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					Marcus Spectrum Solutions       Consulting on wireless technology and policy


                            UCSD Symposium on Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications




        The Technology and Politics
                     of
      Increasing Intensity of Spectrum
                    Use
                                 Michael J. Marcus,                            Sc.D., FIEEE
                                                Director
                                 Marcus Spectrum Solutions, Paris, France

                                            mjmarcus@alum.mit.edu
                                           www.marcus-spectrum.com
                                                                                              1
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy


          Macroeconomics of Spectrum:
                     Why Increasing Intensity of
                       Spectrum Use is Vital
         Wireless technology and services are not just
          a ~$1011/year industry
         Economic growth and efficiency in the whole
          national economy (and national security)
          depend on efficient and evolving telecom
          infrastructure
               Low cost for economic competitiveness
               Continually creating new types of services
               New telecom services often enable whole new
                nontelecom business models, e.g. eBay, Amazon
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                                               Outline
         Technical Efficiency Options

         Getting Efficient Technology into
          Practical Use - Why Spectrum Policy is
          Important



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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                   Options for Increasing
                 Intensity of Spectrum Use
         Use higher spectrum
         Increase modulation efficiency                                              Not
                                                                                      discussed
         Increase frequency reuse                                                    here
         Antenna issues:
               MIMO
               csc2 antennas
               Wireless infrastructure vice antennas                                    Discussed
                                                                                         here
         Use white space
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                 White Space Observations
       Police spectrum use in NY state                               9/04 Republican Convention in NYC




              Peak



                Average



                                                                     http://www.sharedspectrum.com/?section=measurements
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                            White Space
         Exists in large amounts even in major
          urban areas
         Results from
               Uneven spatial demand for spectrum
               Terrain signal blockage
               Assigning spectrum for peak demand
                     Users with high peak/average ratio
               Spectrum hoarding/Nonenforcement of
                diligence requirements
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




         A Definition of Cognitive Radio
         A radio that makes decisions on parameters
          like frequency, power, modulation etc. based
          on some or all of the following:
               Location information
               Location dependent rules
               Time of day
               Observed spectrum use
               Negotiations/interactions with other users


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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




          Using CR Technology in White
                     Space
          I. Real Time Spectrum Markets
                Leasing of spectrum on a real time/near real time basis using a
                 market-based system
                Modeled after electric utility real time trading of bulk power
          II. Interruptible Spectrum
                Leasing of “public sector” spectrum to other users at times of low
                 demand - subject to rapid reliable reversion
                Modeled after electric utility load management/interruptible
                 electricity practice
          Both are based on voluntary interactions between
           licensees/assignees and potential users
          III. Nonconsensual use - Not discussed today
                See Docket 04-186
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                                       Pragmatism
         Pragmatically, these options get the
          efficiency benefits of cognitive radio
          without the confrontation/opposition
          associated with nonconsensual
          opportunistic use
         More likely to get fielded in near term
          than nonconsensual

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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions    Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                                But Isn’t This
                            “Unjust Enrichment”?
         Some might call allowing licensees of
          lightly used spectrum to profit from it
          “unjust enrichment”
         But,
               Pragmatically governments can not recover
                lightly used spectrum without lengthly
                proceedings
               Public sector users really do need peak
                capacity
               Better to “go with the flow”            10
                             Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




           Real Time Spectrum Markets
         FCC already permits “secondary
          markets” in spectrum for most licensees
         Other countries are considering
          comparable policies - spectrum trading
         Oddly, recent FCC rules appear to put a
          24 hour delay on effect of leases
               Not explained in R&O
               “Work around” appears to exist

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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions     Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                       Exchange Mechanisms
                         Facilitate Markets
                                                                Oil, pork bellies,
                                                                 electric power,etc can
                            Exchange
                            Mechanism
                                                                 be bought and sold
                                                                 readily because well
                                                                 defined exchange
                                                                 mechanisms exist and
                                                                 commodity is well
                                                                 defined
          Licensees                         Potential
                                                                Real time spectrum
                                                                 markets also need such
                            Acceptance of
          seeking to
                            bid
          lease out                         Spectrum
          underutilized
          spectrum             Payment
                                            Users                mechanisms and
                                                                 definitions         12
                             Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions    Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                            Interruptible Concept
                        Full Time          Commercial     Full Time
                       Commercial         Block Subject     Public
                          Block           To Interruption  Sector
                                         By Public Sector    Block
                                               User       Meets requirements
                                                             99% of time

                      30 Channels 60 Channels                     30 Channels


         Suggest grouping commercial blocks,
          “public sector” blocks and an interruptible
          block
               “Public sector” = state & local public safety,
                federal civil and military use
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                             Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                   Who Would Want to Use
                   Interruptible Spectrum?
         Thoughtful “public sector” users who are
          willing to share spectrum at time of low
          demand in exchange for income and want
          “surge capacity” for crises
         Wireless providers who understand they can
          acquire spectrum at low cost and use it for
          services that can tolerate time varying
          capacity, e.g. SMS, Blackberry
         Using combination of both interruptible and
          normal spectrum lowers time variability
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions     Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                        Interruptible in Action

                      Commercial user pays public sector user
                      for spectrum use subject to interruption
                                                                       $$$
                     Public sector demand overflows into
                     interruptible commercial block at times
                     of peak public sector demand

                                 Commercial Full Time
                     Full Time  Block Subject    Public
                    Commercial To Interruption  Sector
                       Block   By Public Sector Block
                                               Meets requirements
                                    User          99% of time


                                              kHz
                              Commercial user “retreats” to full time commercial
                              Block during times of peak public sector demand – either
                                                                                            15
                              Degrades service quality or low price customers given lower
                              Service Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
                             Spectrallyquality during interruption
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                Simulation of Interruptible
                        Spectrum
                                                                                                                       Non-Public Safety Traffic

                                 (Various Types) (Erlangs)         Total Carried Traffic            Public Sector Traffic

                                                             100
                                       Traffic Carried


                                                              80
                                                              60
                                                              40
                                                              20                       Non-Public SectorTraffic Limited to
                                                                                       30 Users During Preemption Period
                                                               0
                                                                   14:02
                                                                           14:16
                                                                                   14:31
                                                                                            14:45
                                                                                                       15:00
                                                                                                               15:14
                                                                                                                         15:28
                                                                                                                                 15:43
                                                                                                                                         15:57
                                                                   Time                    Preemption Period




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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




            Interruptible Implementation
                                                              Interrupt
                                                               mechanism must be
                                                               both credible and
                                                               ultrareliable
                                                              Several options
                                                               available
                                                              Beacon enabling for
                                                               positive control
                                                               looks most
                                                               promising
                                                               compromise         17
                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                 Regulation & Interruptible
                         Spectrum
         FCC has considered but is going slow
               Recently allowed leasing of spectrum
                among public safety users
         NTIA/IRAC has shown zero interest to
          date



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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                 Cognitive Radio Summary
         Real time spectrum markets and
          interruptible spectrum may achieve
          spectrum intensity benefits of cognitive
          radio in the near term without the
          confrontations and regulatory difficulties
          intrinsic to nonconsensual sharing


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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions      Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                               Cosecant2 Antennas
                                                       Developed in WWII for
                                                        uniform radar illuminination,
                                                        but now practical for comm
                                                       Real comm systems are
                                                        limited by adjacent band
http://www.optimalrf.com/pdfs/AMH1000.pdf               signals and receiver
                                                        limitations
                                                       Efficiency can be improved
                                                        by making ground
                                                        illumination more uniform
                                                              Was major factor in “Nextel
                                                               problem”
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                              Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                  Why is the “Wireless
            Infrastructure” Issue Important
         Frequency reuse has been a key factor in
          cellular radio efficiency and growth
         Reuse requires multiple cells
         New cellular services and FWA require
          cells
         Cells in turn each require an antenna
          node
         In practice, neighborhood opposition
          slows and limits such rollout         21
                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                      Wireless Infrastructure
                                       Today’s nodes like like they were
                                        “designed by engineers”
                                       And AWS/3G, new public safety
                                        systems, WiMax, BRS/recycled
                                        MMDS band, 70/80/90 GHz and
                                        FWA will require even
                                            more antennas
                                       Camouflage solutions are
                                              expensive,
                                              have limited antenna capability and
                                              work in limited environments
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                      Wireless Infrastructure
                                   Stealth aircraft resulted from novel
                                    collaboration between EM & aero
                                    engineers and reinventing aircraft
                                    design
                                   Collaboration between
                                    architects/urban planners & EM
                                    engineers could lead to
                                    breakthrough concepts for building
                                    wireless infrastructure for multiple
                                    services and licensees
                                         Efficient technical function and
                                          neighborhood compatibility                  23
                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                    Spectrum Policy:
                Why Should Techies Care?
         Radio is a highly regulated technology
         Government regulations are the
          gatekeepers that control the access of
          many new radio technologies to the
          market & affect capital formation for
          wireless R&D
         Get involved - “It is better to light a
          single candle than to curse the
          darkness”
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




            The Problems with Spectrum
                Management in USA
         Why discuss this here?
               A major factor in the availability of
                spectrally efficient wireless
               In order to move from pages of technical
                journals to the marketplace, new
                technologies generally need private
                investment/capital formation
               Spectrum regulatory climate directly
                affects such capital formation
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




             Regulation Impacts Wireless
                 Capital Formation



                                                         http://www.qualcomm.com/about/history.html




                                                    http://www.marcus-spectrum.com/documents/81413RO.txt

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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy


Good News
                   A Spectrum Policy Vision
                                                                                      Bad News




                                                                                      Recognize
                                                                                      Importance of
                                                                                      Transparency &
                                                                                      certainty

                   USA




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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




               Spectrum Leadership in UK

                                                                                 http://www.ofcom.org.uk/
                                                                                 consult/condocs/sfrip/




                                                                                      Clearly
                                                                                      stated goal
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions           Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                                       Dueling Reports:
                                    Alternative Paths for Change




                                  But who knows if either
                                  reflects current thinking
                                  in Washington?

                                                                            http://www.ntia.doc.gov/reports/specpolini/
          http://hraunfoss.fcc.gov/edocs_public/attachmatch/
                                                                            presspecpolini_report1_06242004.PDF
          DOC-228542A1.pdf
                                                                                                                          29
                                   Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions          Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                      The Theory of Spectrum
                        Management in USA




     “ The IRAC serves in an advisory capacity to NTIA and the Assistant Secretary for Communications
      and Information relative to spectrum issues and is not the Executive Branch decision body
     on spectrum management issues”
     http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osmhome/SchedIRACBrief.html



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                                  Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                  The Practice of Spectrum
                    Management in USA
                                                                           FCC commissioners selected
                                                                           for their views on broadcasting
                                                                           and telecom issues -
                                                                             no experience and little
                                                                             interest In “high tech”

         90+%                                                               Don’t even select assistants
         of the time                                                        with “high tech” background




     NTIA policies are usually decided by IRAC members meeting in a windowless room and focusing
     on their own agency concerns.

     These policies are then often imposed on FCC and civil sector.


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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




            The Problems with Spectrum
                Management in USA
         In the best of times FCC leaders have little
          insight into problems of high tech spectrum
          industries
         Commissioner appointment usually controlled
          by broadcast interests or key senators
               No recent FCC commissioners or their assistants
                with Silicon Valley experience
         Federal Government spectrum use needs a
          truly independent regulator who can not be
          overruled by user agencies
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                US Spectrum Policy is Now
                        Muddled
         2 commissioner vacancies filled last week -
          one more pending
         8 months after change of FCC Chairman 3
          key spectrum slots remain empty/acting
               Vacancies decrease FCC influence on NTIA
         Direction of FCC spectrum policy now unclear
         Increases uncertainty and discourages capital
          formation for new technologies

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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




              FCC Technological Advisory
                     Committee
         Has degenerated to a group that plans
          workshops that are poorly attended at
          FCC
               FCC has asked no questions in 4 years
               TAC has made no recommendations in 4
                years       See www.fcc.gov/oet/tac


               Little interest in academics


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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                            On Lighting Candles
         If you are involved in the political
          process, tell your elected officials:
               That clarity from FCC and NTIA on spectrum
                goals is essential for the wireless industry
               Fill FCC senior spectrum vacancies quickly
               Support IEEE/USA letter urging consideration
                of “silicon valley” veteran - or equivalent - for
                FCC commissioner appointment
                     Urge all commissioners to hire 1 assistant with
                      “high tech industry” background
                                                                                      35
                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions   Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                                    Get Involved!
NTIA is looking for nominations by 11/30 for
 new spectrum advisory committee
Tell them West Coast techies are interested!




                                 http://www.ntia.doc.gov/advisory/spectrum/spectrumnominations2005.pdf
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                            Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications UCSD 11/05
Marcus Spectrum Solutions       Consulting on wireless technology and policy




                            UCSD Symposium on Spectrally Efficient Wireless Communications


        The Technology and Politics
                     of
      Increasing Intensity of Spectrum
                    Use
                                     Michael J. Marcus,                   Sc.D., FIEEE
                                                    Director
                                     Marcus Spectrum Solutions, Paris, France

                                              mjmarcus@alum.mit.edu
                                             www.marcus-spectrum.com

                                                                                             37

				
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