Ancient Greece

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					Ancient Greece

   World History
         Early Greek History

 1900 B.C. – Greek
  speaking Indo-
  Europeans move into
 By 800 B.C. – the
  city-state had
 By the 5th century –
  height of the Greek
  classical period
          Impact of Geography

 Greece occupies a small
  area compared to
  Mesopotamia and Egypt
  (is the size of Louisiana)
 Mountain ranges, islands,
  and seas (8-10,000 ft.
  high) isolated Greeks
  from one another – caused
  communities to develop
  their own unique ways of
 Climate (48°-80°)
  encourages outdoor/public
            Geography (cont.)
 Communities became
  fiercely independent
  and fought to gain
 The sea also
  influenced Greek
 Long seacoast with
  bays, inlets, harbors,
  and islands – the
  Greeks became
  seafarers as a result
      The First Greek State: The
 Indo-Europeans that came
  from north of the Black
  Sea region
 Reached its high point
  between 1400 and 1200
 Powerful monarchies
  with fortified palaces
 Were a warrior people
 Influenced by Minoans
  (trade, language, vase art)
 Trojan war: myth or
              The Mycenaeans

 May have conquered the
  Minoans on Crete and sacked
  Troy (over trade routes to the
  Black Sea
 Homer wrote of their military
 Earthquakes and infighting
  caused their downfall
 Conquered by Greek speaking
  invaders from the north &
 Dorians move in and replace
             The Mycenaeans
 Homer’s epic poems
  Iliad and the Odyssey
  appeared (the values
  of courage, honor, &
  excellence were
 Iliad – account of the
  Trojan War
 Odyssey – account of
  the Greek hero
  Odysseus and his
  return home.
 The Dark Ages (1100-750 B.C.)

 Population declined
 Food production
 Few records exist
 Greeks left the
  mainland and sailed to
  islands or settled in
 Use iron and adopt
  Phoenician alphabet
Ancient Greece
The Agora

Greek military formation of hoplites
Heavy infantry (hoplites), column
If the front row falls, the next row takes
 their places
Greek hoplite (soldier)-6th c. BC
Athens Builds a Democracy

 Many different forms of government in
  Greece (monarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy,
  tyrants, democracy)
 Athenian rulers w/democratic reforms:
 Draco: legal code w/equality under law
 Solon: outlawed debt slavery & all citizens allowed to
  participate in Athenian assembly
 Cleisthenes: Council of 500 created with random membership
  & all citizens could submit laws to Athenian assembly
 Citizenship – free adult males born in Athens
  (no women, slaves or foreigners)
          Attica Peninsula; leading
           Greek city-state (Polis) after
           750 BCE
            – Monarchyaristocracytyr
          Early Problems:
            – Small farmers unable to
              compete with imports
               • sold land, forced into slavery if
                 unable to pay debts
            – Common people had no
              voice in Government

a. Democratic society
b. The Assembly was the major political body
c. All citizens (free adult native born males) could belong to
the assembly;
• all were equal & had freedom of
• A.Polis-another name for city-state
      -this was the basic political unit
• B. Citizens-those who took part in govt.
• C. Men who owned land could be a citizen

D. A jury system for court cases
E. Had to educate sons-participate in government
F. 2 years military service at age 18
G. Could ostracize undesirable politicians if more
than 6000
Plato & Aristotle
 Plato – student of
  Socrates; wrote The
  Republic (vision of
  perfectly governed
  society); founded a school
  called the Academy
  (lasted 900 yrs)
 Aristotle – student of
  Plato; method for arguing
  logic w/rules; applied
  methods to psychology,
  physics, & biology;
  tutored Alexander the
 Sophists – questioned
  people’s unexamined
  beliefs & ideas about
  justice & values
 Socrates – critic of
  Sophists (believed
  absolute truths did exist
  for truth and justice);
  Socratic line of
  questioning; Athenian jury
  condemns to death
•C. Plato (427-347 BC) started the Academy and wrote
the first book on political science, The Republic (state
more important than individual – anti-democratic &
pro-Sparta). Also had the “Parable of the Cave” –
concept of forms
D. Aristotle (384-322 BC) wrote on philosophy,
science, & govt. – influenced western thinkers
greatly until the Renaissance (c. 1500 AD).
Tutored Alexander the Great.

 Stoicism – founded by
  Zeno; people should live
  virtuous lives in harmony
  with the will of god or
  natural laws; human
  desires, power, & wealth
  should be checked;
  promoted social unity
 Epicureanism – founded
  by Epicurus; gods had no
  interest in universe;
  virtuous conduct &
  absence of pain; goal was   Zeno
  to achieve harmony of
  body and mind
             The Greek Mind

a. Early scientists – Pythagoras (math) & Hippocrates
   (father of medicine)
b. Socrates (469-399 BC) was a philosopher who
   believed in absolute truth
   1. He was interested in how people learned to
       think for themselves
   2. Developed the Socratic Method: asking
       pointed questions and giving no answer. He
       would oppose their answer with logical
   3. Socrates was viewed as a threat to the polis and
       was sentenced to death
    Golden Age of Athens

a. Pericles led Athens in this period (461 BC)
b. Athens stood for all that was the best in
   Greek civilization (“school of the Hellas”)
c. Artists excelled at:
      1. Architecture
      2. Sculpture: Classical Art-nothing to
      3. Painting
      4. Built huge, beautiful public

D. Citizens could:
       1. Vote
      2. Hold public office
       3. Speak for themselves in court
      4. HAD to serve in government
      5. HAD to fight in war
a. Military society
b. Outnumbered by slaves
c. Invaded other cities to fulfill needs
d. If a child was born sickly or deformed,
     they were left in hills to die
e. At age 7, boys were sent to military, at 60 they could retire
f. Suspicious of new ideas-NO CHANGE
g. Sparta lagged far behind other cities                in economic
Persian War
    Persian Empire controlled Middle East and Greek
     colonies on Asia Minor
      – Colonies Revolted(with aid of Athens), Persian king
        (Darius) determined to punish Athens
    Battles
      – Marathon: Persia attacks, Athens defeats (490 BCE)
      – Athens built huge navy and organized the city-states
      – Thermopylae; attack by Xerxes (son of Darius), Persia
        won (480 BCE)
      – Naval battle of Salamis, Athens won
      – Final battle of Platea, land battle won by Spartans,
        drove off Persians
    Greek Democracy prevailed and were able to
     have a “golden age”

1. 546 BC-Persia conquers Ionia;
   world’s largest empire
2. 499 BC-Ionians revolt-didn’t
   like one all powerful ruler
3. Persia, under Darius, defeats the
   Ionian Greeks
Thermopylae & Salamis
    Persian Wars

•    480 BC-Xerxes, son of Darius, invades Greece
     -Sparta leads the Greeks (united)
     -Themistocles, an Athenian General, says to defeat Persia
     at sea
     -to delay Persia, the Spartans slow them at
     THERMOPYLAE (a mtn. Pass)-Greeks lose & Athens
     -Greeks lure Persian navy into the shallow waters of
     SALAMIS-Greeks victorious
             Persian Wars

A. 490 BC-Darius attacks
   -for days nothing
   happened (Athens
B. -Persians decide to
   attack Athens-sent most
   of army away
C.-Athenians attack with
   most of the Persians
   waiting to board ships
Leonidas & the Spartans hold the
Persians at Thermopylae pass
-Pheidippides runs to Sparta for help – later runs to Athens to
tell of the Greek victory (Nike!), then dies
-Persians are defeated (6400 dead vs. 192 for the Greeks)
Battle of Salamis, 480 BC
 Effects of the Persian Wars

With supply ships gone, Xerxes
 returns to Asia for good
1. Greek civilization miraculously
 saved from “barbarians”
2. Classical age begins – art,
 literature, commerce flourish
3. Athens becomes dominant city-
Peloponnesian War (Athens & Sparta)
                (431 BCE-404 BCE)

  Athens formed Delian League for protection against the
   Persians, pirates
    – really turns into the Athenian Empire
  Sparta & others create an anti-Athens alliance;
   Peloponnesian League
  Part I – Spartans invade Athenian territory & burned
   food supply; city remained safe with colonial & foreign
   trade; plague in Athens; truce signed
  Part II – Athens send fleet to attack Syracuse (ally of
   Sparta); expedition was a failure (fleet & army) was
   destroyed; surrendered 9 years later
Warring City States
Peloponnesian War (431 BC-404 BC)

 Most cities joined the Delian League for protection
  against the Persians, pirates
 Athens led the D.L., which really turns into the Athenian
 Sparta & others create an anti-Athens alliance
 Sparta had no navy, made a deal w/Persians to get $ for
E. Athens weakened by a
plague & ruined crops;
forced to make peace in
404 BC.
Effects: Ruined fields,
city-states ripe for take
over, Athenians lose
faith in their democracy
           Writers of History

a. Known as the “father of history”
b. Considered the 1st true historian-he separated
   fact from fiction (tried to)
c. Wrote on the Persian Wars-called Historia
d. Wrote on military, political, social & religious

a. Wrote on the
Peloponnesian War
b. Rejected the idea
that gods played role
in human history
c. He only accepted
eyewitness accounts
The Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
 Effects:
   – Ruined fields, city-states ripe for take over, Athenians
     lose faith in their democracy
   – Sparta broke, detested for being anti-democratic
   – Weakened both and allowed for Macedonians to

                                               This picture actually
                                               represents the Persian War,
                                               but it looked cool. Notice
                                               the Phalanx behind
Alexander the Great
           Alexander the Great

Alexander and his Empire
a. Philip II of Macedonia, Alexander’s father, had
   conquered most of Greece by the time of
       his death

b. 336 BC-Alexander from Macedonia (north of
    Greece) becomes King of Macedonia
c. 334 BC-Alexander invades Persian empire &
       wins major victory in Asia Minor
           Alexander the Great

 Phillip of Macedonia (Alex’s Dad)
   – Tried to unify city-states by force
   – united the militaries and planned to attack Persia, but
     was assassinated
 Alexander
   – Conquered Persian Empire (Middle East and Egypt),
     to the Indus River
   – Largest empire to this point
   – Died of fever at 33
 Spread Hellenism (culture of the Greeks)
d. 332 BC-he conquers Syria, Palestine, and
Egypt (founds the city of Alexandria).
e. 331 BC -defeats Persians again, and ends
Persian rule for good
f. 327 BC-Alexander wants to keep going
    until they reach the Indus River -after 3
    years his men say no more-go home
g. 323 BC-Alexander dies of a fever at age
Alexander the Great Conquering Persia
Alexandria, Egypt

         •   The city is the center of
             Hellenistic civilization &
             learning - NOT Athens
         •   Well planned city:1st
             museum, Library with 1
             million volumes, Zoo,
             Double harbor (1200 ships
             could dock & giant
Legacy of Alexander the Great
a. Ends the era of the independent
   Greek polis
b. Creates Hellenism-the blending
   of Greek & eastern customs
•By 150 BC –Hellenism
was in decline
•Rome was gaining
          Science and Technology

 Astronomy
 Aristarchus – estimates Sun’s size
  at 300 times larger than earth (was
  off a bit); said Earth revolved
  around the Sun
 Eratosthenes – calculated Earth’s
  size at 28-29,000 miles (is 24,860)

 Math & Physics
 Euclid – wrote Elements
  (geometric propositions & proofs)
 Archimedes – gifted in geometry
  & physics; invented device that       Euclid
  raised water from the ground &
  the compound pulley