LYNDON JOHNSON by yaoyufang

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									LYNDON JOHNSON
 THE GREAT SOCIETY SLIPS AWAY
     EXPERIENCE
o Johnson came to office with
  more political experience than
  any previous president
  o Aide to Congress
  o Congressman
  o Senator
  o Majority Leader
  o Vice President
o Southerner (from Texas),
  protestant, great politician
             LBJ
o He will move for consensus.
o He will appoint Chief Justice
  Warren to oversee the
  investigation into JFK’s
  assassination.
o He gets through legislation JFK
  could not.
o 1964: Civil Rights Act outlawing
  segregation in public places
o Now the federal government had
  power to fight school
  segregation and protect the
  black vote.
o EEOC was created. This
  prevented discrimination based
  on race, origin, gender or
  religion. “We are an equal
  opportunity employer.”
  WAR ON POVERTY
o LBJ declares an “unconditional war
  on poverty in America.”
o Spurred on by such books as Michael
  Harrington’s The Other America
  o Published in 1962, it claimed that 1/5 to ¼
    of Americans live in poverty.
  o 40 million lived in substandard housing
    and on subsistence diets.
  o These people had little hope, no
    education, no medical care, and few
    employment hopes
o $1 Billion was appropriated to
  get started.
o 1964: Economic Opportunity Act.
  Created the OEC:
  o The OEC coordinated Job Corps for
    the young
  o Vista: the domestic peace corps
  o Head Start: the compensatory
    preschool for the poor
       1964 ELECTION
o LBJ realizes the goal he thought
  he would never see, the
  presidency.
o Conservatives feared him and his
  Great Society.
  o William Buckley
  o Reader’s Digest.
  o John Birch Society
o Segregationist did not like LBJ.
o Northern blue collar did not want
  to compete for jobs.
SENATOR BARRY GOLDWATER(AZ)
   o GOP candidate
   o Suggested abolishing income
     tax, the TVA, unions, and Social
     Security.
   o He thought nuking Cuba and
     Vietnam were options.
   o Voted against Civil Rights
     THE RESULTS
o LBJ AND HUMPHREY wind a
  landslide
o Congress:295-140
o Senate: 68-32
o It is a mandate.
            1965
o 63 pieces of legislation go to this
  89th Congress, called the
  “congress of fulfillment.”
o Here is a portion of what they
  did.
          The list
o Medical Care Act: Medicare:
  medical insurance for the elderly
o Created the Department of
  Transportation
o Created the Department of
  Housing and Urban
  Development. Approved the
  appointment of Robert Weaver,
  the first black cabinet member.
o Created the National
  Endowment for Arts and
  Humanities; the NEH
o Created the Commission on
  Natural Beauty to lessen bill
  boards on federal highways.
o Secretary of the Interior and
  Congress stopped the damning
  of the Grand Canyon; yes, the
  Grand Canyon. There were
  bulldozers in the base of the
  canyon.
o Elementary and Secondary
  Education Act
o Voting Rights Act
o Omnibus Housing Act: $8 Billion
  for public housing
o Immigration Act: eliminated the
  1924 quotas.
o Appalachian Regional
  Development Act. $10 Billion in
  highway construction and health
  centers.
o The Higher Education Act:
  scholarships and low interest loans.
o 1966:
  o Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan
    Act: housing, rec centers, mass transit.
  o Motor Safety Act: safety standards and
    uniform tire grades
  o Truth in Packaging Act: fed control over
    labeling and packaging of foods, drugs,
    cosmetics, and household supplies.
         REALITY
o The Great Society could not
  keep up with Vietnam. We spent
  20 times more in Vietnam in 1966
  than our own programs.
o Riots erupted in urban areas in
  poor areas despite the “War on
  Poverty.”
     Warren Court
o Brown v. Board of Education:
  desegregated schools
o Engel v. Vitale (1962): prayer in
  public school
o Arlington v. Schemp (1963): the
  Bible in public school
o Gideon v. Wainright (1963): right
  to council
o NY Times v. Sullivan (1964):
  seditious libel.
o Miranda v. Arizona (1966): “you
  have the right to remain silent…”
o Loving v. Virginia (1967): mixed
  marriage bans
o Katzenbach v. Morgan (1968):
  literacy tests.
VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965
   o This followed the Miss. Freedom
     Summer Program: lead by Stockley
     Carmichael and SNCC, these young
     people, (including James Meredith
     who would be shot while walking on
     the roadside. This turned into a
     freedom march to the capital of
     Mississippi.
   o It became a tale of beatings,
     kidnaps, murders, harassment,
     bombings, the Klan and the police.
o The Miss. Freedom Democratic
  Party was formed. Its symbol was
  a black panther.
o 60,00 voters were registered and
  many were educated about the
  process in the freedom schools.
o Stockley will emerge bitter and
  inspired by Malcolm X. He will
  become the spokesman for the
  Black Pride movement.
o IN SELMA, ALABAMA, the SCLC
  lead voter registration. This was
  MLK’s wing.
o Blacks made up 50% of the
  population but only 1% of the
  registered voters.
o Jim Clark was the sheriff of Selma
  and he attacked those trying to
  register.
o The nation was outraged.
o The Voting Rights Act followed.
o It will transform the southern vote and
  politics.
o Federal examiners came in and
  registered qualified voters. The
  suspended literacy tests; in some
  areas.
o In 1964, the 24th Amendment was
  ratified outlawing poll tax in federal
  elections.
  o In 1966, the Supreme Court extended this
    protection to all elections.
o To illustrate the impact: in
  Mississippi, black voter
  registration climbed from 6% to
  59%.
o Segregationist either modified
  their position or were voted out.
LONG HOT SUMMERS
o Beginning on August 11, 1965
  and extending for 5 days after
  the Voting Rights Act was
  passed, whites and blacks
  confronted each other in the
  streets.
o Watts, in the Los Angeles area
  was one of the worst. It was
  majority black neighborhood.
o 50,000 rioted. There was looting,
  fire bombed, and death.
o Chicago followed.
o Springfield, Massachusetts
  coincided.
           1966
o In the ghettos in 1966, riots
  continued, mostly in protest of
  poverty versus race.
o 150 racial outbreaks, and 40 riots
  broke out that summer.
o In Newark, New Jersey, a city
  with the highest unemployment
  rate in the country, 5 days of
  rioting tore apart the city.
o In Detroit, some of the worst
  rioting took place. 45 die. 1,000
  were wounded. $50 million in
  damage was done.
     ASSASINATIONS
o Mixed into this tension and turmoil
  were the assassination of JFK in 1963.
o Malcolm X was gunned down by the
  Nation of Islam in 1965.
o In 1968 MLK was shot by an escaped
  convict in Memphis.
  o 125 cities saw riots.
  o In Chicago, Mayor Daley told police to
    “kill the arsonists.”
  o 46 died.
o Between 1964-68: $200 million in
  property damage, 40,000 arrested,
  7,000 injured, and 200 died in riots.
    BLACK POWER
o Malcolm X began it. Segregated
  for the sake of African
  Americans.
o Stockley Carmichael defined it in
  broad terms. He actually coined
  those words.
o “Don’t try to love that honky to
  death, shoot him to death.”
o The Black Panthers followed:
  lead by Huey Newton and Bobby
  Seale.
o Headquartered in Oakland, the
  Panthers openly took on the
  police. They opened day care
  centers, health centers, robbed
  banks, shot police, and some
  died, some fled, some went to
  jail.
o The emergence of black song,
  black studies, black culture, and
  African food followed the mid
  1960s.
      THE IMPACT
o The movement spread to
  Indians.
o 50% of Indians lived on
  reservations.
o Ike’s termination policy tried to
  change that and assimilate
  Indians. For many it simply
  disrupted their lives.
o 1961, 67 tribes met in Chicago to
  sign a Declaration of Purposes.
o Later that year, they traveled to
  Washington to make the
  government aware that they had
  the:
  o Worst poverty
  o Highest rate of disease
  o Highest death rate
  o Poorest education
  o Poorest housing
o Of any group in the U.S.
o In 1968, LBJ will be the first
  president to ask for federal aide.
o IN 1968, Indians demanded
  fishing rights be restored on the
  Columbia River.
o In 1969, they took over Alcatraz
  in protest.
o In 1969, the Chippewa Indians in
  Minnesota inaugurated AIM,
  American Indian Movement,
  arming these “patriots.”
       CHICANOS
o Inspired by the Civil Rights
  movement and Ceasar Chavez.
o Chavez was the founder of the
  United Farm Workers union,
  largely consisting of migrant farm
  workers.
o He used religion and non-
  violence to battle. The main
  weapon, boycott.
o They boycotted grapes and
  lettuce and caused change
o Young Mexican Americans
  followed SNCC’s lead.
o They called themselves
  Chicanos, a term of respect.
o A push was made for bilingual
  education, bicultural education,
  and courses at colleges.
o The Chicano pride movement
  lead to the development of La
  Raza in Texas, Crusade for
  Justice in Colorado, and Brown
  Berets in California.
FEMENIST MOVEMENT
o The President Commission on the
  Status of Woman, under JFK,
  reported in 1963 that woman
  faced sexual discrimination in
  employment, occupational
  opportunities, and education.
o The earned less pay for equal
  work.
o They made up 51% of the
  population but only 7% of
  doctors and 6% of lawyers.
o NOW founded when government
  efforts fell short. National
  Organization of Women.
o The roots are in Betty Freiden’s
  work.
o A powerful catalyst: the anti-
  Vietnam protest.
  o They gained confidence
  o They suffered injustice from the
    men in the protest movement
  o They felt exploited, at times
    reduced to doing the typing and
    the wash.
o The NOW organization took on
  Marxist theory and civil rights.
o Sexism became a term
o Women burned bras, high heels,
  and curlers
o They invaded male
  establishments such as bars,
  clubs and schools.
o 1970: women made up 40% of all
  workers.

								
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