Catalan Style Guide by chenmeixiu

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									Catalan Style Guide
Contents
What's New? .................................................................................................................................... 4
 New Topics ................................................................................................................................... 4
 Updated Topics ............................................................................................................................ 4

Introduction ...................................................................................................................................... 5
  About This Style Guide ................................................................................................................ 5
  Scope of This Document .............................................................................................................. 5
  Style Guide Conventions .............................................................................................................. 5
  Sample Text ................................................................................................................................. 6
  Recommended Reference Material ............................................................................................. 7
     Normative References .............................................................................................................. 7
     Informative References ............................................................................................................. 7
     Dictionaries ............................................................................................................................... 8

Language Specific Conventions ...................................................................................................... 9
  Country/Region Standards ........................................................................................................... 9
    Characters ................................................................................................................................ 9
    Date .......................................................................................................................................... 9
    Time ........................................................................................................................................ 11
    Numbers ................................................................................................................................. 13
    Sorting ..................................................................................................................................... 17
  Geopolitical Concerns ................................................................................................................ 19
  Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions ......................................................................... 20
    Adjectives ................................................................................................................................ 20
    Articles .................................................................................................................................... 20
    Capitalization .......................................................................................................................... 22
    Compounds............................................................................................................................. 24
    Gender .................................................................................................................................... 24
    Genitive ................................................................................................................................... 25
    Modifiers ................................................................................................................................. 25
    Nouns ...................................................................................................................................... 25
    Prepositions ............................................................................................................................ 25
    Pronouns ................................................................................................................................. 26
    Punctuation ............................................................................................................................. 26
    Singular & Plural ..................................................................................................................... 30
    Split Infinitive ........................................................................................................................... 30
    Subjunctive ............................................................................................................................. 30
    Symbols & Non-Breaking Spaces........................................................................................... 30
    Syntax ..................................................................................................................................... 31
    Verbs ....................................................................................................................................... 32
    Word Order ............................................................................................................................. 35
  Style and Tone Considerations .................................................................................................. 36
      Audience ................................................................................................................................. 36
      Style ........................................................................................................................................ 36
      Tone ........................................................................................................................................ 36
      Voice ....................................................................................................................................... 37
      Help Localizations Guidelines ................................................................................................. 38

Localization Guidelines .................................................................................................................. 40
  General Considerations ............................................................................................................. 40
   Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................... 40
   Accessibility ............................................................................................................................ 41
   Acronyms ................................................................................................................................ 41
   Applications, Products, and Features ..................................................................................... 42
   Frequent Errors ....................................................................................................................... 42
   Glossaries ............................................................................................................................... 43
   Fictitious Information ............................................................................................................... 43
   Recurring Patterns .................................................................................................................. 44
   Standardized Translations ...................................................................................................... 44
   Unlocalized Items.................................................................................................................... 44
   Using the Word Microsoft ....................................................................................................... 46
  Software Considerations ............................................................................................................ 46
   User Interface ......................................................................................................................... 46
   Messages ................................................................................................................................ 47
   Keys ........................................................................................................................................ 56
  Document Translation Considerations ....................................................................................... 61
   Titles ....................................................................................................................................... 61
   Copyright ................................................................................................................................. 62
What's New?
Last Updated: February 2011


New Topics
The following topics were added:
       Help Localizations Guidelines




Updated Topics
The overall Style Guide content was fully updated in February 2011 as part of major Style Guide update project
performed for all languages.
The following topics were removed:
       TYPOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS
       TRADEMARKS
       PACKAGING LOCALIZATION GUIDELINES




                                                                                                                 4
Introduction
This Style Guide went through major revision in February 2011 in order to remove outdated and unnecessary
content.


About This Style Guide
The purpose of this Style Guide is to provide everybody involved in the localization of Catalan Microsoft products
with Microsoft-specific linguistic guidelines and standard conventions that differ from or are more prescriptive than
those found in language reference materials. These conventions have been adopted after considering context
based on various needs, but above all, they are easy to follow and applicable for all types of software to be
localized.
The Style Guide covers the areas of formatting and grammatical conventions. It also presents the reader with a
general idea of the reasoning behind the conventions. The present Style Guide is a revision of our previous Style
Guide version with the intention of making it more standardized, more structured, and easier to use as a
reference.
The guidelines and conventions presented in this Style Guide are intended to help you localize Microsoft products
and materials. We welcome your feedback, questions and concerns regarding the Style Guide. You can send us
your feedback via the Microsoft Language Portal feedback page.


Scope of This Document
This Style Guide is intended for the localization professional working on Microsoft products. It is not intended to
be a comprehensive coverage of all localization practices, but to highlight areas where Microsoft has preference
or deviates from standard practices for Catalan localization.


Style Guide Conventions
In this document, a plus sign (+) before a translation example means that this is the recommended correct
translation. A minus sign (-) is used for incorrect translation examples.
In Microsoft localization context, the word term is used in a slightly untraditional sense, meaning the same as e.g.
a segment in Trados. The distinguishing feature of a term here is that it is translated as one unit; it may be a
traditional term (as used in terminology), a phrase, a sentence, or a paragraph.
References to interface elements really only refer to translatable texts associated with those interface elements.
Example translations in this document are only intended to illustrate the point in question. They are not a source
of approved terminology. Always check for approved translation in the Microsoft Language Portal.




                                                                                                                      5
Sample Text
Voleu conèixer més bé Catalunya i el català? Sí? Som-hi doncs!
En els öltims anys ha augmentat l'interès en l'àmbit estatal i internacional per la llengua i la cultura catalanes. Per
això, l'Associaciñ Catalunya Oberta, fundada el 1998, ofereix cursos de llengua i cultura catalana que cobreixen
tots els aspectes de la vida cultural a Catalunya i la resta dels Països Catalans.


Oferim una gran varietat de cursos de llengua a tots els nivells, des de cursos per a principiants no-
catalanoparlants fins a cursos avançats de perfeccionament, traducciñ i correcciñ lingüística per a tots aquells
que vulguin aprofundir en el seu coneixement del català.


A més dels cursos de llengua, també ens especialitzem en cursos de cultura catalana que cobreixen aspectes
diversos com ara l'art, l'arquitectura, la literatura, el teatre, el cinema, els costums i les tradicions populars,
l'economia i la política catalana, per citar-ne alguns exemples.


Com a part dels cursos organitzem sortides diàries i excursions de cap de setmana a llocs d'importància cultural
tant dins del Principat com de la resta de Països Catalans. Fins ara els nostres estudiants han visitat, entre
d'altres, diferents museus (Museu Picasso, Fundaciñ Mirñ, Museu Dalí a Figueres, etc.), així com llocs com
l'abadia de Montserrat, els monestirs de Poblet i Santes Creus, les ciutats de Tarragona i Girona, les runes
gregues d'Empöries, les esglésies romàniques dels Pirineus i la Vall d'Aran, l'illa de Mallorca i la ciutat de
València. També han assistit a obres de teatre, concerts al Palau de la Mösica i a espectacles estivals al Teatre
Grec de Montjuïc.


Els cursos s'ofereixen durant tot l'any i la seva duraciñ pot variar des de dues setmanes fins a nou mesos. Els
estudiants tenen la possibilitat de cercar l'allotjament pel seu compte o bé de conviure amb una família catalana
curosament seleccionada per la nostra associaciñ.


Per obtenir més informaciñ sobre els cursos, les dates d'inici o els preus poseu-vos en contacte amb:


Joana Vilaseca
Associaciñ Catalunya Oberta
C/Sardenya 210, 3r 1a
08013 Barcelona
Tel.: ++ 00 34 932 463 456
Fax: ++ 00 34 932 466 350


Creat el 26 de gener de 2011, a les 11:18 h.



                                                                                                                      6
Recommended Reference Material
Use the Catalan language and terminology as described and used in the following publications.


Normative References
These normative sources must be adhered to. Any deviation from them automatically fails a string in most cases.
When more than one solution is allowed in these sources, look for the recommended one in other parts of the
Style Guide.
    1. Badia i Margarit, A. M. Gramàtica de la llengua catalana. Descriptiva, normativa, diatòpica, diastràtica.
    Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana, 1994.
    2. Fabra, P. Gramàtica catalana. Barcelona: Teide, various editions.
    3. Jané, A. Gramàtica catalana. Barcelona: Salvat, 1977.


Informative References
These sources are meant to provide supplementary information, background, comparison, etc.
    1. Abreviacions. Barcelona: Direcciñ General de Política Lingüística. Departament de Cultura, 1997.
    2. AVUI. Llibre d'estil. Barcelona: Empöries, 1997.
    3. Badia, J. [et al.]. El llibre de la llengua catalana. Barcelona: Castellnou, 1997.
    4. Coromina, E. El 9 Nou. Manual de redacciñ i estil. 3a ediciñ. Vic: Diputaciñ de Barcelona; Eumo Editorial;
    Premsa d'Osona, 1993.
    5. Coromines, J. Lleures i converses d’un filòleg. Barcelona: Club Editor, 1971. (El Pi de les Tres Branques,
    II-III)
    6. Dubtes lingüístics més freqüents. Barcelona: Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 1996.
    7. Estella, M.; Riera, M. Les majöscules i les minöscules. 2a ed. Bellaterra: Gabinet de Llengua Catalana de
    la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 1995.
    8. Fabra, P. Converses filològiques. Barcelona: Barcino, 1954-1956. Also available in Edhasa, 1983-1988. 2
    vol.
    9. Fabra, P. Les principals faltes de gramàtica. Barcelona: Barcino, various eds. (Col. Popular Barcino‖, 2)
    10. Fabra, P. Ortografia catalana. Barcelona: Barcino, various eds. (Col. Popular Barcino, 1)
    11. Fabra, P. Sintaxi catalana. Barcelona: Aqua, 1982. (Biblioteca Vidal de Besalö, II)
    12. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Secciñ filològica. Documents de la Secciñ Filològica I. Barcelona: Institut
    d’Estudis Catalalans, 1990. (Biblioteca Filològica; XIX)
    13. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Secciñ filològica. Documents de la Secciñ Filològica II. Barcelona: Institut
    d’Estudis Catalalans, 1992 (Biblioteca Filològica; XXVII)
    14. Institut d'Estudis Catalans. Secciñ filològica. Documents de la Secciñ Filològica III. Barcelona: Institut
    d’Estudis Catalalans, 1996 (Biblioteca Filològica; XXX)
    15. Marvà, J. Curs superior de gramàtica catalana. Barcelona: Barcino, various editions. (Manuals Lingüístics
    Barcino, 3)


                                                                                                                     7
  16. Mestres, J. M. [et al.]. Manual d’estil: La redacciñ i l’ediciñ de textos. Barcelona: Eumo Editorial;
  Universitat de Barcelona; Universitat Pompeu Fabra; A.M. Rosa Sensat, 1995.
  17. Mestres, J. M.; Guillén, J. Diccionari d'abreviacions. Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana, 1992.
  18. Pujol, J. M.; Solà, J. Tractat de puntuaciñ. Barcelona: Columna, 1989.
  19. Ruaix, J. Observacions crítiques i pràctiques sobre el català d'avui 1/2. Moià: Josep Ruaix, 1994-1995
  20. Solà, J. [et al.]. Llibre d'estil de l'Ajuntament de Barcelona. Barcelona: Ajuntament de Barcelona, 1995.
  21. TERMCAT. Formaciñ del plural dels manlleus. Barcelona: TERMCAT; Generalitat de Catalunya,
  Departament de Cultura, 1992. (Criteris Lingüístics per a la Terminologia, 4)
  22. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Gabinet de Llengua Catalana. Els signes de puntuaciñ. 2a ed.
  Bellaterra: Servei de Publicacions de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 1995.
  23. Xuriguera, J.B. Els verbs catalans conjugats. 8a ed. Barcelona: Editorial Claret, 1995.


Dictionaries
  1. Alcover, A. M.; Moll, F. Diccionari català-valencià-balear. 2a ed. Palma de Mallorca: Moll, 1978. 10. vol.
  Also available at http://dcvb.iecat.net/.
  2. Bruguera, J. Diccionari ortogràfic i de pronöncia. Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana, 1990.
  3. Gran diccionari de la llengua catalana. Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana, 1998.
  Available online at http://www.grec.net/home/cel/dicc.htm.
  4. Diccionari de la llengua catalana. 2a ed. Barcelona: Institut d'Estudis Catalans, 1997.
  Available online at http://dlc.iec.cat/.
  5. Diccionari de neologismes. Barcelona: Termcat; Edicions 62, 1997.
  6. Ginebra, J.; Montserrat, A. Diccionari d'ös dels verbs catalans. Barcelona: Edicions 62, 1999.
  7. Ruaix, J. Diccionari auxiliar. Moià: Josep Ruaix, 1996.
  8. TERMCAT. Diccionari d'Internet. Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana, 2001.
  9. TERMCAT. Societat de la informaciñ. Noves tecnologies i Internet: diccionari terminològic. Barcelona:
  TERMCAT, Centre de Terminologia, 2000.




                                                                                                                  8
Language Specific Conventions
This part of the style guide contains information about standards specific to Catalan.


Country/Region Standards
Characters

Country/region                   Spain/Catalonia, Andorra

                                 a, à, b, c, ç, d, e, è, é, f, g, h, i, í, ï, j, k, l, ll, l·l, m, n, o, ò, ñ, p, q, r, s, t, u, ö, ü, v,
Lower-case characters
                                 x, y, z

                                 A, À, B, C, Ç, D, E, È, É, F, G, H, I, Í, Ï, J, K, L, LL, L·L, M, N, O, Ò, Ó, P, Q, R,
Upper-case characters
                                 S, T, U, Ú, Ü, V, X, Y, Z

Characters in caseless
                                 N/A
scripts

Extended Latin characters        à, À, ç, Ç, è, È, é, É, í, Í, ï, Ï, l·l, L·L, ò, Ò, ñ, Ó, ö, Ú, ü, Ü

Note on alphabetical order       Alphabetical order is not necessarily indicative of sorting order.

Total number of characters       37

                                 À (ALT+0192), È (ALT+0200), É (ALT+0201), Í (ALT+0205), Ï (ALT+0207), Ò
                                 (ALT+0210), Ó (ALT+0211), Ú (ALT+0218), Ü (ALT+0220)
Unicode codes                    à (ALT+0224), è (ALT+0232), é (ALT+0233), í (ALT+0237), ï (ALT+0239), ò
                                 (ALT+0242), ñ (ALT+0243), ö (ALT+0250), ü (ALT+0252)
                                 Ç (ALT+0199), ç (ALT+0231), « (ALT+0171), » (ALT+0187), € (ALT+0128)

                                 The Catalan alphabet does not contain à, À, ç, Ç, è, È, é, É, í, Í, ï, Ï, l·l, L·L, ò, Ò,
Notes                            ñ, Ó, ö, Ú, ü, Ü, but the characters are used in the language.
                                 The Catalan alphabet contains 26 letters.


Date

Country/region                Spain/Catalonia, Andorra

Calendar/Era                  Gregorian

First Day of the Week         Monday

First Week of the Year        The week in January that contains the first days of the New Year.


                                                                                                                                        9
Country/region              Spain/Catalonia, Andorra

Separator                   Slash (/)

Default Short Date
                            dd/MM/yy
Format

Example                     17/03/11

Default Long Date Format d de/d'MMMM de yyyy

Example                     17 de març de 2011

Additional Short Date
                            dd/MM/yyyy
Format 1

Example                     17/03/2011

Additional Short Date
                            dd.MM.yyyy
Format 2

Example                     17.03.2011

Additional Long Date
                            N/A
Format 1

Example                     N/A

Additional Long Date
                            N/A
Format 2

Example                     N/A

Leading Zero in Day Field
                            yes
for Short Date Format

Leading Zero in Month
Field for Short Date        yes
Format

No. of digits for century
                            2
for Short Day Format

Leading Zero in Day Field
                            no
for Long Date Format

Leading Zero in Month
Field for Long Date         no
Format

Number of digits for year
                            4
for Long Day Format


                                                       10
Country/region             Spain/Catalonia, Andorra

Date Format for
                           dddd, d de/d'MMMM de yyyy
Correspondence

Example                    dimecres, 17 de març de 2011

                           •   Year & Month Format is: MM/yy or MM/yyyy
                           • In the default long date format and the date format for correspondence, the use
Notes
                           of "de/d'" is necessary because some month names start with a vowel, and therefore
                           require an apostrophe. For example, 17 d'abril de 2011.

                           d is for day, number of d's indicates the format (d = digits without leading zero, dd =
                           digits with leading zero, ddd = the abbreviated day name, dddd = full day name)
Abbreviations in Format    M is for month, number of M's gives number of digits. (M = digits without leading
Codes                      zero, MM = digits with leading zero, MMM = the abbreviated name, MMMM = full
                           name)
                           y is for year, number of y's gives number of digits (yy = two digits, yyyy = four digits)


Time

Country/region                 Spain/Catalonia, Andorra

24 hour format                 yes

Standard time format           HH:mm:ss

Standard time format
                               17:15:00
example

Time separator                 colon (:)

                               03:24:12
Time separator examples
                               21:33:45

Hours leading zero             yes

Hours leading zero example     03:24:12

String for AM designator       N/A

String for PM designator       N/A

                               The traditional format for time in Catalan speaking areas is the 24-hour
                               convention, without leading zeros for single digits, and with a period (.) as the
Notes                          separator for hours, minutes and seconds. However, the influence of technology,
                               particularly the widespread use of digital devices, has influenced the time format
                               and it is now more common to find time expressed in the 24- hour format, with

                                                                                                                 11
Country/region                     Spain/Catalonia, Andorra
                                   leading zeros for single digits, and a colon (:) as the separator for hours, minutes
                                   and seconds.


Days

Country/region: Spain/Catalonia, Andorra


Day                                     Normal Form                             Abbreviation

Monday                                  dilluns                                 dl.

Tuesday                                 dimarts                                 dt.

Wednesday                               dimecres                                dc.

Thursday                                dijous                                  dj.

Friday                                  divendres                               dv.

Saturday                                dissabte                                ds.

Sunday                                  diumenge                                dg.


First Day of Week: Monday
Is first letter capitalized?: No
Notes: N/A


Months

Country/region: Spain/Catalonia, Andorra


Month                          Full Form                    Abbreviated Form                 Long Date Form

January                        gener                        gen                              Same as Full Form.

February                       febrer                       feb                              Same as Full Form.

March                          març                         març                             Same as Full Form.

April                          abril                        abr                              Same as Full Form.

May                            maig                         maig                             Same as Full Form.

June                           juny                         juny                             Same as Full Form.

July                           juliol                       jul                              Same as Full Form.



                                                                                                                    12
Month                          Full Form                 Abbreviated Form               Long Date Form

August                         agost                     ag                             Same as Full Form.

September                      setembre                  set                            Same as Full Form.

October                        octubre                   oct                            Same as Full Form.

November                       novembre                  nov                            Same as Full Form.

December                       desembre                  des                            Same as Full Form.


Is first letter capitalized?: No
Notes: N/A


Numbers

Numbers consisting of many digits are divided into groups containing three digits each, which are separated with
periods. Decimal values are separated from the integer number with a comma. Fractional parts are not separated
by spaces. Four-digit numbers and numbers representing years, page numbers, postal codes, lottery numbers,
etc., are also kept together.
In the case of addresses, names, dates, units of measurements and currency values, the words should stay
together on one line.
Ordinal numbers are abbreviated by leaving the number and the last letter of the name, without period. For
instance: 1r, 2n, 3r, 4t, 5è...


Phone Numbers

Country/     International   Area Codes      Number of         Separator     Number of         Digit Groupings
region       Dialing         Used?           Digits – Area                   Digits –          – Domestic
             Code                            Codes                           Domestic

Spain/       34              yes             2;3               space         9;10              ### ### ###; ###
Catalonia                                                                                      ### ## ##

Country/     Number of       Digit           Number of         Digit         Number of         Digit Groupings
region       Digits –        Groupings –     Digits –          Groupings –   Digits –          – International
             Local           Local           Mobile            Mobile        International

Spain/       9;10            ### ### ###;    9                 ### ### ###   11;12             +34 ### ### ###;
Catalonia                    ### ### ## ##                                                     +34 ### ### ##
                                                                                               ##




                                                                                                              13
Country/      International     Area Codes     Number of       Separator       Number of       Digit Groupings
region        Dialing           Used?          Digits – Area                   Digits –        – Domestic
              Code                             Codes                           Domestic

Andorra       376               no             N/A             space           6               ### ###

Country/      Number of         Digit          Number of       Digit           Number of       Digit Groupings
region        Digits –          Groupings –    Digits –        Groupings –     Digits –        – International
              Local             Local          Mobile          Mobile          International

Andorra       6                 ### ###        9               ### ### ###     9               +376 ### ###


Notes:
         All LAN numbers in Andorra are 6 digits long.
         City/Area code is not applicable for telephone numbers within Andorra.


Addresses

Country/region: Spain/Catalonia, Andorra
Disclaimer: Please note that the information in this entry should under no circumstances be used in examples as
fictitious information.
Address Format:
1.[Title] FirstName LastName [i] [SecondLastName]
2. [CompanyName]
3. Address1
4. [Address2]
5. Postal Code City/Town
6. [Province/Country]
Example Address:
[Srta.] Anna Pujol [i] [Solà]
[Viatges Equador]
C/ Casp, 58
08013 Barcelona
[Espanya]
Example Guide:
Srta. [= Title] Anna Pujol i Solà
[= FirstName LastName i SecondLast Name]
Viatges Equador [= CompanyName]
C/ Casp, 58 [= Address 1]


                                                                                                              14
08013 Barcelona [= PostalCode + City]
Espanya [= Country]


Local Postal Code Format: xxxxx

Notes:

        Items in brackets are optional or seldom used.
        Country Codes are not commonly used. The full name of the country is preferred. The "Province" field is
         only used when the mail is not addressed to the capital of the province, but to one of its towns or villages.
        Postal codes always have five digits and precede the name of the city or the town. Capital cities of the
         province have different postal codes for different areas of the city.
        All Catalan people have two surnames. The first last name comes from the father’s side and it is
         considered the main one, although sometimes both last names are used. If only one is used it has to be
         the first one. The [i] used to join the two surnames is optional.
        The postal code in Spain consists of five digits, e.g. 08013. There are no postal codes in Andorra.
        In international use only the country code is prefixed to the code using a hyphen. The code for Spain is
         'E', e.g. E-25740. Also note that there is one space between the postal code and the name of the town,
         which is always written with an initial capital letter. Example:

                            17480 Roses


Currency

Country/region                           Spain/Catalonia, Andorra

Currency Name                            Euro

Currency Symbol                          €

                                         The symbol for Euro is placed after the amount, with a separating space
Currency Symbol Position
                                         between them.

Positive Currency Format                 1,10 €

                                         For negative values, an en dash (ANSI 0150) is used before the value (no
Negative Sign Symbol
                                         spaces) as a minus sign.

Negative Currency Format                 –1,10 €

Decimal Symbol                           , (comma)

Number of Digits after Decimal           2

Digit Grouping Symbol                    . (period)

Number of Digits in Digit
                                         3
Grouping

Positive Currency Example                123.456.789,16 €

                                                                                                                   15
Negative Currency Example                  –123.456.789,16 €

ISO Currency Code                          EUR

Currency Subunit Name                      Cèntim

Currency Subunit Symbol                    ct.

Currency Subunit Example                   17 ct.


Notes: The plural form of euro is euros; the plural form of cèntim is cèntims.


Digit Groups

Country/region: Spain/Catalonia, Andorra
Decimal Separator: ,
Decimal Separator Description: comma
Decimal Separator Example: 23,45
Thousand Separator: .
Thousand Separator Description: period
Thousand Separator Example: 1.345
Notes: The thousands separator is not used with numbers representing years (2004), page numbers, postal
codes and addresses, laws, lotteries and the like.


Measurement Units

Metric System Commonly Used?: Yes
Temperature: Celsius


Category                      English                      Translation            Abbreviation

Linear Measure                Kilometer                    kilòmetre/quilòmetre   km

                              Meter                        metre                  m

                              Decimeter                    decímetre              dm

                              Centimeter                   centímetre             cm

                              Millimeter                   mil·límetre            mm

Capacity                      Hectoliter                   hectolitre             hl

                              Liter                        litre                  l

                              Deciliter                    decilitre              dl


                                                                                                          16
Category                      English                         Translation                     Abbreviation

                              Centiliter                      centilitre                      cl

                              Milliliter                      mil·lilitre                     ml

Mass                          Ton                             tona                            t

                              Kilogram                        quilogram/kilogram              kg

                              Pound                           lliura                          lb

                              Gram                            gram                            g

                              Decigram                        decigram                        dg

                              Centigram                       centigram                       cg

                              Milligram                       mil·ligram                      mg

English Units of              Inch                            polzada                         in
Measurement
                              Feet                            peu                             ft

                              Mile                            milla                           mi

                              Gallon                          galñ                            gal


Notes:
For English units of measurements, English abbreviations are used.


Percentages

Percentage symbol (%) must follow the amount, without any blank spaces (i.e. 100%).


Sorting

                   1. ―ç‖ is a variation of ―c‖, not actual part of the Catalan alphabet.
                   2. ―l•l‖ (ela geminada) is a compound letter, not actual part of the Catalan alphabet.
Sorting rules
                   3. Non-alphabetical characters (i.e. symbols like @ ! #) sort before the letters of the alphabet.
                   4. Digits sort after the non-alphabetical characters and before the letters of the alphabet.

                   a (97), b (98), c (99), d (100), e (101), f (102), g (103), h (104), i (105), j (106), k (107), l (108),
                   m (109), n (110), o (111), p (112), q (113), r (114), s (115), t (116), u (117), v (118), w (119), x
Character          (120, y (121), z (122)
sorting order      A (65), B (66), C (67), D (68), E (69), F (70), G (71), H (72), I (73), J (74), K (75), L (76), M (77),
                   N (78), O (79), P (80), Q (81), R (82), S (83), T (84), U (85), V (86), W (87), X (88), Y (89), Z
                   (90)


                                                                                                                          17
               1
               @
               Aaron
               andere
               ändere
               chaque
               chemin
               cote
               coté
               cóte
               cóté
               cucet
               Czech
               hiša
               irdisch
               lävi
               lie
Examples of
               lire
sorted words
               llama
               lõug
               Lôwen
               lòza
               Lübeck
               luc
               luck
               lye
               Männer
               màšta
               mîr
               môchten
               myndig
               pint
               piða
               pylon
               sämtlich


                          18
                   šàran
                   savoir
                   Šerbura
                   Sietla
                   slub
                   subtle
                   symbol
                   väga
                   verkehrt
                   vox
                   waffle
                   wood
                   yen
                   yuan
                   yucca
                   ţal
                   ţena
                   Ţeneva
                   zoo
                   Zürich
                   Zviedrija
                   zysk
                   zzlj
                   zzlz
                   zznj
                   zznz



Geopolitical Concerns
Part of the cultural adaptation of the US-product to a specific market is the resolving of geopolitical issues. While
the US-product should have been designed and developed with neutrality and a global audience in mind, the
localized product should respond to the particular situation that applies within the target country/region.


Sensitive issues or issues that might potentially be offensive to the users in the target country/region may occur in
any of the following:
       Maps
       Flags

                                                                                                                    19
       Country/region, city and language names
       Art and graphics
       Cultural content, such as encyclopedia content and other text where historical or political references may
        occur
Some of these issues are relatively easy to verify and resolve: the objective should be for the localizer to always
have the most current information available. Maps and other graphic representations of countries/regions and
regions should be checked for accuracy and existing political restrictions. Country/region, city and language
names change on a regular basis and need to be checked, even if previously approved.
A thorough understanding of the culture of the target market is required for checking the appropriateness of
cultural content, clip art and other visual representations of religious symbols, body and hand gestures.


Grammar, Syntax & Orthographic Conventions
This section includes information on how to apply the general rules of the Catalan language to Microsoft products
and documentation.


Adjectives
In Catalan, adjectives should usually be placed after the noun, unlike in English.

Create new folder                       (+) Crea una carpeta nova.


                                        (-) Crea una nova carpeta.


Possessive adjectives
The frequent use of possessives is a feature of English language. However in Catalan possessive adjectives are
only used to express real sense of property. Therefore in most cases it is advisable to translate the possessives
simply with the determinate article.

Open your file                          (+) Obriu el fitxer.


                                        (-) Obriu el vostre fitxer.


Articles
General considerations
English texts tend to be more economical with words and tend to omit articles, etc. However, in Catalan all
necessary linguistic elements must be used (articles, pronouns, prepositions, etc.)


Example:

Connect to the server                   (+) Connecta't al servidor

                                                                                                                  20
                                         (-) Connecta al servidor
Add to message                           (+) Afegeix-ho al missatge
                                         (-) Afegeix al missatge

Change table properties                  (+) Canvia les propietats de la taula
                                         (-) Canvia propietats taula


Unlocalized Feature Names


Microsoft product names and non-translated feature names are used without definite or indefinite articles in the
English language. Unlike in English and Spanish, the definite article must always precede the name of programs
and applications in Catalan.


Setting the default printer or options   (+) La impressora i les opcions que definiu per
will affect Word and all other           defecte afectaran el Word i la resta d'aplicacions del
Windows-based applications.              Windows.
                                         (-) La impressora i les opcions que definiu per defecte
                                         afectaran Word i la resta d'aplicacions de Windows.


Localized Feature Names


Microsoft product names and translated feature names are used without definite or indefinite articles in the
English language. Unlike in English and Spanish, the definite article must always precede the name of programs
and applications in Catalan.


A page which can be easily edited in     (+) Una pàgina que pot editar-se de manera fàcil al
the web browser using Web Edit.          navegador web mitjançant l'Ediciñ web.
                                         (-) Una pàgina que pot editar-se de manera fàcil al
                                         navegador web mitjançant Ediciñ web.


Articles for English Borrowed Terms


When faced with an English loan word previously used in Microsoft products, consider the following options:
       Motivation: Does the English word have any formally motivated features that would allow a
        straightforward integration into the noun class system of Catalan language?
       Analogy: Is there an equivalent Catalan term whose article could be used?
       Frequency: Is the term used in other technical documentation? If so, what article is used most often?
The internet may be a helpful reference here.

                                                                                                                21
Please always consult Language Portal to confirm the use of a new loan word and its proper article to avoid
inconsistencies.
Example: internet, bàner, bloc


Capitalization
English tends to capitalize much more often than Catalan. The use of unnecessary capital letters should be
avoided in Catalan.

Table Definition                         (+) Definiciñ de la taula
                                         (-) Definiciñ de la Taula


When to use upper case: First letter of a sentence, after dot, after exclamation/question mark/ellipsis, proper
names, menu or dialog names. Also, only the first letter of a heading is capitalized, unless the heading also
contains a word or words that would normally be written with an initial capital or in all capitals (e.g. name of a
product or an acronym).
Example:

(+) Guia de referència ràpida
(+) Introducciñ al Windows XP


Catalan capitalization differs from English capitalization. For instance, only the first letter of the first word is
capitalized in Catalan in captions, headings, titles, commands or menu names, etc. The use of capital letters on
key names is normally limited to the initial letter of the key name; in that regard documentation and software
should be the same, we recommend not to change the character format included for English.
The following tables give the correct capitalization rules for various situations:

Item                        Initial capital?                  Example

                            English            Catalan

Genitive adjectives         Yes                No             argentí, brasiler, holandès, rus

Names of days, months,      Yes                No             dilluns, gener, primavera
seasons

Names of languages          Yes                No             anglès, francès, xinès, alemany

Names of templates          Yes                Yes            la plantilla Normal

Views                       Yes                No             visualitzaciñ del full de dades
                                                              visualitzaciñ normal

Press Ctrl-C to exit from   Yes                Yes            Premeu Control-C per sortir de
refresh.                                                      l’actualitzaciñ




                                                                                                                       22
Usually All Capitals
Item                    All caps?                               Example
                        English             Catalan

Devices names           Yes                 Yes                 LPT1

Directories             Not necessarily     Not necessarily     directori TMP or Tmp
Drive names             Yes                 Yes                 unitat A:

Environment variables   Yes                 Yes                 INCLUDE

File extensions         Not necessarily     Not necessarily     els fitxers .TXT or .txt

Filenames               Not necessarily     Not necessarily     fitxer DESPESES.XLM
                                                                or Despeses.xlm

Program name            Yes                 Yes                 el compilador de
abbreviations                                                   recursos (RC,
                                                                Resource Compiler)

Message constants       Yes                 Yes                 el missatge
                                                                WM_PAINT

Paths                   No                  No                  C:\Taules.Tax.xls

Registers               Yes                 Yes                 DS
Symbolic constants            Yes                 Yes           NULL


Usually Lowercase
Item                                  All lowercase?                   Example
                                      English         Catalan

Command-line commands                 Yes             Yes              l’ordre copy

Command-line options                  Yes             Yes              l’opciñ /l:
Toolbar                               No              Yes              barra d’eines

Unnamed windows                       Yes             Yes              la finestra del
                                                                       document
User input                            Yes             Yes              escriviu copy
                                                                       nom_de_fitxer b:

Utility names                         Yes             Yes              la utilitat chkdsk




                                                                                            23
Accented Capital Letters
The use of accented capital letters is mandatory according to the Catalan grammar. Accented capital letters are to
be used unless otherwise specified or when their use is not possible due to software incompatibilities. For
instance, names of functions in programming languages cannot take accent marks. Should the user type the
name of the function with an accented capital, the software will return an error message, very general in nature
and not indicative of the actual cause of the error.

Software Interface Elements
Capitalize only the first letter of the first word in commands, dialog box titles, dialog box options, options or
commands ―with slashes‖, menus, buttons, and names of windows.

EXAMPLES:        (+) Al menö Fitxer, trieu l’ordre Anomena i desa.
                 (+) Al quadre de diàleg Selecció especial, trieu l’opciñ ―Cel·les en blanc‖.
                 (+) A la finestra Ajuda, trieu el botñ ―Cerca‖.
                 (+) Al menö Visualitzar, trieu Capçalera i peu.




Headings and Titles
In headings, captions, and table and figure titles, unlike the English, for Catalan use initial capitals only for the first
word, and for proper nouns and interface terms that require it.

Work with Files               (+) Treball amb fitxers
                              (-) Treball amb Fitxers

Quick Reference Guide         (+) Guia de referència ràpida
                              (-) Guia de Referència Ràpida


Compounds

Generally, compounds should be understandable and clear to the user. Overly long or complex compounds
should be avoided. Keep in mind that unintuitive compounds are ultimately an intelligibility and usability issue.
Usually, hyphen is not used in prefixes and most compounds.
Example: antivirus, audiovisual
However, it should be used with compounds containing two Catalan words, when the second one begins with ―s‖,
―r‖ or ―x‖.
Example: porta-retalls, posa-ratolins


Gender

When the same adjective or participle modifies two nouns of different gender, it is recommended to use the
masculine form of adjective/participle.
                                                                                                                        24
Example:
Hide running programs and                 (+) Amagueu els programes i les aplicacions oberts.
applications.

                                          (-) Amagueu els programes i les aplicacions obertes.


Genitive
This section does not apply to Catalan


Modifiers

In Catalan localised text you often need to add modifiers before names of objects, menus, commands, dialog box
elements, icons, etc. (descriptions of the object the name refers to). In general, English text doesn't have these
modifiers.
Example:

Click Save                                (+) Feu clic al botñ Desa.


Nouns
General considerations
In Catalan, nouns can usually vary in number and gender.
Example:
el gos, la gossa, els gossos, les gosses.


Inflection

This section does not apply to Catalan


Plural Formation

When a noun ends in -sc, -st, -xt or -ig, it is recommended to insert a vowel (except for aquest > aquests).
Example:
bosc > boscos, test > testos, context > contextos, sondeig > sondejos


Prepositions
Pay attention to the correct use of the preposition in translations. Influenced by the English language, many
translators omit them or change the word order.
―Per‖ and ―per a‖: in front of infinitive, please always use ―per‖:

                                                                                                                25
US Expression                          Catalan Expression                     Comment

Available for Download                 (+) Disponible per baixar              Do not use "Disponible per a baixar‖


Pronouns

Please pay special attention to the use of pronouns (pronoms febles), since they tend to be omitted due to the
influence of Spanish language.
Example:

Connect to the server                  (+) Connecta't al servidor
                                       (-) Connecta al servidor

Add to message                         (+) Afegeix-ho al missatge
                                       (-) Afegeix al missatge


Punctuation
Catalan error messages (except questions) usually finish with the period. Exclamation marks are not used.
Question marks are used for questions.

US packaging texts are not always consistent in the use of punctuation. Make sure you follow the Catalan
punctuation guidelines (e.g. use single instead of double spaces after full stop at the end of sentences, use
Catalan style titles, etc.).

Note: Always check with the Project Manager if the US PDF file exists for the packaging materials you are going
to localise. You should need that to be able to identify headings, captions, etc. to apply Catalan punctuation and
formatting rules which may differ from the US rules.

Comma


Do not use comma before conjunctions ―i‖ and ―or‖ when enumerating related items. Example:

Menus, toolbars, and keys.             (+) Menös, barres d'eines i tecles.


                                       (-) Menös, barres d'eines, i tecles.

Use comma when joining propositions:
Check for new messages at startup.     (+) En iniciar, comprova si hi ha correu nou.


                                       (-) En iniciar comprova si hi ha correu nou.




                                                                                                                 26
Colon


Use colons to introduce an enumeration belonging to the same sentence, before presenting an example and
before a quote. No blank space should be left before the colon, and one blank space must be left after it.
Example:
Per exemple: un ordinador.

Do not use colons twice in the same sentence, but replace the second one with a period or semicolon when
necessary.
Example: S'ha acabat: aquesta secciñ s’ha revisat. Voleu continuar revisant la resta?

Dashes and Hyphens

Three different dash characters are used in English:
Hyphen

The hyphen is used to divide words between syllables, to link parts of a compound word, and to connect the parts
of an inverted or imperative verb form. A hyphen (U002D or -) is used to join two parts of a compound term and
to divide words (into syllables) at the end of a line. It is the shortest of the three dash characters.

A single vowel should not be left alone at the beginning or the end of a line and hyphenated words should never
be broken and must appear on the same line.

Examples:

• MS-DOS

• Escriviu dblspace a continuaciñ del sím-
bol del sistema


En Dash

The en dash is used as a minus sign, usually with spaces before and after. The principal use of an en dash
(U0150 or –) is to indicate ranges of numbers, for example, inclusive values, dates, times, or reference numbers.
No spaces are used around the en dash in this case. Also use an en dash to indicate a minus sign.

Examples:

• -18 ºC

• pàgines 112-123




                                                                                                              27
Em Dash
The em dash should only be used to emphasize an isolated element or introduce an element that is not essential
to the meaning conveyed by the sentence.
When it performs the same function as brackets (that is, introduce an element that is not essential to the meaning
conveyed by the sentence) a space must be placed before the opening em dash and after the closing em dash for
Catalan.


Example:

These cells hold the individual         (+) Aquestes cel·les contenen elements individuals —
elements—text, numbers, formulas        text, nömeros, fñrmules, etc.— que constitueixen el
etc.—which make up the data to be       conjunt de dades que es mostraran i es manipularan.
displayed and manipulated.

                                        (-) Aquestes cel·les contenen elements individuals—
                                        text, nömeros, fñrmules, etc.—que constitueixen el
                                        conjunt de dades que es mostraran i es manipularan.

When used to emphasize an isolated element, it should be replaced by comma or semicolon:
Going the other way is not so           (+) Fer-ho de l'altra manera, no és tan senzill: cal
easy—you must delete and reinsert       suprimir i tornar a insertar cada imatge, una per una.
each image, one at a time.

                                        (-) Fer-ho de l'altra manera, no és tan senzill—cal
                                        suprimir i tornar a insertar cada imatge, una per una.



Ellipses (Suspension Points)
Opposite to English, no blank space should be used between ellipses and preceding term.
Example:

Loading ...                             (+) S'està carregant...


                                        (-) S'està carregant ...


Keep in mind the following when using ellipses/suspension points:
If a sentence begins with ellipses, no blank space should be used either. Also, please don’t use ellipses with ―etc.‖
and ―etcètera‖ as it is redundant.
Example:

... the field name is not empty.        (+) ...el nom del camp no és buit.


                                        (-) ... el nom del camp no és buit.

                                                                                                                  28
Example:
Project directory, output file, etc.       (+) Directori del projecte, fitxer de sortida...


                                           (-) Directori del projecte, fitxer de sortida, etc...



Period


Periods are commonly used at the end of sentences or in abbreviations. Please do not use periods after ellipses.
Example:

Change the preferences for                 (+) Canvia les preferències per baixar capçaleres de
downloading message headers.               missatge.


                                           (-) Canvia les preferències per baixar capçaleres de
                                           missatge

News, research, quotes, etc.               (+) Notícies, treballs de recerca, cites, etc.


                                           (-) Notícies, treballs de recerca, cites, etc

Project directory, output file, etc.       (+) Directori del projecte, fitxer de sortida...


                                           (-) Directori del projecte, fitxer de sortida, etc....

Quotation Marks

In Catalan, the quotation marks commonly used are the guillemets or chevrons (« ») (also called Latin quotes)
and the English curly or smart quotes (― ‖). With the widespread use of English texts and translations that
generally use the English soft text as the basis for the new translated text, curly quotes (― ‖) are common in
Catalan printed material. In Microsoft Catalan documentation, curly or smart quotes will be used in normal text.

Example:

Per obtenir més informaciñ sobre com reparar el sistema, consulteu ―Manteniment del
sistema amb el programa d'instal·laciñ del Windows NT‖ al capítol 12, ―Reparaciñ del
sistema‖.
Parentheses

In the English software often additional short text in brackets starts with the capital letter. In Catalan localised
software, when the short text in brackets is not a full sentence, it does not require a capital letter.

Keep       existing               driver   (+) Conserva         el   controlador     existent       (opciñ
(Recommended)                              recomanada)

                                                                                                                 29
                                         - Conserva       el   controlador   existent   (Opciñ
                                         recomanada)

In Catalan, text within brackets (either parts of or whole sentences) looks like the following examples. If the text
within brackets is a full sentence, there is a full stop inside the closing bracket.

English text:
This chapter is about RTF (Rich Text Format).
You can choose to load a document stored in ASCII, or RTF format. (For further information,
see Chapter 7.)

Catalan text:
Aquest capítol parla de l'RTF (Rich Text Format, format de text enriquit).
Podeu baixar un document desat en ASCII o en format RTF. (Per obtenir més informaciñ,
vegeu el capítol 7.)


Singular & Plural
Translation of English phrases which allow both singular and plural forms at the same time, should generally be
changed into plural form only in Catalan.

Fill in the field(s)...                  (+) Ompliu els camps...

                                         (-) Ompliu el(s) camp(s)...


Split Infinitive
This section does not apply to Catalan


Subjunctive
It is recommended to use subjunctive in the following instances:
―És possible que/pot ser que‖ + subjuntive
―És recomanable que‖ + subjuntive

Example:

It may have been deleted.                (+) És possible que s'hagi suprimit.
It is recommended that you remove        (+) És recomanable que suprimiu aquest element
this web part from the page.             web de la pàgina.


Symbols & Non-Breaking Spaces
Units of measure can be abbreviated with their corresponding symbols. In the unlikely event of a measure unit
indicated in the English Customary System (inches, pounds, gallons…) we recommend using the English symbol,

                                                                                                                 30
not the abbreviation, since these units of measurements are not commonly used outside the English speaking
countries.

Examples:

cm                     centímetre

GB                     gigabyte

h                      hora

in                     polzada
Use non-breaking spaces (Ctrl+Shift+Spacebar) between words that should not separate onto different lines. If
two words are connected by a non-breaking space, they will be kept together, even if subsequent editing causes
line breaks to change. On your screen, a non-breaking space looks like a degree symbol ( ° ), but it will print like a
space.
Use non-breaking spaces in the following instances:
        Between capítulo or apéndice and its number or letter.
        Between a unit of measure or currency and the number that goes with it.
        Between any items that should not be divided onto separate lines (for example, Windows Vista,
         Microsoft Word).


Syntax
Syntax and register differ between Catalan and English in the following ways:
     1. Syntax and punctuation in error messages might not necessarily be consistent. An error message is
        usually made of two distinct elements: the part that mentions the problem, and the sentence describing
        the steps to resolve it or indicating the consequences of the error. The English text can separate those
        two elements either with a period, a semicolon, or a colon.
     The need to reach a concise and homogeneous style, we should simplify all these scenarios and choose the
     period as a separator. That way, each element is clearly defined and is more visible. In all cases you should
     use an ending period.
     The need for a concise style leads us to use phrases made out of nouns and adjectives to replace, instead of
     full sentences.
     Example:
You      cannot  save     this   file.   (+) No podeu desar aquest fitxer. El permís per a
Permission for this file is currently    aquest fitxer està restringit actualment.
restricted.
     2. If not otherwise indicated, formal tone should always be used [use the 2nd person plural (vñs) to address
        the user and the 2nd person singular of the imperative (tu) to address the system], whereas English tends
        to be more colloquial.
        Example:

                                                                                                                   31
Oops, procedure failed!                  (+) Error del procediment


Verbs
The English forms often do not distinguish between various uses of verbs (command, function name, description
of an ongoing process, etc.). Find out what is really meant with the string, and translate accordingly. For details on
translating specific dialog box elements, see the corresponding paragraph below.

For commands, instructions, suggestions, etc., always use the imperative form, not impersonal forms or
infinitives. The only exception is the title of dialogue boxes: in English, dialog box titles are usually identical with
the command that opened the dialog box. In Catalan, they should normally be nouns except for questions, that
are usually translated as questions.

Print                                    (+) Impressiñ
                                         (-) Imprimeix
Include in index?                        (+) Voleu incloure-ho a l'índex?
                                         (-) Inclusiñ a l'índex?

If for some reason the command name in the US software is not the same as the dialog title, stay close to original
with the translation.

Command: Information                     (+) Informaciñ
Dialog title: Information window         (+) Finestra d'informaciñ

Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.

Use the 2nd person plural (vós) to address the user.

Enter your name                          (+) Introduïu el vostre nom.
                                         (-) Introduir el vostre nom
                                         (-) Introdueixi el seu nom
                                         (-) Introdueix el teu nom
If you don't want to...                  (+) Si no voleu...
                                         (-) Si no vol...
                                         (-) Si no vols...

Use the 2nd person singular of the imperative (tu) to address the system. Unlike English and Spanish, the
infinitive form should never be used in Catalan.

Replace                                  (+) Substitueix
                                         (-) Substituir

Use the pronominal passive with es to refer to system status, ongoing processes, etc. Always try to use complete
sentences.



                                                                                                                     32
Saving the file                         (+) S'està desant el fitxer.
                                        (-) Desant el fitxer.

In questions to the user about actions of the system, start the question with "Voleu...".

Save the file?                          (+) Voleu desar el fitxer?
                                        (-) Desar el fitxer?

In menu, tab, and window titles the use of nouns is preferred in Catalan, although sometimes the original is a
verbal form.

Protect document (dialogue box          (+) Protecciñ del document
title)                                  (-) Protegeix el document


The first person may be used for personalised creatures like the Office Assistant.

In English the titles for chapters usually begin with ―How to...‖ or with phrases such as ―Working with...‖ or
―Using...‖. In the Catalan version of Microsoft documentation, titles in the ―-ing‖ form should not be translated
using gerunds.

Example:

English                                          Catalan
Importing Graphics                               (+) Importaciñ de gràfics
How to send an e-mail                            (+) Com s'ha d'enviar un correu electrònic


Voice

The use of passive voice is very common in English, but it should not be used excessively in Catalan. It is
preferable to use sentences in the active voice or sentences with the pronominal passive with se.

The message has been sent               (+) S'ha enviat el missatge.
                                        (-) El missatge ha estat enviat.


Tenses


Past tense

The English simple past should be translated in Catalan with the present perfect.

Word has finished formatting the        (+) El Word ha acabat de formatar el document.
document                                (-) El Word acabà de formatar el document.


                                                                                                              33
In Catalan use the present and the present perfect in error messages. Avoid the simple past.

Examples:

English                                                         Catalan
The product has been removed from your computer.                (+)     Aquest    producte     s'ha
                                                                suprimit de l'ordinador.
Cannot delete file.                                             (+) No es pot suprimir el fitxer.
Word was unable to open the file.                               (+) El Word no ha pogut obrir el
                                                                fitxer.

                                                                (-) El Word no pogué obrir el
                                                                fitxer.

Futur tense

The inappropriate use of the future tense should be avoided in Catalan. Some times constructions that use the
future tense in English are correctly translated into Catalan simply using the present.

The first letter will have to be...     (+) La primera lletra ha de ser...
                                        (-) La primera lletra serà...


The use of ser and estar

The verb to be can be translated as ser i estar into Catalan; therefore special attention should be paid to its
translation, making sure to follow Catalan grammar guidelines.

In software localization, the verb ser should always be used to indicate location.

The file is in folder X.                (+) El fitxer és a la carpeta X.
                                        (-) El fitxer està a la carpeta X.

When the verb to be precedes an adjective, Catalan normative should be followed to determine which is the
correct option.

Use of ser

The disk is full.                       (+) El disc és ple.
                                        (-) El disc està ple.
The application is already open.        (+) L'aplicaciñ ja és oberta.
                                        (-) L'aplicaciñ ja està oberta.

Use of estar

The file is corrupt.                    (+) El fitxer està danyat.

                                                                                                            34
                                        (-) El fitxer és danyat.

When in doubt use estar or look for an alternative solution.

The disk is not formatted.              (+) El disc no s'ha formatat.



The use of per and per a before infinitive

Before a noun or a pronoun use per to indicate the agent, the medium, the reason or the cause of the action. Use
per a to indicate aim or destination.

(+) Navegaciñ per Internet

(+) Informaciñ per a l'usuari

Before an infinitive, always use the per to ensure simplicity and consistency thorough the localized text.


Select parts of the document and        (+) Seleccioneu les parts del document i trieu els
choose users who are allowed to         usuaris que tenen permís per editar-les sense
freely edit them.                       restriccions.


Word Order

Following order should be followed for Catalan:
Subject + Verb + Verb-ruled complements + Unruled complements


Example:

Inserting can only be done in editing   (+) Només es pot inserir en mode ediciñ.
mode.

                                        (-) Inserir només es pot fer en mode ediciñ.


When dealing with instructions for performing an action, it is recommended to place first any general information,
followed by details.
Example:
Choose Open from the File menu.         (+) Al menú Fitxer, trieu Obre.


                                        (-) Trieu Obre al menú Fitxer.


                                                                                                                 35
It is recommended to use positive constructions despite English often uses negative ones.
Example:

Don’t forget to save the document.      (+) Recordeu-vos de desar el document.


                                        (-) No us oblideu de desar el document.




Style and Tone Considerations
This section focuses on higher-level considerations for audience, style, tone, and voice.


Audience

Use a tone matching the target audience, e.g. formal, informative, and factual for most Microsoft products; a more
informal, playful and inspiring tone may be used for games and MSN products.
Always check the appropriate tone and level of formality.
Example:
You must choose an area                 (+) Heu de triar una àrea
Oops, you can't correct batter.         (+) Ui, no podeu corregir la massa.


Style

Style must be clear, logical and concise. Anglicisms (both lexical and syntactic) and ambiguous, long and
complex expressions and phrases should be avoided.


Tone

If not otherwise indicated, formal tone should always be used [use the 2nd person plural (vós) to address the user
and the 2nd person singular of the imperative (tu) to address the system].
General Tips:
       Be precise and clear.
       Be consistent – Do not repeat US inconsistencies in localized version.
       Do not transfer to the localized version the extensive use in English of possessive adjectives (your
        keyboard, your software, etc.); except when instructed otherwise for specific reasons.
       Do not transfer to the localized version the extensive use of English personal pronouns (because a
        subject is required in all English sentences). For example, you can do this or that doesn’t need the ―vñs‖
        in the translation. An exception is when the ―vñs‖ is needed in order to clarify the ―doer‖ for a given task:


                                                                                                                    36
          the computer, the program, or the user. Only in that case we have to keep the reference to the user
          including ―vñs‖ or the proper subject for that sentence.
         Avoid a condescending tone or one that is overly intimate.
         Choose the right words -- The use of Catalan verbs with very general meaning is not recommended;
          those are called ―weak verbs‖ because they are too vague and unspecific, verbs such as ―fer‖. Use more
          specific, direct, and active verbs instead. A similar comment can be made on the use of nouns; avoid
          unspecific words like ―cosas‖, ―gent‖, etc.


Voice
The use of passive voice is very common in English, but it should not be used excessively in Catalan. It is
preferable to use sentences in the active voice or sentences with the pronominal passive with se.

The message has been sent                (+) S'ha enviat el missatge.
                                         (-) El missatge ha estat enviat.


Use the 2nd person plural (vós) to address the user.

Enter your name                          (+) Introduïu el vostre nom.
                                         (-) Introduir el vostre nom
                                         (-) Introdueixi el seu nom
                                         (-) Introdueix el teu nom
If you don't want to...                  (+) Si no voleu...
                                         (-) Si no vol...
                                         (-) Si no vols...
Example:


English                                                    Translation

You are now connected to the Internet.                     (+) Us heu connectat a Internet.


Use the 2nd person singular of the imperative (tu) to address the system. Unlike English and Spanish, the
infinitive form should never be used in Catalan.

Replace                                  (+) Substitueix
                                         (-) Substituir

Use the pronominal passive with es to refer to system status, ongoing processes, etc. Always try to use complete
sentences.

Saving the file                          (+) S'està desant el fitxer.
                                         (-) Desant el fitxer.

                                                                                                                37
Help Localizations Guidelines
References To User Interface Components

Always refer to UI components using the same form as appears in the UI, especially if the reference is highlighted
as bold text.
Examples:

English                                  Catalan

Click the Calendar                       (+) Feu clic a Calendari.

Click Current View in the View           (+) Feu clic a Visualització actual al menö Visualització.
menu



Standard Constructs

In help text, use nouns for help topic headers and in the step-by-step instructions that follow, use polite 2nd
person plural imperative with vós.
Examples:

English                                                       Catalan

Change the appearance of text                                 Canvi de l'aparença del text
Do one of the following:                                       Feu una de les coses següents:
Change paragraph formatting                                    Canvieu el format del paràgraf
Change character formatting                                    Canvieu el format dels caràcters

Product names in titles

All help systems have a US name in the form "Microsoft XXX Help". Remember that product names must always
be introduced by the article in Catalan.
Example: Ajuda del Microsoft Word



Online Training Materials

The language used in the localised CBTs should be simple and clear; the instructions should be more detailed
than they are in manuals and Help, since users not familiar with the program use these instructions. Therefore,
use detailed phrases. Give simple, clear and detailed explanation of what user should do to execute required
task. Avoid usage of abbreviations and jargon known only to the users already familiar with the program.




                                                                                                                  38
It is very important that the text and the terminology used in localised CBTs are consistent from screen to screen,
that the terminology is consistent with the terminology used in the product and that all the examples are properly
localised.
When referring to a command in a menu first indicate the menu name and afterwards the command name.
Sometimes, when an English sentence simply begins with the name of an option, in Catalan it should be specified
if it refers to a menu, an option, a button, etc.
Examples:
English                                                      Catalan

Use Cut to...                                                (+) L'opciñ Enganxa permet...


                                                             (-) Enganxa permet...




                                                                                                                 39
Localization Guidelines
This section contains guidelines for localization into Catalan.


General Considerations
The following sources deal specifically with the localization of software into Catalan. For detailed queries you
should contact the official Catalan terminology body, Termcat at http://www.termcat.cat/.
1. SOFTCATALÀ. Guia d’estil. [Barcelona]: SOFTCATALÀ, 2010.
http://www.softcatala.org/wiki/Guia_d’estil/Guia_2010
2. SOFTCATALÀ. Recull de termes. [Online]. [Barcelona]: SOFTCATALÀ, 2010.
http://www.softcatala.org/recull.html
3. TERMCAT. Cercaterm [Online]. [Barcelona]: TERMCAT, 2011.
http://www.termcat.cat/ca/Cercaterm/Fitxes/
4. TERMCAT. Neoloteca [Online]. [Barcelona]: TERMCAT, 2011.
http://www.termcat.cat/ca/Neoloteca/


Abbreviations
Common Abbreviations


You might need to abbreviate some words in the UI (mainly buttons or options names) due to lack of space. This
can be done in the following ways:


General Rules
         The order of the letters in the abbreviation should match that of the source word (art. for article).
         A word should not be abbreviated by omitting only one letter.
         In order to avoid confusing the reader, do not abbreviate a word in such a way that its abbreviation would
          coincide with an established convention for a different word.
List of common abbreviations:


Expression                                                 Acceptable Abbreviation

mínim                                                      mín.
nömero                                                     nöm.
per exemple                                                p. ex.
pàgina                                                     pàg.
telèfon                                                    tel.
vegeu                                                      veg.

                                                                                                                   40
Extended Characters in Abbreviations
Some abbreviations require the use of extended characters (°C, 1ª, etc.).
Never use a degree symbol ( °), obtained by pressing ALT+0176 or ALT+248, as a substitute for the ordinal (º),
obtained by pressing ALT+167!


Don’t abbreviate product/application names if not told otherwise.


Accessibility
This section does not apply to Catalan


Acronyms
Acronyms are words made up of the initial letters of major parts of a compound term. Some well-known examples
are WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get), OLE (Object Linking and Embedding), or RAM (Random
Access Memory).


We will make the following distinction in Catalan between ―acronyms‖ (acrònims) and ―abbreviations by initials‖
(sigles):
• Sigles are abbreviations formed from the initial letters of each of the major parts of a compound term. Such
abbreviations are usually set in full capital letters , and have no plural, for instance: WYSIWYG (What you see is
what you get)
 • Acrònims are abbreviations formed from the initial syllables or from a combination of the syllables of each of
the successive parts or major parts of a compound term, for example: radar (radio detecting and ranging) or
modem (mòdem in Catalan for ―modulador desmodulador‖).


Acronyms and sigles behave like nouns. If a gender is needed, it is that of the spelled-out form. In the case of
non-Catalan words, the gender will vary according to usage.
Sigles have no plural, i.e., no ―–s‖ added at the end. The number is usually given by the preceding determiner.
When it is possible to pronounce the acronym as a proper name, it is permissible to write it in lower case with an
initial capital (Unesco, Opep).


Localized Acronyms


Localized acronyms must be used whenever their usage is widely spread; for instance:
       VAT > IVA
       FAQ > PMF
       USA > EUA

                                                                                                                   41
In all instances, please check with corresponding project-specific reference material for proper usage of
acronyms.

Unlocalized Acronyms
Unlocalized acronyms must be used whenever their usage is widely spread also for Catalan and/or
internationally; for instance:
       PC
       USB
       CD
In all instances, please check with corresponding project-specific reference material for proper usage of
acronyms.


Applications, Products, and Features

Application/product names are often trademarked or may be trademarked in the future and are therefore rarely
translated. Occasionally, feature names are trademarked, too (e.g. IntelliSense™). Before translating any
application, product, or feature name, please verify that it is in fact translatable and not protected in any way.
See also the product-specific sections at the end of this document for information on the localization of specific
product names.
Unlike in English and Spanish, the definite article must always precede the name of programs and applications in
Catalan.

Setting the default printer or options   (+) La impressora i les opcions que definiu per
will affect Word and all other           defecte afectaran el Word i la resta d'aplicacions del
Windows-based applications.              Windows.
                                         (-)La impressora i les opcions que definiu per defecte
                                         afectaran Word i la resta d'aplicacions de Windows.


Frequent Errors

 ENGLISH                 WRONG                              RIGHT

    alert                  alerta                             avís

    block                  blocar                          bloquejar
 colleague                col·lega                         company

  could not              no es pot                       no s'ha pogut

   default       estàndard / predeterminat                per defecte
   delete                 eliminar                          suprimir


                                                                                                                     42
 download              descarregar                          baixar
   e-mail            adreça de correu                 adreça electrònica
  address               electrònic

   header                   títol                         capçalera
  heading               capçalera                            títol

    lock                 bloquejar                          blocar

  machine                màquina                  ordinador (but for "virtual
                                                         machine")

    move                  moure                           desplaçar

  overview         visualitzaciñ general              informaciñ general

    pane                  tauler                         subfinestra

    panel           subfinestra, panell                     tauler

   replace              reemplaçar                        substituir
  schedule              programar                         planificar

     set                  establir                          definir

    show                visualitzar                        mostrar

   upload                 penjar                           carregar

    view                   vista                         visualitzaciñ


Glossaries

In order to ensure that you are using current terminology and phrases, please always look for the translations in
the most recent version of the Microsoft Language Portal. Consistent use of Microsoft approved terminology in all
localized products is one of the major factors in achieving required quality of the localized product.


Fictitious Information

Fictitious content is legally sensitive material and as such cannot be handled as a pure terminology or localization
issue. Below is some basic information and contact points when dealing with fictitious content:
Vendors and Localizers are not allowed to create their own fictitious names. You must either use the source
names or use the list of legally approved names.




                                                                                                                  43
Please contact the relevant person for further information on how to deal with fictitious companies, names,
addresses, email addresses, phone numbers, etc. in your product. For technical products, you may also check
with the relevant person whether localized fictitious content is required or not.


Recurring Patterns

This section does not apply to Catalan


Standardized Translations
There are a number of standardized translations mentioned in all sections of this Style Guide. In order to find
them more easily, the most relevant topics and sections are compiled here for you reference.
          Country/Region Standards
          Capitalization
          Punctuation
          Abbreviations
          Frequent Errors
          Software Considerations
          Keys
          Help Localizations Guidelines
          Manual Titles


Unlocalized Items
Trademarked names and the name Microsoft Corporation shouldn’t be localized.A list of Microsoft trademarks is
available for your reference at the following location: http://www.microsoft.com/trademarks/t-mark/names.htm.
Product names - They most likely remain in English. In the event of the product team opting for making them
localizable, then Microsoft will discuss the localized product name internally.
Component names - The way those names are tackled very much depend on a product basis. Again, same
principle applies as for Product names (see above)
The same principle applies to service, apps and technology names.


Word                                                        Comment

base                                                        N/A

bit                                                         As data unit only.

bytes                                                       N/A

cardinal                                                    N/A

CD-ROM                                                      N/A

                                                                                                                  44
Word          Comment

color         N/A

compatible    N/A

context       N/A

control       N/A

copyright     N/A

cursor        N/A

decimal       N/A

digital       N/A

director      N/A

editor        N/A

error         N/A

fax           N/A

general       N/A

global        N/A

incremental   Backup context

inferior      N/A

Internet      N/A

intranet      N/A

kilobytes     N/A

legal         N/A

local         N/A

macro         N/A

manual        N/A

megabytes     N/A

monitor       N/A

normal        N/A

ordinal       N/A

original      N/A


                               45
Word                                                         Comment

personal                                                     N/A

sector                                                       N/A

subtotal                                                     N/A

TCP                                                          N/A

terminal                                                     N/A

total                                                        N/A

Plug and Play                                                N/A

variable                                                     N/A

virtual                                                      N/A

web                                                          N/A

zoom                                                         N/A


Using the Word Microsoft
In English, it is prohibited to use MS as an abbreviation for Microsoft.
Catalan handles the word Microsoft in UI and text in the same way.
Example:

Microsoft Data Link                      (+) Enllaç de dades de Microsoft
                                         (-) Enllaç de dades d’MS



Software Considerations
This section refers to all menus, menu items, commands, buttons, check boxes, etc., which should be consistently
translated in the localized product.


Refer to http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/aa511258.aspx for a detailed explanation of the Windows user interface
guidelines (English).


User Interface

Use correct and consistent grammar and terminology in all texts. The standard Catalan language should be used
and all dialectal and regional variations should be avoided.




                                                                                                              46
It should be taken into account that English texts tend to use colloquialisms. Colloquialisms should be avoided in
Catalan, since Catalan scientific and technical register is more formal and impersonal. The language used should
correspond to the written register, but without being excessively rigid or formal.
When in doubt, refer to Manual d'estil: La redacció i l'edició de tetxos for general language and style queries. For
specific queries regarding the localization of software into Catalan, refer to Softcatalà's Guia d'estil per a la
localització de programari (available at http://www.softcatala.org/wiki/Guia_d’estil/Guia_2010).
The following are guidelines for consistent use in cases where more than one solution would theoretically be
possible, or where errors have been common in the past.


Messages

General Guidelines For Dialog Box Translation
When translating dialog box interface you should remember that you are expected to use consistent terminology
and language style in all dialog boxes, not only within currently localised application. You also need to ensure that
your translations are consistent with translations in other localised applications. Take also into account that
currently unlocalised applications may be localised in the future and solutions adopted now must be usable there
as well. This is particularly important when localising common (identical) dialog boxes found in several
applications. An example of a common dialog box containing the same terminology is the Options dialog box.


Software Components
Menus
Menu titles and menu items should be consistently translated in all localised products, the same US term should
have identical translation in all localised applications.


When possible, try to use the following combinations of word classes in menus:

Menu title           Menu items                      Example

A verb              A noun or noun phrase            On the Insert menu: Text, Table, Picture

A noun               A verb or verb phrase           On the Table menu: Insert Table, Select
                                                     Row, Insert Column

The word classes of the US term and the localised term do not have to coincide, i.e. please do consider the
possibility of translating a verb as a noun or vice versa, if that improves the result. Adjectives are used relatively
rarely and adverbs only in exceptional cases.
Verbs should normally be in informal 2nd person singular imperative (tu).
Menu titles should always contain only one word, since a two-word menu title would be undistinguishable from
two single-word ones.
Please take into account that English command New should be translated in Catalan with the verbal form Crea.
Note: Always check current translations of menu titles and menu items in the Microsoft Language Portal.

                                                                                                                         47
Command Buttons
When possible, try to use verbs for command buttons. The word classes of the US term and the localised term do
not have to coincide, i.e. please do consider the possibility of translating a verb as a noun or vice versa, if that
improves the result. Adjectives are used relatively rarely and adverbs only in exceptional cases.
Verbs in command buttons should normally be in 2nd person singular imperative (tu), never in infinitive form.

Click Print                             (+) Feu clic a Imprimeix
                                        (-) Feu clic a Imprimir

The preferred action to be performed with command buttons is fer clic (click), even if the original ignores a similar
recommendation given for English.

Click Cancel                            (+) Feu clic a Cancel·la.

Press Cancel                            (+) Feu clic a Cancel·la.
                                        (-) Premeu Cancel·la.

Note: Always check current translations of command buttons in the Microsoft Language Portal.



Static text
Information text contained in dialog boxes as well as confirmation text should be translated consistently and it
should take personal form.

If you don't want to filter the data,   (+) Si no voleu filtrar les dades, feu clic a Endavant.
click Next.

Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.

Group Box Titles
When translating the title of a group of control elements, if it is a verb or verb phrase, note to whom it is
addressed. Translate as 2nd person singular imperative (tu) if it is addressed to the system, and 2nd person
plural imperative (vñs) if it is addressed to the user. Nouns and questions are usually translated as nouns and
questions. The adjective New is usually translated in Catalan with the verbal form Crea.

Save the file                           (+) Desa el fitxer.

Select the right file                   (+) Seleccioneu el fitxer adequat.

New                                     (+) Crea

Include in index?                       (+) Voleu incloure-ho a l'índex?

Group titles are not grammatically connected to the options that follow. This means that the options are
capitalised as usual and their form does not depend on the form of the group title.
Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.



                                                                                                                   48
Options Buttons
Option buttons that are verbs may be written as commands to the system or options available for the user. It is
recommended to translate the former as normal commands and the latter by adding the verb voler (wish).

Display the file now (to the system)   (+) Visualitza el fitxer ara.

View the file now (to the user)        (+) Voleu visualitzar el fitxer ara?

Option buttons that are nouns should normally be translated using nouns as well. Do not try to make full
sentences out of groups of option buttons.
Option buttons are not grammatically connected to preceding group titles. This means that options are capitalised
as usual and their form does not depend on the form of the group title.
Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.



Check boxes
Option buttons that are verbs may be written as commands to the system or options available for the user. It is
recommended to translate the former as normal commands and the latter by adding the verb voler (wish).
Display the file now (to the system)   (+) Visualitza el fitxer ara.

View the file now (to the user)        (+) Voleu visualitzar el fitxer ara?

Option buttons that are nouns should normally be translated using nouns as well. Do not try to make full
sentences out of groups of option buttons.
Check boxes are not grammatically connected to preceding group titles. This means that check boxes are
capitalised as usual and their form does not depend on the form of the group title.
Regardless of how US check boxes end - with or without a period - the Catalan translations never end with a
period unless they are complete sentences.
The preferred actions to be performed with check boxes are activar (check) and desactivar (clear, uncheck).

To add a component, select its         (+) Per afegir un component, activeu-ne casella de
check box. To remove the               selecciñ. Per suprimir-lo, desactiveu la casella de
component, clear the check box.        selecciñ.
If the original does not mention the check box, and only refers to the item the check box applies to, you can use
marcar (check) and desmarcar (uncheck) in reference to the items themselves.

Check all subfolders                   (+) Marqueu totes les subcarpetes.

Uncheck all subfolders                 (+) Desmarqueu totes les subcarpetes.

Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.




                                                                                                                    49
Dialog Box Tabs
Dialog box tabs should be treated similarly to dialog box titles (see above), plus obvious length constraints.
Also pay attention to consistency with other tabs of the same dialog and with similar dialogs elsewhere. An
example of a common dialog box containing the same terminology is the Options dialog box.
Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.



Lists Boxes/Tables
Items in a list box or table are not grammatically connected to list box titles or table headings. This means that the
items are capitalised as usual and their form does not depend on the form of the title or heading.
Regardless of how US list items or table items end - with or without a period - the Catalan translations never end
with a period unless they are complete sentences.
Table column and row headings should take the same language style throughout the software. Column and row
headings should start with capital letters and they usually do not end with any punctuation marks.
When table items are complete sentences, each of them starts with a capital letter and ends with a period. When
table items are not complete sentences, they may start with a small or capital letter and do not end with a period.
However, the whole column must be consistent, i.e. start with either small or capital letter.
The preferred action to be performed with list boxes is seleccionar (select), even if the original ignores a similar
recommendation given for English.

Select your location from the            (+) Seleccioneu la vostra ubicaciñ al quadre de llista
Country list box.                        País.

Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.



Dialog Box: Text Strings With Hotkeys
There are text strings that are located in the String Table in the EDBs, which might later appear in dialog boxes.
They often show up as names of buttons, etc. and should be translated according to rules for main GUI
components. These strings are easily recognizable because they have hotkeys.
Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.



ToolTips
Most of the button ToolTips have the names identical with the commands they represent. You should ensure that
this consistency is maintained in the localised software as well. If for some reason that rule doesn't apply in
English product, then the rule doesn’t apply in Catalan either; you just translate the English text selecting
appropriate terminology. Regardless of how the US ToolTips end - with or without a period - ToolTips localised
into Catalan do not end with a period.

US Command: Print Preview                Catalan command and tooltip: Visualització prèvia
US ToolTip: Print Preview                d'impressió

Note: Always look for approved current translation of the required term in the Microsoft Language Portal.
                                                                                                                       50
Wizards
Wizards often include US specific information. For relevant specific Catalan information contact the relevant
person in order to replace the US specific information.


Status Messages
What is a Status Bar Message?


A status bar message is an informational message about the active document or a selected command as well as
about any active or selected interface item. Messages are shown in the status bar at the bottom of the window
when the user has chosen a menu, a command or any other item, or has started a function. The status bar
messages refer to actions being performed or already complete (for example in Outlook below).




Catalan Style in Status bar Messages
In English, the status bar messages have different forms dependent on the information they must convey. In
Catalan, menu and commands status bar messages should follow the format below. When the message is a
direct instruction, the imperative is used, second person plural (vós) addressing the user and second person
singular (tu) for the system. Periods are used at the end of sentences in status bar messages if they are full
sentences.


                                                          English Status Bar             Catalan Status Bar
Name           CatalanName                Category
                                                          message                        message

Edit           Edita                      menu            Contains editing commands      Conté les ordres d’ediciñ

               Copia-ho a la carpeta...                                                  Copia els elements
Copy to                                                   Copies the selected items to
                                          menu                                           seleccionats a una
Folder...                                                 a new location
                                                                                         ubicaciñ nova

New            Crea                       command         Creates a new document         Crea un document nou

                                                                                         Voleu que l’objecte sigui
                                                          Make object visible?
                                                                                         visible?

                                                          Word is converting the         El Word està convertint el

                                                                                                                 51
                                                         English Status Bar             Catalan Status Bar
Name           CatalanName               Category
                                                         message                        message
                                                         document. Press Esc to         document. Premeu Esc
                                                         stop.                          per aturar el procés.

                                                                                        Visualitzaciñ del full de
                                                         Datasheet View
                                                                                        dades

                                                         Done                           Fet


The importance of standardization
In the US product you can often find messages that are phrased differently even though they have the same
meaning. Try to avoid this in the localized Catalan version. Use one standard translation as in the examples
below:


English term                                             Correct Catalan translation

Press F1 to get Help                                     (+) Per obtenir ajuda premeu F1.

If you want Help press F1

To get Help press F1

Not enough memory                                        (+) No hi ha prou memòria disponible

Insufficient memory

There is not enough memory

Save changes to %1?                                      (+) Voleu desar els canvis a %1?

Do you want to save changes to %1?


Error Messages
What Is An Error Message?
Here is an example:




                                                                                                                    52
Error messages are messages sent by the system or a program, informing the user that there is an error that
must be corrected in order for the program to keep running. For example, the messages can prompt the user to
take an action or inform the user of an error that requires rebooting the computer.


Catalan Style in Error Messages
It is important to use consistent terminology and language style in the localized error messages, and not just
translate as they appear in the US product.
It is important to use the correct Catalan style in the localized error messages, and not just translate the American
messages. The US messages tend to be shorter and abbreviated, but in Catalan unless there are space
constraints the fully developed form is preferred.
Example:

English                                  Catalan

Error saving file                        (+) S'ha produït un error en desar el fitxer.
                                         (-) Error en desar el fitxer

Abbreviated Sentences

The US messages sometimes contain abbreviated sentences using an imperative verb. Translate to a question
starting with Voleu...
Example:
English                                  Catalan

Continue without Undo?                   (+) Voleu continuar sense desfer-ho?
                                         (-) Continuar sense desfer-ho?

Punctuation After Error Messages

Catalan error messages (except questions) usually finish with the period. Exclamation marks are not used.
Question marks are used for questions.

Personification

Do not use the first person (except for creatures like the Office Assistant). If possible, use the reflexive passive
construction with the pronoun se.
Examples:

English                                                         Catalan

Unable to save the file                                         (+) No es pot desar el fitxer.
                                                                (-) Impossible desar el fitxer.

Deleting file [2]                                               (+) S'està suprimint el fitxer [2].


                                                                                                                       53
                                                                 (-) Suprimint el fitxer.
If the agent is mentioned in US text, use it in the translation as well.

English                                                          Catalan

Word is deleting file [2]                                        (+) El Word està suprimint el
                                                                 fitxer [2].
                                                                 (-) Està suprimint el fitxer.


Standard Phrases in Error Messages
When translating standard phrases, standardize. Note that sometimes the US uses different forms to express the
same thing.
Examples:


English                               Translation               Example                          Comment

Cannot …
                                                                (+) No es pot crear un
Could not …                                                     directori nou.
                                      No es pot...
Unable to ...
                                      No s'ha pogut...          (+) No s’ha pogut suprimir
... failed                                                      el fitxer.
... not .. (e.g.: File not deleted)
                                                                (+) No es pot crear un
Failed to …                           No es pot...              directori nou.
Failure of …                          No s'ha pogut...          (+) No s’ha pogut suprimir
                                                                el fitxer.

Cannot find …
                                                                (+) No s’ha trobat el fitxer
Could not find …                      No s'ha trobat...
                                                                (+) No es troba la llista de
Unable to find …                      No es troba...
                                                                cerca |0.
Unable to locate …

Not enough memory
Insufficient memory
There is not enough memory                                      (+) No hi ha prou memòria
                                      No hi ha prou...
There is not enough memory                                      disponible
available
Out of memory
No memory
                                                                (+) Aquesta pàgina no
... is not available
                                      ... no està disponible    està disponible fora de
... is unavailable
                                                                línia.


                                                                                                            54
Other examples:


Sorry, ...                  Should not be translated         (+) No s'ha pogut suprimir el fitxer.
                            into Catalan.                    (-) Perdñ, no s'ha pogut suprimir el fitxer.

Do you want to ...?         Voleu...?                        (+) Voleu desar el fitxer?
...? (e.g.: Save?)
                                                             (-) Desar el fitxer?

Are you sure you want       Esteu segur que voleu...?        (+) Esteu segur que voleu suprimir aquest fitxer?
to...?

                                                             Note: This is a stronger question than the previous
                                                             one, so be sure to translate differently.

An error has occurred       S'ha produït un error...         (+) S'ha produït un error en llegir les dades del
while...                                                     fitxer.
Error... (e.g.: Error
reading from file %2)
A failure has occurred
while...
Failure... (e.g.: Failure
reading from file %2)

Error Messages Containing Placeholders
When localizing error messages containing placeholders, try to find out what will replace the placeholder. This is
necessary for the sentence to be grammatically correct when the placeholder is replaced with a word or
phrase.Note that the letters used in placeholders convey a specific meaning, see examples below:
%d, %ld, %u, and %lu means <number>
%c means <letter>
%s means <string>


Examples of error messages containing placeholders:
"Checking Web %1!d! of %2!d!" means "Checking Web <number> of <number>".
"INI file "%1!-.200s!" section" means "INI file "<string>" section".


Numeric or full text placeholders can be reordered according to Catalan grammar if necessary.




                                                                                                                   55
Keys
The keyboard is the primary input device used for text input in Microsoft Windows. For accessibility and efficiency,
most actions can be performed using the keyboard as well. While working with Microsoft software, you use keys,
key combinations and key sequences.
In English, References to key names, like arrow keys, function keys and numeric keys, appear in normal text (not
in small caps).

The following are the most common key names in Catalan:

English                                                       Catalan
Alt                                                           Alt
Caps Lock                                                     Bloq Maj
Ctrl                                                          Control
Del                                                           Supr
End                                                           Fi
Enter                                                         Retorn
Insert                                                        Inserciñ
Home                                                          Inici
Num Lock                                                      Bloq Nöm
Page up                                                       Re Pàg
Page down                                                     Av Pàg
Pause                                                         Pausa
Print Screen                                                  Impr Pant
Scroll Lock                                                   Bloq Despl
Shift                                                         Maj
Return                                                        Retorn
Key names should be translated in accordance with the Microsoft Glossaries. While working with Microsoft
software, you use keys, key combinations and key sequences.
1. Key combination KEY1+KEY2
This term is used to underline that the user is supposed to press the first key, hold it and press the second key.
Key names are combined with ―+‖ character. For example the command
Premeu ALT+ESC
means, that the user should press ALT, hold it, press simultaneously ESC and then release both buttons.
2. Key sequence KEY1, KEY2
This term is used to underline that the user is supposed to press and release the given keys one after the other.
Key names are separated with a comma (,) and a hard space. For example the command
Premeu ALT, F
means, that the user is supposed to press ALT first, release it, then press and release the F key.




                                                                                                                     56
Access Keys/Hot keys




Sometimes, there are underlined or highlighted letters in menu options, commands or dialog boxes. These letters
refer to access keys (also known as hot keys) that allow you to run commands, perform tasks, etc. more quickly.
Usually the first key to be pressed it the ALT key.


Hot Key Special Options                    Usage: Is It Allowed?             Notes

"Slim characters", such as I, l, t, r, f   yes                               Only when no other characters are
can be used as hot key                                                       available.

Characters with downstrokes, such          yes                               Only when no other characters are
as g, j, y, p and q can be used as                                           available.
hotkeys

Extended characters can be used as         no                                N/A
hotkeys

An additional letter, appearing            no                                N/A
between brackets after item name,
can be used as hotkeys

A number, appearing between                no                                N/A
brackets after item name, can be
used as hotkey

A punctuation sign, appearing              no                                N/A
between brackets after item name,
can be used as hotkey


                                                                                                             57
Hot Key Special Options                  Usage: Is It Allowed?                   Notes

Duplicate hotkeys are allowed when       yes                                     N/A
no other character is available

No hotkey is assigned when no more       no                                      N/A
characters are available (minor
options only)


Additional notes: N/A


Arrow Keys

The arrow keys move input focus among the controls within a group. Pressing the right arrow key moves input
focus to the next control in tab order, whereas pressing the left arrow moves input focus to the previous control.
Home, End, Up, and Down also have their expected behavior within a group. Users can't navigate out of a control
group using arrow keys.
When possible, refer to specific arrow keys by name: fletxa dreta, fletxa esquerra, fletxa amunt, fletxa avall


Numeric Keypad


It is recommended that you avoid distinguishing numeric keypad keys from the other keys, unless it is required by
a given application. In case which keys to be pressed is not obvious, provide necessary explanations; for
example:

Premeu la tecla - (menys) al teclat numèric.


Shortcut Keys
Shortcutkeys are keystrokes or combinations of keystrokesused to performdefinedfunctions in a software
application. Shortcut keys replace menu commands and they are sometimes given next to the command they
represent. In opposition to the access keys, which can be used only when available on the screen, shortcut keys
can be used even when they are not accessible on the screen. In this case, usually the first key to be pressed is
the CTRL key.




                                                                                                                 58
Standard Shortcut Keys


US                               US English          Catalan                             Catalan
Command                          Shortcut Key        Command                             Shortcut key

                                          General Windows Shortcut keys

Help window                      F1                  Finestra de l’ajuda                 F1

Context-sensitive Help           Shift+F1            Ajuda contextual                    Mayös+F1

Display pop-up menu              Shift+F10           Visualitza un menö emergent         Mayös+F10

Cancel                           Esc                 Cancel·la                           Esc

Activate\Deactivate menu bar     F10                 Activa o desactiva el mode de       F10
mode                                                 barra de menös

Switch to the next primary       Alt+Tab             Passa a l’aplicaciñ principal       Alt+Tab
application                                          següent

Display next window              Alt+Esc             Visualitza la finestra següent      Alt+Esc

Display pop-up menu for the      Alt+Spacebar        Visualitza un menö emergent de      Alt+Barra espaciadora
window                                               la finestra

Display pop-up menu for the      Alt+-               Visualitza un menö emergent de      Alt+-
active child window                                  la finestra secundària activa

Display property sheet for       Alt+Enter           Visualitza el full de propietats    Alt+Entrar (―Intro‖ in
current selection                                    per a la selecciñ actual            some keyboards, but it
                                                                                         has been localized as
                                                                                         ―Entrar‖ in all Microsoft
                                                                                         products)

Close active application         Alt+F4              Tanca la finestra de l’aplicaciñ    Alt+F4
window                                               activa

Switch to next window within     Alt+F6              Passa a la finestra següent dins    Alt+F4
(modeless-compliant)                                 (sense mode) de l’aplicaciñ
application

Capture active window image      Alt+PrntScrn        Captura la imatge de la finestra    Alt+Imp Pan
to the Clipboard                                     activa i la posa al Porta-retalls

Capture desktop image to the     PrntScrn            Captura la imatge de l’escriptori i Imp Pan
Clipboard                                            la posa al Porta-retalls

Access Start button in taskbar   Ctrl+Esc            Accedeix al botñ Inicia de la       Ctrl+Esc
                                                     barra de tasques


                                                                                                                     59
US                          US English        Catalan                             Catalan
Command                     Shortcut Key      Command                             Shortcut key

Display next child window   Ctrl+F6           Visualitza la finestra secundària   Ctrl+F6
                                              següent

Display next tabbed pane    Ctrl+Tab          Visualitza la subfinestra amb       Ctrl+Tab
                                              pestanyes següent

Launch Task Manager and     Ctrl+Shift+Esc    Inicia l’Administrador de tasques   Ctrl+Mayös+Esc
system initialization                         i el sistema

                                             File Menu

File New                    Ctrl+N            Fitxer Crea                         Ctrl+U

File Open                   Ctrl+O            Fitxer Obre                         Ctrl+A

File Close                  Ctrl+F4           Fitxer Tanca                        Ctrl+F4

File Save                   Ctrl+S            Fitxer Desa                         CTRL+G

File Save as                F12               Fitxer Anomena i desa               F12

File Print Preview          Ctrl+F2           Fitxer Visualitzaciñ prèvia         Ctrl+F2

File Print                  Ctrl+P            Fitxer Imprimeix                    Ctrl+P

File Exit                   Alt+F4            Fitxer Surt                         Alt+F4

                                             Edit Menu

Edit Undo                   Ctrl+Z            Edita Desfés                        Ctrl+Z

Edit Repeat                 Ctrl+Y            Edita Repeteix                      Ctrl+Y

Edit Cut                    Ctrl+X            Edita Talla                         Ctrl+X

Edit Copy                   Ctrl+C            Edita Copia                         Ctrl+C

Edit Paste                  Ctrl+V            Edita Enganxa                       Ctrl+V

Edit Delete                 Ctrl+Backspace    Edita Suprimeix                     Ctrl+Barra espaciadora

Edit Select All             Ctrl+A            Edita Selecciona-ho tot             Ctrl+E

Edit Find                   Ctrl+F            Edita Cerca                         Ctrl+B

Edit Replace                Ctrl+H            Edita Substitueix                   Ctrl+L

Edit Go To                  Ctrl+B            Edita Vés a                         Ctrl+I

                                             Help Menu

Help                        F1                Ajuda                               F1


                                                                                                       60
US                               US English            Catalan                             Catalan
Command                          Shortcut Key          Command                             Shortcut key

                                                   Font Format

Italic                           Ctrl+I                Cursiva                             Ctrl+K

Bold                             Ctrl+G                Negreta                             Ctrl+N

Underlined\Word underline        Ctrl+U                Subratllat\Subratllat de paraules   Ctrl+S

Large caps                       Ctrl+Shift+A          Lletres majöscules grans            Ctrl+ Mayös+U

Small caps                       Ctrl+Shift+K          Lletres majöscules petites          Ctrl+ Mayös+L

                                                Paragraph Format

Centered                         Ctrl+E                Centrat                             Ctrl+T

Left aligned                     Ctrl+L                Alineat a l’esquerra                Ctrl+Q

Right aligned                    Ctrl+R                Alineat a la dreta                  Ctrl+D

Justified                        Ctrl+J                Justificat                          Ctrl+J



Document Translation Considerations
Document localization may require some specific considerations that are different from software localization. This
section covers a few of these areas.
The term documentation refers to printed or on-line texts and also software help and Readme files.
Terminology used in the documentation must be translated consistently. It is not allowed to relieve the monotony
of the text by using incorrect or colloquial synonyms. In order to ensure that you are using current terminology and
phrases, please always look for the translations in the most recent version of the Microsoft Language Portal.
Consistent use of Microsoft approved terminology in all localized documentation is one of the major factors in
achieving required quality of the localized documentation.


Titles

In English the titles for chapters usually begin with "How to …" or with phrases such as "Working with …" or
"Using …". In the Catalan version of Microsoft documentation, titles in the ―-ing‖ form should not be translated
using gerunds.
Example:
English                                          Catalan

Importing Graphics                               (+) Importaciñ de gràfics

How to send an e-mail                            (+) Com s'ha d'enviar un correu electrònic


                                                                                                                   61
Manual Titles

Some useful translations of manual titles:
Examples:

English                                           Catalan

Getting Started with (product name)               Com començar a utilitzar el (Product name)
Installation Guide                                Guia d'instal·laciñ
Introducing (product name)                        Introducciñ al (Product name)
Learning Guide                                    Guia d'aprenentatge
Network Administrator's Guide                     Guia de l'administrador de la xarxa
Pocket Guide                                      Guia de butxaca
Quick Reference Card                              Fitxa de referència ràpida
Quick Reference Guide                             Guia de referència ràpida
User's Guide                                      Guia de l'usuari
User's Reference Guide                            Guia de referència de l'usuari

Illustrations

In documentation you can find both screen shots and illustrations. All figures are to be inserted near the part of
the text they refer to, which means that for example instructions and illustrations assigned to them should be
placed on the same page. You do not have to refer to illustrations located directly under the text they are
assigned to.
If the figures used in the documentation are numbered, remember to give their numbers when referring to them.


Copyright

Copyright protection is granted to any original work of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression from
which it can be perceived, reproduced, or communicated.

Proofing tools copyright notices

The Proofing Tools Team look after the copyright notices to be included in the products that ship with proofing
tools (speller, hyphenator, grammar checker, thesaurus, etc.). Vendors and localizers should request this
information, for inclusion in the localized product, to the PM who, in turn, will ask the Proofing Tools Team for the
updated notices.

Once the localized copyrights are handed off to the relevant Application Team, the localisation companies (or
internal units) are not allowed to change them. It is very important that notices are left the way they are – for legal
reasons among others.



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