GIS White paper by keralaguest


									  GIS and the Computer Graphics

                CG 411

Group #8 Geographical Information Systems
              White Paper
               (December 1999)

                   Aaron Crum
                Scott Cunningham
                   Brandy Davis
                Michael Hawthorne
Table of Contents
Overview                                                   3

GIS and the CG Department                                  5
       GIS Applied to Construction Graphics                6
       GIS Applied to Manufacturing Design Graphics        7
       GIS Applied to Interactive Multimedia               7
       GIS Applied to Computer Animation                   8
       Recommendations                                     8
GIS Applied to Primary Education                           9
GIS Applied to Governments                                 11
       Emergency Management                                11
       Military                                            11
       Health/Social Services                              12
       Environmental Usage/Protection                      12
       Transportation                                      12
       Law Enforcement                                     13
       Utilities                                           13
       Business                                            13
GIS Applied to Agriculture                                 14
GIS and the Internet                                       15
Methods of GIS Data Collection/Integration                 16
       Data Collection                                     16
           Aerial Photography/Remote Sensing               16
           Censuses                                        16
           Statistics                                      16
           Tracking over time                              16
       GIS Components                                      16
           Hardware                                        16
           Software                                        17
           Human Resources                                 17
       A   GIS Usage by Industry                           18

       B   Resource Listing                                20

       C   Glossary                                        26

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)   2
Overview                                         Section Reviews

The goals of this white paper are to:            GIS and the CG Department
                                                   The Computer Graphics Department has
       Show the emerging use of GIS in            strived to keep its curriculum abreast of
        the many industries and professions        the leading edge of technology.
        of the business world.                     Emerging technologies that have proven
                                                   themselves in the field are assimilated
       Show how the combination of                into the curriculum so that its students
        databases and cartographic                 can become the nation‟s best
        mapping have created a powerful            practitioners and managers.
        and multi-use system of displaying
        cataloging and displaying data           GIS Applied to Primary Education
                                                   The Computer Graphics Department has
       Show how the Purdue University             strived to keep its curriculum abreast of
        Computer Graphics Department               the leading edge of technology.
        can/should/could facilitate GIS into       Emerging technologies that have proven
        the current curriculum.                    themselves in the field are assimilated
                                                   into the curriculum so that students can
                                                   become the nation‟s best practitioners
                                                   and managers.

                                                 GIS Applied to Governments
                                                   With an increase in population, needs,
                                                   services, and other pieces of information,
                                                   governments around the world need to
                                                   find the most efficient way of storing and
                                                   sharing this „glut‟ of information.
                                                   Geographical Information Systems (GIS)
                                                   provide a medium in which governments
                                                   and agencies ranging from local, state,
                                                   provincial, national, and international can
                                                   share their data in a relatively simple and
                                                   efficient manner.

                                                 GIS Applied to Agriculture
                                                   Currently, any farmer wishing to stay in
                                                   business must find every possible way to
                                                   cut costs. The recent implementation of
                                                   GIS into agriculture and the process of
                                                   farming gives them the opportunity to do
                                                   so. GIS allows the user to database
                                                   everything from soil samples to crop
                                                   history. In the end GIS can improve crop
                                                   yield and crop rate.

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GIS applied to the CG Department
                                                 GIS and the Internet
                                                   The future of GIS and the Internet would
                                                   have to be GIS in today‟s network
                                                   information technology infrastructure. A
                                                   network-oriented geographic information
                                                   system would be used to fill the demand
                                                   of providing GIS functionality on the Net
                                                   by way of the World Wide Web.

                                                 Methods of GIS Data Collection
                                                   GIS technology gives researchers the
                                                   ability to examine the variations of the
                                                   Earth over days, months, and years.
                                                   These analyses are made possible both
                                                   by GIS technology and by the availability
                                                   of digital data on regional and global

                                                   Three appendices are included with this
                                                   white paper:
                                                           Terms Glossary
                                                           GIS uses by industry
                                                           Resource listing

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GIS applied to the CG Department
The Computer Graphics Department has
strived to keep its curriculum abreast of the
leading edge of technology. Emerging
technologies that have proven themselves in
the field are assimilated into the curriculum
so that students can become the nation‟s
best practitioners and managers.
Geographical Information Systems are an
emerging technology that has recently
exploded into the workplace as an efficient
and flexible method of storing and
displaying spatial data in a variety of

With the emergence of this new and exciting
technology, there are many businesses that
have utilized GIS for many different reasons.
These businesses will need people to
facilitate the systems that they are using,
and the Computer Graphics Department of
Purdue University can provide its current
students with the knowledge that they will
need to be of value to these businesses.

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GIS applied to the CG Department
GIS applied to Construction                           value of surrounding homes, or the average
Graphics                                              income of the surrounding residence.
                                                      Another could be the average age of local
Geographical Information Systems have                 residence. One of the maps could show
many applications in the construction                 relationships to important sites such as
industry. It can and should be used in every          schools, hospitals, and police stations
phase of the building process. As
construction companies realize that                 The next area that the construction industry
technology is essential to                          can use GIS is with current building
survive, they will realize                                                  projects. Many
that GIS is the next step.                                                  construction
GIS works like a 3D                                                         companies have
modeler does in                                                             multiple projects going
manufacturing. People can                                                   at one time. It would
visualize information                                                       be useful to have a
displayed on a map much                                                     map with all of the
better than a page full of                                                  current projects
text. Since these maps                                                      plotted on it. Each of
must communicate                                                            these job sites could
information from the                     Picture courtesy of                then have information
architect to the project                             incorporated into it. It
manager to the contractors                       could have
and sub contractors and                                                     information about the
possibly even the home owner, they must             projects specifications and estimates on time
be as easy to visually as possible.                 and money. The map could also include up
                                                    to date reports telling the progress of the
One area that the construction industry uses        project and setbacks the builder may have.
GIS is to research prospective building sites.
This includes current housing developments         The real power of the application of GIS to
and surveys of undeveloped land areas.             construction is when it is networked so
Basically it can be used to answer the             multiple parties can use the information.
questions, where do we build next, and             One of the major things happening in the
what should we build there? If a contractor        construction industry is the move to virtual
were interested in building in a certain area,     communication where everyone working on
it would be helpful to have a set of maps          a project is linked by an interactive web site.
that gave him information                                                 GIS maps could be
about a surrounding area.                                                 incorporated into this
One map could be a 3D                                                     virtual connection to
contour map of an                                                         enhance the amount of
undeveloped site with                                                     information each party
information about slopes                                                  receives. This process
and elevations. This would                                                saves everybody time
help give him an idea of                                                  and money because
where to put a structure.                                                 the information that
                                                                          they need is always
Another helpful feature                                                   available.
would be a map with                3D Contour Map courtesy of
information about the            Spectra Precision Software, Inc.
surrounding community.                             E-commerce
One of the major sources
for this kind of information is the U.S.              This brings us to the final and most
Census Bureau ( For                   powerful stage of GIS. The application of all
instance, one map could show the average              of the information taken from a job site and

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GIS applied to the CG Department
incorporated into e-commerce. What this                   The cost for materials used in
means is giving the customer a CD-ROM or                   different products.
web site that allows them to view the                     Knowing the type of material for
current projects and the homes available to                specific job.
them. One example would be a web site                     Transferring information on a piece
with a map of all of the homes that the                    of steel to a piece of aluminum.
company built and all the lots the customers              Recycling (knowing how much scrap
can have a home built on. In the case of                   will remain)
the undeveloped lot, the customer would                   Element analysis
have access to all of the surrounding                     Simulation (collection of correct
demographic information discussed earlier.                 data).
In the case of the finished home, the builder             Rapid prototyping (models)
would put all of the information about the                Inventory
home into the map. If the builder had a                   Reordering
parametric model of the house created, this
information could be transferred into the        According to Dr. Bannatyne, we use the
map. This would incorporate dimensions           types mention above on a regular basis by
and any specifications the model held into       we don‟t realize that they could be
the GIS map.                                     considered GIS or IS. That means the
                                                 department is using this type of technology
What do all of these things have to do with      already, but the term GIS isn‟t defined
the computer graphics department? We             clearly enough therefore many have no clue
believe everything. The many applications        what GIS really is.
of GIS in construction means that there has
to be people to operate these systems. GIS
is a very visual application, which means it     GIS applied to Interactive
relates very closely to the Computer             Multimedia Development
Graphics department. This, added to the
fact that the CG department already has a        One would be hard-pressed to find an area
strong construction graphics curriculum,         of specialty that does not require graphics in
makes it a good match with endless               one form or another. As computers have
possibilities.                                   propagated into the household, people have
                                                 become accustomed to ever-increasing
                                                 amounts of interactivity. It is in this area
GIS applied to Manufacturing                     that the Interactive Multimedia Development
Graphics                                         area of the CG department can have the
                                                 largest effect on GIS.
Having spoken to Dr. Bannatyne, who is an
Associate Professor in the School of             With the ability of most GIS software
Technology (Computer Graphics                    packages to display a wide variety of media
Technology) on how GIS could be applied to       to augment the information that they
manufacturing Graphics, he then talked to        present, there will always be a need for
me about Pro/ENGINEER. The functions             people that can create the media in a form
that Pro/ENGINEER offers can be considered       that is complimentary to the data, and to
GIS or IS (Information System), such as          the program.

       Model creation.                          Another facet of GIS that is of use to a
       Calculation of the size and material.    multimedia developer is the ability to track
       Marketing (one part to fit another).     sales/trend type data. These numbers may
       Having a cost for producing certain      be sales per city/county/state, demographic
        products.                                information, and customer data. These data
                                                 would allow developers to tailor the media

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GIS applied to the CG Department
they create so that it will have the most         GIS applied to the CG
effect on their audience.                         department Conclusion
In these regards, the Interactive Multimedia      The Computer Graphics department has a
Development specialty is currently setup to       lot to gain from incorporating Geographical
provide the workforce that is capable of          Information Systems into the curriculum. As
developing the desired media. The only            to where GIS should be placed is ultimately
major modification required to enhance            up to the faculty, it is our belief that it will
these skills are the training in what form the    have the largest impact on the Construction
media should be in, and the way to apply          Graphics field. It is in this field that GIS has
the media into the program.                       had and will continue to have the largest
                                                  effect on. At this time, it would seem
GIS applied to Technical                          unwise to initiate the teaching of an entire
Animation and Spatial Graphics                    class until personnel could either be brought
                                                  into the department, or current personnel
This area of computer graphics is concerned       could be trained to use a GIS package. It is
with the analysis, design, production, and        also our belief that software from ESRi
distribution of motion/time based computer        ( should be used to
graphics, both of linear and non-linear           incorporate GIS into the department. ESRI
qualities. Study in animation and spatial         seems to have its finger on the pulse of GIS
graphics courses focus on developing and          and is a recognized world-leader in GIS
integrating skills in raster and vector graphic   applications. Many institutions and
technology.                                       corporations currently use products by ESRI
                                                  and it makes the most sense for Computer
I believe that GIS can be applied to this         Graphics Students to use applications that
particular area in the curriculum in the          are considered among the best in the
following ways:                                   industry. We believe that to facilitate the
                                                  incorporation of GIS into the curriculum,
GIS can build three-dimensional models,           that a representative of ESRI be asked to sit
where the topography of a geographical            on the Industrial Advisory Board or at least
location can be represented with an x, y,         be asked to consult on what would be the
and z data model known as the elevation           best way for the department to make these
model.                                            initial steps.

These models can be used to analyze
environmental changes or engineering
projects that are influenced by the elevation
models that GIS would help you develop.
The visualization power of the computer
allows for the data to be seen in three-
dimensional form, often from any point of

Also the surface models that you create can
be animated to show the different changes
over time that they have went through. The
spatial distribution of various factors
(temperature, precipitation, concentrations
of chemicals, soil properties) is modeled
from discrete data collected from your GIS

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GIS applied to Primary Education
With the decrease in the cost of computers            Vocational schools, major universities, and
and the increase in technical proficiency             those schools fortunate to be able to:
amongst children, Geographical Information            1) afford computers and experienced
Systems (GIS) have the ability to provide an          teachers, and 2) students capable enough to
entirely new dimension to learning. Aside             make use of the technology, can offer
from the obvious uses as a learning tool for          courses that teach GIS. These classes may
Geography classes, GIS can be applied to              take the form of either basic utilization of
virtually all types of classes.                       the system, or it can be tailored to a
                                                      particular field of industry.
Baby Steps
                                                   Once a plan of use has been established,
The first thing that schools need to do            there are many different ways to implement
before they invest in GIS for their                GIS into a classroom, from a single
classrooms is to determine                                            computer projecting the
how they would like to                                                screen image to an entire
                                    “We learned that while
incorporate it into the                                               lab dedicated to a class.
                                      we tried to make the            Each system has its pros
                                       tools as friendly as           and cons.
Learning or Learning              possible, if there wasn’t a
                                    teacher willing and able               The one computer setup
from?                                                                      involves the teacher
                                  to run with it, and a place
                                                                           using the program to
The challenge that most            in the curriculum, then it              supplement the in class
schools face is, do we teach             wouldn’t fly”                     lessons. Learning on a
about GIS or do we teach                                                   couple of different levels
with it? Both of these can be                                              is accomplished in this
advantageous for students,                                                 system. The first level is
                                        ESRI Schools & Libraries
but ultimately it boils down                                               the combination of
to how does the school want                                                sound, video, pictures
to implement GIS. Many                                 and textual information that can be
schools may find it more practical to use GIS          assimilated into a GIS system, giving the
as a supplemental activity rather than as a            teacher and the students a more fulfilling
course in itself.                                      and complete educational experience. The
                                                       second level that accompanies this type of
All educational levels will find it beneficial to      system is the learning of the software by
use GIS as a supplemental learning device.             watching an experienced user go through
Virtually all types of classrooms can use GIS          the program as they are taught the lessons.
to expand on the lessons that they learn
everyday. Obviously Social Studies, History,           The second type of computer setup
Geography, Economics, Sociology and                    involving GIS is the multi-computer lab
Science classes have the most to gain from             environment. In this setting, students sit no
this technology, but many other classes,               more than 2 to a computer while they run
such as, Literature, can use GIS to show               through either a structured lesson, or they
things like the environment, climate, political        navigate a GIS database making
boundaries, and proximities to areas of                observations based upon the relationships
interest that may have had an impact on                they perceive from the data that they have
Literature throughout history.                         queried. This form has the most potential
                                                      for learning for middle school students as it
Unfortunately most schools at this point and          forces students to use the skills of creative
time will not have the financial resources to         questioning, random exploration, and
dedicate to the hardware, software, and the           careful analysis of the data on the screen.
teaching that can make this system possible.          Due to the fact that GIS in the school
                                                      environment is a recent development, there

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GIS applied to Primary Education
is no statistical proof that it is the best
method of learning, or in which form GIS
data should be implemented into a primary
school curriculum.

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GIS applied to Governments
With an increase in population, needs,             locations of mobile units can be
services, and other pieces of information,         determined for even quicker responses.
governments around the world need to find          5) GIS and GPS can be implemented in
the most efficient way of storing and sharing      the recovery phase of an emergency. The
this „glut‟ of information. Geographical           two systems can be combined to denote
Information Systems (GIS) provide a                properties that are damaged and the
medium in which governments and agencies           extent to which each property is damaged
ranging from local, state, provincial,             can be displayed.
national, and international can share their
data in a relatively simple and efficient        Through the use of GIS and GPS, not all
manner.                                          disasters may be able to be prevented, but
                                                 the disastrous effects can be lessened by
Emergency Management                             the efficiency and planning capabilities that
                                                 these systems can help to provide.
The ability to predict and prevent
emergencies and disasters from occurring         Military
has been a dream of city planners for many
years. Through the use of GIS, city              For a military commander, information is
planners may finally have a chance to            ammunition. Paper maps have been the
accomplish this goal.                            backbone of every army for over the last
                                                 1000 years. Satellite imagery, unmanned
The main task of any good emergency              reconnaissance vehicles, and a plethora of
management department is to protect life,        other devices/methods of information
property, and then the environment. To           acquisition tools have been used to gain a
accomplish this goal, officials can use GIS to   better picture of the battlefield. The storing
  1) Take into account what hazards may be       and viewing of this information has primarily
  present in the area, and what damage           been delegated to a low ranking officer with
  would be caused from those hazards.            a marker and either a paper map or more
  2) Taking the data from the previous step      recently acetate overlays. With the
  and applying prevention and safety             decrease in computing cost and the increase
  measures to the peoples and properties in      in computing power, the military is in a
  the danger areas in an effort to prevent or    unique position to revolutionize the way in
  at the least lessen damage caused.             which they store and display and dissimilate
  3) Preparations for the disaster are the       data.
  next step with the data being used to
  determine efficient locations for fire         Current and foreseeable for GIS usage in
  stations, paramedic units, evacuation          the military involves many facets of the
  routes, locations for shelters, and many       Command, Support and Management
  other responses to emergencies. The            divisions, ranging from convoy planning,
  system can also be used to monitor             facilities and base management to fighting
  variables around the danger areas, such        force disposition, situation reports,
  as, wind speed and direction, reservoir        ammunitions loads. The area of which GIS
  levels, temperatures, radiation, and           holds the most promise is in the field of
  ground moisture among others.                  Command, Control, Communication, and
  4) Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) can be        Intelligence (C3I).
  used in conjunction with a GIS. Once the
  location of an event is known, the closest     The current holdback for implementation of
  or quickest unit can be detailed to            GIS throughout the military infrastructure is
  respond. While en-route, data like             the limited vision of some of the officers
  building plans, hydrant locations, fuse box    holding high-ranking positions. The desire
  locations, and other significant items can     to resist change is common throughout the
  be relayed or displayed to the units. With     history of mankind, but for the military, the
  a system working with GPS locators,            inability to change doctrine in the face of

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GIS applied to Governments
new informational technologies prohibit the       The locations of facilities such as blood
implementation of GIS.                            centers, outpatient clinics, factories, waste
                                                  dumps, and other facilities can also be
Some other limitations of GIS at this time is     tracked in a similar fashion. A correlation of
the storage capacity required to adequately       this data may find the cause of certain
map a combat theater. There are two               ailments, such as, a proximity to factories,
methods of data storage that have been            certain plants and animals, or other natural
suggested to implement, but each one has          and unnatural impediments.
its drawbacks. Central storage involves a
main database with each unit downloading          Social services can use GIS systems to
the appropriate information on an as needed       determine what areas will need more case
basis. This method decreases the                  workers, more unemployment offices,
requirements for the smaller units, but it        quickest routes for case-workers visiting
also increases the bandwidth requirements         clients at home, child-care facilities, and
of the network being used. Local storage          other various types of services based on the
involves each unit (located away from HQ)         information that is in the database. Income
utilizing its own separate database that is       can be shown by address, highlighting areas
periodically updated. This method spares          where poverty/poor living conditions may be
the heavy burden on the network, but it also      present, or relationships can be discovered,
increases the storage requirements of each        like a concentration of domestic violence
unit located away from the unit                   cases in a certain part of town may be
headquarters.                                     attributed to a certain cause.

Solutions proposed for this issue involve a       Environmental Usage/Protection
creative combination of each method. This
involves a central data storage facility with     Environmental agencies can use GIS in
the units on location having terrain and          many ways. They can display data dealing
other relatively static features preset into      with environmental conditions as well as
their systems and downloading updates to          emergencies.
the information database.
                                                  The time before a hurricane hits is very
Health/Social Service                             limited. Evacuation of nearby areas is
                                                  crucial to saving lives. With GIS
As the number of people across the country        Environmental agencies can create maps
increases, so does the number of patients         showing demographic data of areas that will
that hospitals have to deal with, the number      be affected by the hurricane. This can give
of medical service centers available, child-      them vital information about how to
support services, and many other social and       evacuate.
health services that are available to the
people that need them. An effective way of        The same can be done for other
dealing with these steadily increasing            environmental emergencies. The path and
numbers and services is by implementing a         frequencies of tornadoes can be plotted to
GIS either in a city, county, state or regional   show the risk factors of certain areas.
capacity.                                         These can be used to warn people of high
                                                  risk areas.
These systems can keep track of the
locations of patients with certain medical        Another use for GIS is deals with
ailments, medical needs, social support           environmental conditions. Data fields can
needs, unemployment needs and other such          be made concerning drinking water, air
factors in an all-inclusive database that         pollutants, toxic waste, and so on. These
allows for analyses of data on a level that       fields can be used to predict resource losses
wasn‟t possible a few years ago.                  and environmental erosion.

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GIS applied to Governments
Transportation                                   justice departments are using it to track
                                                 locations of crimes, criminals, and for
From railroads to highway commissions, GIS       routing purposes.
plays an important and vital role in the
worlds transportation system. Governments        Many agencies are currently utilizing GIS to
use it to plan new highway routes, maintain      handle all of the task that used to require
existing roads, design new roads, and track      countless man-hours of work. The number
the flow of traffic on those roads and           of departments using GIS is steadily growing
highways.                                        thanks in part to half-million dollar grant to
                                                 ESRI, for development of crime analysis
Railroads use GIS to track the land they         tools that are affordable for most
own, the signal system that keeps the trains     departments. As more and more law
running smoothly, the environmental effects      enforcement agencies start to incorporate
of the track and trains, passenger statistics    GIS into their organizations, people should
and data on the amount of goods being            be able to walk the streets at night without
transported.                                     fear.

Airlines use GIS to visualize flight paths,      Utilities
reduce noise by modifying flight paths,          Utilities ranging from telecommunications,
manage assets in air and on ground,              water, and power/electric all have a need to
maintain and plan new airports, and to           manage their data in a manner that allows
coordinate parking at terminals                  them to provide the best service possible at
                                                 the lowest cost. GIS can help utilities in a
Planning and construction, maintenance of        number of ways. Determining the needs of
transportation structures and, the tracking      the customers that they service is probably
of traffic flows are a few of the uses of GIS    the most important task that GIS can do.
amongst the transportation authorities of        Needs such as power and water usage,
the United States.                               telephone capacity needed at certain times,
                                                 and the type of cable services desired in
Law Enforcement                                  areas are but a few of the many things that
                                                 IS can track for utility companies.
I an time of lower budgets and increasing
need of services, law enforcement agencies       A Second area of service that GIS can do for
around the world are looking for a more          utilities if the ability to keep track of the
efficient use of man-hours. Geographical         conditions of the pipelines, power lines, and
Information Systems (GIS) can provide the        other items of the utilities infrastructure.
solution that many of these agencies need.       These can be in the form of periodic
                                                 maintenance checks or through the se of
The first aspect of GIS use by law               monitoring equipment that provides an up-
enforcement agencies Is the ability generate     to-date condition of the utilities inner-
maps based on requested data. This allows        workings.
officers to predict areas of importance based
on prior activity, location, and based on the    Business
interpretation of the officers looking at the
data. This powerful new technology allows        Regardless of what products a company
police chiefs to determine ideal sites for new   sells, there is one common thread next to
stations, assistance for neighborhood watch      the almighty dollar that all business shares.
groups, and to other civil needs that fall       That thread is information. Businesses rely
under the jurisdiction of the local police.      on information about their sales, customers,
                                                 and products.
Aside from the uses of GIS by police/sheriffs
departments; Corrections departments,            Customer service departments use GIS to
Parole and Probate services, and criminal        determine the nearest dealer of products

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GIS applied to Governments
that a customer can go to, and the best
route for deliveries to use. Companies can
use GIS to determine probable new sites for
warehouses, stores and other facilities
based on the companies needs.

Realtors use GIS the same way as
companies, but their information is tailored
to house buyers. is a web-
based example of GIS implementation into
the real estate profession.

Marketing departments and agencies use
GIS to keep track of trends; sales, and other
sales type data. This ability to see what
works in the different regions a sales area is
important when you want to make sure that
everyone is getting your message.

Most large companies and many small
businesses could save money by
implementing GIS into their corporations.
The data is already in their databases; all
that is required is to implement it into a GIS

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GIS applied to Agriculture
Currently, any farmer wishing to stay in             data the farmer specifies. The maps are
business must find every possible way to cut         then analyzed to determine things such as
costs. The recent implementation of GIS              chemical distribution and seed distribution.
into agriculture and the process of farming          This information is then inputted into a
gives them the opportunity to do so. GIS             portable computer to be transferred to the
allows the user to database everything from          farm itself.
soil samples to crop history. In the end GIS
can improve crop yield and crop rate.                The next step is to transfer the data to a
                                                     device that controls the distribution of
The first thing that must be addressed is the        resources such as seeds or pesticides. They
individual capabilities of GIS when applied to       are distributed by spouts in the field that are
agriculture. Any information that is needed          located by GPS coordinates that have been
by a farmer can be linked to a map and               imbedded in the map data. The device then
cross-referenced with other data sets.               uses this location of the spouts along with
                                                     the specifications decided by the farmer and
GIS can map the results of soil samples              the consulting firm to regulate the flow of
taken at various points in the field. These          resources to each location.
samples include percentages of certain
minerals. The location of                                                The process up to this
these samples is                                                         point is very helpful to
determined through the                                                   the farmer, but it is only
use of GPS (Global                                                       half of the total
Positioning System).                                                     application. Now the
This information can                                                     farmer must collect the
then be entered into a                                                   information that the
GIS program to produce                                                   distribution device has
maps that the farmer                                                     recorded and take it back
can easily understand.                                                   to the consulting firm by
                                                                         means of the portable
GIS can also be used to                                                  computer. There it can
map out rainfall patterns      Picture courtesy of Geofocus, Inc.        be transferred into
or insect populations.                           historical land
Rainfall patterns can be                                                 information and
mapped according to time of year or                 incorporated back into the map.
amount of rainfall. This information can be
combined with a slope map to show where             The benefits from using GIS to aid
rain accumulates may occur.                         agriculture are enormous. It saves the
                                                    farmer ecologically as well as economically.
                                                    One problem farmers face is over worked
                                                    land. They use to many pesticides or the
Putting it all together                             wrong chemicals and the soil becomes less
                                                    efficient at producing crops. When GIS is
The real power of GIS is seen when it is            used to manage the condition of the soil,
incorporated into a network including GPS.          this problem can be minimized if not
This is when the real application of GIS            eliminated.
occurs. This process is referred to as
precision agriculture.

The first step in the process is for the
farmer to contact a consulting firm. They
will set him up with all the tools he needs to
incorporate GIS. The firm works with a GIS
program and creates the maps based on the

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                             15
GIS and the Internet
The Positives                                         Java applets being widely supported on
                                                       the World Wide Web browser,
The future of GIS and the Internet would              Java provides the ability to operate the
have to be GIS in today‟s network                      same code on any system,
information technology infrastructure. A              Java provide multiple capabilities to
network-oriented geographic information                assist network-oriented GIS design,
system would be used to fill the demand of            The network along with Java has a
providing GIS functionality on the Net by              higher performance level than any other
way of the World Wide Web.                             method of providing GIS across the
The GIS network has several outstanding
features, such as dynamic construction,          To sum up Java, technically it provides
object-orientation, system independence,         superior performance by having the ability
along with distribution.                         to adopt a scheme where the interpreter can
The network-oriented GIS deals with two          run full speed. Theoretically, it avoids lag
major methodologies like client/server           time and it reduces the risk of losing and
computing and the object-oriented method.        damaging data while transmitting over the
All of the applications established from this    Internet.
system works in a client/server
environment, which deviates slightly from        The Negatives
the conventional concepts.
                                                 Problems are common when you create
The object-oriented design goal is to create     something from scratch, and there are some
robust software that can be reused, refined,     problems to discuss.
tested, extended and maintain, which would        Java has certain limitations and one of
also increase ROI. Object-oriented is used           them is its ability to render graphic
to deal with real-world complexity and uses          features as annotation along a line.
the concept of abstraction to decompose the       The World Wide Web browser cannot
system into objects, that allows for                 print Java applets embedded in HTML.
independent operating ability. There several      Local files cannot be read nor written by
types of object-oriented approaches that             Java applets.
have been applied to GIS, some include            GIS users cannot use the local data
object-oriented data model approach, the             because of the security system of Java.
object-oriented data approach, and the            Large image file.
object-oriented software approach. The            Transfer time between client and the
reason we mention the object-oriented                server.
approaches, because the object-oriented
software approach would aide to the design       When the bugs are worked out of the
of the network-oriented GIS.                     system, the network-oriented GIS will
                                                 become the wave of the future.
There is a universal language the must be
used for this system. The language of
choice is Java. Java is an object-oriented
language that has network functionality.
Java supports the development of a
portable, interpreted, system independent,
distributing operating environment. Java
converts all high-level software into binary
instructions that the lowest level computer
chip can understand and execute. When
using Java you have four distinctive

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                         16
Methods of GIS Data Implementation
Data Collection                                  Censuses
                                                 Spatial Statistics:
Aerial photogrammetry/remote sensing:            Statistical analysis and modeling of spatial
Remote sensing is the study of phenomena         patterns and processes have long relied on
sensed from air or satellites. The use of        computer technology. Advances in
remote sensing provides scientists with an       information technology have made these
opportunity to interpret data as seen from       techniques mode widely accessible and have
space. Remote sensing is widely used I such      allowed models to expand in complexity and
locations as the arctic zones, deserts,          scale to provide more accurate depictions of
forested areas, marshlands, and                  real-world processes.
mountainous regions. Remote sensing is           Tracking over time:
most suitable for studying extensive areas
with difficult terrain, or where conventional    GIS technology gives researchers the ability
surveys may be very costly.                      to examine the variations of the Earth over
                                                 days, months, and years. These analyses
Satellite and aerial remote sensing provide      are made possible both by GIS technology
an infinite amount of information. Some of       and by the availability of digital data on
the information that they can provide is         regional and global scales. The satellite
ground conditions, vegetation, soil and          sensor output used to generate data dealing
mineral composition. If data is collected on     with vegetation is produced by the
a regular basis and over a long period of        Advanced Very High Resolution
time, remote sensing can also help identify      Radiometer(AVHRR). This satellite sensor is
the amount of change in ground conditions        capable of detecting the amounts of energy
over the various seasons, such as soil           reflected from the Earth across many bands
moisture changes. This information is very       of the spectrum for surfaces areas of about
useful when mapping areas that witness           1 square km. The satellite sensor produces
frequently change land conditions, like crop     images of the particular area twice a day. A
fields, beaches, and marshes.                    AVHRR is only one of the many sensor
                                                 systems used to analyze the Earth‟s surface.
Before any remote sensing image can be           More systems will follow in the future,
mapped, it must first be cleared of errors       generating even more amounts of data.
caused by geometric displacement or
interference from the atmosphere. The most       GIS Components
common sources of error in satellite imagery
are:                                             A working GIS consists of five key
          Orbit and flight errors,              components: hardware, software, data,
          Earth curvature,                      people, and methods.
          Earth rotation
          Rough terrain                         Hardware:
          Atmospheric interference(cloud,       The hardware consists of the computer on
            fog, and smog)                       which the GIS operates. The GIS software
                                                 can operate on a variety of hardware types,
Digital correction of errors on images are       which can range from centralized computer
made possible by computerized image              servers to desktop computers used in stand-
processing techniques. Correcting the            alone or networked configurations. Most GIS
geometric errors on individual images are        programs are supported on several leading
usually undertaken by giving the computer        UNIX platforms, which include:
the correct coordinates of known positions                Data General A ViiON under
on the image. The image is then                              DG/UX operating system
automatically rescaled and rotated to                     DEC Alpha under Digital UNIX
produce a geographically correct image                    HP 9000/700 & 8x7 under HP-
map.                                                         UX
                                                          IBM RS6000 under AIX

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                      17
Methods of GIS Data Implementation
             NEC EWS 4800 under EWS-UX
             Silicon Graphics under IRIX         Methods:
             Sun under Solaris1 and Solaris 2    A successful GIS operates with a well
                                                  thought out plan, which are the models and
Software:                                         operating practices unique to each individual
GIS software provides the functions and           organization.
tools needed to store, analyze, and display
the geographic data. The main components
of the software are:
          Tools for input and manipulation
             of the geographic data
          Database management
          Tools to support geographic
             queries, analyses, and
          Graphical User Interface(GUI)
             for access to tools
GIS software currently is in both the public
and private domain. The most common
software available to the general public is:
          Map Overlay and Statistical
          Geographical Resources Analysis
             Support System(GRASS)
          Wildland Resource Information
The most frequently used software in the
private sector includes:
          ARC/INFO
          ERDAS
          Spatial Analysis System(SPANS)
          MapInfo
          Maptitude

Data is the most important component of
the GIS. Geographic data can be collected
in-house or purchased by an outside data
provider. The GIS will integrate spatial data
with other data resources and can even use
a DBMS, used by most organizations to
organize and maintain data.

GIS technology is of limited use without
people to manage the systems and develop
plans to apply it to real world situations. GIS
users can range from specialists in the field
that design and maintain the systems to
those that use the information to perform
their everyday tasks.

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                        18
Appendices – Uses of GIS by industry
GIS usage by Industry                              Law Enforcement/Criminal Justice
                                                     Allows multiple sources to input
 Agriculture                                         information on criminal activity and
   Allows for site-specific analyses of              emergency response that can be
   physical, chemical and crop data that             analyzed visually.
   can determine the cause of yield
   variations.                                     Libraries & Museums
 Banking & Insurance                                 Allows libraries and museums to
   Allows banking institutions to target             manage and present information in a
   appropriate marketing and advertising             way that is easier to understand.
   resources to their customers based on
   their purchasing habits.                        Logistics/Vehicle Management
 Defense & Intelligence                              Allows delivery of goods to be more
   Allows defense agencies to present a              efficient by knowing where the product
   wide variety of information onto one              is at all times. It also allows helps
   map, allowing for a more efficient level          eliminating waste from the delivery
   analysis of information. Also used to             process as a whole.
   show troop dispositions, status, and            Mining
   routes of movement.                               Allows for the collection of data
 Electric and Gas Utilities                          pertaining to aerial photography,
   Allows Utility companies to maximize              satellite imagery, and magnetic and
   efficiency through direct knowledge of            gravity data. These can then be
   the location of current and potential             overlaid with fault maps, core hole sires,
   clientele.                                        and lease/claim boundaries.
 Environmental Conservation &                      Petroleum
 Management                                          Allows data-basing of information such
   Allows environmental agencies to                  as recourse location, and pipeline/well
   monitor environmental issues using                configuration to be presented on a
   existing spatial and attribute data. It           digital map.
   also allows them to monitor potentially         Pipeline
   dangerous industries.                             Allows pipeline owners/operators to plan
 Federal Government                                  routes and construction paths, flow
   Allows federal agencies to become more            efficiencies, pipeline integrity and supply
   efficient through the use of current              analysis.
   geographical information.                       Public Safety
 Forestry                                            Facilitates the planning of emergency
   Allows foresters to monitor and make              responses, dispatch critical information
   decisions about the resources in a                to response vehicles, and predict a
   certain area from a global viewpoint.             future event based on past events.
 Health                                            Real Estate
   Allows medical facilities to provide              Allows the real estate industry to
   customers with a direct knowledge of              organize information about residential
   health care locations ranging from                areas into a map that can be easily
   nursing homes to pharmacies.                      understood by themselves and clients.
 K-12 Education                                    Retail & Commercial Business
   Allows teachers to enhance the lessons            Allows business professionals to display
   of the classroom by providing useful              sales trends and patterns based on
   maps, and representations that were               geographic information from different
   previously not available with the “static”        sources.
   wall maps that are currently in use in
   many schools today.

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                         19
Appendices – Uses of GIS by industry
 State & Local Government
   Allows state and local agencies to
   become more efficient through the use
   of current geographical information.
   Allows Telecommunications companies
   to maximize efficiency through direct
   knowledge of the location of current and
   potential clientele. It also allows them
   to display information about networking
   GIS allows for the tracking and routing
   of vehicles, inventory tracking, and
   infrastructure management.
 Water & Wastewater
   Allows water and sewer utilities to keep
   track of the locations and conditions of
   water mains, meters, valves, hydrants,
   and other maintenance facilities.

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)   20
Appendices – Glossary
As noted by the GIS Glossary                      Automated cartography:
(                      The process of drawing maps with
                                                           the aid of computer driven display
Accuracy:                                                  devices such as plotters and
       1)The closeness of an estimated                     graphics screens. The term does not
       (measured or computed) value to a                   imply any information processing.
       standard or accepted value of a            Bit map: A pattern of bits (i.e. ON/OFF) on
       particular quantity, ie., relates to the   the grid stored in memory and used to
       quality of the result.                     generate an image on a raster scan display.
       2)With regards to numbers in a             CAD(D):
       mathematical table or those                         Computer-Aided Drafting (Design)
       produced by a computer Accuracy            Cadastral:
       may mean: (a) the number of                         Relatedto records of land-related
       significant digits in the numbers, (b)              tenure, whether surface or sub-
       the order of magnitude of the least                 surface and whether linear, parcel-
       significant digit. ( See also                       based or defined as a single point.
       Precision)                                 Cell:
Algorithm:                                                 The basic element of spatial
       A set of rules for solving a problem.               information in the raster (grid)
       An algorithm must be specified                      description of spatial entities.
       before the rules can be written in a       Chain:
       computer language.                                  A sequence of coordinates defining
American Standard Code for                                 a complex line or boundary. See
Information Interchange (ASCII):                          Arc.
       A widely used industry standard            Character:
       code for exchanging alphanumeric                  An alphabetical, numerical or special
       codes in terms of bit-signatures.                 graphic symbol that is treated as a
American National Standards Institute                    single unit of data.
(ANSI):                                           Clipping:
       An association formed by the                      A graphic process of cutting lines
       American Government and industry                  and symbols off the edge of a
       to produce and disseminate widely                 display area.
       used industrial standards.                 Contour:
Analog (or analogue):                                    A line connecting points of equal
       A continuously varying electronic                 elevation.
       signal (contrast with Digital). Also       Data Model:
       refers to traditional paper mapping               A data model is an abstract
       products and aerial photographs. p>               representation of the data used by
Application program or package:                          an organization, such that a
       A set of computer programs                        meaningful interpretation of the
       designed for a specific task.                     data may be made by the model's
Arc:                                                     readers. The data model may be at
       A line connecting a set of points                 a conceptual, external or internal
       that form one side of a polygon.                  level (as defined by ANSI).
Area:                                             Database management systems
       A fundamental unit of geographical         (DBMS):
       information. See polygon.                         A set of computer programs for
Attribute:                                               organizing the information in a
       Non-graphic information associated                database. Typically, a DBMS
       with a point, line, or area element in            contains routines for data input,
       a GIS.                                            verification, storage, retrieval, and

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                       21
Appendices – Glossary
Database:                                                removing unwanted components
        A collection of interrelated                     from a signal or spatial pattern.
        information, usually stored on some      Font:
        form of mass-storage system such                Symbolism used for drawing a line
        as magnetic tape or disk. A GIS                 or representing typefaces used for
        database includes data about the                displaying text.
        position and the attributes of           Format:
        geographical features that have                 The way in which data are
        been coded as points, lines, areas,             systematically arranged for storage
        pixels or grid cells.                           in a computer and for transmission
Digital elevation model (DEM):                          between computers, or between a
        A quantitative model of landform in             computer and a device. Standard
        digital form. Also digital terrain              format systems are used for many
        model (DTM).                                    purposes.
Digital:                                         Geodesy:
        The ability to represent data in                The scientific study of the size and
        discrete, quantized units or digits.            shape of the earth and
Digitizer:                                              determination of positions on it.
        A device for entering the spatial        Geodetic framework/network:
        coordinates of mapped features                  A spatial framework of points whose
        from a map or document to the                   position has been precisely
        computer.                                       determined on the surface of the
Edge matching:                                          earth.
        The process of ensuring that detail      Geographic Information System (GIS):
        along the edge of two adjacent map              A system of capturing, storing,
        sheets matches correctly.                       checking, integrating, analyzing and
Element:                                                displaying data about the earth that
        A fundamental geographical unit of              is spatially referenced. It is normally
        information, such as a point, line,             taken to include a spatially
        area, or pixel. May also be known as            referenced data base and
        an entity.                                      appropriate applications software.
Feature Code:                                    Geo-referencing:
        A set of characters (alpha,                     The process of delimiting a given
        alpha/numeric or numeric) within                object, either physical (eg. a lake)
        the GIS, which uniquely identifies a            or conceptual (eg. an administrative
        feature class or homogeneous group              region), in terms of its spatial
        of features. The following examples             relationship to the land; the
        are from the TRIM 1:20 000                      geographic reference thus
        Mapping Specifications: 33750000 -              established consists of points, lines,
        Wooded Area 25100190 - Paved                    areas or volumes defined in terms
        Road 25000120 - Loose Surface                   of some coordinate system (usually
        Road (Gravel)                                   latitude and longitude, or UTM
File:                                                   northings and eastings, and
        A collection of related information in          elevation). The background
        a computer that can be accessed by              framework pertinent to geo-
        a unique name. Files may be stored              referencing includes: NTS and BCGS
        on tapes or disks.                              grids and related features.
Filter:                                          Geocoding:
        In raster graphics, particularly                The activity of defining the position
        image processing, a mathematically              of geographical objects relative to a
        defined operation for removing                  standard reference grid.
        long-range (high-pass) or short
        range (low-pass) variation. Used for

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                         22
Appendices – Glossary
Geographics or geographic projection:            Land parcel:
       Representation of the earth's                    A tract of land, being all or part of a
       surface as a projection onto                     legal estate
       rectangular lines of latitude and         LANDSAT:
       longitude.                                       The generic name for a series of
Global Positioning System:                              earth resource scanning satellites
       A system of earth satellites, each               launched by the United States of
       providing precise time and position              America.
       information which enables a GPS           Land tenure:
       receiver to compute the distance to              The mode of holding rights in land.
       each satellite. The distance              Latitude:
       measurements of at least three                   Angular distance, expressed in
       satellites are required to fix the               degrees and minutes, along a
       receivers position in latitude and               meridian north or south of the
       longitude. Measurements from a                   equator.
       fourth satellite are required to          Legend:
       provide vertical (altitude)                      The part of the drawn map
       positioning.                                     explaining the meaning of the
Graphic Tablet:                                         symbols used to code the depicted
       A small digitizer ( usually 28 cms x             geographical elements.
       28 cms) used for interactive work         Longitude:
       with a GIS or CAD/CAM system.                    The angular distance east or west
Grey scales:                                            from a standard meridian to another
       Levels of brightness (or darkness)               meridian on the earth's surface;
       for displaying information on                    expressed in degrees and minutes.
       monochrome display devices.               LII:
Grid:                                                   Land Information Infrastructure
       1. A network of uniformly spaced                 represents that physical
       points or lines on the CRT for                   infrastructure that will enable the
       locating positions. 2. A set of                  Government to realize the data
       regularly spaced sample points. 3.               sharing and exchange objectives
       In cartography, an exact set of                  identified in CLISP. It establishes an
       reference lines over the earth's                 overall target architecture which will
       surface. 4. In utility mapping, the              integrate land-related data,
       distribution network of the utility              application and supporting
       resources, e.g. electricity or                   technologies within the
       telephone lines.                                 Government.
Hard-copy:                                       Line:
       A copy on paper of a graphics or                 One of the basic geographical
       map image originally displayed on a              elements, defined by at least two
       CRT.                                             pairs of XY coordinates.
Image analysis:                                  Look-up table:
       The processing and interpretation of             An array of data values that can be
       graphic images held in digital form.             quickly accessed by a computer
Input device:                                           program to convert data from one
       A hardware component for data                    form to another, e.g. from attribute
       entry such as a digitizer, keyboard,             values to colors.
       scanner, tape drive.                      Map:
Interpolate:                                            Cartography; a hand-drawn or
       To estimate the value of an                      printed document describing the
       attribute at an unsampled point                  spatial distribution of geographical
       from measurements made at                        features in terms of a recognizable
       surrounding sites.                               and agreed symbolism. Digital; the

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                        23
Appendices – Glossary
       collection of digital information         Network:
       about a part of the earth's surface.             1. Two or more interconnected
Map Generalization:                                     computer systems for
       The process of reducing detail on a              implementation of specific functions.
       map as a consequence of reducing                 2. A set of interconnected lines
       the map scale. The process can be                (arcs, chains, strings) defining the
       semi-automated for certain kinds of              boundaries of polygons.
       data, such as topographical               Node:
       features, but requires more insight              The point at which areas (lines,
       for thematic maps.                               chains, strings) in a polygon
Map projection:                                         network are joined. Nodes carry
       The basic system of coordinates                  information about the topology of
       used to describe the spatial                     the polygons.
       distribution of elements in a GIS         Overlay:
Mathematics:                                            The process of stacking digital
       The study of geometric properties                representations of various spatial
       and spatial relations unaffected by              data on top of each other so that
       continuous change in the shape and               each position in the areas covered
       size of figures.                                 can be analyzed in terms of these
Meta-Data:                                              data.
       Meta-data is data about data. It          Peripheral Devices:
       typically includes information such              Hardware not part of the central
       as currency, accuracy, extent,                   computer e.g. digitizers and plotters
       custodianship, and collection             Pixel:
       methodology. Meta-data is typically              Contraction of picture element;
       stored in data models, dictionaries,             smallest unit of information in a grid
       schemas and other representations.               cell map or scanner image.
Modeling:                                        Platform:
       1. The representation of the                     The technology used by an
       attributes of the earth Às surface in            application. E.g. GIS platform is the
       a digital database. 2. The studying              GIS software and hardware being
       of landscape processes using                     used.
       mathematical algorithms written in        Plotter:
       computer code.                                   A device for outputting hard-copy
Modem:                                                  representations of data e.g. maps
       A modulator-demodulator device                   p>
       that allows data to be converted          Polygon:
       into a form whereby they can be                  A multi-sided figure representing an
       transmitted as asset of pulses down              area on a map.
       a cable and then re-assembled at          Precision:
       the other end.                                   A measure of the tendency of a set
Module:                                                 of random numbers to cluster about
       A separate and distinct piece of                 a number determined by the set.
       hardware or software that can be                 The usual measure is either the
       connected with other modules to                  standard deviation with respect to
       form a system.                                   the average i.e., relates to the
Multi-spectral scanner system (MSS):                    quality of the method by which the
       A device, often carried in airplanes             measurements were made and is
       or satellites, for recording received            distinguished from accuracy which
       radiation in several wavebands at                relates to the quality of the result.
       the same time.

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                       24
Appendices – Glossary
Projection:                                               National Standard for Geomatics
       The representation on a plane                      data interchange. Designed
       surface of any part of the surface of              originally by the Government of
       the earth.                                         British Columbia, it is a specification
Raster-to-vector:                                         for data which includes an object-
       The process of converting an image                 oriented data model and a language
       made up of cells into one described                for describing both spatial and non-
       by lines and polygons.                             spatial data. Particular file or
Raster:                                                   communications formats exist which
       A regular grid of cells covering an                are implementations of SAIF.
       area.                                     Scale:
Record:                                                  The relation between the size of an
       A set of attributes relating to a                 object on a map and its size in the
       geographical entity; a set of related,            real world.
       contiguous data in a computer file.       Scanner:
Redundancy:                                              A device for converting images from
       The duplication of data in the                    maps, photographs, or from part of
       database to improve the ease and                  the real world into digital form
       speed of access to data, with the                 automatically.
       risk that changes may cause               Sliver:
       conflicting values.                               A gap formed when two lines which
Reference Ellipsoid:                                     should be contiguous are slightly
       An ellipsoid associated with a                    separated in a graphical
       geodetic reference system or                      representation or map.
       geodetic datum, whose surface is          SPOT:
       equi-potential and approximates the               An earth resource satellite with high
       geoid in size and position. Reference             resolution sensors launched by
       ellipsoids are most commonly                      France in January 1986.
       ellipsoids of revolution and are          Tessellation:
       sometimes called reference                        The process of splitting an area into
       spheroids.                                        tiles.
Relational database:                             Thematic map:
       A method of structuring data in the               A map displaying selected kinds of
       form of sets of records or tuples so              information relating to specific
       that relations between different                  themes, such as soil, land-use,
       entities and attributes can be used               population density, suitability for
       for data access and transformation.               arable crops, and so on. Thematic
RDBMS:                                                   information may be represented as
       Relational Database Management                    labeled polygons. lines or points,
       System (see Database Management                   chloropleth maps, isolines, etc.
       System and Relational Database)           Tile:
Resolution:                                              A part of the database in a GIS
       The smallest spacing between two                  representing a discrete part of the
       display elements; the smallest size               earth's surface. By splitting a study
       of feature that can be mapped or                  area into tiles, considerable savings
       sampled.                                          in access times and improvements
Rubber sheeting:                                         in system performance can be
       The transformation of spatial data                achieved.
       to stretch or compress them to fit        Topographic map:
       with other data                                   A map showing natural and man-
SAIF:                                                    made features as well as relief,
       Spatial Archive and Interchange                   often in the form of contours.
       Format. SAIF is the Canadian Draft

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                          25
Appendices – Glossary
       The configuration of a planetary
       surface including its relief and the
       position of its natural and man
       made features.
       The way in which geographical
       elements are related to each other.
       The topology of the data must be
       defined before GIS analysis can be
       The process of changing the scale,
       projection, or orientation of a
       mapped image.
       A general-purpose, multi-user
       computer operating system. (known
       to its detractors as 'Eunuchs').
Vector graphics structure:
       A means of coding line and area
       information in the form of units of
       data expressing magnitude,
       direction, and connectivity.
       A usually rectangular area that is
       used to view or to transform the
       original map.
       A capability for proportionately
       enlarging or reducing the scale of a
       figure or maps displayed on a CRT.

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)   26
Appendices – Resources
The Future of GIS on the Internet – White Paper (June 1997)

The Role of Geographic Information Systems on the Electronic Battlefield – White Paper
(February 1998)

GIS in K-12 Education – White Paper (March 1998)

Organizational Structure for Local Government GIS – A Survey – White Paper (March 1997)

GIS for Emergency Services – White Paper (July 1999)

Enterprise GIS in Health and Social Service Agencies – White Paper (July 1999)

Creating Spatial Data: Finding the Right Tool for the Job – White Paper (June 1998)

Carney, Dan (April 1998), Hard

GIS and GPS Services (1999)
Agriculture: Geographic Matters to Agriculture (June 22, 1999)
Agriculture: GIS for Agricultural Production (July 24, 1998)
GIS and GPS Applications and consulting (1999)
GIS and GPS Applications and consulting (1999)
ESRI GIS Solutions for Production Agriculture-White Paper (November 1997)
Cyber Builder: Where to Build (June 1998)
City of Salinas and ESRI Develop Nationally Recognized Crime Analysis Applications (June

White paper – GIS (Geographical Information Systems)                                       27

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