Slate by jizhen1947

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									Selecting Natural

Slate...




    ...Simply
                                                                      Selecting Natural Slate . . . Simply




 Understanding Natural Slate

Natural Slate can be the pinnacle of all pitched roof coverings.
However it can also be notoriously difficult to separate the
“wheat from the chaff”. There are a multitude of natural slates
on the market and establishing the good quality from the poor
quality can be extremely difficult if you don’t know what to look
for. This catalogue helps clarify some of the confusion.

Benefits of good natural slate
A good quality natural slate has a variety of benefits, both to
the end user and the contractor:
• Waterproof and fireproof.
• Resistant to weather extremes.
• Energy efficient.
• Requires little or no maintenance when fixed to BS: 5534 (or
  the corresponding Scottish regulation).
• Quality slate has no equal in durability and aesthetics.
• Environmentally friendly.

Potential problems with a lower classed
natural slate
• The slate can oxidise and discolour and can leave stains
  running down the roof.
• The slate can erode and develop holes.
• The colour may fade.
• The strength of the slate may not be able to withstand
  strong winds.
• The top layer of the slate may delaminate.                        Reference: Delcarmen Ultra
• Moss can grow, which penetrates and damages the slate.
• All these effects lead to continued maintenance and in some
  cases a complete re-roof.
                                                                      Slate – a natural product
                                                                      With environmental factors increasingly
SIGA                                                                  influencing buying patterns it is
We source and market our own brand range of SIGA natural              comforting to know that slate is a natural
slates, giving you more choice and value for money than ever          product that doesn’t undergo any heavy
before. Through the economies of bulk buying we can source            manufacturing processes. Being a natural
our slates competitively so that you can purchase good quality        product, every slate is different which
slates below the market rate.                                         adds to the character of the finished roof.

Our SIGA slates have all been tested to the new European
standards and we have categorised them fairly based on their
test results. Our SIGA slates can be found in all the categories
from A-D showing the diverse choice available. Whichever SIGA
slate you choose you can be confident that you are always
getting value for money.

Our close involvement in the selection and distribution of
natural slate has given us expertise that is unsurpassed by any
other roofing distributor. When buying from the SIGA range you
are buying from a dependable and responsible distributor,
giving you complete peace of mind.

In addition to this brochure technical data sheets are also
available, ensuring you have all the specification and consumer
information you are likely to need.                                 Reference: SIGA 36




                                                                                                                    3
     How to Choose a Quality Slate

What to Look For
You wouldn’t buy a car without looking at different models and
checking their track record – and cars only last ten years and
are generally cheaper than slate roofs. Based on the new
European Standards EN12326 part 2/2004 there are 5 key
ways to determine good quality slate:

Strength: Slates should typically achieve flexural strengths in
excess of 70 Mpa (or 70N/mm2). Slates that do not obtain this
level of result at a standard thickness can be used at greater
thicknesses to compensate.

Petrography Results: Reactive minerals such as pyrite,
marcasite and phyrrotite in combination with carbonates such
as calcite and dolomite have caused many roofs to fail.
Therefore it is prudent to look for information on these
combinations and evidence of oxidisation.

Water absorption: Low water absorption is a characteristic of
high quality slate. The old British Standard for water absorption
was <0.3% and the new standard for A1 classification is <0.6%
allowing many lower quality slates to claim A1 performance.
These values should be looked at closely.

Delamination: The delamination of slate is generally due to
mineral impurities (primarily calcite and iron sulfides) in the
slate which react with alternating wet/dry and hot/cold cycles,
to form gypsum. This causes the slate to delaminate on both
sides of the slate due to the leaching and subsequent
concentration of gypsum in this area. Consequently,
deteriorated roofing slates typically cannot be flipped over and
reused.

Oxidisation: Look for iron-sulphur reactivity as it can lead to
oxidisation and discolouration of the roof. Oxidisation of
surface minerals is acceptable within the T1 classification and
does not need to be declared as the slate will perform as long
as carbonate minerals are not present too. However, you can
expect a brownish discolouration to result.

Carbonate content: There is no limit on carbonate content,
however the higher the carbonate level, the higher the
potential for rapid material loss under acidic conditions. Proven
quality roofing slates typically have a carbonate content <3%
and will weather more slowly.




                                                                    Quality Checklist
                                                                    • Flexible strength >70Mpa.
                                                                    • Avoid slates with mineral content – good
                                                                      slates should conform to T1 and S1.
                                                                    • Water absorption <0.3%, generally the
                                                                      lower the better.
                                                                    • Avoid slates with potential for
                                                                      oxidisation.
                                                                    • Carbonate content <3%, generally the
                                                                      lower the better.
                                                                    • Proven satisfactory history of
                                                                      performance in the UK environment.



 4
                                                                         Selecting Natural Slate . . . Simply




  The SIG Slate Classification

We have simplified the selection process when choosing natural
slate by categorising slates based on their European
test results.

Class A+
The very best quality Welsh and Cumbrian slate that should
provide 75 years or more trouble free service if fitted in
accordance with BS5534 (or the corresponding Scottish
regulation). The slate is unlikely to change colour, rust or suffer
from significant loss of material. A life of 150 years or more is
not unusual.
                                                                      Reference: Ffestiniog
Class A
Top quality slate from the rest of the world. These slates
should provide 60 or more years trouble free service if fitted in
accordance with BS5534 (or the corresponding Scottish
regulation). After this time a small number of replacements
might be necessary as a few slates might be expected to have
weathered. Subtle colour changes may have occurred. With
proper maintenance a life of 100 years or more may
be expected.

Class B
Good quality slate liable to require regular standard
maintenance after 50 years reasonably trouble free service if         Reference: Delcarmen Ultra
fitted in accordance with BS5534 (or the corresponding
Scottish regulation). Over this time some of the slates may
have discoloured and a few breakages may
have occurred.

Class C
Standard quality slate that could suffer discoloration and loss
of material throughout its life. With care and good maintenance
an otherwise trouble free life of 40 years might be achievable
if fitted in accordance with BS5534 (or the corresponding
Scottish regulation).

Class D                                                               Reference: SIGA 36
Economy slates that are generally high in carbons with a high
potential for oxidisation and staining. The slates may last
anywhere from 30 years or more, but must be expected to
change colour, often to a variety of shades from dark to light.
Will typically need to be used more thickly to compensate for a
higher rate of gradual surface loss from weathering.




                                                                      Reference: Classic Reclaim




                                                                      Reference: Amazonian

                                                                                                            5
     SIG Natural Slate Classification Chart
 Classification         Origin          Colour         Weathering       Texture             Sizes*        Thickness      Sorting
                                                                                                            (mm)          Level

  A+
Penrhyn                  Wales        Heather Blue        Slow      6mm Smooth, 8mm                         6-10mm         Low
                                                                    Normal, 10mm Rough     L     M   S
Ffestiniog               Wales          Blue Grey         Slow      6mm Smooth, 8mm                         6-10mm         Low
                                                                    Normal, 10mm Rough     L     M   S
Burlington **            Cumbria        Blue Grey       Medium           Textured                M   S      7 - 9mm        Low

Burlington **            Cumbria      Westmoreland      Medium           Textured                           10 - 12mm      Low
                                         Green                                                   M   S
  A
SIGA 30                  Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Smooth                  M   S          4-5mm      Low

SIGA 34                  Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Textured                M   S      8-10mm       Medium

SIGA 42                  Spain          Blue Grey       Medium         Very Smooth               M              4-5mm      Low

Emperor                  China          Blue Black      Medium           Smooth            L     M   S    4-6 / 6-8mm    Medium

Del Carmen Ultra         Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Smooth            L     M   S          5-6mm      Low

Samaca 24 Primera        Spain          Blue Grey       Medium         Very Smooth               M              4-5mm      Low

Villar Del Rey           Spain          Blue Black      Medium         Very Smooth         L     M   S           6mm       Low

Riverstone               Argentina     Grey Green       Medium            Normal           L     M   S    4-7 / 6-9mm    Medium

Domiz                    Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Smooth            L     M   S          5-6mm      Low

Del Carmen First X1      Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Smooth            L     M   S          5-6mm    Medium

Matacouta Ultra          Spain          Blue Black      Medium            Normal                 M   S      8-10mm       Medium

  B
SIGA 31                  Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Smooth            L                    4-5mm      Low

SIGA 32                  Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Textured          L     M   S      5 / 7mm      Medium

SIGA 33                  Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Textured                M   S          6-8mm    Medium

SIGA 36                  Spain          Blue Black      Medium            Normal                 M    S         4-5mm    Medium
Matacouta Ultra
                         Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Textured                M   S      8-10mm         High
Heavy
Del Carmen Classic       Spain          Blue Black      Medium          Norm - Text              M              6-8mm    Medium

Vittoria                 Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Smooth            L     M              5-7mm    Medium

River Grey               China            Grey          Medium            Normal           L     M   S    5-7 / 7-9mm    Medium
East Moorland
                         China            Green         Medium           Textured          L     M   S    6-8/8-10mm     Medium
Green
Blue Empress             China            Blue          Medium           Textured          L     M   S    6-8/8-10mm     Medium
Samaca 55
                         Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Smooth                  M   S          4-5mm      Low
Standard
Samaca 49 Primera        Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Textured          L     M   S          6-8mm    Medium

Samaca 39 Primera        Spain          Blue Grey       Medium            Normal                     S          4-5mm      Low

  C
SIGA 27                  Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Smooth            L     M   S          4-5mm      Low

SIGA 35                  Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Textured                    S          7-8mm    Medium

Samaca 15 Primera        Spain          Blue Grey       Medium           Smooth            L     M   S          4-5mm      Low

Montana                  Argentina     Grey Green       Medium           Textured          L     M   S      8-10mm         High

Dynasty                  China          Blue Grey       Medium            Normal           L     M   S    5-7 / 7-9mm    Medium

Celtas                   Spain          Blue Black      Medium           Textured          L     M   S          6-8mm      High

Classic Reclaim          China       Weathering Grey      Fast           Smooth            L     M   S          5-7 mm   Medium

  D
SIGA 24                  Spain          Blue Grey       Medium            Normal                 M              5-6mm    Medium

La Roca                  Spain          Blue Black      Medium         Very Smooth               M              6-8mm    Medium

Amazonia **              Brazilian      Blue Grey       Medium           Smooth                  M   S          5-7mm      Low

Canterverde              Brazilian     Grey Green       Medium         Very Smooth               M   S          4-7mm      Low

Samaca 15 Eco            Spain          Blue Grey       Medium            Normal                 M              5-6mm    Medium


*Sizes depict availability of small, medium and large format     **Slate not tested at time of going to press




 6
                                                                                  Selecting Natural Slate . . . Simply



Wastage         Strength         Strength       Carbonate        Durability/      Durability/   Durability/ SO2 Minimum Life
              longitudinal      transverse       content           Water           Thermal        Exposure      Expectancy***
                  MPa              MPa                           absorbtion        Cycling


Very Low          91 Mpa          56 Mpa            <0.1%          A1: <0.19           T1             S1          70+ Years

Very Low          81 Mpa          66 Mpa            <0.1%           A1: <0.11          T1             S1          70+ Years

   Low

   Low



 Medium           73 Mpa          52 Mpa           <0.3%           A1: <0.3%           T1             S1         60-65 years

 Medium           71 Mpa          71 MPa           <0.38%              A1              T1             S1         60-65 years

 Medium         34.04 Mpa        52.66 MPa         <0.33%          A1: 0.31%           T1             S1         60-65 years

 Medium           69 Mpa          64 MPa           <0.2%          A1: <0.23%           T1             S1         60-65 Years

   Low           88 Mpa           59 Mpa           <0.3%           A1: <0.3%           T1             S1         60-65 Years

   Low          34.04 Mpa        52.66 Mpa         <0.33%         A1: <0.31%           T1             S1         60-65 Years

   Low          74.76 Mpa        56.84 Mpa         <0.3%          A1: <0.28%           T1             S1         60-65 Years

 Medium          107 Mpa          72 Mpa           <0.3%           A1: <0.1%           T1             S1         60-65 Years

Med - Low        88 Mpa           59 Mpa           <0.56%          A1: <0.2%           T1             S1         60-65 Years

 Medium          88 Mpa           59 Mpa           <0.3%           A1: <0.3%           T1             S1         60-65 Years

 Medium           58 Mpa          42 Mpa           <0.3%          A1: <0.24%           T1             S1         60-65 Years



 Medium          40 MPa           50 MPa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium           50 Mpa          30 MPa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium          31.10 Mpa       68.37 MPa         <0.30%         A1: <0.36%           T1             S1         50-55 Years

Med - High        73 Mpa          52 MPa           <0.4%           A1: 0.2%            T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium           58 Mpa          42 Mpa           <0.3%          A1: 0.24%            T1             S1         50-55 Years

  High           88 Mpa           59 Mpa           <0.3%           A1: 0.3%            T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium         102.07 Mpa       75.81 Mpa           <1%          A1: 0.37%            T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium           43 Mpa          44 Mpa           <0.2%          A1: 0.26%            T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium           49 Mpa          47 Mpa            <1.1%         A1: 0.22%            T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium           50 Mpa          49 Mpa            <0.1%         A1: 0.29%            T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium          40 MPa           50 MPa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium           50 Mpa          30 MPa           <0.50%          A1: <0.6%           T1             S1         50-55 Years

 Medium           50 Mpa          40 Mpa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T1             S1         50-55 Years



 Medium          44.5 Mpa         40 MPa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T2             S1         40-45 Years

 Medium           60 Mpa         38.5 Mpa           <1.1%         A1 :0.08%            T2             S1         40-45 Years

 Medium          44.5 Mpa         40 MPa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T2             S1         40-45 Years

Med - High       107 Mpa          72 Mpa           <0.3%           A1: 0.1%            T1             S1         40-45 Years

Med - High       44 Mpa           50 Mpa           <0.3%          A1: 0.33%            T1             S1         40-45 Years

Med - High       88 Mpa           59 Mpa           <0.3%           A1: 0.3%            T1             S1         40-45 Years

 Medium           66 Mpa          34 Mpa           <2.5%          A1: 0.44%            T1             S1         40-45 Years



Med - High        60 Mpa          40 MPa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T2             S1         30-35 Years

 Medium         74.76 Mpa        56.84 Mpa         <0.30%         A1: 0.28%            T2             S1         30-35 Years

  High                                                                                                           30-35 Years

  High            43 Mpa          41 Mpa            <5%            A1: 0.46            T1             S1         30-35 Years

Med - high        60 Mpa          40 MPa           <0.5%           A1: <0.6%           T2             S1         30-35 Years


 ***This is not a guarantee. Please contact us for specific manufacturer guarantees.




                                                                                                                                7
     Maintenance

Maintenance Checks From Inside                                  Removing Damaged Slates
The House                                                       If a slate has slipped or shifted from its position then it
• Shine a torch on the timbers and check for water              is probably due to corrosion of the supporting fixing
  staining. If stains are found on the timber, try to trace     nails. Slip a slate ripper under the centre of the slate.
  the source of the stain.                                      This will enable you to locate the hooked end over the
• It is useful to inspect the inner roof space after a          fixing nail. The steel blade slips under the slate until
  long period of rain, as the source of a leak is easier to     one of the barbs of the arrow shaped tip hooks round
  trace.                                                        the nail that is driven into the roof batten. Once
• Ensure that loft insulation does not block eaves              engaged, pull out the nail by pulling down on the tool or
  ventilation, promoting dampness and timber decay.             giving a hammer blow on the curved handle. If the nail
                                                                is proving difficult, the tool will cut through the nail.
                                                                Repeat the procedure with the second fixing nail and
Maintenance Checks From Ground Level                            remove. It may be necessary to remove both fixing
• Check the whole roof for disjointed or slipped slates         nails before slipping the slate back into position.
  against the regular lines of slates.
• If there is a change to the colour of a section, it could
  be newly exposed and therefore un-weathered.
                                                                Replacing an Area of Slates
  Look for a powdery or flaky surface, known as                 1. Remove the slates from the area needing
  delamination.                                                     replacement.
• Look at the ridge on the skyline and check for gaps in        2. Lift the slates in the row immediately above the
  the mortar joints.                                                highest ones needing replacement.
• Check for the state of the flashings at abutments and         3. Prop them up with wooden wedges and lift them two
  around chimney stacks.                                            at a time.
• Check for fallen pieces of mortar.                            4. Work on removing the top course of tiles and work
• For high roofs use binoculars to scan the surface as              down to the course below and continue down the
  carefully as possible, from all angles.                           roof line as far as necessary.
                                                                5. Replace the slates by starting on the lowest course
                                                                    and hooking each slate over the batten by its nib.
Temporary Repair Tips                                           6. Check that you have lined the tile up correctly and it
• To minimise any water damage, weather proof the                   is centred directly between the two tiles
  problem slates temporarily.                                       immediately below it.
• Prop up the slates that overlap the cracked one with          7. Finish each course by nailing the tops of the slates
  wooden wedges, and use a wire brush to clean the                  to the battens with galvanized or aluminum alloy
  surface round the crack.                                          nails.
• Use flashing strip primer to coat the cracked area.           8. When you arrive at the top course of slates to be
  The primer will ensure a good bond once the flashing              fitted, use the wooden wedges to lift the slates in
  strip is in position. Make sure you use enough to                 the course above.
  cover the width of the strip to be used. Use a section        9. Slide the new slates into position.
  of flashing strip long enough to cover the crack              10. Shift one of the wedges along and repeat the
  completely. Push the strip into place and check it is             process along the top course.
  well seated. Use a small roller over the strip to firmly
  push the strip down into position.
• Use an applicator gun to inject the bituminous
  sealant along the crack.
• In the loft space use an applicator gun to inject
  adhesive expanding foam along cracks or gaps from
  inside the loft.
• If regular repairs are necessary, it may be time for
  the roof to be re-covered.



“Jenny Twin” Slate Repair Fixings
“Jenny Twin” clips are used to make isolated repairs to slate
roofs where it is not possible for slates to be secured with nail
fixings.

The main body of the clip is produced in one aluminium piece
from 1.6mm thick. The swivelled tail is produced in one
galvanised mild steel piece from 2.5mm diameter.

The clips are suitable for carrying out repairs on all types of
roofs where slates are fixed to battens up to a maximum pitch
of 70 degrees.




 8
                                                                       Selecting Natural Slate . . . Simply




  Colours
Since it is a natural         Blue Grey                                   Blue Black
product every slate is
unique. The following
charts give you an
overview of the four
main shades of natural
slate. This helps you
make a decision about
what colour hue is best
for you. However, if you
want a true
representation of the         Ffestiniog                                  Chinese Emperor
slate, it is essential you    Grey Green                                  Heather Blue
view a free sample from
your local branch.




                              Riverstone                                  Penrhyn


There are four main slate colours relating to natural
slate: Blue Grey, Blue Black, Grey Green and Heather
Blue. There are however many other shades and
variations available. Slate is a natural product and                                 Blue     Grey
therefore it is important to note that no two slates will
ever look identical.
Almost all slates will fit into the range of colours shown
on this chart.
Our experienced staff will be able to suggest a slate                                Blue     Black

that is as close to your preferred colour as possible.



                                                                                    Green      Grey




                                                                                    Heather     Grey




 Reclaimed Slate
We offer a free reclaimed slate matching service and all     our free identification and matching service can readily
our reclaimed stocks are categorised by type, colour         select any of the million stock items to blend naturally
and texture. All our materials are individually inspected    with a building’s existing architecture and materials.
and graded according to weathering and quality.
The use of reclaimed roof slates continues to remain
popular as more people redevelop or extend existing
properties. In certain areas of the country the
conversion of barns into dwellings has created demand
for quality reclaimed products, particularly handmade
clay peg tiles to create the look and feel of a period
property.

Combine these factors with the current trend of
building oak frame "barn style" garages and it
illustrates the growing demand for reclaimed roofing
materials. Categorised by type, colour and texture, all
our materials are individually inspected and graded
according to weathering and quality. This ensures that


                                                                                                                   9
   Exposure
Driving Rain Index                                                                                                                Exposure Zones
The Driving Rain Index affects the construction of                                                                                Exposure   Approximate Wind Driven Rain
a roof. A location is either considered moderately
                                                                                                                                  Zones      (litres/m2 per spell)
exposed or severely exposed. In general, any area
within 30 miles of a west facing coastline is                                                                                     Brown      less than 56.51m2 per spell (moderate)
considered to be in a severe exposure area.                                                                                       Green      Greater than 56.51m2 per spell (severe)
However we would always recommend localised
effects are taken into account on any project.
The exposure of the roof impacts on the pitch                                                                                     MINIMUM RECOMMENDED HEADLAPS
and headlap of the roof covering. Further                                                                                                    Severe Exposure 56.5 l/m2 or
reference to BS8104 is advisable to ascertain                                                                                                greater per spell
localised effects.                                                                                                                Size mm    Minimum Rafter Pitch
                                                                                                                                  (Nominal)  20° 22.5° 25° 27.5° 30° 35° 40° 45°       85°
                                                                                                                                                                             to
 Categories of                               31                                                                                                                              75°
 exposure to                                                                                                                      600 x 350  -   130 120 110      100 90 80 70         -
 driving rain
 and basic
                                                  30                                                                              600 x 300  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         -
 wind speeds                            29
                                                                                                                                  550 x 300  -   130 120 110      100 90 80 70         -
                                                  28

                                                                              27                                                  500 x 300  -   130 120 110      100 90 80 70         -
                                                                         26                                                       500 x 250  -   -      -    110  100 90 80 70         65
                                                               25

                                                              24
                                                                                                                                  450 x 300  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                                                   Inverness                                                                      450 x 250  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                                                               Aberdeen

                                                   23                                                                             400 x 300  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                                       Oban
                                                    Perth
                                                             Dundee
                                                                                                                                  400 x 250  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                                                                                25
                                                                                                                                  400 x 200  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                                         Glasgow        Edinburgh

            26
                                                                                                                                  350 x 300  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
          25
                                                                                                                                  350 x 250  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                                                                         Newcastle
               Londonderry

                24
                                                            Carlisle                                                              350 x 200  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                             Belfast

                                                                         24                                                       300 x 200  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                     23
                                                                                        York Kingston
                                                             Preston 23         Leeds        upon-Hull                            250 x 150  -   -      -    -    100 90 80 70         65
                                                            Liverpool Manchester
                                                                                      Sheffield
                                                                        Stoke        Nottingham
                                                   22
                                                                   21
                                                              Birmingham
                                                                         Leicester                          Norwich
                                                                                                                             25   MINIMUM RECOMMENDED HEADLAPS
                                                    Aberystwyth       Northampton

                                                                                                  Bedford
                                                                                                              Ipswich   24                  Moderate Exposure less than
                                              Swansea
                                                                    20
                                                                                     Oxford                             23                  56.5 l/m2 per spell
                                                  Cardiff               Bristol
                                                                                                  LONDON
                                                                                                                                  Size mm   Minimum Rafter Pitch
                                                                         Bournemouth
                                                                                              Brighton                            (Nominal) 20° 22.5° 25° 27.5° 30° 35° 40° 45°        85°
                                              Plymouth                                                                                                                      to
                          24
                                         23
                                                                                                                                                                            75°
 Exposure        Approximate volume of wind-driven                            Basic wind speeds
                                                                                                                                  600 x 350 115 105 95 85        80 70 60 55           -
 zones           rain (litres/m2 per spell)
                                                                                     31            Basic wind speed V (in m/s)    600 x 300 -   -      95 85     80 70 60 55           -
                                                                                                                        b
                less than 56.5 (sheltered/moderate)
                                                                              (Derived from BS 6399: Part 2)                      550 x 300 -   105 95 85        80 70 60 55           -
                more than 56.5 (severe/very severe)

 (Categories derived from BS 5534: Part 1)
                                                                                                                                  500 x 300 115 105 95 85        80 70 60 55           -
                                                                                                                                  500 x 250 -   -      95 85     80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  450 x 300 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  450 x 250 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  400 x 300 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  400 x 250 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  400 x 200 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  350 x 300 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  350 x 250 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  350 x 200 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  300 x 200 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50
                                                                                                                                  250 x 150 -   -      -    -    80 70 60 55           50




10
                                                                               Selecting Natural Slate . . . Simply




    Fixings
Hook Fixing                                   A Secure Fit
Using hooks to fix slate has been             The top edge of the slate is gripped under the top part of the hook, the
widely used in Europe for the last 50         shank of the hook runs down the side of the slates in the next course and
years and is becoming increasingly            the return grip on the bottom of the hook holds the tail of the slate on top.
popular in the UK. All natural slates         This means each slate is held in place by four hooks; one at the head, one
can be fixed using the hook fixing            at the tail and one on each side. The one at the tail stops the hook from
system. The hook method offers                sliding down, the ones at the side prevents it from turning and the one at
more freedom in design than nail              the head holds it at the batten. This system provides excellent resistance
fixing and can save up to 25% on              to wind uplift as it locks the slates together and if the wind causes the tail
labour costs. As no holing is required        of the slate to lift then the hook snaps it back into place.
there are fewer breakages and
therefore less wastage. However, it is        Hooks should be black stainless steel, 18/10, 2.7mm gauge and at least
important not to overlook the                 5mm longer than the minimum lap required.
sorting of the slates, which when
using the nail method is instinctively        The one drawback of the hook fixing method is that it does leave the heel
done while holing.                            of the hook on view, which breaks up the smooth appearance of the roof.

Remember!
I   Slates on verges and under eaves, must be nailed              I   A rigid design
    down even if the rest of the roof is fixed with hooks.        I   Performs well against wind uplift
I   Hook fixing minimum lap and coverage figures are              I   Freedom in design
    different to nail fixing and the relevant charts are          I   The heel of each hook is visible on the roof
    below.                                                        I   Repair options are quick and simple and the slates
I   Up to 25% quicker than nails                                      are returned back to their fixing specification
I   No holing required
I   Less wastage


COVERAGE OF SLATES WITH HOOK FIXING METHOD
Slate size (mm)         Lap (mm)
length x width 50    65      75  80  85  90    95 100           105     110    115    120 125       130    135    140    145    150
                Number of slates/m2
600 x 300       12.1 12.5 12.7 12.8 12.9 13.1 13.2 13.3         13.5    13.6   13.7   13.9   14.0   14.2   14.3   14.5   14.6   14.8
550 x 300       13.3 13.7 14.0 14.2 14.3 14.5 14.7 14.8         15.0    15.2   15.3   15.5   15.7   15.9   16.1   16.3   16.5   16.5
550 x 280       14.3 14.7 15.0 15.2 15.4 15.5 15.7 15.9         16.1    16.2   16.4   16.6   16.8   17.0   17.2   17.4   17.6   17.9
500 x 300       14.8 15.3 15.7 15.9 16.1 16.3 16.5 16.7         16.9    17.1   17.3   17.5   17.8   18.0   18.3   18.5   18.8   19.0
500 x 250       17.8 18.4 18.8 19.0 19.3 19.5 19.8 20.0         20.3    20.5   20.8   21.0   21.3   21.6   21.9   22.2   22.5   -
450 x 300       16.7 17.3 17.8 18.0 18.3 18.5 18.8 19.0         19.3    19.6   19.9   20.2   20.5   20.8   21.2   21.5   21.9   -
450 x 250       20.0 20.8 21.3 21.6 21.9 22.2 22.5 22.9         23.2    23.5   23.9   24.2   24.6   25.0   25.4   25.8   26.2   -
450 x 230       21.7 22.6 23.2 23.5 23.8 24.2 24.5 24.8         25.2    25.6   26.0   26.3   26.8   27.2   27.6   28.1   28.5   -
400 x 300       19.0 19.9 20.5 20.8 21.2 21.5 21.9 22.2         22.6    23.0   23.4   23.8   24.2   -      -      -      -      -
400 x 250       22.9 23.9 24.6 25.0 25.4 25.8 26.2 26.7         27.1    27.6   28.1   28.6   29.1   -      -      -      -      -
400 x 200       28.6 29.9 30.8 31.3 31.7 32.3 32.8 33.3         33.9    34.5   35.1   35.7   36.4   -      -      -      -      -
350 x 300       22.2 23.4 24.2 24.7 25.2 25.6 26.1 26.7         27.2    27.8   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -
350 x 250       26.7 28.1 29.1 29.6 30.2 30.8 31.4 32.0         32.7    33.3   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -
350 x 200       33.3 35.1 36.4 37.0 37.7 38.5 39.2 40.0         40.8    41.7   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -
320 x 220       33.7 35.7 37.1 37.9 38.7 39.5 40.4 41.3         42.1    43.3   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -
320 x 180       41.2 43.6 45.4 46.3 47.3 48.3 49.4 50.5         51.7    53.0   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -
300 x 200       40.0 42.6 44.4 45.5 46.5 47.6 48.8 50.0         -       -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -
300 x 150       53.3 56.7 59.3 60.6 62.0 63.5 65.0 66.7         -       -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -      -


Moderate exposure – driving rain index between 3                      Severe exposure – driving rain index greater
m2/s and 7 m2/s                                                       than 7 m2/s
Roof pitch          Length of roof slope (m)                          Roof pitch          Length of roof slope (m)
           0 to 5.5    5.6 to 10.0      11.0 to 16.0                             0 to 5.5     5.6 to 10.0     11.0 to 16.0
14°        -           -                -                             14°        -            -               -
20°        135         145              155                           20°        150          -               -
25°        120         130              140                           25°        135          145             155
30°        110         120              125                           30°        120          130             140
35°        100         110              110                           35°        105          110             120
40°        90          100              110                           40°        100          110             110
45°        80          90               100                           45°        90           100             100
75°        65          70               75                            75°        70           75              80

                                                                                                                                  11
     Fixing continued
Nail Fixings
Slate or clout nails should be aluminium to BS 1202:
Part 3, Copper to BS 1202: Part 2, or silicone bronze. In
corrosive or marine atmospheres copper nails are
preferable and in severe conditions silicone bronze
nails should be used.

Nail Sizes
Nominal thickness                Nail length x 3.35mm diameter
of Slate
< 7mm                            30mm minimum
> 7mm                            40mm minimum


COVERAGE OF SLATES WITH NAIL FIXING
This chart shows the number of slates required to cover a m2 when nail fixed, using different slate sizes and
different laps.

 Slate size (mm)              Lap (mm)
 length x width 50    65        75    80     85     90      95     100     105     110   115     120     125     130    135     140    145    150    155
                              Number of slates/m2
 600 x 350    10.2    10.5     10.7 10.8    10.9    11.0    11.2    11.3   11.4   11.5   11.6     11.7    11.9   12.0    12.1   12.2   12.4   12.5   12.7
 600 x 300     11.9   12.3     12.5 12.6    12.7    12.9    13.0    13.1   13.2   13.4   13.5    13.7    13.8    14.0    14.1   14.3   14.4   14.6   14.7
 550 x 300     13.1   13.5     13.8 14.0     14.1   14.3    14.4   14.6    14.7   14.9    15.1   15.2    15.4    15.6   15.8    16.0   16.2   16.4   16.6
 500 x 300    14.6     15.1    15.4 15.6    15.8    16.0    16.2   16.4    16.6   16.8   17.0    17.3    17.5    17.7   18.0    18.2   18.5   18.7   19.0
 500 x 250    17.4    18.0     18.5 18.7    18.9     19.1   19.4   19.6    19.9   20.1   20.4    20.6    20.9    21.2   21.5    21.8   22.1   22.4   22.7
 450 x 300    16.4    17.0     17.5 17.7    18.0    18.2    18.5   18.7    19.0   19.3   19.6    19.9    20.2    20.5   20.8    21.2   21.5   21.9
 400 x 250    22.4    23.4     24.1 24.5 24.9       25.3    25.7   26.1    26.6   27.0   27.5    28.0    28.5    29.0
 400 x 200    27.9    29.1     30.0 30.5    31.0    31.5    32.0   32.5    33.1   33.6   34.2    34.8    35.5    36.1
 350 x 250    26.1    27.5     28.5 29.0 29.6       30.2    30.8   31.4    32.0   32.7   33.4
 350 x 200    32.5    34.2     35.5 36.1    36.8    37.5    38.3   39.0    39.8   40.7   41.5
 300 x 200    39.0    41.5     43.4 44.3 45.4       46.5    47.6   48.8

Values calculated using nominal sizes and incorporating a 5mm Joint gap as per BS 8000: Part 6 : 1990. We
recommend the addition of at least 5% wastage allowance


Sorting and Holing                                                                • Pre-holed slates are available if required at an extra
Natural slate is a relatively brittle product and should                            cost.
be handled with care. Before the slates are fitted they                           • Load out the slates on the roof with the thickest
should be graded and holed. The quality of the slate will                           slates in the lowest courses.
determine how much grading is required.
                                                                                  Wastage
The following processes should be followed to ensure                              An allowance for natural wastage (i.e. when cutting,
best practice:                                                                    holing etc.) should be made. You can expect a different
• It is recommended that sorting and holing are done                              amount of wastage from different slates so check our
  at the same time.                                                               product chart for more information on specific slates.
• Sort slates into different thicknesses (E.g. thick,
  medium and thin).                                                               Cost of installation
• Any slate found to be twisted, bowed etc. should be                             When costing up a natural slate job there is more to
  set to one side and used for eave or top slates, or cut                         consider than the price of the slate. A cheaper slate is
  for half slates, valleys or chimneys.                                           more likely to require more sorting and may suffer
• Roofing slate is always holed from the back to ensure                           more breakages, which impacts on the cost of
  a countersunk area on the front so that any water                               installation.
  present near the hole does not have a direct route to
  the underside of the slate. It also provides a neat
  spalled area for the nail fixings to sit in.




12
                 Face Fix for             Board Fix for
                 Refurbishment            Refurbishment        10,000mm2 airflow
                                                                                                                       Selecting Natural Slate . . . Simply


s Eaves Course
                                                               DBG1 & DBG2
                 ROR6
                 Roll out ridge & hip system Dry Fix Bonding Gutter                                   Soil vents/mechanical                            Slate vents
                 Roll Out Ridge & Hip System
                                                               Slates to Slates or Tiles
                                                                                                      extraction kits
                                                                                                                                                       • Hooded slate vents
                                                                                                                                                       • Flush fitting slate vents
                                                                                                                                                       • Universal slate vents




                                                                                                                                                       Soakers
                                                                                                                                                       • Continuous abutment
                                                                                                                                                         soakers (lipped/unlipped)
                                                                                                                                                       • Individual abutment
                                                                                                                                                         soakers (lipped/unlipped)


                                                                                           Slate Accessories -                                                                    Best
                                                                                           We’ve got the full package!                                               Practice
                                                                                                                                                       Dry fix bonding gutters
                                                                                           DVS 1                                                                   HDSRV 10U
                                                                                           Dry Fix Valley for Slates                                               Slate Roof Vent
                                                                                                                                                                   10,000mm2 airflow

                                                                                                                         these products are
                                                                                                                         for you!
                 Dry verge                                                                                                       Continuous eaves course
                                                                                           Slate valley troughs to fix: no specialist tools
                                                                                                             • Simple
                                                                                                                            required.
                 • Under batten fix                       • Face fix for refurbishment                            slates
                                                                                           • Dry fix valley for Save up to 50% on installation
                                                                                           SVT                                                                     HDSRV 680
                                                                                                               •
                 • Sarking board fix                      • Sarking board fix for          • Scottish slate valley trough
                                                                                           Slate Valley Trough   time.                                             Universal Base Slate Vent
                                                                                                                                                                   20,000mm2 airflow
                                                            refurbishment                                                • Reduced maintenance for Valley
                                                                                                                           Troughs and Dry Verges.
                                                                                                                         • Minimum of 20 year product
                                                                                                                           guarantee.



                                                                                           CSS                           HDV6                     HDV7             ILSRV 10U
                                                                                           Continuous Abutment           Dry Verge Under          Dry Verge Sark   Flush Fitting Slate Vent
                                                                                           Soakers lipped/unlipped       Batten Fix               Board Fix        Universal
                                                                                                                                                                   10,000mm2 airflow


                 Patination Oil:                                                           Tools
                 Lead carbonate can stain slate roofs if the lead is
                 not treated. Therefore, it is advisable to use a                          Faithfull Slaters Axe
                                                                                                                                                                   ILSRV 10/20
                 patination oil on soakers and flashings before any                        SSVT                  HDV8
                                                                                           Faithfull Slaters Ripper            HDV9
                                                                                                                                                                   & 10/24
                 rain falls. Patination oil is available from any of our                   Scottish Slate
                                                                                           Estwing Valley Trough FaceVerge
                                                                                                          Hammer Dry Fix for   Dry Verge Sark
                                                                                                                               Board Fix for                       Flush Fitting Slate Vents
                                                                                                                 Refurbishment Refurbishment                       10,000mm2 airflow
                 branches. Alternatively we supply lead replacement                        Edma Slate and Punch Cutter
                 soaker and flashing alternatives.                                         Edma Slate Guillotine Machine
                                                                                           Nail Gun
                                                                                           CECS
                                                                                           Continuous Eaves Course
                                                                                                                                                                   DBG1 & DBG2
                                                                                                                         ROR6                                      Dry Fix Bonding Gutter
                                                                                                                         Roll Out Ridge & Hip System
                                                                                                                                                                   Slates to Slates or Tiles
                 Quarry Guarantees                                                         European Standards EN12326
                 • The guarantee covers the structural failure of the                      (This has replaced BS 680)
                   product for the stated period. Structural failure                       This document specifies requirements for slate and stone
                   means any defect of the slate itself that                               products for roofing and external cladding.
                   threatens, under normal conditions of use, the
                   water-tightness of the roof.                                            BS 747: 2000 Specification for roofing felts.
                 • The guarantee covers the replacement of every
                   slate that does not meet the above criteria.                            BS 4016: 1997 Specification for breather membranes.
                 • The guarantee is only valid where the fixing is
                   carried out in accordance with BS 5534 /2003                            BS 5534: 2003 Code of practise for slating and tiling.
                   and/or manufacturer's written recommendations.
                 • No guarantee can be extended by the quarry to                           BS 1202: 1974 Specification for nails.
                   cover cracked or broken slates incurred during
                   fixing or holing by slate punching machines.                            BS 6399: Part 2: 1997, Code of practise for windloads
                                                                                           Part 3: 1988, Code of practise for imposed roof loads.
                 Relevant Standards
                 The following references and standards should be                          BS 5250: 2002 Code of practise for the control of
                 referred to when specifying or fixing natural slate                       condensation in buildings.
                 roofing products.
                                                                                           BS 8104: 1992 Code of practise for assessing exposure to
                                                                                           wind driven rain.



                                                                                                                                                                                         13
                               head
                                                                                           Terminology
                                                                                           This diagram gives a brief explanation of the
                                                                                           terms that are commonly used throughout the
              20 to 25mm
                                                                8 to 15mm
                                                                                           roofing industry. However, different regions may
                                                                gauge                      use different names, so we always recommend
                                                                                           that you refer to BS 6100: subsection 1.2.3:
                                                                head lap
                                                                                           1989 – Building and civil engineering terms –
                                                                                           roofs and roofing.


                                                                holing gauge =
                                                                gauge + lap +
                                                                8 to 15mm




                                                         tail
                           margin


                                         bond/side lap




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