1932 presidential election by nuhman10

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									                                               Franklin Delano
                                               Roosevelt
                                               Born in 1882 into a rich
                                               family, you were an only
                                               child who was pampered by
                                               your mother. You were
                                               educated at home by private
                                               tutors until you were
                                               fourteen, then you went to a
                                               famous public school called
                                               Groton , and after that to
                                               Harvard, America’s top
                                               university.

                                                After finishing your studies
in History and law, you decided to enter politics. You became a Senator
in 1910. During the Great War of 1914-18 you had an important post in
government, helping to run the American navy. After the war you stood
for election as Vice-President in the elections of 1920. Although you lost
the election, you had made a name for yourself and seemed to have a
promising political future ahead of you.

In 1921 your political career was shattered when you caught a terrible
disease, Polio. There was no cure for Polio then, and it almost killed you.
When you regained consciousness, you were paralysed from the waist
down.

You spent the next five years of your life fighting against paralysis. You
Later wrote: ‘I spent two years in bed trying to move my big toe’.
Gradually you learned to sit up in bed. Then, with metal struts attached
to your legs, you managed to walk short distances on crutches. By 1928
you had recovered enough to go back to politics. You stood for election
for the important post of governor of New York State, and won.

While you were governor of New York State, you believed your main
task was to make life better for ordinary people. You worked to provide
old age pensions, help for farmers, and some unemployment relief. When
the Depression began to affect New York State, you spent $20 million of
tax money on helping the unemployed. You were the first Governor in
any state to use tax money in this way.
In the campaign leading up to the 1932 presidential election, you were
vague about what you would do about the economic depression, but you
made it clear that you believed that it was the responsibility of the
government to do something about it.

These are some of the things you said:
 ‘These unhappy times call for the building of plans … that put their
  faith once more in the forgotten man at the bottom of the economic
  pyramid’.

 ‘We have two problems: first to meet the immediate distress; second,
  to build up on a basis of permanent employment.

   As to immediate relief, the first principle is that this nation, this
   national government, if you like, owes a positive duty that no citizen
   shall be permitted to starve.

   In addition to providing emergency relief, the Federal Government
   should and must provide temporary work wherever that is possible.
   You and I know that in the national forests, on flood prevention, and
   on the development of waterway projects that have already been
   authorised and planned but not yet executed, tens of thousands, and
   even hundreds of thousands of our unemployed citizens can be given
   at least temporary employment’.

    ‘I pledge you, I pledge myself to a New Deal for the American
     people’ (2nd July 1932).
    ‘This [Hoovers belated actions to solve the Depression] has been
     unable to do more than put temporary patches on a leaking roof
     without any attempt to put a new roof on our economic structure’.
      (6th October, 1932)

   As well as promising to tackle the Depression, you promised that
   Prohibition, the anti-alcohol law would be repealed if you became
   President.
Herbet Hoover
Born in 1874, you were orphaned at the age of eight. You were brought
up by two uncles and you worked for one of them as an office boy after
leaving school.

At the age of eighteen, you went o university to study mine engineering.
After graduating from university you worked as a gold miner, earning $2
a day for a ten hour night shift, seven days a week.

Gradually, you save money and gained promotion to the job of assistant
mining engineer. The at the age of twenty five you left America to work
in the gold mines of Australia.

For the nest fifteen years you travelled the world working as a mining
engineer in dozens of countries. By the age of forty you were a
multimillionaire and you were able to retire from engineering in order to
take up politics.

Your main political belief is that the American government should not
interfere in people’s lives. You believe that America had become rich
because people had worked hard and made money through their own
individual efforts. You call this ‘ the American system of rugged
individualism’.

In 1928 you stood for election as President and won easily. At that time,
America was the richest country in the world. Most Americans had jobs
and many were rich enough to buy luxuries such as radios, cars and
refrigerators. You believed that all Americans would soon be rich
enough to own luxuries. You said that the time would soon come when
there were ‘ two cars in every garage and a chicken in every pot’.

When the Depression hit America in 1929 you thought that it would last
only a few month and then life would return to normal. ‘Prosperity is just
around the corner’ you said to a group of businessmen. For this reason
you did not take action to end the depression until this year (1932) when
it was obvious that prosperity would not return by itself.

You have recently set up a Reconstruction Finance Corporation whose
job it is to lend money to companies with financial problems, in order to
stop them closing down. You are also making small loans to farmers and
creating some new jobs in a road building programme. If you remain as
President following this election you have promised that you will end
Prohibition.
A Bonus Army Veteran                                        25




You fought in the Great War of 1914-1918. The Government
promised you (and other veterans of the Great War) bonus
payments in 1945. By this summer (1932) you were living in
terrible poverty, so you demanded that your bonuses be paid
early.

During the summer you, along with veterans from all parts of
the country, made your way to Washington, the American
capital, to protest. You hijacked trains to get there and you
fought battles with the police who tried to stop you. When you
arrived in Washington you and about 20,000 other veterans set
up a Hooverville opposite the Whitehouse, the Home of the
American President.

Congress, the American Parliament, voted against paying you
your bonuses, but you and your fellow veterans (who now called
yourselves ‘The Bonus Army’) stayed in Washington to
continue your protest.

On the orders of President Hoover, four companies of infantry,
four troops of cavalry, a machine-gun squadron and six tanks
were employed to evict you from your Hooverville. The
soldiers succeeded in driving you away by firing tear-gas
grenades as they advanced. Two of your fellow veterans were
killed, and you, along with about 1000 others, were injured by
tear gas. Your Hooverville was then set on fire.
A Farmer from the Dustbowl                               20




The production of surplus food in the 1920’s resulted in a drop
in food prices and therefore in your income. You have been
struggling to make a living for a long time and have been unable
to sell your produce abroad due to the high tariffs which other
countries have put on to American goods coming into their
countries. Compared to many of your fellow farmers, however,
you have so far been lucky. Millions of them have already been
thrown off their land as they could not afford to repay their
mortgages.

The Great Depression, however, has hit you very hard. Food
prices are now so low that you are hardly able to make any
profit when you sell your crops at market. To make matters
worse, you live in Oklahoma, on the high plains of the Midwest.
Here the summers are very hot and dry and it is not unknown for
the blazing sun to scorch the earth and turn the land into a huge
‘Dust Bowl’ of loose, dry earth, on which it is impossible for
you to grow any crops at all. If this happens you will certainly
be ruined.
An unemployed ex-sharecropper living in Chicago 25




Three years ago, you lost your job as a sharecropper (farm
labourer) in South Carolina when the farmer you worked for got
into financial difficulties and was thrown off his land for being
unable to repay his mortgage. You tried to find similar work,
but had no success and eventually moved to Chicago, hoping for
a better life. By the time you arrived here, however, the Wall
Street Crash had taken place and you were just one of the twelve
million people in America looking for work. You found some
old wood, scrap metal and sacking on a rubbish dump and built
yourself a hut on a piece of waste land. You have been living in
this untidy, unhealthy ‘Hooverville’ for the past two years and,
as there is no government system of unemployment benefit, you
have had to rely on charity to stay alive. Every day, you join a
‘breadline’ to wait for free bread and soup provided by the
Salvation Army.
A supporter of Prohibition                                  15




Before the Great War, you were an active member of the Anti-
Saloon League, a religious organisation that wanted to ban drink
everywhere in America. When you were a child you had rarely
seen your father, who was a ‘slave of the saloon’. Your mother
had struggled to feed you and your brothers, as your father spent
nearly all of the family’s income on alcohol.

You were extremely pleased when your state banned alcohol in
1917 and overjoyed when Prohibition came into force across
America in January 1920. Although Prohibition has so far
failed to stop the sale and consumption of alcohol, you strongly
oppose the lifting of the ban. Instead, you want more officials
(Prohibition Agents) to enforce it, and a purge of the corrupt
officials in the police force and judiciary.
An unemployed mother with three children                      21




You are a married woman with three children, aged 8, 6 and 4.
You are unemployed and, although your husband is presently in
work, the company he works for is struggling and it seems likely
that he will be laid off soon. (You have heard that the number
of people out of work is going up by 12,000 every day). As
there is no national system of social security, you are extremely
worried about the future. If your husband loses his job you will
be unable to pay your rent and will be evicted. You may be
forced to set up home in a ‘Hooverville’ and to rely on charity to
survive.
A rich businessman who sold his shares before the
Wall Street Crash                                 15




You are a rich businessman who has always been a supporter of the
Republican Party. You made a lot of money from speculating on the
stock market in the 1920s. In March 1928, you invested a great deal of
money in General Electric, General Motors and United States Steel. The
value of your shares rose a great deal over the following year, but you
feared that their value was too high so you quietly sold the majority of
them in September 1929, making a tidy profit. Your fears proved well
founded – the following month share prices plummeted as people
panicked and hurried to sell their shares.
A businessperson from a struggling steel company 20




Only a few years ago your business was booming. The demand
for steel produced by the mass production of motor cars meant
that your company had plenty of work and was making a
healthy profit. You were able to expand your business and to
employ many more workers. However, once those who could
afford them had bought motor cars, the demand for them
dropped. You had to scale down your production and lay off
many of your workers. As your profits fell, so too did the value
of your company’s shares. The Wall Street Crash hit you very
badly, although you just managed to avoid going bankrupt. You
have been really struggling for the last three years, and although
you are very relieved that you have just been lent some money
by Hoover’s Reconstruction Finance Corporation, you are
unsure whether this will prove sufficient to ensure the long-term
survival of your company.
A Bonus Army Veteran                                       25




You fought in the Great War of 1914-1918. The Government
promised you (and other veterans of the Great War) bonus
payments in 1945. By this summer (1932) you were living in
terrible poverty, so you demanded that your bonuses be paid
early.

During the summer you, along with veterans from all parts of
the country, made your way to Washington, the American
capital, to protest. You hijacked trains to get there and you
fought battles with the police who tried to stop you. When you
arrived in Washington you and about 20,000 other veterans set
up a Hooverville opposite the Whitehouse, the Home of the
American President.

Congress, the American Parliament, voted against paying you
your bonuses, but you and your fellow veterans (who now called
yourselves ‘The Bonus Army’) stayed in Washington to
continue your protest.

On the orders of President Hoover, four companies of infantry,
four troops of cavalry, a machine-gun squadron and six tanks
were employed to evict you from your Hooverville. The
soldiers succeeded in driving you away by firing tear-gas
grenades as they advanced. Two of your fellow veterans were
killed, and you, along with about 1000 others, were injured by
tear gas. Your Hooverville was then set on fire.
A Farmer from the Dustbowl                                  20




The production of surplus food in the 1920’s resulted in a drop
in food prices and therefore in your income. You have been
struggling to make a living for a long time and have been unable
to sell your produce abroad due to the high tariffs which other
countries have put on to American goods coming into their
countries. Compared to many of your fellow farmers, however,
you have so far been lucky. Millions of them have already been
thrown off their land as they could not afford to repay their
mortgages.

The Great Depression, however, has hit you very hard. Food
prices are now so low that you are hardly able to make any
profit when you sell your crops at market. To make matters
worse, you live in Oklahoma, on the high plains of the Midwest.
Here the summers are very hot and dry and it is not unknown for
the blazing sun to scorch the earth and turn the land into a huge
‘Dust Bowl’ of loose, dry earth, on which it is impossible for
you to grow any crops at all. If this happens you will certainly
be ruined.
An unemployed ex-sharecropper living in Chicago 25




Three years ago, you lost your job as a sharecropper (farm
labourer) in South Carolina when the farmer you worked for got
into financial difficulties and was thrown off his land for being
unable to repay his mortgage. You tried to find similar work,
but had no success and eventually moved to Chicago, hoping for
a better life. By the time you arrived here, however, the Wall
Street Crash had taken place and you were just one of the twelve
million people in America looking for work. You found some
old wood, scrap metal and sacking on a rubbish dump and built
yourself a hut on a piece of waste land. You have been living in
this untidy, unhealthy ‘Hooverville’ for the past two years and,
as there is no government system of unemployment benefit, you
have had to rely on charity to stay alive. Every day, you join a
‘breadline’ to wait for free bread and soup provided by the
Salvation Army.
A supporter of Prohibition                                   15




Before the Great War, you were an active member of the Anti-
Saloon League, a religious organisation that wanted to ban drink
everywhere in America. When you were a child you had rarely
seen your father, who was a ‘slave of the saloon’. Your mother
had struggled to feed you and your brothers, as your father spent
nearly all of the family’s income on alcohol.

You were extremely pleased when your state banned alcohol in
1917 and overjoyed when Prohibition came into force across
America in January 1920. Although Prohibition has so far
failed to stop the sale and consumption of alcohol, you strongly
oppose the lifting of the ban. Instead, you want more officials
(Prohibition Agents) to enforce it, and a purge of the corrupt
officials in the police force and judiciary.
An unemployed mother with three children                      21




You are a married woman with three children, aged 8, 6 and 4.
You are unemployed and, although your husband is presently in
work, the company he works for is struggling and it seems likely
that he will be laid off soon. (You have heard that the number
of people out of work is going up by 12,000 every day). As
there is no national system of social security, you are extremely
worried about the future. If your husband loses his job you will
be unable to pay your rent and will be evicted. You may be
forced to set up home in a ‘Hooverville’ and to rely on charity to
survive.
A rich businessman who sold his shares before the
Wall Street Crash                                14




You are a rich businessman who has always been a supporter of the
Republican Party. You made a lot of money from speculating on the
stock market in the 1920s. In March 1928, you invested a great deal of
money in General Electric, General Motors and United States Steel. The
value of your shares rose a great deal over the following year, but you
feared that their value was too high so you quietly sold the majority of
them in September 1929, making a tidy profit. Your fears proved well
founded – the following month share prices plummeted as people
panicked and hurried to sell their shares.
A businessperson from a struggling steel company 20




Only a few years ago your business was booming. The demand
for steel produced by the mass production of motor cars meant
that your company had plenty of work and was making a
healthy profit. You were able to expand your business and to
employ many more workers. However, once those who could
afford them had bought motor cars, the demand for them
dropped. You had to scale down your production and lay off
many of your workers. As your profits fell, so too did the value
of your company’s shares. The Wall Street Crash hit you very
badly, although you just managed to avoid going bankrupt. You
have been really struggling for the last three years, and although
you are very relieved that you have just been lent some money
by Hoover’s Reconstruction Finance Corporation, you are
unsure whether this will prove sufficient to ensure the long-term
survival of your company.
A Bonus Army Veteran                                       15




You fought in the Great War of 1914-1918. The Government
promised you (and other veterans of the Great War) bonus
payments in 1945. By this summer (1932) you were living in
terrible poverty, so you demanded that your bonuses be paid
early.

During the summer you, along with veterans from all parts of
the country, made your way to Washington, the American
capital, to protest. You hijacked trains to get there and you
fought battles with the police who tried to stop you. When you
arrived in Washington you and about 20,000 other veterans set
up a Hooverville opposite the Whitehouse, the Home of the
American President.

Congress, the American Parliament, voted against paying you
your bonuses, but you and your fellow veterans (who now called
yourselves ‘The Bonus Army’) stayed in Washington to
continue your protest.

On the orders of President Hoover, four companies of infantry,
four troops of cavalry, a machine-gun squadron and six tanks
were employed to evict you from your Hooverville. The
soldiers succeeded in driving you away by firing tear-gas
grenades as they advanced. Two of your fellow veterans were
killed, and you, along with about 1000 others, were injured by
tear gas. Your Hooverville was then set on fire.
A Farmer from the Dustbowl                                  20




The production of surplus food in the 1920’s resulted in a drop
in food prices and therefore in your income. You have been
struggling to make a living for a long time and have been unable
to sell your produce abroad due to the high tariffs which other
countries have put on to American goods coming into their
countries. Compared to many of your fellow farmers, however,
you have so far been lucky. Millions of them have already been
thrown off their land as they could not afford to repay their
mortgages.

The Great Depression, however, has hit you very hard. Food
prices are now so low that you are hardly able to make any
profit when you sell your crops at market. To make matters
worse, you live in Oklahoma, on the high plains of the Midwest.
Here the summers are very hot and dry and it is not unknown for
the blazing sun to scorch the earth and turn the land into a huge
‘Dust Bowl’ of loose, dry earth, on which it is impossible for
you to grow any crops at all. If this happens you will certainly
be ruined.
An unemployed ex-sharecropper living in Chicago 20




Three years ago, you lost your job as a sharecropper (farm
labourer) in South Carolina when the farmer you worked for got
into financial difficulties and was thrown off his land for being
unable to repay his mortgage. You tried to find similar work,
but had no success and eventually moved to Chicago, hoping for
a better life. By the time you arrived here, however, the Wall
Street Crash had taken place and you were just one of the twelve
million people in America looking for work. You found some
old wood, scrap metal and sacking on a rubbish dump and built
yourself a hut on a piece of waste land. You have been living in
this untidy, unhealthy ‘Hooverville’ for the past two years and,
as there is no government system of unemployment benefit, you
have had to rely on charity to stay alive. Every day, you join a
‘breadline’ to wait for free bread and soup provided by the
Salvation Army.
A supporter of Prohibition                                   15




Before the Great War, you were an active member of the Anti-
Saloon League, a religious organisation that wanted to ban drink
everywhere in America. When you were a child you had rarely
seen your father, who was a ‘slave of the saloon’. Your mother
had struggled to feed you and your brothers, as your father spent
nearly all of the family’s income on alcohol.

You were extremely pleased when your state banned alcohol in
1917 and overjoyed when Prohibition came into force across
America in January 1920. Although Prohibition has so far
failed to stop the sale and consumption of alcohol, you strongly
oppose the lifting of the ban. Instead, you want more officials
(Prohibition Agents) to enforce it, and a purge of the corrupt
officials in the police force and judiciary.
An unemployed mother with three children                     21




You are a married woman with three children, aged 8, 6 and 4.
You are unemployed and, although your husband is presently in
work, the company he works for is struggling and it seems likely
that he will be laid off soon. (You have heard that the number
of people out of work is going up by 12,000 every day). As
there is no national system of social security, you are extremely
worried about the future. If your husband loses his job you will
be unable to pay your rent and will be evicted. You may be
forced to set up home in a ‘Hooverville’ and to rely on charity to
survive.
A rich businessman who sold his shares before the
Wall Street Crash                                 15




You are a rich businessman who has always been a supporter of the
Republican Party. You made a lot of money from speculating on the
stock market in the 1920s. In March 1928, you invested a great deal of
money in General Electric, General Motors and United States Steel. The
value of your shares rose a great deal over the following year, but you
feared that their value was too high so you quietly sold the majority of
them in September 1929, making a tidy profit. Your fears proved well
founded – the following month share prices plummeted as people
panicked and hurried to sell their shares.
A businessperson from a struggling steel company 20




Only a few years ago your business was booming. The demand
for steel produced by the mass production of motor cars meant
that your company had plenty of work and was making a
healthy profit. You were able to expand your business and to
employ many more workers. However, once those who could
afford them had bought motor cars, the demand for them
dropped. You had to scale down your production and lay off
many of your workers. As your profits fell, so too did the value
of your company’s shares. The Wall Street Crash hit you very
badly, although you just managed to avoid going bankrupt. You
have been really struggling for the last three years, and although
you are very relieved that you have just been lent some money
by Hoover’s Reconstruction Finance Corporation, you are
unsure whether this will prove sufficient to ensure the long-term
survival of your company.
A Bonus Army veteran
13

You fought in the Great War of 1914-1918. The Government
promised you (and other veterans of the Great War) bonus
payments in 1945. By this summer (1932) you were living in
terrible poverty, so you demanded that your bonuses be paid
early.

During the summer you, along with veterans from all parts of
the country, made your way to Washington, the American
capital, to protest. You hijacked trains to get there and you
fought battles with the police who tried to stop you. When you
arrived in Washington you and about 20,000 other veterans set
up a Hooverville opposite the Whitehouse, the Home of the
American President.

Congress, the American Parliament, voted against paying you
your bonuses, but you and your fellow veterans (who now called
yourselves ‘The Bonus Army’) stayed in Washington to
continue your protest.

On the orders of President Hoover, four companies of infantry,
four troops of cavalry, a machine-gun squadron and six tanks
were employed to evict you from your Hooverville. The
soldiers succeeded in driving you away by firing tear-gas
grenades as they advanced. Two of your fellow veterans were
killed, and you, along with about 1000 others, were injured by
tear gas. Your Hooverville was then set on fire.
A Farmer from the Dustbowl                                   19




The production of surplus food in the 1920’s resulted in a drop
in food prices and therefore in your income. You have been
struggling to make a living for a long time and have been unable
to sell your produce abroad due to the high tariffs which other
countries have put on to American goods coming into their
countries. Compared to many of your fellow farmers, however,
you have so far been lucky. Millions of them have already been
thrown off their land as they could not afford to repay their
mortgages.

The Great Depression, however, has hit you very hard. Food
prices are now so low that you are hardly able to make any
profit when you sell your crops at market. To make matters
worse, you live in Oklahoma, on the high plains of the Midwest.
Here the summers are very hot and dry and it is not unknown for
the blazing sun to scorch the earth and turn the land into a huge
‘Dust Bowl’ of loose, dry earth, on which it is impossible for
you to grow any crops at all. If this happens you will certainly
be ruined.
An unemployed ex-sharecropper living in Chicago 20




Three years ago, you lost your job as a sharecropper (farm
labourer) in South Carolina when the farmer you worked for got
into financial difficulties and was thrown off his land for being
unable to repay his mortgage. You tried to find similar work,
but had no success and eventually moved to Chicago, hoping for
a better life. By the time you arrived here, however, the Wall
Street Crash had taken place and you were just one of the twelve
million people in America looking for work. You found some
old wood, scrap metal and sacking on a rubbish dump and built
yourself a hut on a piece of waste land. You have been living in
this untidy, unhealthy ‘Hooverville’ for the past two years and,
as there is no government system of unemployment benefit, you
have had to rely on charity to stay alive. Every day, you join a
‘breadline’ to wait for free bread and soup provided by the
Salvation Army.
A supporter of Prohibition                                  15




Before the Great War, you were an active member of the Anti-
Saloon League, a religious organisation that wanted to ban drink
everywhere in America. When you were a child you had rarely
seen your father, who was a ‘slave of the saloon’. Your mother
had struggled to feed you and your brothers, as your father spent
nearly all of the family’s income on alcohol.

You were extremely pleased when your state banned alcohol in
1917 and overjoyed when Prohibition came into force across
America in January 1920. Although Prohibition has so far
failed to stop the sale and consumption of alcohol, you strongly
oppose the lifting of the ban. Instead, you want more officials
(Prohibition Agents) to enforce it, and a purge of the corrupt
officials in the police force and judiciary.
An unemployed mother with three children                            22




You are a married woman with three children, aged 8, 6 and 4.
You are unemployed and, although your husband is presently in
work, the company he works for is struggling and it seems likely
that he will be laid off soon. (You have heard that the number
of people out of work is going up by 12,000 every day). As
there is no national system of social security, you are extremely
worried about the future. If your husband loses his job you will
be unable to pay your rent and will be evicted. You may be
forced to set up home in a ‘Hooverville’ and to rely on charity to
survive.


A rich businessman who sold his shares before the
Wall Street Crash                                 15




You are a rich businessman who has always been a supporter of the
Republican Party. You made a lot of money from speculating on the
stock market in the 1920s. In March 1928, you invested a great deal of
money in General Electric, General Motors and United States Steel. The
value of your shares rose a great deal over the following year, but you
feared that their value was too high so you quietly sold the majority of
them in September 1929, making a tidy profit. Your fears proved well
founded – the following month share prices plummeted as people
panicked and hurried to sell their shares.
A businessperson from a struggling steel company 20




Only a few years ago your business was booming. The demand
for steel produced by the mass production of motor cars meant
that your company had plenty of work and was making a
healthy profit. You were able to expand your business and to
employ many more workers. However, once those who could
afford them had bought motor cars, the demand for them
dropped. You had to scale down your production and lay off
many of your workers. As your profits fell, so too did the value
of your company’s shares. The Wall Street Crash hit you very
badly, although you just managed to avoid going bankrupt. You
have been really struggling for the last three years, and although
you are very relieved that you have just been lent some money
by Hoover’s Reconstruction Finance Corporation, you are
unsure whether this will prove sufficient to ensure the long-term
survival of your company.

								
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