an elevation of approximately 27 m AOD.

The surrounding land to the north, south and west is primarily occupied by industrial and
commercial buildings, with the nearest residential properties located approximately 500 m to
the west of the site, on Walter Nash Road West, and approximately 600 m to the east of the
site, adjacent to Wilden Lane. The land immediately to the east of the canal is occupied by
‘Wilden Marsh and Meadows’, a site of special scientific interest (SSSI). Figure 3.1 shows
the site layout and the planning application boundary.


2.2     The Consented Development
Planning permission for the Forge Recycling centre was granted in September 2007 and the
Consented Development comprises the baseline for the purpose of this ES. The site layout
plan, as per the 2007 ES, is illustrated in Figure 2.1.

The Consented Development comprised the following key elements which have been
implemented at the site:

 •    repair of the roof and building cladding using corrugated cement and Perspex sheeting;
 •    repair of internal concrete floors and existing external hardstanding (where necessary);
 •    construction of internal impermeable paved tipping and sorting area with reinforced
      concrete, constructed so as to prevent the transmission of fluids through the pavement
      or joints;

65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                      4
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                    Environmental Statement
                                                                                    Forge Recycling




 •    repairs to the existing drainage infrastructure, including installation of an interceptor
      tank and oil / water separator (drainage discussed further in Section 11: Water and
      Hydrology);
 •    remediation of internal areas including removal of oils from sumps / pits on-site; and
 •    installation of a weighbridge and security office in the north-western section of the site.

In addition, the following elements are part of the Consented Development and, although
they are not implemented at the site, form part of the baseline (not all these elements are
proposed to be completed and are assessed in more details within appropriate chapters of
the ES):

 •    installation of approximately 2,500m2 of impermeable paving, for the storage of
      recycled soil and aggregate. The storage area was proposed to be of reinforced
      concrete construction to a minimum depth of 200 mm;
 •    an external lighting scheme comprising 61 asymmetric mercury floodlights sited 9.8m
      above ground level, including 16 lighting columns in the yard area to the east of the
      site;
 •    installation of external fixed storage bays for the storage of recycled soil and aggregate.
      The bays were proposed to be of reinforced concrete construction with 5 m high ‘push
      walls’; and
 •    erection of hoarding (fencing) adjacent to the western edge of the established on-site
      mature vegetation, comprising 6 m high close-boarded fencing. The hoarding was
      proposed to be erected primarily for the purpose of dust attenuation for the
      neighbouring SSSI and on-site vegetation (see Section 8: Ecology & Nature
      Conservation) although limited noise attenuation was considered an ancillary benefit.

The key baseline environmental conditions for the study area were assessed during the
2007 EIA and are described in the following subsections.


2.3     Soils, Geology and Contamination
According to the BGS 1:50,000 Drift map of the area (Sheet 182, Droitwich), the whole of the
site is underlain by Glacial River Terrace deposits and the solid vertical geology underlying
the site is the Upper Mottled Sandstone of the Triassic Period.

In terms of groundwater vulnerability, the site overlies a principal aquifer, which is likely to
have a high permeability, be highly productive and able to support large abstractions for
public water supply and other purposes.

The site was predominantly undeveloped until the 1960s when a large ‘Engineering Works’
was constructed on-site. The former works building is understood to comprise ‘Folkes’
Foundry’ (a metal processing facility), which occupied the site from the 1960s to 2000. The
site was subsequently unoccupied until 2007 when planning permission was granted for the
redevelopment of the site at a Material Recycling Facility (MRF). In addition, a former landfill
used for the disposal of foundry waste, is located in the eastern section of the site.


65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                        5
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                 Environmental Statement
                                                                                 Forge Recycling




An Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) was carried out by Powell Associates Limited
(‘PAL’) in July 2006 and ENVIRON has undertaken a detailed quantitative risk assessment
(DQRA) and Phase II intrusive site investigations at the site from 2007 to 2009. These are
summarised in Section 10.

Based on the findings of the ENVIRON DQRA, with respect to risk to Controlled Waters,
remedial works are required in relation to the soil total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)
concentrations identified within the former foundry waste material and former tank farm
areas of the site. These works are required specifically in relation to the Consented
Development.


2.4     Ecology and Nature Conservation
The western and central sections of The Forge site predominantly comprise hardstanding
areas and buildings associated with the Forge Recycling centre. The eastern yard area is
occupied by bare ground comprising compacted hardcore and stockpiles of crushed
aggregate from internal refurbishment works. The far eastern portion of the site, adjacent to
the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal, has been left vacant and invasive scrub has
been allowed to develop, resulting in this area currently being very overgrown. In addition,
there are several mature trees and a small area of semi-natural woodland to the east of the
site which is attached to a larger area of woodland adjacent to the north-east boundary of
the site.

There are no nature conservation designations within the site boundary, although recent
ecological surveys have identified the presence of protected species on site including
badgers. There are three Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) within 2km of the site
boundary. The closest is Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI, adjacent to the Worcestershire
Canal, which borders the site to the east. The River Stour Floodplain SSSI is located
approximately 150m south of the site and Devil's Spittleful SSSI is located approximately
1km north-west of the site. There are also two Local Nature Reserves (LNR) within 2 km of
the site.


2.5     Noise
The site is located in a predominantly industrial setting, on the Stourport Road, with
industrial sites located immediately to the north, south and west of the proposed
development site. The units adjacent to the southern site boundary are occupied by:
‘Stargold Printers’; ’Thomas Vale Construction’; ‘Hewden Hire Centre’ tool hire; ‘Wilson
Haulage’; ‘Ceetek Chemicals’ manufacture and supply; ‘Wyre Forest Wood Craft’ joiners;
and ‘Blue C Marine’ boat builders and repairs.

Noise-sensitive receptors in the vicinity of the site comprise residential dwellings located on
Walter Nash Road West, approximately 500m to the west and are screened from the
development site by intervening industrial buildings, and on Wilden Lane, approximately
600m to the east on the eastern side of the Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI.




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                      6
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                 Environmental Statement
                                                                                 Forge Recycling




2.6     Archaeology and Cultural Heritage
Information was obtained from Worcestershire County Council (WCC) Historic Environment
and Archaeology Service during the 2007 EIA. The records show that there are no listed or
historic buildings on or within 500m of the development site. There is, however, below
ground archaeology within and directly adjacent to the site. References to a medieval
settlement at Aldington go back to the Domesday book in 1086.                     According to
Worcestershire Historic Environment and Archaeology Service “…it is likely that remains of a
deserted medieval village survive below the development area.” However, according to the
Historic Environment Planning Advisor “…the source and confidence in the accuracy of the
record is such that it would be difficult to say with any certainty whether such remains do
occur in the development area.” Furthermore, the Historic Environment Planning Advisor
stated that “…the current state of the land and the fact that no new build is proposed dictates
that no archaeological intervention will be required”.

Given the findings of the 2007 assessment and the nature of the proposed development (i.e.
it does not comprise significant earthworks) the potential impact on archaeology and cultural
heritage is considered negligible and no further assessment will be carried out in this ES.


2.7     Traffic and Transport
The Forge is located on the eastern side of the A451 Stourport Road, approximately 3 km to
the south of Kidderminster town centre. The section of the Stourport Road adjacent to the
application site is identified by the Wyre Forest District Local Plan as a Regional Strategic
Route, Lorry Route Network, Priority Bus Route and Cycle Route Network. Oldington Lane,
which is located approximately 90 m to the south of the Forge, is identified as a Local
Distributor Road and Cycle Route Network, leading to the canal towpath (a Recreation Path
– Regional Route). The site is situated in a potentially sustainable location in relation to
traffic and transport.


2.8     Water Quality and Hydrology
The nearest surface watercourse to the proposed development is the Staffordshire and
Worcestershire Canal which lies adjacent to the eastern site boundary. The River Stour is
located approximately 250 m to the east of the subject site and the closest EA monitoring
station is approximately 270 m to the north-east of the site. The River Stour watercourse
was classified in 2009 as Grade C (Fairly Good) for biological quality and Grade B (Good)
for river water chemistry. Nitrate and phosphate levels were classified in 2009 as ‘very high’
to ‘excessively high’ respectively.

The subject site lies outside of the Environment Agency’s indicative floodplain for the River
Stour. This is an area where the potential for flooding each year is less than 0.1% (1 in
1000) i.e. Flood Zone 1. According to the groundwater vulnerability map of Worcestershire
(Sheet 29, scale 1:100,000) the site is high sensitivity with respect to groundwater resources
due to the underlying principal aquifer.




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                      7
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                   Environmental Statement
                                                                                   Forge Recycling




2.9     Air Quality
Following completion of a second Progress Report in April 2008, Wyre Forest District
Council (WFDC) concluded that predicted annual mean NO2 concentrations (the primary
pollutant of concern within the District) were likely to exceed the National Air Quality
Objectives within two previously designated Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs); one in
Welch Gate, Bewdley and the other in Horsefair (Blackwell St.), Kidderminster, both located
c.3.3 km to the north of the subject site. The findings of the air quality assessment in the
2007 ES concluded that NO2 concentrations in the vicinity of the subject site were predicted
to be below the National Air Quality Objectives following completion of the development.
Given that the proposed development will not result in significant additional traffic at the site,
it is considered that the impact of traffic related emissions will be negligible and no further
assessment will be carried out in this ES. However, potential sources of bioaerosol, dust and
odour emissions associated with the proposed development have been identified. These are
placed in the context of existing air quality and emission sources, as well as being
considered in the context of locally sensitive receptors

Receptors downwind of the predominant wind direction from a development site will be at
greater risk of impacts than those upwind. The 2006-2009 windroses from the Birmingham
Airport meteorological station (refer to Figure 6.1) show that the predominant wind direction
is from the west and therefore receptors to the east of the site will be more at risk from
bioaerosol, dust and odour impacts.

Due to the westerly prevailing wind and relative proximity to the subject site, Unit 7 of the
Wilden Marsh and Meadow Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), located adjacent to the
Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal which borders the site to the east, is the sensitive
receptor considered to be most at risk of bioaerosol and dust impacts, whilst the
neighbouring commercial properties to the north are sensitive to the potential bioaerosol and
odour emissions.




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                       8
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                      Environmental Statement
                                                                      Forge Recycling




Figure 2.1: Consented Development Layout (January 2007)




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                                9
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                   Environmental Statement
                                                                                   Forge Recycling




3     The Proposed Development

3.1     Introduction
The EIA is required in support of two planning applications which together comprise a single
project at The Forge (the “proposed development”). The key elements of the proposed
development comprise:

        Section 57 Planning Application:
             1. External operation of mobile crushing plant;
             2.      External storage of aggregates;
             3.      External storage of woodchip;
             4.      External operation of soil manufacturing using compost; and
             5.      Amendment to access and parking arrangements.

        Section 73 Planning Application:
             1. Addition of garden and park waste (EWC code 20 02 01) and
                biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste (EWC code 20 01 08) to the
                MRF waste stream;
             2. Variation of condition 11 of planning permission ref 407664 to read:
                “no operation authorised or required by this permission shall take
                place within the external areas of the application site outside the hours
                of 05:30 to 22:00 Mondays to Fridays and 05:30 to 17:30 Saturdays
                with no working anywhere on the application site on Sundays.”; and
             3. Deletion of Conditions 8 and 9.

No operational development is proposed through the construction of new buildings.
Furthermore, there will be no extensions to, nor demolition of existing buildings. The
planning application boundary ‘red line’ is illustrated in Figure 3.1.




65-C10555_2011 ES. Issue: 3                       10
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                   Environmental Statement
                                                                                   Forge Recycling




Figure 3.1: Application Site Boundary




3.2     The Proposed Development
The Proposed Development is separated into two primary operations. Firstly, the external
operation of mobile crushing plant and storage of processed aggregates. Secondly, the
production of manufactured topsoil using compost. These operations are described in detail
in Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2, and ancillary operations are described in Section 3.2.3.


3.2.1   Proposed External Operation of Mobile Crushing Plant and External Storage of
        Processed Aggregates
Inert construction and demolition waste, comprising brick and concrete rubble which would
otherwise be transported to landfill, will be crushed in the yard area (refer to Figure 3.2). The
crushing activity relates to construction and demolition waste which has been processed
(screening and sorting) within the main building.
Operations within the main site building will comprise the unloading (‘tipping’) and
processing of waste materials delivered to the site, in accordance with the original planning
permission (ref: 407664). Waste delivered to the site will undergo inspection to ensure it
comprises inert construction and demolition materials. Contaminated materials will be
quarantined internally and returned to the supplier. Following inspection, the waste will be
sorted and screened, within the main building, to remove soil and fine materials (material
with a diameter less than 30mm). A ‘blower’ (manufactured by JHM Moldow) will be used to


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Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                  Environmental Statement
                                                                                  Forge Recycling




remove dust, a magnet will remove metals and all ‘non-rubble’ material (plastics, timber etc)
will be removed by hand at a picking station.
Following sorting and screening, the processed materials will initially be stockpiled within the
Forge building prior to being transported outside for crushing. A small ‘feedpile’ of brick and
concrete rubble will temporarily be situated externally adjacent to the Jaw Crusher whilst it is
in operation and following crushing, the materials will be stockpiled in the yard to a maximum
height of 8m. External processing plant will comprise a Metrotrak Jaw Crusher which will
produce aggregate which meets the grading requirements of ‘Class 6F2’. The Jaw Crusher
has a maximum discharge height of two metres and additional equipment in use at the site
will comprise a loading shovel, a grab bucket and a water bowser.
Crushing and stockpiling will take place on existing surfacing, which comprises roadways
and compacted hardcore generated by the internal refurbishment works. The eastward limit
of crushing and material storage activities will be demarcated by marker posts set at a
distance c.100m from the north-eastern site boundary and c.70m from the south-eastern site
boundary (refer to Figure 3.2). This eastward limit of crushing and material storage activities
comprises the ‘operational boundary’.
In addition to stockpiles of ‘Class 6F2’ aggregate and processed soil will occasionally be
stockpiled externally within the operational boundary. Given the temporary nature of
stockpiles within the stockpile zone, this will not preclude site investigation and remedial
works in the eastern yard area (refer to Section 10).


3.2.2   External Production of Manufactured Topsoil using Compost
The manufacture of topsoil will be undertaken in the northern half of the yard area (refer to
Figure 3.2). The manufacturing process will comprise three main elements; waste
preparation, maturation and processing, and production of manufactured topsoil. A full
Operating Statement for the production of Manufactured Topsoil using Compost is presented
in Annex 3.1, and the three main elements are summarised as follows.


Waste Preparation
Following initial tipping and inspection (as per the Consented Development), garden and
park waste (EWC code 20 02 01) will be transferred using a wheeled front-end loader to a
storage pile on the concrete ‘composting pad’, located in the north-western section of the
eastern yard area. MDF and chipboard (produced by current operations at the Forge
Recycling centre) will also be stockpiled on the composting pad.

Waste will be blended and shredded using a ‘Vermeer HG6000’ shredder (or similar). A
variety of particle sizes will be maintained to allow air to circulate through the materials and
ensure an even transfer of heat. Green waste will be wetted as it is shredded, using mains
water or re-circulated leachate, to minimise the release of bioaerosols and dust. Shredding
reduces the waste volume by 50% and a magnetic separator removes metals from the waste
stream. The materials will then be moved to an ‘initial compost stockpile’.


Maturation and Processing

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The shredded and mixed waste materials (‘feedstock’) will be moved using a loading shovel
and placed in maturation piles (‘windrows’) on the composting pad. The windrows will be no
greater than 4m tall by approximately 10m long and trapezoidal in shape. An initial moisture
content of c. 60% will be maintained for fresh feedstock, which will gradually fall to 30-40%
during the composting process. Moisture will be added to the fresh feedstock, as required,
by re-circulating leachate (‘runoff’) from the composting pad and mains water (when
necessary). Maintaining moisture levels in the windrows will minimise the production of dust
and bioaerosols.

The windrows will be turned to improve oxygen content, distribute moisture and
regulate/distribute heat. During the first two weeks of the composting process the
temperature of the windrow will increase dramatically above ambient temperatures.
Ultimately the temperature will subside to ambient temperatures, although temperatures will
increase after turning. During the composting process the compost will be turned many times
using a loading shovel with loading bucket.

After a period of time temperatures will remain stable and not rise after turning; on average
this takes about 16 weeks (depending on maturity requirements). At this point, providing the
temperature stabilisation is not due to factors such as incorrect moisture content or
anaerobic conditions, the composting process is complete.

The last part of the composting process involves the screening of the feedstock to remove
contaminants such as plastics and any additional metals. Screening will grade the product to
a diameter of less than 10mm. Oversized materials can be put back through the process
until they have composted down sufficiently.


Production of Manufactured Topsoil
Subject to the composting process being satisfactorily completed in accordance with the
compost Quality Protocol (WRAP and the EA, 2007), the compost will then be moved to a
stabilisation stockpile on the composting pad and left to mature. Once the compost is
mature, it will be transferred to the topsoil area and blended to create the finished product;
manufactured topsoil.

Machinery (buckets) used to turn compost will be disinfected prior to the movement of
compost for screening and transfer to the topsoil area for blending. This is to ensure that
cross-contamination of compost is avoided through the use of machinery dedicated to ‘dirty’
and ‘clean’ composting activities.

Screened topsoil will be analysed to determine necessary additions and laid in a row parallel
to the finished compost. Compost will then be uniformly applied to the soil until meeting the
required soil grade of the manufactured topsoil.

Manufactured topsoil will comprise approximately 10% compost and 90% soil, and it is
estimated that 100,000 tonnes of manufactured topsoil will be produced per annum. The
manufactured topsoil will be exported from the Forge Recycling centre for use in land
restoration, soft landscaping, horticulture, agriculture and/or soil-grown horticulture market
sectors.

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3.2.3   Ancillary Operations
It is proposed that the crushing operations will be undertaken externally within the eastern
yard area during the daytime. It is also proposed to extend the external working hours from
20:00 to 22:00, when the doors to the Forge building may remain open to accept deliveries
of waste. In addition, it is proposed that working within the building will continue 24 hours per
day from 05.30 Monday until midnight on Saturday. The doors to the Forge building will be
closed during the night; from 22:00 until external operations commence at the current
starting time of 05:30. External operations, including waste delivery will be 05.30-22.00
Monday to Friday and 05.30-17.30 on Saturdays with aggregate crushing from 07:00-17.30.

An additional change to the Consented Development will be amendment to the access
arrangements following the grant of planning permission on 6th December 2010 by Wyre
Forest District Council under ref 10/0624/FULL for “New means of access to Material
Recycling Facility and alteration to external elevations of offices, comprising part demolition,
alternation of window designs and new parapet” at The Forge, Stourport Road,
Kidderminster. The approved works included segregating the offices from the MRF and a
new vehicular entrance off the Service Road will be created, to act as a second means of
access to the Forge. In addition, lorry parking will be relocated to the southern section of the
site to allow the operation described in Sections 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 to take place in the yard
area. The proposed site layout is presented in Figures 3.2 and 3.3.




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Figure 3.2: Proposed Development – Yard Area Layout




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Figure 3.3: Proposed Development – Site Layout




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A summary of the amendments to the Consented Development are present in Table 3.1,
below.

  Table 3.1: Amendments to the Consented Development
      Consented                      Proposed                              Reason                  Potential Impacts
  Development (2007)             Development (2011)                                                 (pre mitigation)
  Crushing will take place       External crushing of brick      Lack of space internally*       Potential for generation of
  within the Forge building      and concrete rubble                                             dust and noise

  Erection of seven 5m high      Materials will be stockpiled    Move material storage away      Potential for dust blown off
  material storage bays in the   within the building and in      from the eastern site           stockpiles and visual impact
  north-eastern section of the   the yard area, situated away    boundary and the                of 8m high stockpiles
  site                           from the site boundary          neighbouring SSSI**.

  Erection of 6m high            Erection of 2m high close       Material storage bays will no   Additional dust mitigation
  hoarding                       boarded fence                   longer be constructed           required to compensate for
                                                                 adjacent to the boundary.       removal of hoarding

                                                                 To preserve the visual
                                                                 amenity of the SSSI

  HGVs parked in the eastern     HGVs parked to the south of     The yard area will be used      Fewer vehicle movements
  yard area                      the Forge building              for crushing and material       in the yard area reduces
                                                                 stockpiles                      potential for dust generation

  Lighting scheme comprising     No lighting columns in the      HGVs will be stored to the      Reduced lighting and
  the erection of 16 lighting    eastern yard area               south of the building and       reduced impact on local
  columns in the eastern yard                                    sufficient lighting will be     ecology
  area                                                           provided by existing lights
                                                                 fitted to the southern façade
                                                                 of the Forge building

  No operation shall take        No operation shall take         Extend operating hours for      Potential noise impacts
  place within the application   place within the external       processing incoming waste       associated with night time
  site outside the hours of      areas of the application site   during high demand and to       internal operations
  05:30 to 20:00 Mondays to      outside the hours of 05:30      minimise stockpiles.
  Fridays and 05:30 to 17:30     to 22:00 Mondays to Fridays
  Saturdays with no working      and 05:30 to 17:30              Permit internal operations
  on Sundays                     Saturdays with no working       with the Forge building 24
                                 anywhere on the application     hours per day between
                                 site on Sundays                 Monday and Saturday.


  No waste other than the        Addition of garden and park     Commercial reasons. Green       Potential bioaerosol risk
  wastes defined in the          waste and biodegradable         waste will be used to           associated with composting
  application shall enter the    kitchen and canteen waste       enhance the topsoil product     of green waste and potential
  site                           to the MRF waste stream         produced                        odour associated with the
                                                                                                 addition of kitchen and
                                                                                                 canteen waste

  *   Whilst the throughput capacity of the Forge Recycling has not increased from the Consented
  Development, the current economic climate has reduced the demand for the finished product resulting in
  stockpiles of materials.
  **     Unit 7 of the Wilden Marsh and Meadows Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).




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3.3     Evaluation of Alternatives
Whilst the amount of waste processed at the Forge Recycling centre will remain at
approximately 250,000 tonnes per year, in accordance with the site’s Environmental Permit,
the volume of ‘usable product’ leaving the site fluctuates according to demand and market
factors. Consequently, during periods of reduced demand, processed materials will be
stockpiled on site and during periods of increased demand, processed materials will leave
site shortly after processing, removing the requirement for significant stockpiles.

In order to operate effectively, the Forge Recycling centre requires the flexibility to make full
use of the available site area for storage of processed materials. In addition, the site
operator requires the flexibility to operate the mobile crushing plant externally during periods
when the space within the Forge building is occupied by stockpiles of processed materials
and pre-treatment waste products. During periods of low demand for the usable product, it is
considered preferable to undertake externally the crushing of screened brick and concrete
rubble and storage of aggregate and soils, as this will allow operations such as tipping,
sorting and, if necessary, the quarantine of waste materials, to be undertaken on
hardstanding within the Forge building.

An evaluation of the alternative to the proposed development is summarised in the following
sub-sections.


3.3.1   The ‘Do Nothing’ Option
The “do nothing” option would restrict crushing operations within the Forge building and
require the construction of 5m high material storage bays in the north-eastern corner of the
yards area. As potentially ‘dusty’ materials would be stored close to the eastern site
boundary and in close proximity to the SSSI, a 6m high hoarding (designed to be 1m above
the material storage bays) would be required to provide dust mitigation, as per the
Consented Development which is illustrated in Figure 2.1. In addition, during periods of low
demand for soil and aggregate the storage bays would become full and significant stockpiles
would develop within the Forge building. This would restrict the operational space within the
Forge and potentially result in other materials, such as plastics and metals being stored
externally. Alternatively, the site may have to stop accepting waste until the stockpiles are
cleared, which would have serious economic implications for the Forge Recycling centre as
a viable business.


3.3.2   Alternative Site Arrangement
The yard area to the east of the Forge building is the only location within the site boundary
with sufficient space to accommodate large stockpiles of aggregate and soil. The western
section of the site provides car parking for site staff and visitors, the northern section is the
main access route for HGVs accessing the site and the southern section is the primary
location for parking site vehicles and does not have sufficient space to accommodate large
stockpiles.

The material storage bays included in the Consented Development are located in the north-
eastern section of the yard area, in close proximity to the site boundary and the SSSI. The
storage bays could be relocated to the west, however, soil contamination requiring
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remediation is located in this area and fixed storage bays comprising concrete hardstanding
would seriously restrict access to this contamination and interfere with remedial works (refer
to Section 10). Therefore, fixed storage bays are not considered suitable and instead, it is
proposed that stockpiled materials will be stored in an ad hoc manner within a demarcated
‘stockpile zone’.


3.3.3   Alternative Location
An alternative site for crushing and material storage is not considered a commercially viable
option as this would seriously hinder the operation of the Forge Recycling centre.




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4     Assessment Methodology

4.1     Objectives
The principal objective of an EIA is to provide the County Planning Authority and statutory
consultees with a clear and concise technical document that provides sufficient information
on the proposed development and its likely environmental effects to be able to make a
decision on whether planning permission should be granted.

There are three basic steps used in the EIA process in order to meet this objective, as
follows:

 •    establish existing baseline environmental conditions including               any    current
      environmental problems. This task is divided into two phases:
             (i) collection and review of existing data relating to the site, including
                 consultation with statutory and non-statutory bodies; and
             (ii) the enhancement of existing data, where necessary, with information
                  collected through further site investigation or survey.
 •    identify, predict and assess the significance of the likely environmental impacts (both
      positive and negative), which could be expected as a result of the development
      proposals, covering those environmental issues that were considered to be potentially
      significant during the 2007 Scoping Study; and
 •    design mitigation and management measures, which would be adopted to prevent,
      reduce or remedy any significant adverse effects. Consideration is also given to
      enhancement measures that would be implemented to promote positive environmental
      benefits as a part of these proposals.


4.2     Legislative Background
The EIA has been carried out in accordance with the Town and Country Planning
(Environmental Impact Assessment) (England and Wales) Regulations 1999 (SI 1999/293)
(hereafter the Regulations), as amended by the Town and Country Planning (Environmental
Impact Assessment) (Amendment) Regulations 2006 (Statutory Instrument 2006/3295) and
most recently as amended by the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact
Assessment) (Amendment) (England) Regulations 2008 (SI 2008/2093). The EIA has also
taken into account accepted best practice as set out within the Institute of Environmental
Management and Assessment’s Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment, 2004.

The EIA Regulations require that before consent is granted for certain types of development,
an EIA must be undertaken. The EIA Regulations set out the types of development which
must always be subject to an EIA (Schedule 1) and developments which may require
assessment, if they are likely to give rise to significant environmental effects (Schedule 2).

The proposed development at the Forge Recycling centre falls within the criteria set out in
Schedule 2.11(b) of the EIA Regulations, being greater than “half a hectare in area”, it is
located “within 100m of controlled waters” and it is “an installation for the disposal of waste.”

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The EIA was undertaken following receipt of a Screening Opinion from Worcestershire
County Council, dated 25th August 2009 (Annex 1.1).

Specific technical guidance has also been used, where appropriate, in the assessment of
the impacts of the proposed development on several aspects of the environment. These
include the use of British Standard methodologies and adherence to the policies set out in
Government Planning Policy Guidelines and Statements (PPGs and PPSs). A summary of
the relevant national planning policies is provided in Section 5; detailed specific descriptions
of assessment methodologies and standards and guidelines utilised are given in the relevant
assessment sections of the ES (Sections 6-12).


4.3     Assessment Criteria
A number of criteria have been used to determine whether or not the potential effects of the
proposed development are considered to be significant, as follows:

 •    international, national and local standards;
 •    relationship with planning policy;
 •    sensitivity of the receiving environment;
 •    reversibility and duration of effect;
 •    inter-relationship between effects; and
 •    the results of consultation.

The effects that were considered to be significant prior to mitigation are identified within the
ES. The significance of these effects reflects judgement on the importance or sensitivity of
the affected receptor(s) and the nature and magnitude of the predicted changes. For
example, a large adverse impact on a feature or site of low importance will be of lesser
significance than the same impact on a feature or site of high importance.

Environmental impacts may be both negative and positive. Quantification of these impacts,
particularly in relation to comparative assessment between environmental disciplines,
requires consistent assessment criteria to be used throughout. The criteria used in this
assessment are as follows:

 •    Major Positive or Major Negative effect – where the development would cause a
      significant improvement (or deterioration) to the existing environment;
 •    Moderate Positive or Moderate Negative effect – where the development would
      cause a noticeable improvement (or deterioration) to the existing environment;
 •    Minor Positive or Minor Negative effect – where the development would cause a
      barely perceptible improvement (or deterioration) to the existing environment; and
 •    Insignificant – no discernible improvement or deterioration to the existing environment.

It should be noted, however, that certain environmental disciplines (e.g. townscape and
views, air quality) have slightly different assessment criteria as defined in the appropriate


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assessment guidance and these latter criteria have been adopted within the EIA, where
relevant.


4.4           The Scope of the EIA
The scope of this ES was determined by consultation with WCC and review of the
requirements of WCC as detailed in the Screening Opinion letter received on 25th August
2009 (refer to Annex 1.1). In addition, relevant sections of the 2007 ES and the 2007
Scoping Study were considered.

In addition, ENVIRON attended a meeting with Natural England (NE) to discuss the current
status of the Wilden Marsh and Meadows Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and the
scope of the assessment required with respect to potential dust impacts on the SSSI.

A summary of the results of the Scoping Report and Scoping Opinion from WCC are
presented in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1: Summary of the Results of the Scoping Study
  Discipline             Environmental                      Significance (pre                  Proposed Methodology
                           Sensitivity                    mitigation) - Potential
                                                                 Impacts
Air Quality         Emissions of dust to the          Moderate adverse impact – dust          Proposals for dust suppression
                    adjacent SSSI.                    generation during crushing operations   techniques and research to
                    Potential Bioaerosol and          and external storage of materials.      further consider potential
                    Odour Impact on adjacent          Moderate adverse impact –               impacts.
                    commercial properties.            bioaerosol generation from green        Bioaerosol Risk Assessment.
                                                      waste and compost.                      Qualitative assessment of
                                                      Minor adverse impact – odour from       potential odour generation and
                                                      kitchen/canteen waste.                  proposals for mitigation.
Noise               Noise caused by aggregate         Minor adverse effect of industrial      Assessment of operational noise
                    crushing.                         activity on sensitive receptors.        impacts.
Archaeology and     The site was fully assessed       None                                    No further assessment.
Cultural Heritage   in the 2007 ES
Ecology and         The site is an area of some       Minor adverse effect – during           Update 2007 Phase 1 Habitat
Nature              ecological interest due to the    operation of mobile crushing plant.     Survey and assessment of
Conservation        three SSSIs within 2km of                                                 potential impacts.
                    the site.
                    The majority of the site itself
                    is of limited ecological value
                    although the eastern section
                    of the site is of higher value
                    due to the presence of
                    broad-leafed woodland
                    habitat.
Townscape and       The site not located in Green     Negligible impact during operation of   Update townscape and visual
Visual Character    Belt or any other landscape       the development.                        impact assessment from the
                    designation. The eastern                                                  2007 ES and consideration of
                    site boundary is formed by a                                              amendments to the site layout.
                    SSSI. The Firs Industrial
                    Estate is located adjacent to
                    the southern site boundary.
Soils, Geology      Risk of soil/groundwater          Negligible impact due to ongoing        Review of Site Investigation and
and                 contamination.                    remedial works.                         Quantitative Risk Assessment
Contamination                                                                                 and remediation strategy.




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Water Quality and   Groundwater contamination    Negligible impact during operation.   Surface-run-off assessment and
Hydrology           and surface runoff to                                              assessment of drainage design.
                    neighbouring watercourses.

Traffic and         Reconfiguration of on-site   Negligible impact – no significant    Review of Transportation
Transport           vehicle parking              alterations to traffic volumes        Assessment.
Socio-Economics     Employment and economics.    None                                  No further assessment.




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5     Planning Policy Framework

5.1     Introduction
During the evolution of the proposals for the application site, a range of planning policy
documents has been considered. The guidance within each of these documents has been
used to guide the scope and content of the submitted planning application and the salient
parts of this guidance are set out within this section of the ES, which was written by
Stansgate Planning LLP.

The range of policy guidance taken into account has also been agreed with Worcestershire
County Council (WCC) through correspondence regarding the submitted Scoping Report,
dated August 2006 and prepared as part of the 2007 EIA, and the formal Screening Opinion
which was received on 25th August 2009 regarding the proposed development.

For the avoidance of doubt, this section provides a broad overview of the planning policy
context for the submitted application proposals at the national, regional and local level. A
detailed review of (and response to) individual pieces of guidance is contained in other parts
of the ES and in other documents submitted with the planning application.

This chapter has been updated to reflect the opening of The Forge Recycling Centre in
Autumn 2009 and the proposed planning applications for:

        Section 57 Planning Application:
             1. External operation of mobile crushing plant;
             2. External storage of aggregates;
             3. External storage of woodchip;
             4. External operation of soil manufacturing using compost; and
             5. Amendment to access and parking arrangements.

        Section 73 Planning Application:
             1. Addition of garden and park waste (EWC code 20 02 01) and
                biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste (EWC code 20 01 08) to the
                MRF waste stream;
             2. Variation of condition 11 of planning permission ref 407664 to read:
                “no operation authorised or required by this permission shall take
                place within the external areas of the application site outside the hours
                of 05:30 to 22:00 Mondays to Fridays and 05:30 to 17:30 Saturdays
                with no working anywhere on the application site on Sundays.”; and
             3. Deletion of Conditions 8 and 9.




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5.2     National Planning Policy Guidance
At the national level, the redevelopment of the application site is guided by a number of
Planning Policy Statements (PPSs) and Planning Policy Guidance notes (PPGs) as listed
and described below:

 •    PPS1       Delivering Sustainable Development;
 •    PPS4       Planning for Sustainable Economic Growth;
 •    PPS5       Planning for the Historic Environment;
 •    PPS9       Biodiversity and Geological Conservation;
 •    PPS10      Sustainable Waste Management;
 •    PPG13      Transport;
 •    PPS23      Planning and Pollution Control;
 •    PPG24      Planning and Noise; and
 •    PPS25      Development and Flood Risk.

PPS1 sets out the Government’s objectives for the planning system and in particular for
delivering sustainable development. The statement outlines the key principles to be
followed to ensure that development plans, at regional or local level and decisions on
individual planning applications contribute to the delivery of sustainable development.

In particular, the statement emphasises the need for the following elements:

 •    social cohesion and inclusion;
 •    protection and enhancement of the environment;
 •    prudent use of natural resources;
 •    sustainable economic development; and
 •    integrating sustainable development in development plans.

Additionally, the statement provides guidance on the approach that development plans and
planning authorities should take in order to ensure future development is sustainable. Of
particular relevance to The Forge development are the following guidance/policies:

 •    promotion of urban regeneration, to improve the well being of communities, improve
      facilities, promote high quality and safe development and create new opportunities for
      the people living in those communities. In particular, policies should promote mixed
      use developments;
 •    ensure that new development is located where it can be accessed by a variety of
      transport means other than private cars; and
 •    reduce the need to travel, by focussing development in existing centres and near major
      public transport interchanges.



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The ecology and nature conservation value of the site and surrounding area has been
identified during the 2007 Scoping Study as high. Consequently the proposed
redevelopment has regard for PPS9: Biodiversity and Geological Conservation, which sets
out the Government’s objectives for nature conservation and the importance of both
designated and undesignated areas of nature conservation. This is discussed in more detail
in Section 8: Ecology and Nature Conservation.


PPS10: Planning for Sustainable Waste Management
Paragraph 1 of PPS10 explains that the overall objective of government policy is to protect
human health and the environment by producing less waste and by using it as a resource
wherever possible. A Material Recycling Facility at The Forge, Kidderminster meets this
overall objective. It protects human health and is third in the waste hierarchy according to
Annex C; a recycling facility from which resources can be recovered.

PPS10 explains that the land-use planning system has an important role to play in achieving
sustainable waste management. Planning strategies should include:

 •    driving waste management up the waste hierarchy, addressing waste as a resource
      and looking to disposal as the last option;
 •    helping to secure the recovery or disposal of waste without endangering human health
      and without harming the environment, and enable waste to be disposed of in one of the
      nearest appropriate installations; and
 •    ensuring the design and layout of new development supports sustainable waste
      management.

Paragraph 20 states that in searching for sites and areas suitable for new or enhanced
facilities, consideration should be given to on-site management of waste and a broad range
of locations including industrial sites. The Forge is a disused former industrial site and
therefore suitable for a waste management facility.

Paragraphs 22 to 41 explain the approach to determining planning applications. Paragraph
22 states that when proposals are consistent with an up-to-date development plan, waste
planning authorities should not require applicants for new or enhanced waste management
facilities to demonstrate a quantitative or market need for their proposal. A MRF at The
Forge is consistent with an up-to-date development plan and hence no further assessment
of need is required.

Paragraph 24 explains that when considering unallocated sites, the following criteria will be
taken into account:

 •    the extent to which they support the policies in PPS10. A MRF at The Forge supports
      the policies espoused by paragraphs 1 to 3 of PPS10;
 •    the physical and environmental constraints on development. The Planning Statement
      and Environmental Statement accompanying this application demonstrates the
      successful integration of the MRF with its environment;


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 •    the cumulative effect of previous waste disposal facilities on the well-being of the local
      community. There are no previous waste disposal facilities at The Forge or other
      facilities in the local area; and
 •    the capacity of the existing and potential transport infrastructure to support the
      sustainable movement of waste. The Forge has direct access from Stourport Road -
      identified as a Regional Strategic Route, Lorry Route Network and Priority Bus Route.

Paragraphs 35 and 36 promote designs and layouts that secure the integration of waste
management facilities without adverse impact on the street scene or, in less developed
areas, the local landscape. The total site area of The Forge is 6.3 hectares, which is
sufficient size for the collection, processing and transfer of waste. No new buildings are
proposed and hence there will be no adverse impact on the Stourport Road street scene or
to landscape views from the east. The proposed external crushing and stockpiling of
materials in the rear yard potentially have an impact on views to the east and south east.
This issue is addressed by Section 9: Townscape and Views.

Annex E examines the locational criteria for testing the suitability of sites and areas. These
are protection of water sources, land instability, visual intrusion, nature conservation, historic
environment and built heritage, traffic and access, air emissions, including dust, odours,
vermin and birds, noise, litter and potential land use conflict. The Planning Statement and
Environmental Statement accompanying the amendment application demonstrate the
successful integration of the MRF with its environment.

In addition to the transportation objectives outlined within PPS1, PPG13: Transport outlines
the following key objectives which have guided this application proposal:

 •    actively manage the pattern of urban growth to make full use of public transport and
      focus major generators of travel demand in city, town and district centres and near to
      major public transport interchanges; and
 •    ensure that development comprising jobs and services offers a realistic choice of
      access by public transport, walking and cycling.

The potential presence of a deserted medieval settlement beneath the application site also
requires the consideration of guidance within PPG15: Planning and the Historic
Environment. This is discussed in Section 9: Archaeology and Cultural Heritage.

Alongside the consideration of PPG15 guidance, the contents of PPG16: Archaeology and
Planning have also been considered and the impacts of the development fully evaluated in
line with the advice contained therein.

Guidance on the relationship between controls over development under planning law and
pollution control law is provided within PPS23: Planning and Pollution Control. Further more
specific guidance is provided in two accompanying annexes (Annex1: Pollution Control, Air
and Water Quality and Annex 2: Development on Land Affected by Contamination).

The objectives and guidance outlined in Annex 1 have been given consideration with regard
to potential impacts on both air and water quality arising from the development, (Section 6:
Air Quality and Section 12: Water Quality and Hydrology). Similarly, given the historic
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activities which occurred on and adjacent to the site, the proposed development will take the
objectives outlined in PPS23 into consideration (Section 12: Soils and Contamination).

PPG24: Planning and Noise, outlines the considerations to be taken into account in
determining planning applications both for noise-sensitive developments and for those
activities which will generate noise. The implications of this guidance with regard to the
proposed development are considered in Section 7: Noise.

The provisions of PPS25: Development and Flood Risk, have been taken into consideration
with regard to flood risk and site drainage and are considered in Section 12: Water Quality
and Hydrology.


5.3         The Development Plan

5.3.1       West Midlands Regional Spatial Strategy
The contents of WMRSS (January 2008) reinforce the advice offered by national planning
policy and transfers these themes into a regional context. Paragraph 8.88 of WMRSS refers
to tables for each waste planning authority to meet targets in the National Waste Strategy.
There will be a significant need for additional waste management, recovery and treatment
facilities throughout the Region. By 2021, Worcestershire will require:

      •     3 equivalent number of municipal Material Recycling Facilities (MRFs) at 50,000
            tonnes per year, out of a regional target of 22; and

      •     2.5 equivalent number of municipal Recycling and Composting Facilities at 50,000
            tonnes per year, out of a regional target of 30.

With a projected capacity of 250,000 tonnes per year, the MRF at The Forge will meet and
exceed the equivalent target for MRFs in Worcestershire. The proposed composting of
10,000 tonnes per year of Garden and Park Waste will make a small but helpful contribution
to the recycling and composting target for Worcestershire.

Policy WD3 states that in their development plans, appropriate planning authorities should
seek to guide the location and siting of waste treatment and recycling facilities to appropriate
locations, having regard to the proximity principle and other environmental and amenity
principles.


5.3.2       Worcestershire County Structure Plan (adopted June 2001) – Saved policies
Policy WD1 requires proposals for the management of waste to have regard to four key
principles. These four principles can best be summarised through the Best Practicable
Environmental Option (BPEO), which seeks the most benefits or the least damage to the
environment as a whole, at acceptable cost, in the long and short term. The waste hierarchy
when assessing the BPEO is:

 •        1. reduction;
 •        2. reuse;

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 •    3. recycling, composting or energy recovery (recovering value); and
 •    4. incineration without energy recovery or landfill.

Proposals which are at the upper end of the hierarchy contribute most towards the
achievement of regional and national targets for waste minimisation, recovery and recycling,
and provide the most benefits and least damage to the environment as a whole in the short
and long term. To assess the benefits or cost to the environment, it is necessary to
examine:

 •    1. The source of waste arisings;
 •    2. The type of waste received at the Forge;
 •    3. The extent of sorting, grading and processing; and
 •    4. The ultimate destination.

An updated list of waste types proposed to be handled by the MRF, as per November 2010,
is presented in Table 5.1 (Section 5.6) and takes into account actual levels of waste handled
by the MRF in late-2009.

Judging by the table, the MRF at The Forge is third in the waste hierarchy and will contribute
significantly towards the achievement of regional and national targets for waste recovery and
recycling. Accordingly, it meets the requirements of Policy WD1 so far as are relevant.

Policy WD2 requires facilities for the handling and treatment of waste to be located as near
to its place of origin as possible. They should preferably be located within buildings on
existing or proposed industrial estates where the infrastructure and surrounding uses are
appropriate. Judging by the table, the use of The Forge as a MRF and composting facility, a
large former industrial site with supporting infrastructure, meets this criterion.

Paragraph 10.12 of the Explanatory Memorandum states that the majority of waste arising in
the county originates from urban areas. Therefore, in line with the proximity principle, the
majority of new waste handling and treatment facilities will be developed within or adjacent
to urban areas. The Forge meets this criterion, since it is adjacent to a large urban area –
Kidderminster – and close to two other urban areas – Bewdley and Stourport-on-Severn.

Policy WD3 sets out the criteria to be taken into account when identifying sites for waste
management facilities. It states that facilities involving the transfer, separation, recycling and
composting of waste should be compatible with their surroundings. Safe access should be
provided and associated traffic should not adversely affect highway safety or have a
significant adverse environmental impact along associated routes. The Transport
Assessment associated with the MRF (refer to Section 13) at The Forge indicates that a safe
and convenient means of access is achieved via Stourport Road.

Policy SD2 deals with Care for the Environment and notes that development proposals
should seek to ensure that there is no detrimental impact on the County’s environmental
assets or landscape character. This proposal involves no such detrimental impact as the
built development is already present. Paragraph 4.14 notes that, where proposals are
permitted, potential adverse effects can be mitigated by, among other matters, landscaping.
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Policy T1 addresses the transport implications of the location of development. It is primarily
concerned with the issues relating to new housing and employment areas, rather than the
re-use of existing buildings. It refers to additional traffic generated by proposals being
accommodated safely on the road system without undue environmental consequences. In
this case, the capacity and environmental impact of traffic on the adopted road network
(namely Stourport Road and Oldington Lane) is not compromised.

Policy M6 states that the production, processing, treatment, storage and use of materials
suitable for use as alternatives to primary aggregates will be encouraged. The Explanatory
memorandum states that “facilities should, wherever possible, be in the vicinity of urban
areas, including the West Midlands conurbation, close to sources of demolition and
construction wastes, and potential markets for the product, in order to help reduce the need
to transport materials over long distances”. The Forge, close to Kidderminster, satisfies this
objective.


5.4     Wyre Forest District Local Plan
The site is identified as an employment zone for Class B1, B2 and B8 uses. In
transportation terms, the section of the Stourport Road adjacent to the application site is
identified as a Regional Strategic Route, Lorry Route Network, Priority Bus Route and Cycle
Route Network. Oldington Lane adjacent to the south boundary is identified as a Local
Distributor Road and Cycle Route Network, leading to the canal towpath (a Recreation Path
– Regional Route).

To the east of the site, the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal is identified as a Special
Wildlife Site. Adjacent to the eastern side of the canal, land is indicated as liable to flood,
based on information supplied by the Environment Agency. Part of this flood zone comprises
a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Any adverse effect on these sites will not be permitted
unless it can be clearly demonstrated that there are no reasonable means of meeting the
need for the development and the reasons for the development outweigh the nature
conservation value (and its need for safeguarding). Where there is harm, it is sometimes
necessary to retain or create undeveloped, natural or semi-natural buffer zones adjoining
such areas. These issues are addressed in Section 8: Ecology and Nature Conservation.

A key aim of the Local Plan is to “safeguard natural resources and to promote recycling and
energy saving.” Objective 21 is to encourage the re-use, collection, processing and storage
of recyclable materials.

Policy NR2 states that where contamination is known to exist, development will not be
allowed where it will either cause or increase pollution of watercourses and groundwater
resources. These issues are addressed in Section 10: Soils, Geology and Contamination.


5.4.1   The Core Strategy Development Plan Document
This document was adopted on 9th December 2010 and is the main document within the
Local Development Framework which will eventually replace the Adopted Local Plan. As a
result of the adoption of the Core Strategy, a large number of these policies have now been
superseded. Relevant policies are:

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DS01: Development Locations
New development will be concentrated on brownfield sites within the urban areas of
Kidderminster and Stourport-on-Severn. Limited opportunities for development to meet local
needs will be identified on brownfield sites in Bewdley and within the rural settlements.
Development in the open countryside will be closely controlled to safeguard the integrity of
the District's Green Belt and landscape character.


CP02: Water Management
New developments should:

       i.    Conserve and enhance the ecological flood storage value of the water
             environment, including watercourse corridors;
      ii.    Open up any culverted watercourse where practicable (proposals involving the
             creation of new culverts will not be permitted);
      iii.   Improve water efficiency through incorporating appropriate water conservation
             techniques including rainwater harvesting and grey water recycling; and
      iv.    Connect to the main sewer network wherever possible.

CP03: Promoting Transport Choice and Accessibility
Development proposals should have full regard to the traffic impact on the local highway
network. Future proposals for employment development, particularly along the Stourport
Road Employment Corridor, should have regard to the possibility of utilising the existing rail
infrastructure for the sustainable movement of freight and to provide sustainable transport
links.

Proposals for new development should fully consider their impact on air quality, particularly
for areas within or adjacent to designated Air Quality Management Areas.


CP08: A Diverse Local Economy
Up to 44 hectares of employment land will be brought forward in the period up to 2026 in line
with Policy DS01: Development Locations. Major new employment development will be
located within the urban area of Kidderminster, particularly within the Stourport Road
Employment Corridor (SREC). All future employment development within the urban areas
will be on previously developed land and should be located in highly accessible locations.

Applications for expansion, updating and intensification of employment uses on existing sites
will be supported where they do not compromise the activities of the employment area or
conflict with other policy objectives in the Local Development Framework.




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5.5     Other Material Considerations

5.5.1   Worcestershire County Council: Minerals and Waste Development Framework
The County Council is currently preparing a Minerals and Waste Development Framework.
This framework includes a Local Development Scheme, the first of which became operative
on 13 April 2005, followed by a revised scheme on 12 April 2006. This document scheme
sets out the timetable for the preparation and adoption of the Waste Core Strategy,
Sustainability Appraisal and Statement of Community Involvement.


5.5.2   Waste Core Strategy: First Submission Draft Consultation
The Waste Core Strategy will be used by the County Council to determine applications for
waste management development. It will replace the waste planning policies set out in the
Structure Plan.

Worcestershire County Council has re-started the process of producing the Waste Core
Strategy for Worcestershire. The Council submitted a "Waste Core Strategy: Regulation 28
Submission Document and Proposals Map" to the Secretary of State in January 2007.
However, following advice from the Planning Inspectorate and in anticipation of emerging
government guidance it was clear that it would not be found "sound.” On 21 February 2008,
the Secretary of State issued a letter directing the Council to withdraw that document and
some of the preparatory work supporting it.

The Council held a public consultation on the "Refreshed Issues and Options report" from 29
September until 19 December 2008. Taking responses to this consultation into account, an
“Emerging Preferred Options Report” was published in November 2009. The public
consultation period expired on 4th February 2010.

In Spring 2009 it took into account the comments made during the consultation on the
Refreshed issues and options paper and prepared the Emerging Preferred Options paper.

In November 2009 the Council consulted on Emerging Preferred Options paper.

In September 2010 the Council consulted on First Draft Submission consultation document.
The Waste Core Strategy First Submission Draft Consultation closed on 9th November
2010. A Consultation Response Document has now been published.


Environmental Permitting Guidance – The Landfill Directive – for the Environmental
Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2007 (updated 10/10/09)
This guidance helps understand the permitting requirements of European Community (EC)
Directive 1999/31/EC on the landfill of waste (“the Directive”).

The Landfill Directive represents a major change in the way the UK manages its waste, with
the aim of moving away from landfill and pushing waste up the waste hierarchy by
concentrating on minimisation, reuse, re-cycling or recovery options. The Directive
supplements the requirements of the Waste Framework Directive and seeks to achieve this


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through specifying uniform technical standards at community level. The Guidance is a clear
statement of the government’s intentions in implementing the Directive.

The aim of the Landfill Directive is to provide for measures, procedures and guidance to
prevent or reduce as far as possible negative effects on the environment, in particular the
pollution of surface water, groundwater, soil and air, and on the global environment including
the greenhouse effect, as well as any resulting risk to human health, from landfilling of
waste, during the whole life-cycle of the landfill.

The Environment Agency should ensure that existing landfills which cannot be brought into
line with Directive requirements are closed down as soon as possible and cease to operate
not later than 16 July 2009.


The Waste Strategy for England 2007
The government published this document in May 2007. The main elements of the new
strategy are to:

 •      incentivise efforts to reduce, re-use, recycle waste and recover energy from waste;
 •      reform regulation to drive the reduction of waste and diversion from landfill while
        reducing costs to compliant businesses and the regulator;
 •      target action on materials, products and sectors with the greatest scope for improving
        environmental and economic outcomes;
 •      stimulate investment in collection, recycling and recovery infrastructure, and markets
        for recovered materials that will maximise the value of materials and energy recovered;
        and
 •      improve national, regional and local governance, with a clearer performance and
        institutional framework to deliver better coordinated action and services on the ground.

The government has identified key waste materials where diversion from landfill could
realise significant further environmental benefits; namely paper, food, glass, aluminium,
wood, plastic and textiles.

A key to more efficient recovery of materials and energy is the greater segregation and
sorting of waste at (or close to) its source by households and businesses. This requires
planning for and investment in collection, sorting, reprocessing and treatment facilities by
local authorities, businesses and the third sector.

The Strategy stimulates investment in waste treatment, for example by increasing the
(environmental and financial) value obtained from recycled material and the use of different
kinds of material recycling facilities (MRFs).


5.5.3     The Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO)
The key issues in considering the appropriateness, or otherwise, of the MRF may be
answered through addressing the following questions which are included in the WCC

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Guidance on addressing Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) as part of the
submission of planning applications for waste management facilities (August 2004):


Does the BPEO strategy require additional capacity or limit additional capacity?
With a projected capacity of 250,000 tonnes per year, the MRF at The Forge will exceed the
target for delivering MRFs in Worcestershire by 2026. Furthermore the WCC guidance on
BPEO states that ‘exceeding the minimum levels is to be encouraged’ providing this does
not create ‘overprovision’.


Does the existing capacity meet the BPEO requirements?
The MRF at The Forge opened in Autumn 2009 and when operating at full capacity is
capable of exceeding Worcestershire’s BPEO target.


What is the capacity of the proposed MRF and how proven is the technology?
The MRF has a capacity of 250,000 tonnes per year. The technology is based on currently
operational MRFs such as ‘Premier Waste UK’ in Birmingham and ‘Pink Skips’ in Telford. In
addition, the aggregate washing technology is currently in operation at various sites within
the UK, including a recycling facility operated by ‘Coleman & Co.’ in Solihull.


If additional capacity is required, then does the proposed MRF provide a sensible
contribution to the overall need for this management route?
The MRF makes a significant contribution to the recycling of waste within the county,
especially the recycling of construction and demolition waste.


Is there an existing facility in the vicinity of the proposed development?
The Forge Recycling Centre is not aware of a similar facility in the vicinity of the
development. The nearest facilities comprising comparable operations are ‘Premier Waste
UK’ in Birmingham and ‘Pink Skips’ in Telford. However, these sites are substantially smaller
than The Forge.


Would the proposal provide the same, or different, operation as any nearby existing
facility?
According to The Forge Recycling Centre, the nearest comparable facility in terms of
operations and scale is ‘LSS Waste Management Ltd.’ in Leeds.


If operations are different – is there any synergy between them?
According to The Forge Recycling Centre, there are numerous small-scale recycling facilities
in the vicinity of the proposed development, such as ‘Wyre Forest Recycling’ and ‘Hills
Recycling’ in Stourport. Now that The Forge is operational as an MRF, it has the capability to
process waste streams beyond the capacity of the smaller facilities. This will reduce the

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amount of material sent to landfill whilst offering a cost saving for the operators. The
proposed amendment to the planning permission takes advantage of The Forge’s capability
to process a wide range of waste streams; in this case by proposing to add garden and park
waste (EWC Code 20 02 01) and biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste (EWC Code 20
01 08) to the MRF waste stream.


If operations are the same – is there any need for two facilities within this area?
N/A


Where is the proposed facility intending to receive waste from?
The facility currently receives waste from construction sites within the Worcestershire region.
In addition, the capacity of the facility will allow the processing of waste destined to landfill
from other smaller local Waste Transfer Stations within Worcestershire.


Is this an appropriate area having regard, for example, to the final disposal of any
residual materials arising from the treatment facility?
Residual materials will comprise wastewater from the material washing plant and the ‘non-
recoverable’ waste. The wastewater will be directed to the foul-water drainage under
appropriate consent and the non-recoverable waste will go to landfill (refer to Table 5.1).


What is the facility proposing to accept in terms of waste material?
As detailed in Table 5.1


What is the recovery rate for the facility, and what materials are recovered?
As detailed in Table 5.1. The anticipated recovery rate is expressed as a percentage of the
total waste handled at the site per year.


What is the end product and is there a market for it?
As detailed in Table 5.1


Does it provide a significant diversion from landfill?
Yes. It is anticipated that non-recoverable waste sent to landfill will comprise approximately
20% of the total waste received at the facility.


How are the recovered / residual materials finally disposed of after treatment /
processing?
As detailed in Table 5.1




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Is there another operational or reference plant in the UK? If so where, and what is its
scale and throughput?
A comparable plant, in terms of scale and operations, is ‘LSS Waste Management Ltd.’ in
Leeds, comprising a 50,000 sq ft MRF.


5.6     Conclusion
The proximity principle requires that facilities for the handling and treatment of waste should
be located as near to its place of origin as possible. Most of the waste managed by the
Material Recycling Facility at The Forge, Stourport Road originates from Kidderminster,
Bewdley and Stourport-on-Severn. Moreover, the site is particularly close to the urban area
of Kidderminster and has good road links. Therefore the majority of waste both received and
distributed has not travelled long distances and is transported in an efficient manner. In line
with the proximity principle, the MRF at The Forge, Stourport Road is close to the source of
waste arisings and manages waste within the region from which it is produced.

Worcestershire County Council and Wyre Forest District Council, via their development
plans, are committed to protecting the character, quality, interest and setting of features of
acknowledged importance. In this regard, The Forge is not subject to any special
landscaping or environmental designations. The MRF is located in an industrial area and
will not cause material harm to neighbouring businesses. There are no residential properties
near to the site. Further to the east, the canal is identified as a Special Wildlife Site and part
of the flood zone comprises an SSSI. The impact of the MRF on nearby sites of
acknowledged importance is covered within the associated sections of this Environmental
Statement.

The UK’s waste management strategy has recently undergone tremendous changes. For
example, the Landfill Directive and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive
banned untreated non-hazardous and electrical waste from landfill in 2007. However, there
is a shortage of MRFs in Worcestershire County and the ability of landfill sites to accept
waste has lessened considerably. The Material Recycling Facility at The Forge has been a
significant and welcome addition to the waste management strategy in Worcestershire.
Waste is treated at The Forge in accordance with the 3-point test, thereby reducing the
volume of waste sent to landfill, pushing waste up the waste hierarchy (the BPEO) and
helping to ensure local landfill sites can meet their obligations under the Landfill Directive.
More specifically, the MRF contributes directly to increasing recycling rates in Kidderminster,
Bewdley and Stourport-on-Severn. The proposed amendment to the planning permission, to
handle additional waste streams, similarly accords with the 3-point test.

The proposed amendment to planning permission ref 407664 fundamentally involves a
change to the treatment of the yard at the eastern part of the site and a variation of the
waste streams to permit the handling of garden, parks and food waste. The plans, Planning
Statement and Environmental Statement which accompanied the original application were
prepared in 2006. They anticipated that all sorting, washing, crushing and chipping would
take place within the existing buildings. The rear yard would be largely open and used solely
for floodlighting, empty skip storage and the storage of sand and aggregates.



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Market trends and product opportunities have evolved considerably since 2006. It is now
apparent that in order to maximise the productivity and revenue potential of buildings at The
Forge, some waste management operations should occur in the rear yard. The two
operations subject to the latest planning applications, namely soil manufacturing and
aggregate creation, are “space hungry” and would otherwise dominate about half the floor
area of the main buildings.

Planning permission 407664 would not have resulted in an empty yard, insofar as it allowed
lighting columns and the external storage of sand and aggregates in segregated bays
measuring 5m tall. However, the current proposal will undoubtedly result in more extensive
and intensive use of the yard, with stockpiles up to 8m tall. Other sections of this updated
Environmental Statement examine the implications of additional external activities and
demonstrate that more extensive and intensive use of the yard in the manner proposed will
not harm the environment. In the context of the Planning Policy Framework, the proposed
amendment favourably reflects planning policy objectives to encourage greater recycling and
lesser reliance on landfill.

Table 5.1: Proposed Waste types entering the Forge
   Waste        Breakdown                  Processing                       Product and Destination
   Type           (where
                 relevant)
Construction   Approximately    Large materials are extracted by        Processed soil and rubble is recycled
& Demolition   36% is rubble,   excavator      machine with   grab      for use in the construction industry.
               40% is soil      attachment, the remainder materials
               and 24% is       are processed through a Trommel         For example:
               wood, paper,     system that screens out Mid-sized       1. Decontaminated Mid-sized-inert
               plastic, metal   inert/soils material.                   produces a high quality – Soil and
               and general                                              10mm to 40mm Stone Aggregate.
               waste            Oversize passes onto a conveyor-belt
                                where an over- band magnet extracts     2. Brick, Rubble and Concrete
                                ferrous metals, other materials such    produce a high quality 75mm to
                                as none ferrous metal, wire, plastic,   40mm Crushed Aggregate.
                                wood and paper are hand picked and
                                segregated.

                                Over sized primary brick rubble and
                                concrete is conveyed to a crusher
                                producing 75mm to 40mm high quality
                                material.




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Table 5.1: Proposed Waste types entering the Forge
   Waste         Breakdown                    Processing                        Product and Destination
   Type            (where
                  relevant)
Commercial       c.50% is         Large materials are extracted by          Re-processors are based in the UK
& Industrial     cardboard,       excavator     machine  with   grab        and worldwide.
                 paper, plastic   attachment, the remainder materials
                 film, hard       are processed through a Trommel           Local landfill sites are at: Hartlebury
                 plastic, pvc,    system that screens out Mid-sized         and Kingswinford.
                 wood, metal      inert/fines material.                     Sent to scrap metal merchants for
                 and c.50% is                                               melting-down and re-use. Local metal
                 general waste    Oversize passes onto a conveyor-belt
                                  where paper, cardboard, plastic film,     merchants are at – Brierley Hill and
                                  hard plastic, pvc, wood and metal are     Kingswinford
                                  handpicked and segregated.

                                  Paper, cardboard and plastics are
                                  baled and sold to re-processors.

Wood             NA               Wood is subject to a high-speed           The chipped wood is sent to a mill to
chipping and                      machine to segregate and shred the        be processed into chipboard. The
timber.                           wood, to produce a 80mm size              average load is one delivery per
                                  chipped wood.                             week. The nearest processing mills
                                                                            are at:

                                                                            1. Kronospan Ltd, Chirk, Wrexham,
                                                                            North Wales.

                                                                            2. Norbord Ltd, South Molton, Devon.

Garden and       NA               Green waste is subject to a high-         Compost will be added to soils
Park Waste                        speed machine to produce a 80mm           meeting the required soil grade of the
                                  size chipped material which is then       manufactured top soil.
                                  placed in maturation piles on the
                                  composting pad. Finally the compost
                                  is screened to produce a 10mm
                                  product.

Kitchen and      NA               The kitchen and canteen waste will be     Non-recoverable materials from this
Canteen                           sorted    to    identify  recoverable     waste type will be sent to landfill
Waste                             materials, which will enter additional    (although processing on-site will
                                  on-site waste streams as appropriate.     minimise landfilled proportion as
                                                                            much as possible).

Waste            NA               Products will be placed on a conveyor     Products include the recycling of
Electrical and                    belt     and      sorted      manually.   glass from television and computer
Electronic                        Environmentally              hazardous    screens to make new monitor
Equipment                         components      will    be    removed     screens. The nearest scrap metal
(WEEE)                            manually, such as PCB, mercury,           merchants are at – Brierley Hill and
                                  cadmium, lead and brominates flame-       Kingswinford.
                                  retardants. The dismantled parts will
                                  then be sorted by material type and
                                  placed in a recycling container.




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Table 5.1: Proposed Waste types entering the Forge
   Waste        Breakdown               Processing                       Product and Destination
   Type           (where
                 relevant)
Scrap Tyres    NA            Slow speed torque shredder to           The nearest tyre recovery plant is at
                             produce wire-free rubber. An over-      Sapphire Energy Recovery Ltd (Part
                             band magnet will remove the majority    of      Lafarge),    Yelsway       Lane,
                             of the liberated steel away from the    Waterhouses,               Staffordshire
                             conveyor belt. A rare-earth drum        Moorlands. Products include road
                             magnet will separate any ferrous        surfaces, where the pellets are mixed
                             materials.                              with bitumen to prolong the life of the
                                                                     road and reduce road noise.
                                                                     Recycled tyre products in road
                                                                     surfacing is still at the trial stage in
                                                                     the UK, but well established in France
                                                                     and USA. The resultant surface is
                                                                     claimed to be quieter (when
                                                                     trafficked) than conventional asphalt,
                                                                     but more expensive. Rubber can
                                                                     also be mixed with bitumen to make
                                                                     sealants and as an asphalt/rubber
                                                                     stress absorbing membrane inter-
                                                                     layer.

                                                                     Worcestershire       County     Council
                                                                     Highways Authority would be an ideal
                                                                     client    for   this   road    surface.
                                                                     Alternative uses are for playground
                                                                     surfaces, as an energy source to burn
                                                                     to generate electricity and to heat the
                                                                     kilns in the cement industry.

Plastics       NA            Primary mixed plastics will be          Some regranulate will be exported to
(rigid, film                 separated manually into different       China.  The nearest reprocessing
and foam)                    plastic streams by polymer type and     companies are at:
                             colour. Mechanical recovery through
                             melting, shredding and granulation of   1. Delleve Plastics Ltd, Goldicote,
                             waste plastics. Following sorting and   Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire.
                             shredding into flakes, the plastic is   2. Linpac Ltd, Allerton Bywater, West
                             melted down and processed into          Yorkshire.
                             granules        (regranulate).   New
                             techniques for handling include x-ray   Products include bin liners, carrier
                             fluorescence, infrared and near         bags, sewer pipes, flooring and
                             infrared spectroscopy, electrostatics   window frames, insulation board,
                             and floatation.                         cassette cases, fencing and garden
                                                                     furniture, anoraks and fleeces, fibre
                                                                     filling for sleeping bags and duvets.




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6     Air Quality (Bioaerosol, Dust and Odour)

6.1     Introduction
This section examines the outline implications for air quality arising from the proposed
external operation of mobile crushing plant, external storage of processed materials and
production of manufactured topsoil using compost. Potential sources of bioaerosol, dust and
odour emissions are identified and are placed in the context of existing air quality and
emission sources, as well as being considered in the context of locally sensitive receptors.

The key issues relating to air quality are considered to be:

 •    bioaerosols generated by the proposed composting operations associated with the
      production of manufactured topsoil;
 •    dust generated by the proposed external crushing operations;
 •    dust generated as a result of vehicles accessing the proposed development;
 •    dust generated by the external storage of processed materials; and
 •    odour generated by the processing of biodegradable kitchen and canteen waste.

6.2     Assessment Methodology and Limitations
A bioaerosol risk assessment has been carried out in order to identify potential risks to
human and ecological (specifically plants) health associated with the proposed green waste
composting operations at the Forge Recycling centre. The bioaerosol risk assessment is
included as Annex 6.1 and summarised in this chapter.

An assessment of potential sources of dust and odour has been carried out in the following
stages. First, existing air quality in the vicinity of the development site has been derived.
Second, potential sources of dust and odour, with respect to locally sensitive receptors, have
been identified. Third, impacts of the identified dust and odour emissions on existing air
quality have been predicted and, where necessary, appropriate mitigation measures have
been proposed.

This assessment focuses on specific issues relevant to the proposed development, such as
potential for dust and odour generation, proximity of potentially sensitive receptors and
appropriate mitigation measures. No site specific ambient air quality monitoring was carried
out as part of the assessment.

Potential air quality issues relevant to operations of the main MRF activities, and associated
traffic generated by the operations, are not considered in this report as they were fully
considered in the 2007 ES.




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6.3     Assessment Criteria

6.3.1   Local Air Quality Management
The Environment Act 19951 provides for the development of a national Air Quality Strategy2
(AQS), containing a framework for the continual improvement of ambient air quality. Part IV
of the Environment Act 1995 requires local authorities to review and assess current and
future air quality in their areas against the objectives included in the AQS, as prescribed in
the regulations for the purposes of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM). The initial
assessments were carried out in a number of increasingly detailed stages and, in many
cases, involved predictive work using air dispersion modelling techniques.

If air quality was predicted to not meet the air quality objectives (AQOs) within certain areas
by the relevant date, the local authority was required to designate those areas as ‘Air Quality
Management Areas’ (AQMA). Within 12 months of designation, the Local Authority was
required to draw up an action plan for each AQMA detailing measures and target dates in
order to improve air quality and meet the objectives.

Following Stage 1 to 3 assessments of air quality, WFDC designated two Air Quality
Management Areas (AQMAs) in 2002 due to exceedences of the nitrogen dioxide AQO; one
in Welch Gate, Bewdley and the other in Horsefair (Blackwell St.), Kidderminster, located
c.3.3km to the north of the subject site.

In 2003, the Council completed an Updating and Screening Assessment (USA)3 of Air
Quality, as part of the second phase of the Review and Assessment process. The USA
report confirmed the findings of the Stage 3 report and concluded that a detailed
assessment of nitrogen dioxide was required for the two AQMAs. This was completed in
2004 and corroborated the decision to designate the two AQMAs.

In May 2006, the Council completed a second USA4. The USA confirmed that the air quality
objectives for benzene, 1, 3-butadiene, carbon monoxide, lead, and PM10 are likely to be
met, and there is no requirement to undertake a detailed assessment for these pollutants.
However, the results of the USA indicated that a more detailed assessment of nitrogen
dioxide levels was required on Coventry Street in Kidderminster, located approximately
3.5km to the north-east of The Forge.

A second Progress Report was produced by WFDC in April 20085 which confirmed that the
nitrogen dioxide AQO continued to be exceeded within the two AQMAs. In addition, the
report recommended that a detailed modelling exercise should be undertaken to re-evaluate
the size of the Horsefair AQMA with a view to potentially extending the AQMA to include the
junction of Radford Road and Coventry Street due to exceedences of the nitrogen dioxide



1 HMSO (1995) The Environment Act 1995, Part IV Air Quality
2 The Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland (January 2000)
3 Entec UK (July 2003) Wyre Forest District Council – Updating and Screening Assessment
4 Bureau Veritas (May 2006) Wyre Forest District Council – Updating and Screening Assessment
5 Wyre Forest District Council (April 2008) Air Quality Review and Assessment – Progress Report

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AQO in this area. The report makes no reference to potential exceedences of the PM10
objective at any location within the District.


6.3.2   Dust Deposition and PM10
According to the Minerals Policy Statement6, dust is a generic term used to describe
particulate matter in the size range 1 – 75 μm in diameter. However, standards or limits for
deposited dust have not been set within UK regulations and there are no formal guidelines
on what level of deposition constitutes a nuisance.

Dust particles that are less than or equal to (≤) 10 μm in diameter are commonly referred to
as ‘fine particulates’ or PM10. The objectives for fine particulates for the protection of human
health adopted in the UK are defined in the latest Air Quality Strategy for England, Scotland,
Wales and Northern Ireland, published on 17th July 2007. They are based on the limit
values required by EU Daughter Directives on Air Quality and have been transposed into UK
law through the Air Quality Standards Regulations 2007 which came into force on 15th
February 2007. The relevant objectives are provided below in Table 6.1.

Table 6.1: Air Quality Objective Particles (PM10)
        Averaging period                         Concentration                To be achieved by
                                            -3
Short term 24 hour mean            50 µg m , not to be exceeded more      31 December 2004
                                   than 35 times a year
Long term annual mean              40 µg m-3                              31 December 2004



6.3.3   Expected Air Quality at the Development Site
The air quality at any given locality will be impacted both by local sources, i.e. nearby roads,
industrial activities etc. and background concentrations, with the significance of the two
components varying depending on the pollutant. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations are most
influenced by local sources and can decrease rapidly away from a source. Thus, on large
sites adjacent to busy roads, some variation in concentrations would be expected across a
site. PM10 concentrations, on the other hand, are more influenced by background
concentrations, which are made up of coarse and secondary particles formed in the
atmosphere. As a result, local sources have less influence on concentrations and less
variability is seen on a local scale.

According to the 2006 USA, WFDC does not monitor background concentrations of PM10
outside of an AQMA and there are no AQMAs declared in the District due to exceedences of
the PM10 AQO. Therefore, additional information on estimated background pollutant
concentrations has been obtained from the Defra background maps provided on the
National Air Quality Archive website (www.airquality.co.uk).        Estimated air pollution
concentrations for PM10 have been extracted from the background pollution maps for the UK.
Concentrations have been taken from the grid squares in the vicinity of the development site,


6 Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (2005) Minerals Policy Statement 2: Controlling and Mitigating
  the Environment Effects of Minerals Extraction, Annex 1 – Dust

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providing average concentrations for the area. The maps provide concentrations for 2008-
2010. The resulting concentrations are provided below in Table 6.2.

The data indicates background concentrations in the region of the development site are
comfortably below the annual mean PM10 objective for 2008 to 2010.

        Table 6.2: Annual Mean Background PM10 Concentrations for WFDC
              Year                    Annual mean PM10 concentrations (µgm-3)
              2008                                       15.55

              2009                                       15.18

              2010                                       14.82


Given that background concentrations of PM10 are expected to meet the AQO throughout the
District, and taking into account concentration on the Defra background maps, it is
anticipated that background concentrations of PM10 at the development site will be
significantly below the Air Quality Objective of 40 μgm-3.


6.3.4    Bioaerosol – Regulatory Context
The proposed new composting facility will accept up to 10,000 tonnes of green waste per
annum. The client is keen to reassure the planners and regulators that potential risks from
exposure to composting bioaerosols has been considered.

As the competent authority for the regulation of industrial composting facilities, the
Environment Agency issued a revised policy, in relation to the protection of human health
from composting bioaerosols in 2007. The aspects of the policy pertinent to the Forge MRF
are that a site-specific bioaerosols risk assessment is triggered where the storage, physical
treatment, composting and maturation of wastes is carried out within 250 m of a residential
property or workplace and the activities are carried out within 1 kilometre of a European site,
Ramsar or Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI).


6.3.5    Odour – Regulatory Context
Emissions of odour are controlled through two areas of legislation. Primarily, odour
emissions are controlled under Part III of the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA) as
amended by the Noise and Statutory Nuisance Act 1993, which enables local authorities and
individuals to take action to secure the abatement of a statutory nuisance, including odour.
Emissions of odour are classed as a statutory nuisance within Section 79 of the EPA where:

         “any dust, steam, smell or other effluvia arising on industrial, trade or
         business premises and being prejudicial to health or a nuisance”.

Where a local authority is satisfied that a statutory nuisance exists or is likely to occur or
reoccur, it must serve an abatement notice to either abate the nuisance or prohibit or restrict
its reoccurrence and/or require the carrying out of such works necessary to abate the
nuisance.

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Where the nuisance arises from industrial, trade or business premises, no additional action
can be taken if the operator can show that it is using the Best Practicable Means to control
the nuisance.

However, where an installation is authorised under the Environmental Permitting
Regulations, measures for the control of odour emissions will be included within an
installation’s environmental permit and action for nuisance can only be taken with the
consent of the Secretary of State. Under this system, an operator will be required to show
that it has applied Best Available Techniques (BAT) to control odour emissions.


6.4       Identification of Potential Impacts

6.4.1     Sources of Dust – Construction
The proposed crushing and material storage activities will be undertaken in the eastern
section of the site, which formerly comprised a landfill for the disposal of foundry waste from
Folkes’ Foundry. This section of the site is surfaced with compacted hardcore (generated by
the internal refurbishment works and repair of site infrastructure) intersected by concrete
surfaced access roads. Vehicular access to the eastern section of the site is provided by a
concrete and asphalt surfaced access road located to the north of the main site buildings.
The site is considered to be capable of accommodating the proposed crushing and material
storage activities in its current condition without significant ground preparations.
Furthermore, the proposed development will not comprise any construction or demolition
activities.

The potential for the generation of dust due to ground preparation and construction activities
is considered to be negligible.


6.4.2     Sources of Dust – Operational Activities
During the crushing of construction and demolition waste and storage of crushed materials,
emissions of dust may potentially arise from the following activities:

 •      heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) accessing the site (through the movement of the HGVs
        over soiled surfaces);
 •      dust blown from HGVs leaving the site;
 •      loading crushed materials into HGVs;
 •      crushing of construction and demolition waste; and
 •      storage of crushed materials in stockpiles.

The majority of the waste processed at the Forge Recycling centre will comprise
construction and demolition waste (i.e. brick, rubble and concrete). Waste delivered to the
site will be unloaded within the main Forge building where it will undergo inspection to
ensure it comprises inert construction and demolition materials. Contaminated materials will
be quarantined internally and returned to the supplier. Following inspection, the waste will be
sorted and screened, within the main building, to remove soil and fine materials (material

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with a diameter less than 30mm). A ‘blower’ (manufactured by JHM Moldow) will be used to
remove dust, a magnet will remove metals and all ‘non-rubble’ material (plastics, timber etc)
will be removed by hand at a picking station. Following sorting, the remaining aggregate will
be sent for crushing in the external yard area in order to produce aggregate which meets the
grading requirements of ‘Class 6F2’.

Potential dust generated by crushing operations will comprise inert particulates of brick,
concrete and stone. As stated above, all the remaining constituents of inert construction and
demolition waste will be removed within the main building prior to crushing.


6.4.3   Sources of Bioaerosol
A bioaerosol is defined in the Environment Agency’s policy statement7 for health effects from
composting as “microscopic airborne particles including bacteria, fungal spores, protozoa
and organic constituents of microbial and fungal origin”.

Whilst there is great uncertainty regarding the release, fate and potential impacts of
composting bioaerosols, generally the potential sources of bioaerosols from composting
systems comprise the materials being composted, the on-site processes involved, the
associated vehicle movements and the process equipment used.


6.4.4   Sources of Odour
It is considered that the type, nature and quantity of waste, which is licensed to be accepted
at the site, currently presents a low risk of excessive odour generation. This has been
demonstrated by identical operations previously carried out at the Clients former site on
Hoobrook Industrial Estate in Kidderminster. However, the addition of biodegradable kitchen
and canteen waste (EWC code 20 01 08) to the MRF waste stream has the potential to
generate a nuisance odour if appropriate management techniques are not applied.

During normal operation of the proposed composting process, the windrows will be turned
regularly to improve oxygen content, distribute moisture and regulate/distribute heat. This
will maintain moisture levels and ensure aerobic conditions. Under these conditions, the
potential for excessive odour generation is negligible; however, odour may arise during
possible malfunctions or due to plant failures.

In addition to the potential on-site sources of odour, a sewage treatment works has been
located adjacent to the north-eastern site boundary for in excess of 50 years. Whilst this
represents an additional source of odour, the presence of the sewage treatment works is
considered to reduce both the identifiability of the site as a unique source of odour and
reduce the sensitivity of the neighbouring commercial properties to potential odour impacts.




7 Environment Agency (2007) Our position on composting and potential health effects from
  bioaerosols. Policy Number 405_07, Version 2, 23 October 2007

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6.4.5   Dust Deposition
Prior to crushing, all construction and demolition waste processed at the site will be sorted
and screened internally within the main site buildings to remove soil and particles with a
diameter <30mm. Consequently, it is anticipated that dust arising from the operational
activities identified in Section 6.4.2, is likely to be of a similar nature to construction dust,
which tends to be coarse.

Deposition of coarse dust can lead to soiling of property including windows, cars, external
paintwork and laundry. Disruption due to coarse dust is a localised phenomenon and in
general, only people living or working within 100 metres of ‘construction activities’ or dust
sources are likely to be seriously impacted by nuisance dust8.

According to the Minerals Policy Statement, the ability of dust particles to remain suspended
in the air depends on their shape, size and density. Large dust particles (>30 µm) will
largely deposit within 100 m of sources. Intermediate dust particles, between 10-30 µm,
generally deposit within 200 to 500 m of sources, while smaller particles (<10 µm) may travel
1 km from sources. Therefore, it is anticipated that the majority of the dust will be deposited
within 100 m of the source.

Only a small proportion of the dust generated will be of a fine nature (e.g. PM10), which can
enter the human respiratory system and result in adverse health effects.


6.4.6   Bioaerosol Deposition
The primary pathway for dispersion of bioaerosols is aerosolisation of biological particulates.
The Environment Agency’s policy on composting bioaerosols states that bioaerosols
dispersed from waste facilities are likely to be deposited within 250 m of the composting site
boundary. There are uncertainties in the science underpinning the basis of the 250 m
threshold but until further evidence conclusively proves that bioaerosols travel further or drop
out earlier, the Environment Agency’s Policy remains the regulatory position by which
bioaerosol risk assessments are triggered.


6.4.7   Receptors
Like other air borne pollutants, dust and bioaerosols are dispersed by the wind. However,
because of its coarse nature, the dust tends to be deposited relatively close to its point of
origin and thus impacts are limited to a relatively small area around a development site
(within 100m). In built up areas, neighbouring properties can act as screens, further limiting
the movement of dust particles. More widespread movement can occur by the re-
suspension of dust particles, by the movement of heavy goods vehicles or during
exceptionally dry and windy conditions.




8 Baughan C J (1980) Nuisance from Road Construction: a study at the A31 Poulner Lane Diversion,
  Ringwood. TRRL Supplementary Report 562, from DTLR (1994) Design Manual for Roads and
  Bridges

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The immediate surroundings including the buildings, roads and open areas, together with
the people who access them, will be those most at risk of being exposed to dust effects.
Receptors downwind of the predominant wind direction from a development site will be at
greater risk of impacts than those upwind. The predominant wind direction is from the
south-south-west as shown by the wind roses for 2006 to 2009 from the Birmingham Airport
Meteorological site (Figure 6.1), which is the nearest meteorological recording station to the
development site. Receptors to the east and north-east of the site will therefore be most at
risk from dust impacts.

Figure 6.1: Wind Roses from Birmingham Airport Meteorological Station 2006-2009




A review of land uses surrounding the site has identified the following:
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Residential properties: Residential properties are situated approximately 600m to the east
of the site boundary and 685m to the east of the operational boundary. These properties are
located along Wilden Lane and there are no residential properties within 100m of the site
boundary;

Community/Educational facilities: No community or educational facilities were identified
within 100m of the site. The facility in closest proximity is Birchen Coppice school, located
approximately 1km to the north;

Commercial/Retail/Office Units: The development the site is bordered to the north-west by
commercial/industrial units which form Foley Business Park and to the north-east by a
sewage treatment works. In addition, a number of light industrial and commercial units are
located to the south of the site, accessed via Oldington Lane; and

Open Countryside and SSSIs: The site is bordered to the east by the Staffordshire and
Worcestershire Canal, which is identified as a Special Wildlife Site in the WFDC Local Plan.
Unit 7 of the Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI is located adjacent to the eastern side of the
canal, approximately 90m to the east of the operational boundary.


6.5     Dust Impact Assessment
As discussed previously, the majority of dust particles would be >30 µm and would,
therefore, be deposited within 100 m of source. Research into the impacts of coarse dust
has revealed that at least half the people living within 50 m of the site boundary tend to be
seriously bothered by dust generated during construction activities (or similar), but beyond
100 m the number of people seriously bothered drops to less than 20 percent.

Road traffic can be a significant source of dust in urban areas, particularly close to busy
roads. The presence of Stourport Road, bordering the western boundary of The Forge will
result in elevated levels of ambient dust at the development site and surrounding properties.
The industrial nature of the area also means there are likely to be a higher than average
number of heavy goods vehicles on the local road network which can also result in an
increase in local ambient dust levels. Continued exposure to a dusty environment will
generally result in receptors becoming less sensitive to dust impacts and an acceptance of a
certain level of dust deposition.       It is considered unlikely that occupants of the
commercial/industrial units adjacent to the north of the site are sensitive to dust impacts and
the residential properties to the east of the site are located over 500m from the site
boundary, therefore dust impacts at these properties are likely to be insignificant.

Due to the south-westerly prevailing wind and relative proximity to the site, Unit 7 of the
Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI is the sensitive receptor considered to be most at risk of
dust impacts. Unit 7 of the SSSI is described by Natural England as ‘Neutral grassland –
lowland’ and the condition is described as ‘unfavourable declining’. The nationally
designated SSSI is considered to be of greater ecological significance and therefore of
greater sensitivity than the locally designated Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal
Special Wildlife Site.



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Studies on the effects of dust on vegetation have shown that dust may affect
photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and allow the penetration of phytotoxic gaseous
pollutants9. With high dust loadings, visible injury symptoms may occur, and pests and
diseases may have an increased occurrence10. Generally there is decreased productivity,
and reproduction for plant types with open flowers may also be adversely affected11.
However, literature suggests that the most sensitive species are only affected by dust
deposition at levels in excess of 1000 mg/m2/day, which is five times greater than the level at
which dust deposition will cause a considerable nuisance to humans (refer to footnote 9).
Furthermore, the majority of plant species are unaffected until dust deposition rates are
considerably higher than this (refer to footnote 9).

Depending on its composition, dust may alter the physicochemical properties of the
grassland substrate, such as its nutrient status, pH or porosity, altering plant community
structure and potentially reducing the biodiversity value of the SSSI. Construction dust may
also introduce contaminants (e.g. arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and other
heavy metals) which are found in trace amounts in cement and other construction materials.
However, the Forge Recycling centre is only licensed to accept inert construction and
demolition waste and there have been very few detailed studies on natural and semi-natural
systems and some dust types are also very understudied. Therefore the amount of specific
relevant information on risks from construction dusts for the adjacent SSSI neutral grassland
is extremely limited.

Despite the lack of specific information on the risks associated with construction dust in
relation to the adjacent SSSI, mitigation techniques and effective site management will be
required to ensure effective dust control and negligible impacts to the SSSI. This is
discussed in Section 6.7.


6.6     Potential for Risk from Bioaerosol Exposure
As discussed previously, the full bioaerosol risk assessment is included as Annex 6.1. The
risk assessment includes a conceptual site model (CSM) which describes the various
sources of bioaerosols, routes of exposure, the type and location of receptor and the
plausibility of a pathway between the site and receptors. The screening assessment
described in the CSM identifies the potential for exposure to the following receptors:

 •    Human Health: Workplaces to the North and South of the composting site boundary;
 •    Human Health: Recreational users of the adjacent Canal; and
 •    Plant Health: Protected marshland vegetation in the Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI.


9 Farmer, A.M. (1993) ‘The Effects of Dust on Vegetation – A Review’, Environmental Pollution,
  79(1):63-75
10 Ministry for the Environment (New Zealand) (September 2001) Good Practice Guide for Assessing
  and Managing the Environmental Effects of Dust Emissions
11 Saralabai, V.C. and Vivekanandan, M (1997) ‘Effect of Electrostatic Precipitator Dust (Eps) on
  Pollen Fertility and Crop Productivity’, Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 9(1):67-69


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The CSM is developed further in this section to determine whether receptors are likely to be
at risk from bioaerosols by addressing three issues central to the risk assessment:

 1. The site-specific meteorological conditions and how these may affect exposure;
 2. The duration of exposure; and
 3. The sensitivity of the ecological and human receptors to composting bioaerosols.

6.6.1     Potential Risks to the Human Receptors in Workplaces to the North and South
          of the Forge MRF
From an assessment of the meteorological data (Figure 6.1) it is assumed that the prevailing
wind is from the south-south-west. It is estimated, based on data for four years that
workplaces to the north of the Composting Site Boundary (CSB) will be downwind of the
CSB during moderate wind conditions (i.e. greater than 3 ms-1) for approximately 15% of the
year. Properties to the south of the CSB will be downwind of the site for 9% of the year.

The potential exposure will be further reduced due to a number of factors:

 •      Emissions of bioaerosols will not be continuous. The most significant emissions will
        arise during compost shredding, windrow formation and windrow turning. Overall these
        activities are unlikely to occur for more than c.25% of the time, assuming activities will
        only take place in daylight hours for 6 days per week;
 •      The feedstock and windrows will be sprayed with water to ensure an appropriate
        moisture content prior to handling to reduce the potential for aerosol formation;
 •      Agitation activities will not be carried out during periods of exceptionally high wind
        speeds;
 •      The distance between the activities and the nearest sensitive receptors, is such that the
        vast majority of large particles will have settled out, whilst the smaller particles will have
        been diluted as a result of dispersion; and
 •      Workers will predominantly be located inside the buildings. For conventional buildings,
        such as offices and warehouses, the internal concentration of bioaerosols would be
        expected to be substantially reduced in comparison to external concentrations.
It can therefore be concluded that as a result of the combination of mitigation controls
(Section 6.8), site location and prevailing meteorological conditions the potential for human
receptors to be exposed to bioaerosols as a result of the operation of the composting facility
would not be significantly elevated in comparison with other naturally occurring potential
sources of bioaerosols and the adjacent sewage treatment works.


6.6.2     Potential Risks to the Human Receptors using the Canal
The recreational users of the Canal include people boating along the canal and walkers
using the towpath. The distance to residential properties suggests that regular use of the
same stretch of towpath (e.g., by dog walkers) is likely to be infrequent. The Environment
Agency policy is aimed at protecting human health from composting bioaerosols at locations
where humans either live or work. Exposure times in these instances are likely to be for 8-

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hours or more on a daily basis. The duration anticipated for recreational users of the stretch
of Canal adjacent to the site is expected to be short; a few minutes and less than one hour.
The potential exposure to recreational users of the Canal is expected to be negligible.

It can therefore be concluded that the mitigation controls (Section 6.8) and anticipated
duration of exposure means that human receptors using the Canal or its towpath are unlikely
to be at risk from composting bioaerosols. The proposed composting at the Forge MRF is
unlikely to increase background concentrations of bioaerosols significantly when the
adjacent sewage treatment works is a significant contributor to background bioaerosol
concentrations.


6.6.3   Potential Risks to the Ecological Receptors (Wilden Marsh and Meadow SSSI)
As part of the Bioaerosol Risk Assessment, ENVIRON recently undertook an extensive
literature review of the effects of composting bioaerosols to plant health and was unable to
find direct evidence of harmful effects of composting bioaerosols to plant health primarily
because of a paucity of research. However, it was possible to identify a plausible linkage
between plant pathogens on infected green waste that could survive composting. But these
pathogens are specific to certain plant host species and whilst it was possible to link several
pathogens able to survive composting to the European Protected Habitat that was the
subject of the relevant Planning Inquiry, the receptor of concern consisted of woody shrubs
found in acid heathland. ENVIRON has not carried out a similar literature review for this
report as it is unlikely that evidence of composting bioaerosol impacts on plants has been
published since the Planning Inquiry; no studies were underway at the time of the 2009
Inquiry (at least not by the Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs who sponsor
much of the UK’s plant health and composting research). The Wilden Marsh and Meadow
SSSI is designated for its wetland flora, not dry acid heathland woody shrubs.

It can therefore be concluded that the mitigation controls (Section 6.8) and the sensitivity of
the receptor means that the ecological receptor is unlikely to be harmed by biopathogens in
composting bioaerosols potentially released from the Forge MRF site.


6.7     Control of Dust
Because of the nature of the dust likely to be generated by material crushing and storage
activities, the control of dust emissions relies upon management provisions and mitigation
techniques. However, where dust emission controls have been used effectively, large-scale
operations have been successfully undertaken without nuisance to nearby receptors. The
prudent use of water application, good site planning and management will ensure effective
dust control.

ENVIRON previously recommended mitigation measures in relation to the overall MRF
operations at the subject site (outlined within the 2007 ES). The subject application
represents a variation from the Consented Development, where it was proposed that
external material storage bays would be constructed in the north-eastern section of the site
and a 6m hoarding would be constructed in eastern section of the site. However, the storage
bays and hoarding are not proposed and consequently, mitigation measures outlined in the
2007 ES have been re-appraised based upon the proposed amendment to the existing

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Planning Consent in relation to external operation of mobile crushing plant and external
storage of materials. The determined mitigation measures are outlined below.

Measures to prevent dust emissions impacting Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI (the
nearest sensitive receptor) will include the following practices:

 •    a water bowser will be in operation to dampen stockpiles and loading of materials. The
      site is reportedly served by a 3 inch mains water supply with good water pressure;
 •    stockpiles will be limited to a maximum height of 8 m and treated by a dedicated dust
      suppression sprinkler;
 •    a vehicle wash will be available to remove debris, if necessary;
 •    a dedicated road sweeper will be in operation to prevent build up of debris on the site
      access roads;
 •    vehicles carrying materials off-site to be sheeted;
 •    a two metre high close-boarded fence has been constructed close to the eastern site
      boundary (location illustrated in Figure 3.2); and
 •    no fires will be allowed on site.

The dust suppression sprinklers and water bowser will be the primary mitigation measures in
use at the site. It is anticipated that excess water (‘run-off’) from the dust suppression
system will be negligible as the volume of water used by the sprinkler will be limited to the
minimum required for efficient dust control without generating significant run-off. However, in
the event that a minor volume of run-off is generated, this would drain by infiltration through
the underlying permeable surfacing, as is the existing situation. Furthermore, the proposed
development will not increase the impermeable surfacing at the site when compared to the
Consented Development.

In addition to the above mitigation measures, tipping of waste materials will take place within
the main site buildings. The material will be screened within the site buildings, to remove all
material with a diameter smaller than 30mm, before selected material is transported
externally for crushing. As stated in the 2007 ES, the building is fitted with a ‘mistair’ dust
suppression system to prevent dust emissions from within the building.

Externally, the eastward limit of material crushing and storage activities will be demarcated
by marker posts set at a distance c.100m from the north-eastern site boundary and c.70m
from the south-eastern site boundary (the operational boundary). This will mean the
minimum distance between the potential sources of dust (refer to Section 6.4.2) and the
nearest sensitive receptor (the SSSI) will be approximately 90m, with the majority of the
SSSI located >100m from the potential sources of dust. Furthermore, the SSSI is shielded
from the development area by a screen of mature trees and vegetation along the eastern
site boundary, which would act to reduce the dispersion of dust in this direction. A 2m high
close-boarded fence will be constructed adjacent to the western edge of the established on-
site mature vegetation. The height of the fence has been reduced from 6m, as stated in the
2007 ES, as permanent external material storage bays are no longer proposed in the north-
eastern section of the site. The reduced height of the fence is still considered applicable in

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                                                                                Forge Recycling




relation to the subject application, when considering the newly proposed dust suppression
sprinklers within the eastern area of the site. This mitigation measure comprises a variation
from the original site plan and provides additional dust prevention measures.

A daily “Operational Dairy” sheet detailing weather conditions, ground operations and other
significant operational details associated with the site shall be completed by site personnel
on a daily basis. Visual assessments of emissions will be made at least twice a day during
operations and the results recorded on the “Dust Monitoring Sheets”. The time, location and
the results of these assessments shall be recorded. Adverse results will be investigated
immediately and site personnel will ensure the cause is identified, corrective action is taken
and the details recorded on the monitoring sheet.

The effectiveness of dust control measures will be reviewed at regular progress meetings
and the name, address and telephone number of the operator and an environmental
manager (responsible for environmental management) will be clearly displayed at the main
entrance to the site.


6.8     Bioaerosol Mitigation Controls
ENVIRON considers that, with consideration of the following factors and mitigation controls,
there is no evidence for a potential significant risk to human health or ecological receptors
from bioaerosols released from the proposed composting facility:

 •    incoming lorries will be covered to prevent waste and bioaerosols escaping;
 •    waste is tipped and shredded in the area directly to the east of the main recycling
      building, effectively in lee of the prevailing wind, where air movement is slowest. This
      will reduce the aerosolisation of particulates;
 •    the site is bounded by semi-natural woodland and is elevated by approximately 16m
      relative to the canal and SSSI, which provides a natural ‘shelter-belt’ (screen) for
      recreational users of the canal and the SSSI plant material;
 •    water is added to the waste material as it is shredded to reduce the aerosolisation of
      particulates;
 •    windrows are sprayed with water/leachate to maintain high moisture levels and reduce
      aerosolisation during turning;
 •    during screening the compost will contain approximately 40% moisture which will
      reduce bioaerosol emissions;
 •    the site operator avoids turning and screening windrows during high winds and high
      humidity; and
 •    site vehicles and turning equipment will be routinely disinfected to avoid cross-
      contamination with other processes and possible transfer of pathogens off-site.

6.9     Odour Management
Despite the south-westerly prevailing wind, the commercial properties located adjacent to
the northern boundary of the site are the receptors considered to be most at risk of odour

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                                                                                   Forge Recycling




impacts due to their relative proximity to the site. The entrances to the Forge Recycling
centre waste reception areas (‘tipping and sorting’ areas) are located along the northern
facade of the building and therefore the commercial properties to the south are considered
to be less sensitive than the properties to the north with respect to potential odour impacts.
Furthermore, the sewage works to the north-east and the SSSI to the east are not
considered to be sensitive to potential odour impacts.

The Forge Recycling centre currently operates an odour management plan to minimise the
potential for odour to arise during operation of the MRF. The plan is included in the site’s
management procedures and incorporates the following measures:

 •    the monitoring of odour generation is continuous throughout the daily operation of the
      facility by the site staff and action is taken as appropriate (see below) to control and
      remediate any excessive generation;
 •    if potentially malodorous wastes, not permitted by the environmental permit, are
      discovered within a load of deposited waste, the area is isolated immediately, no further
      wastes are allowed to be placed in the immediate vicinity and the incident and time of
      discovery is recorded in the site diary. The material is either:
              -    reloaded onto the waste carrier;
              -    removed from the deposition area and placed in a suitable isolation location
                   for subsequent removal from site on the next transfer vehicle; or
              -    the whole load, and any adjacent loads which could have been
                   contaminated, are treated as contaminated and removed from site for
                   disposal at appropriately licensed facility on the next transfer vehicle.
 •    the building is fitted with a ‘mistair’ dust suppression system to prevent dust emissions
      from within the building, which provides additional odour mitigation.

These measures will continue to be carried out following the addition of kitchen and canteen
waste to the MRF waste stream. The kitchen and canteen waste will be processed shortly
after arriving on site and the continuous monitoring of odour generation will pay particular
attention to the storage areas associated with these waste streams. In addition, the following
additional mitigations measures will be implemented to address potential odour associated
with the proposed composting operations:

 •    a variety of particle sizes will be maintained within the compost feedstock to allow air to
      circulate through the materials, maintain aerobic conditions and ensure an even
      transfer of heat;
 •    green waste will be wetted as it is shredded, using mains water or re-circulated
      leachate, to minimise the release of dust and potentially odorous particles;
 •    the windrows will be turned to improve oxygen content, distribute moisture and
      regulate/distribute heat. This will prevent anaerobic conditions and the associated
      odour;




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                                                                                   Forge Recycling




 •     the mature compost will be blended with topsoil (10% compost and 90% topsoil) and
       the enhanced topsoil product will be watered to minimise the release of dust and
       potentially odorous particles; and
 •     all plant and mechanical equipment will be maintained in good working order.
       Disinfection of machinery (Caterpillar loaders) wheels and/or change of buckets
       between ‘clean’ and ‘dirty’ composting activities will be carried out.
In addition to both the currently implement and proposed mitigation measures, a formalised
odour complaints procedure will be established including a system to investigate and
respond to any odour complaints.


6.10     Conclusions

6.10.1 Dust Impact
Inert construction and demolition waste, comprising brick and concrete rubble which would
otherwise be transported to landfill, will be crushed in the eastern section of the site. Prior to
crushing, the waste will be delivered to the site and will be unloaded within the main Forge
building where it will undergo inspection to ensure it comprises inert construction and
demolition materials. Subsequently the waste will be treated (screening and sorting) within
the main building prior to any crushing operations. The crushing plant will comprise a
Metrotrak Jaw Crusher and processed material will be stored in stockpiles. The eastward
limit of crushing and material storage activities will be demarcated by marker posts set at a
distance c.100m from the north-eastern site boundary and c.70m from the south-eastern site
boundary (the operational boundary).

The nearest residential properties to the proposed external crushing and material storage
operations (i.e. in the eastern yard area) are located c.685m to the east of the operational
boundary, however, Unit 7 of the Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI is located approximately
90m to the east of the operational boundary and is therefore the nearest sensitive receptor
to the site.

According to Minerals Policy Statement 2, the ability of dust particles to remain suspended in
the air depends on their shape, size and density. Large dust particles (>30 µm) will largely
deposit within 100 m of sources. Intermediate dust particles, between 10-30 µm, generally
deposit within 200 to 500 m of sources, while smaller particles (<10 µm) may travel 1 km
from sources. However, all material will be screened within the site buildings, to remove all
material with a diameter smaller than 30mm, before crushing and it is anticipated that dust
generated will be coarse in nature (similar to construction dust). Therefore, it is anticipated
that the majority of the dust will be deposited within 100 m of source. In addition, studies
suggest that the most sensitive species are only affected by dust deposition at levels in
excess of 1000 mg/m2/day, which is five times greater than the level at which dust deposition
will cause a considerable nuisance to humans, and the majority of plant species are
unaffected until dust deposition rates are considerably higher than this.

In conclusion, implementation of the proposed dust mitigation measures (detailed in Section
6.7) will control the dispersion of nuisance dust arising from site operations. Furthermore,
the majority of Unit 7 of Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI is located >100m to the east of

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the operational boundary, and adjacent properties are not considered to be particularly
sensitive to potential dust impacts. Therefore, ENVIRON consider that dust emissions
arising from the proposed development would be kept to a minimum (based on the proposed
mitigation measures) and the proposed external crushing and material storage activities
would be able to operate without generating nuisance dust or significantly impacting the
SSSI.


6.10.2 Bioaerosol Risk
In this section ENVIRON has considered the site-specific factors that may influence the
generation, dispersal and potential impacts of composting bioaerosols from the proposed
composting facility at the Forge MRF. Bioaerosols are generated when waste and
composting material are agitated during activities such as shredding, turning and screening.
It is well known that at open-air facilities, turning compost represents the greatest source of
bioaerosols.

The main pathway for bioaerosols is via aerial dispersion and the receptors in this
assessment include human health (i) adjacent industrial work places to the North and South
of the site, (ii) recreational users of the Canal and plant health (iii) protected plant species in
the Wilden Marsh and Meadows SSSI. The potential exists that a risk to receptors within
250 m of the composting site boundary could occur if the following factors were confirmed:

 •    Harmful effects to human or plant health due to the sensitivity of the receptor;
 •    A plausible source-pathway-receptor linkage; and
 •    Bioaerosols likely to exceed background concentrations at the receptor locations (i.e.,
      that there would be substantial exposure to bioaerosols).
Only where all these parameters are confirmed and coincident is there deemed to be a
potential risk to receptors from composting bioaerosols released from the proposed facility.

Following the development of a site-specific conceptual site model, a number of plausible
pathways were identified which were assessed in more detail through the use of (i)
meteorological data, (ii) anticipated duration of exposure, (iii) frequency of composting
activities that generate bioaerosols, (iv) background levels of bioaerosols, and in the case of
plant health (v) sensitivity of marsh plants (host specificity) to composting biopathogens.

In conclusion, ENVIRON considers there is no evidence for a potential significant risk to
human health or ecological receptors from bioaerosols released from the proposed
composting facility at the Forge Recycling centre.


6.10.3 Odour Impact
ENVIRON has undertaken a review of the odour management plan currently implemented at
the Forge Recycling centre. The measures undertaken are considered to be appropriate for
both the existing operations and the addition of kitchen and canteen waste to the MRF waste
stream. Additional mitigation measures will be implemented to minimise the risk of odour
generation from the proposed composting operations. The composting windrows will be
turned regularly to improve oxygen content, distribute moisture and regulate/distribute heat.
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                                                                               Forge Recycling




This will maintain moisture levels and ensure aerobic conditions. Under these conditions, the
potential for excessive odour generation is negligible. However, in order to ensure any
potential odour nuisance does not go undetected and is addressed at the earliest
opportunity, a formalised odour complaints procedure will be established including a system
to investigate and respond to any future odour complaints (if applicable).


6.10.4 Overall Summary
This chapter has assessed the potential environmental impacts associated with the
proposed external operation of mobile crushing plant, external storage of processed
materials and production of manufactured topsoil using compost. Based on the proposed
mitigations measures, dust and odour emissions would be kept to a minimum. In addition,
ENVIRON considers there is no evidence for a potential significant risk to human health or
ecological receptors from bioaerosols released from the proposed composting facility at the
Forge Recycling centre. Overall, the impact of the proposed development in terms of Air
Quality (Bioaerosol, Dust and Odour) is considered to be minor-negative.




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                                                                                  Forge Recycling




7       Noise

7.1     Introduction

7.1.1   Project History
The Forge Recycling Centre has been operational for some time with no adverse noise
impact. A previous noise impact assessment 65-C10555 was issued in May 2009, in support
of a planning application for external crushing (the application was subsequently withdrawn).
The proposals have been amended and this assessment considers the revised proposals. In
order to accurately control future noise impact, the 2007 Planning Permission (reference:
407664) imposed the following planning condition:

‘Condition 28 – Before the Materials Recycling Facility is brought into use, a scheme for
noise attenuating measures shall be submitted to and agreed in writing by the County
Planning Authority. The scheme shall specify the provisions to be made for the control of
noise emanating from any plant, equipment, vehicles, generators, reversing systems and
compressors. The scheme shall include the housing of the high-speed shredder and
granulator or equivalent machinery in an acoustic enclosure as detailed in the Environmental
Statement submitted with the application. The approved scheme shall be implemented for
the duration of the development’.


7.1.2   Revised Proposal
It is proposed that the crushing operations will be undertaken externally within the eastern
yard area during the daytime. It is also proposed to extend the external working hours from
20:00 to 22:00, when the doors to the Forge building may remain open to accept deliveries
of waste. In addition, it is proposed that working within the building will continue 24 hours per
day from 05.30 Monday until midnight on Saturday. The doors to the Forge building will be
closed during the night; from 22:00 until external operations commence at the current
starting time of 05:30. External operations, including waste delivery will be 05.30-22.00
Monday to Friday and 05.30-17.30 on Saturdays with aggregate crushing from 07:00-17.30.
This assessment considers the noise impact of the revised proposed development.


7.1.3   Limitations
This assessment focuses on the impact of noise from the proposed new activities and, as
agreed during discussions with Wyre Forest District Council (WFDC), the assessment is
based on previously monitored background noise levels. It considers the potential noise
impact from proposed activities in the yard area to the east of The Forge building and from
works within the building in addition to current operations.




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7.2        Scope and Assessment Methodology

7.2.1      Scope of the Assessment
The location of the crusher & shredder externally within the eastern yard requires
consideration of potentially sensitive residential receptors to the east of the site. Previous
background noise measurements reported in the 2007 ES are still considered relevant.


7.2.2      Assessment Methodology
Noise predictions have been undertaken for the selected receptors by applying the
prediction method of ISO 9613. The location of the plant in the eastern yard is shown in
Figure 7.2. The 4 m high compost windrows are included in the model as they will be a semi-
permanent feature in the yard.

The noise impact assessment has been undertaken in accordance with the principles of
BS 414212, which sets out a method to assess whether noise from factories, industrial
premises or fixed installations is likely to give rise to complaints from noise-sensitive
receptors in the vicinity. The procedure contained in BS 4142 for assessing the likelihood of
complaint is to compare the predicted noise level from the sources in question, immediately
outside the dwelling, the LAeq,T ‘specific’ noise level, with the LA90,T ‘background’ noise level.

Where the noise contains a ‘distinguishable discrete continuous note (whine, hiss, screech,
hum etc.) or if there are distinct impulses in the noise (bangs, clicks, clatters or thumps), or if
the noise is irregular enough to attract ‘attention’ then a correction of +5 dB is added to the
specific noise level to obtain the LAr,Tr ‘rating’ noise level.

The likelihood of the noise giving rise to complaints is assessed by subtracting the
background noise level from the rating noise level. BS 4142 states ‘A difference of around
10 dB or higher indicates that complaints are likely. A difference of around 5 dB is of
marginal significance. A difference of minus 10 dB is a positive indication that complaints are
unlikely.’

The Environmental Health Department (EHD) of Wyre Forest District Council (WFDC) was
consulted and they have not identified any specific concerns with regard to the location of
the MRF in what is predominantly an industrial area. On this basis, a noise criterion of no
more than 5 dB(A) above the existing measured background level has been adopted against
which to assess any potential future impact.


7.3        Existing Noise Conditions
The proposed development site is located on Stourport Road, approximately 2.5 km to the
south of Kidderminster town centre at National Grid Reference 382000, 273700 (refer to
Figure 7.1). The eastern site boundary is formed by the Staffordshire and Worcestershire
Canal, whilst the western boundary is formed by Stourport Road.


12
     British Standard 4142: 1997, Method for rating industrial noise affecting mixed residential and
     industrial areas, HMSO

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                                                                                 Forge Recycling




The proposed external operation of mobile crushing plant will be undertaken in the yard area
to the east of the main site building. The eastward limit of crushing and material storage
activities will be demarcated by marker posts set at a distance c.100 m from the north-
eastern site boundary and c.70 m from the south-eastern site boundary (refer to Figure 7.2).
This eastward limit of crushing and material storage activities comprises the ‘operational
boundary’.

The site is located in a predominantly industrial setting, with industrial sites located on the
western side of Stourport Road, Hoo Farm and Wilden Industrial Estates to the east and Firs
Industrial Estate immediately to the south of the site. Residential properties are located
adjacent to Wilden Lane, approximately 600 m to the east of the site, and adjacent to
Waycroft and Walter Nash Road West, approximately 550 m to the west of the site.

The intervening land between the eastern site boundary and Wilden Lane is occupied by the
Wilden Marsh and Meadows Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), which comprises a
relatively flat floodplain associated with the River Stour. The intervening land between the
western site boundary and Waycroft is occupied by the A451 Stourport Road, industrial
properties and Vicarage Farm Heath (dense woodland). Given the surrounding land uses
and topography, it is considered that noise generated by operations at the Forge Recycling
centre is more likely to propagate towards the residential receptors to the east than to the
west. In addition, the proposed external operations in the eastern section of the site include
aggregate crushing, where as the primary noise source to the west is likely to be traffic noise
from Stourport Road. Consequently, for the purposes of this assessment, the residential
properties located 600 m to the east of the eastern site boundary (650 m east of the
operational boundary) are considered to be the nearest sensitive receptors to site.
Receptors located on Hopton Drive, Wilden Lane/Hillary Road, Wilden Industrial Estate,
Marsh Farm and The Slad housing estate (refer to Figure 7.1).

Noise measurements were previously undertaken on 21st April 2009 and are reproduced
here. Measurements were taken at the noise-sensitive receptors nearest to the east of the
site to determine typical background noise levels against which to base the assessment. The
results are shown below in Table 7.1. The noise measurement positions, together with
National Grid References (NGRs) for each position are described below and presented in
Figure 7.1:

 •    Measurement Position 1 – National Grid Reference (NGR): 383162, 274201.
      Measurements were undertaken at the entrance to Hopton Drive, located c.1 km to the
      north-east of the operational boundary;

 •    Measurement Position 2 – NGR: 382779, 273228. Noise measurements were
      undertaken at the junction of Wilden Lane and Hillary Road representative of western
      facing properties nearby. This location is closest to the site and has no intervening
      structures or obstacles to future noise propagation from the site; and

 •    Measurement Position 3 – NGR: 382475, 272509. Measurements were undertaken
      to the east of Wilden Industrial Estate, located c.1 km to the south-east of the
      operational boundary.


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                                                       Forge Recycling




Figure 7.1: Noise Measurement Positions




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                                                                                  Forge Recycling




Table 7.1: Free-field Recorded Measurement Results, dB
Measurement Position                  Period               Start Time       LAeq,T       LA90,T
1 Hopton Drive                        Early Morning           04:02          65.9        43.8

                                      Daytime                 12:22          73.7        51.5

                                      Early Evening           19:31          72.8        45.6

2 Wilden Ln / Hillary Rd              Early Morning           04:30          66.9        50.2

                                      Daytime                 11:45          70.6        49.6

                                      Early Evening           18:39          69.5        50.5

3 Wilden Ind Est                      Early Morning           04:49          62.5        41.7

                                      Daytime                 12:39          67.6        48.6

                                      Early Evening           19:05          64.6        43.1



7.4     Noise Impact Assessment
Source noise data for the ‘Metrotrak’ jaw-crusher, ‘Vermeer HG6000’ shredder (or similar)
and ‘Warrior’ screening plant as well as vehicles (26 arrivals and 26 leaving in an hour) are
detailed in Table 7.4 and were included in the daytime model only. The building is of single
skin cladding with roller shutter doors for vehicle access which are kept open throughout the
day (up to 20:00 at present with the proposal to keep them open until 22:00). Reverberant
noise levels were measured within the building and they were also calculated from the noise
data within BS 5228 for the plant operational at night (with no time correction) of a wheeled
excavator, a tracked excavator a telehandler and a loader as shown in Tables 7.5 and 7.6.
The higher of the two levels (the calculated one) was used in the noise model. The daytime
model was for all vehicle access doors open and the night time model was for them all
closed. The model is shown in Figure 7.3 with receptors at the three noise monitoring
positions, Marsh Farm and The Slad housing estate. For the Marsh Farm and The Slad
receptors, background noise was assumed to be the same as the nearest monitoring
locations.

Separate assessments have been undertaken for the daytime (external operations in the
east yard from 07:00 to 22:00 to include the extension of the current evening activity from
20:00 to 22:00) and night-time from 22:00 hours to 05:30 hours (for all operations within the
building and all doors closed). The current operations start at 05:30 and do not need to be
assessed as they remain unaltered.

The basis of the assessment is to compare existing background levels with the specific
noise levels. The calculations are for free-field noise levels at noise sensitive receptors. The
predicted specific noise levels at the receptors are presented in Tables 7.2 and 7.3. The
receptors are representative of the most affected noise sensitive properties.

The results of the BS 4142 assessments are presented in the tables below.

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                                                                                       Forge Recycling




Table 7.2: Noise from the Forge
                                                    Day                               Night
                                                   LAeq,1hr                         LAeq,5min
Position 1. Hopton Drive                            41.6                              20.2
Position 2. Wilden Ln/Hillary Rd                    43.9                              23.5
Position 3. Wilden Ind Est                          37.9                              18.9
Position 4. Marsh Farm                              45.3                              24.1
Position 5. The Slad                                40.3                              19.7




Table 7.3 Assessment to BS 4142
Day time, Tr = 60 min up to 22:00 when external operations finish
                           Specific   Character       Rating   Background   Assessment
                                                                                                Conclusion
                            noise     correction      Level       LA90         Level
Position 1.                                                                                     Complaints
Hopton Drive                 41.6         5            46.6       45.6          1
                                                                                                Not Likely
Position 2.                                                                                     Complaints
Wilden Ln/Hillary Rd         43.9         5            48.9       50.5         -1.6
                                                                                                Not Likely
Position 3.                                                                                     Complaints
Wilden Ind Est               37.9         5            42.9       43.1         -0.2
                                                                                                Not Likely
Position 4.
Marsh Farm
                             45.3         5            50.3       45.6         4.7              Marginal

Position 5.                                                                                     Complaints
The Slad                     40.3         5            45.3       43.1         2.2
                                                                                                Not Likely
Night time, Tr = 5 min, no external operations
                           Specific   Character       Rating   Background   Assessment
                                                                                                Conclusion
                            noise     correction      Level       LA90         Level
Position 1.                                                                                     Complaints
Hopton Drive                 20.2         5            25.2       43.8        -18.6
                                                                                                Not Likely
Position 2.                                                                                     Complaints
Wilden Ln/Hillary Rd         23.5         5            28.5       50.2        -21.7
                                                                                                Not Likely
Position 3.                                                                                     Complaints
Wilden Ind Est               18.9         5            23.9       41.7        -17.8
                                                                                                Not Likely
Position 4.                                                                                     Complaints
Marsh Farm                   24.1         5            29.1       43.8        -14.7
                                                                                                Not Likely
Position 5.                                                                                     Complaints
The Slad                     19.7         5            24.7       41.7         -17
                                                                                                Not Likely



The results of the above assessments indicate a rating noise level, as determined in
accordance with BS 4142, that will meet the adopted noise criterion at each of the
noise sensitive receptors considered during all periods of the day and night of 5 dB(A) above
the existing measured background level.


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7.5     Conclusion
The results of the assessment, undertaken in accordance with BS 4142 demonstrate that
locating the crushing facilities externally will meet the adopted noise criterion of 5 dB(A)
above the existing measured background level at each of the noise-sensitive receptors
considered during the day and evening. Operations within the building at night also meet the
adopted criterion.

Whilst the results of the noise assessment do not identify the need for additional mitigation
measures to be considered, it is recommended that alternatives to the conventional
reversing beepers are fitted to all vehicles working in the crushing area. Overall, the impact
of the proposed development in terms of Noise is considered to be minor-negative.




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                                                                                                                             Forge Recycling




Table 7.4: Noise Emission Data
Previous Measurement On 27 Oct
                                                 63       125      250           500      1000      2000      4000       8000         dBA
2008
Shredder (Vermeer HG6000) &
                                                83.6     94.6     82.8          84.5      81.8      80.5      77.8       74.7        109.5
Backactor at 14 metres
Sound Power Levels
                                                 63       125      250           500      1000      2000      4000       8000         dBA
Crusher                                        111.9    108.1    105.5         103.9     103.5     103.4     101.4       91.6          106
Warrior Screens                                106.1    104.6     99.6         101.9     100.1      99.7      97.4       91.4        106.0
Loader in East Yard                             115       110      105           106       101        98        92         85          107
Truck Arriving                                  75.1     72.0     71.2          65.6      67.5      68.0      61.3       56.7
Truck Leaving                                   86.8     75.1     77.0          73.8      76.7      74.5      66.3       62.6
20 m from unloading operations                  83.5     73.3     70.3          67.2        76      66.9      58.6       49.9
Building SRI
Roller Shutter Doors Closed (0 When Open)                   5        8            13        18        22        17         16           16
20SWG Profiled Steel Cladding (Walls & Roof)                5        8            14        29        26        32         36           36


Table 7.5: Measured Noise Levels
Location                                    63.0 Hz    125 Hz   250 Hz        500 Hz   1000 Hz   2000 Hz   4000 Hz   8000 Hz      Total A
Internal noise at far end of building;
                                                68.6     72.6     76.5          75.7        73      69.7      63.7       53.4         77.6
Bay 1
Internal noise at far end of building;
                                                 67        68     70.1          68.1      67.5      63.7      56.2         46         71.3
Bay 1 – with less activity in this area

Internal noise at far end of building;          70.1     73.9     75.2          72.7      68.9        63      56.1       45.8         73.7


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                                                                                                                                Forge Recycling




Table 7.5: Measured Noise Levels
Location                                   63.0 Hz   125 Hz    250 Hz         500 Hz    1000 Hz    2000 Hz    4000 Hz   8000 Hz      Total A
Bay 2 / 3


Table 7.6: Calculated Noise Levels1
BS5228 data                                          63.0 Hz   125 Hz         250 Hz     500 Hz    1000 Hz    2000 Hz   4000 Hz      8000 Hz
                                  LAeq at 10m            77        65             67         67         63         61         57           47
                                  Sound
Tracked Excavator
                                  Power Level           105        93             95         95         91         89         85           75
                                  (SWL)

                                  LAeq at 10m            74        66             64         64         63         60         59           50
Wheeled Excavator
                                  SWL                   102        94             92         92         91         88         87           78
                                  LAeq at 10m            75        79             77         77         74         71         65           57
Bulldozer
                                  SWL                   103       107            105        105        102         99         93           85
                                  LAeq at 10m            79        73             66         65         78         66         54           47
Telehandler
                                  SWL                   107       101             94         93        106         94         82           75
Total                             SWL                  110.7     108.3          105.9      105.8      107.6     100.7       94.7         86.5
                                       2
Reverberant noise level calculations

Objects (within the hall)
total object A m2 (recycling                            225       300            365        400        375        320        300         300
material heaps)
surfaces
Absorption coefficient            walls                 0.05       0.1            0.3        0.3        0.1       0.1         0.2         0.2
Absorption coefficient            ceiling               0.05       0.1            0.3        0.3        0.1       0.1         0.2         0.2


65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                                               66
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd                                                                                                  Environmental Statement
                                                                                                                                  Forge Recycling




Absorption coefficient                   floor                   0.01     0.01          0.01     0.02     0.02     0.02       0.03         0.03
                        2
total surfaces A, m                                             1266     2394          6906     7044     2533     2533        4927         4927
Air
Metres                                   Neper/m                   0    0.0001        0.0002   0.0005   0.0007   0.0014     0.0044       0.0158
total volume                             221400
          2
A air, m                                                           0       89           177      443      620     1240        3897        13992
                    2
Overall total A, m                                              1491     2783          7448     7887     3527     4092        9123        19219
reverberation time, sec                                          23.8     12.7           4.8      4.5     10.0      8.7         3.9         1.8
Sound Power Level, dB                    SWL                    110.7    108.3         105.9    105.8    107.6    100.7       94.7         86.5
Reverberant noise level, dB                                      85.0     79.9          73.2     72.9     78.2     70.6       61.1         49.7
1
    Height 16 m, Length 205 m and Width 68 m
2
    Absorption calculated to DraftEN12354-6AbsorptionCalc.pdf

Notes:
      •    Walls    8,720 m2
      •    Ceiling 13,837.5 m2
      •    Floors   13837.5 m2




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3                                                       67
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd               Environmental Statement
                                               Forge Recycling




Figure 7.2: Eastern yard layout




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3        68
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd            Environmental Statement
                                            Forge Recycling



Figure 7.3: IMMI noise model




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3     69
Lawrence’s Skip Hire Ltd          Environmental Statement
                                          Forge Recycling




65-C10555_2011 ES Issue: 3   70

				
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