LYNDON JOHNSON THE GREAT SOCIETY SLIPS AWAY EXPERIENCE o Johnson came to office with more political experience than any previous president o Aide to Congress o Congressman o Senator o Majority Leader o Vice President o Southerner (from Texas), protestant, great politician LBJ o He will move for consensus. o He will appoint Chief Justice Warren to oversee the investigation into JFK’s assassination. o He gets through legislation JFK could not. o 1964: Civil Rights Act outlawing segregation in public places o Now the federal government had power to fight school segregation and protect the black vote. o EEOC was created. This prevented discrimination based on race, origin, gender or religion. “We are an equal opportunity employer.” WAR ON POVERTY o LBJ declares an “unconditional war on poverty in America.” o Spurred on by such books as Michael Harrington’s The Other America o Published in 1962, it claimed that 1/5 to ¼ of Americans live in poverty. o 40 million lived in substandard housing and on subsistence diets. o These people had little hope, no education, no medical care, and few employment hopes o $1 Billion was appropriated to get started. o 1964: Economic Opportunity Act. Created the OEC: o The OEC coordinated Job Corps for the young o Vista: the domestic peace corps o Head Start: the compensatory preschool for the poor 1964 ELECTION o LBJ realizes the goal he thought he would never see, the presidency. o Conservatives feared him and his Great Society. o William Buckley o Reader’s Digest. o John Birch Society o Segregationist did not like LBJ. o Northern blue collar did not want to compete for jobs. SENATOR BARRY GOLDWATER(AZ) o GOP candidate o Suggested abolishing income tax, the TVA, unions, and Social Security. o He thought nuking Cuba and Vietnam were options. o Voted against Civil Rights THE RESULTS o LBJ AND HUMPHREY wind a landslide o Congress:295-140 o Senate: 68-32 o It is a mandate. 1965 o 63 pieces of legislation go to this 89th Congress, called the “congress of fulfillment.” o Here is a portion of what they did. The list o Medical Care Act: Medicare: medical insurance for the elderly o Created the Department of Transportation o Created the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Approved the appointment of Robert Weaver, the first black cabinet member. o Created the National Endowment for Arts and Humanities; the NEH o Created the Commission on Natural Beauty to lessen bill boards on federal highways. o Secretary of the Interior and Congress stopped the damning of the Grand Canyon; yes, the Grand Canyon. There were bulldozers in the base of the canyon. o Elementary and Secondary Education Act o Voting Rights Act o Omnibus Housing Act: $8 Billion for public housing o Immigration Act: eliminated the 1924 quotas. o Appalachian Regional Development Act. $10 Billion in highway construction and health centers. o The Higher Education Act: scholarships and low interest loans. o 1966: o Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Act: housing, rec centers, mass transit. o Motor Safety Act: safety standards and uniform tire grades o Truth in Packaging Act: fed control over labeling and packaging of foods, drugs, cosmetics, and household supplies. REALITY o The Great Society could not keep up with Vietnam. We spent 20 times more in Vietnam in 1966 than our own programs. o Riots erupted in urban areas in poor areas despite the “War on Poverty.” Warren Court o Brown v. Board of Education: desegregated schools o Engel v. Vitale (1962): prayer in public school o Arlington v. Schemp (1963): the Bible in public school o Gideon v. Wainright (1963): right to council o NY Times v. Sullivan (1964): seditious libel. o Miranda v. Arizona (1966): “you have the right to remain silent…” o Loving v. Virginia (1967): mixed marriage bans o Katzenbach v. Morgan (1968): literacy tests. VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 o This followed the Miss. Freedom Summer Program: lead by Stockley Carmichael and SNCC, these young people, (including James Meredith who would be shot while walking on the roadside. This turned into a freedom march to the capital of Mississippi. o It became a tale of beatings, kidnaps, murders, harassment, bombings, the Klan and the police. o The Miss. Freedom Democratic Party was formed. Its symbol was a black panther. o 60,00 voters were registered and many were educated about the process in the freedom schools. o Stockley will emerge bitter and inspired by Malcolm X. He will become the spokesman for the Black Pride movement. o IN SELMA, ALABAMA, the SCLC lead voter registration. This was MLK’s wing. o Blacks made up 50% of the population but only 1% of the registered voters. o Jim Clark was the sheriff of Selma and he attacked those trying to register. o The nation was outraged. o The Voting Rights Act followed. o It will transform the southern vote and politics. o Federal examiners came in and registered qualified voters. The suspended literacy tests; in some areas. o In 1964, the 24th Amendment was ratified outlawing poll tax in federal elections. o In 1966, the Supreme Court extended this protection to all elections. o To illustrate the impact: in Mississippi, black voter registration climbed from 6% to 59%. o Segregationist either modified their position or were voted out. LONG HOT SUMMERS o Beginning on August 11, 1965 and extending for 5 days after the Voting Rights Act was passed, whites and blacks confronted each other in the streets. o Watts, in the Los Angeles area was one of the worst. It was majority black neighborhood. o 50,000 rioted. There was looting, fire bombed, and death. o Chicago followed. o Springfield, Massachusetts coincided. 1966 o In the ghettos in 1966, riots continued, mostly in protest of poverty versus race. o 150 racial outbreaks, and 40 riots broke out that summer. o In Newark, New Jersey, a city with the highest unemployment rate in the country, 5 days of rioting tore apart the city. o In Detroit, some of the worst rioting took place. 45 die. 1,000 were wounded. $50 million in damage was done. ASSASINATIONS o Mixed into this tension and turmoil were the assassination of JFK in 1963. o Malcolm X was gunned down by the Nation of Islam in 1965. o In 1968 MLK was shot by an escaped convict in Memphis. o 125 cities saw riots. o In Chicago, Mayor Daley told police to “kill the arsonists.” o 46 died. o Between 1964-68: $200 million in property damage, 40,000 arrested, 7,000 injured, and 200 died in riots. BLACK POWER o Malcolm X began it. Segregated for the sake of African Americans. o Stockley Carmichael defined it in broad terms. He actually coined those words. o “Don’t try to love that honky to death, shoot him to death.” o The Black Panthers followed: lead by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. o Headquartered in Oakland, the Panthers openly took on the police. They opened day care centers, health centers, robbed banks, shot police, and some died, some fled, some went to jail. o The emergence of black song, black studies, black culture, and African food followed the mid 1960s. THE IMPACT o The movement spread to Indians. o 50% of Indians lived on reservations. o Ike’s termination policy tried to change that and assimilate Indians. For many it simply disrupted their lives. o 1961, 67 tribes met in Chicago to sign a Declaration of Purposes. o Later that year, they traveled to Washington to make the government aware that they had the: o Worst poverty o Highest rate of disease o Highest death rate o Poorest education o Poorest housing o Of any group in the U.S. o In 1968, LBJ will be the first president to ask for federal aide. o IN 1968, Indians demanded fishing rights be restored on the Columbia River. o In 1969, they took over Alcatraz in protest. o In 1969, the Chippewa Indians in Minnesota inaugurated AIM, American Indian Movement, arming these “patriots.” CHICANOS o Inspired by the Civil Rights movement and Ceasar Chavez. o Chavez was the founder of the United Farm Workers union, largely consisting of migrant farm workers. o He used religion and non- violence to battle. The main weapon, boycott. o They boycotted grapes and lettuce and caused change o Young Mexican Americans followed SNCC’s lead. o They called themselves Chicanos, a term of respect. o A push was made for bilingual education, bicultural education, and courses at colleges. o The Chicano pride movement lead to the development of La Raza in Texas, Crusade for Justice in Colorado, and Brown Berets in California. FEMENIST MOVEMENT o The President Commission on the Status of Woman, under JFK, reported in 1963 that woman faced sexual discrimination in employment, occupational opportunities, and education. o The earned less pay for equal work. o They made up 51% of the population but only 7% of doctors and 6% of lawyers. o NOW founded when government efforts fell short. National Organization of Women. o The roots are in Betty Freiden’s work. o A powerful catalyst: the anti- Vietnam protest. o They gained confidence o They suffered injustice from the men in the protest movement o They felt exploited, at times reduced to doing the typing and the wash. o The NOW organization took on Marxist theory and civil rights. o Sexism became a term o Women burned bras, high heels, and curlers o They invaded male establishments such as bars, clubs and schools. o 1970: women made up 40% of all workers.
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