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DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACODYNAMICS Pharmacology and toxicology (final) for Pharmacy Students I. 1. Receptor theory: receptors, spare receptors, inert binding sites, agonists, partial agonists. Drug antagonisms: competitive reversible and irreversible, physiologic, chemical, pharmacokinetic. 2. Receptor theory: quantitative aspects, concentration-effect curves, efficacy, potency, therapeutic index and margin of safety. 3. Receptor theory: signal transduction mechanisms. 4. Pharmacokinetics: translocation of drugs, water and lipid solubility of drugs, Henderson- Hasselbach equation, routes of administration, drug absorption. 5. Pharmacokinetics: distribution of drugs, reservoirs, protein binding of drugs, elimination and excretion of drugs. 6. Drug metabolism: sites of drug metabolism. Phase I reactions, examples. 7. Drug metabolism: Phase II reactions, examples. Determinants of biotransformation rate, pro-drugs. 8. Clinical trials: double-blind studies, placebo, phase I, II and III trials. 9. Individual variations in drug action: effects of disease and age on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, pharmacogenetics. 10. Drug interactions. 11. Pharmacokinetics: volume of distribution, clearance, half-life, plasma concentration-time profiles, bioavailability, area under curve (AUC), maintenance dosage, loading dosage, compartment models. 12. Basic principles of toxicology: branches of toxicology, toxicity ratings, factors that influence toxicity: routes of administration, metabolism, state of health, age, sex, genetics. 13. Principles of management of the poisoned patient: toxicokinetics, methods to reduce absorption, methods to increase elimination, specific antidotes. 14. Toxic gases: carbon monoxide, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide. 15. Toxicology of heavy metals (Pb, Hg) and As. 16. Toxicology of organic solvents: hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons. Environmental pollutants. 17. Methanol, ethanol (pharmacological and toxicological aspects). 18. Tolerance, cross tolerance, psychologic and physical dependence, major categories of drug abuse (marijuana, LSD, amphetamines, cocaine). 19. Nicotine (pharmacological and toxicological aspects). II. 1. General anaesthesia: theories of anaesthesia, stages of anaesthesia, inhalation and intravenous anaesthesia. 2. Antiepileptic drugs: classification, mechanism of action, clinical use, toxicity and side effects. 3. Drug therapy of Parkinson’s disease: neurochemical changes, action of MPTP, drug treatment. 4. Anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs: benzodiazepines: mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, pharmacological effects (sedation, hypnosis, anxyolisis, muscle relaxation), clinical use, tolerance, dependence. 5. Anxiolytic-hypnotic drugs: barbiturates, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and metabolism, interactions, side effects, tolerance and dependence, enzyme induction. 6. Antipsychotic drugs: classification, mechanism of action, pharmacological effects, unwanted effects, clinical use. 7. Antidepressant drugs: classification. Tricyclic antidepressants: mechanism of action. MAO inhibitors. Atypical antidepressants. 8. Lithium: mechanism of action and clinical use, pharmacokinetics, toxicity. 9. Narcotic-analgetics: mechanism of action (opioid receptors, opiopeptides). Classification: agonists, mixed agonist-antagonists, antagonists. 10. Morphine: pharmacological actions, pharmacokinetics, clinical use, side effects, tolerance, dependence. Other opioid analgetics and antagonists (fentanyl, methadone, pentazocine, codeine, naloxone). 11. Acetylcholine receptor stimulants: cholinomimetic alkaloids, cholinesterase inhibitors. Pharmacological effects, clinical use, cholinergic receptors. 12. Muscarinic antagonists: pharmacological effects, unwanted effects, clinical use. 13. Adrenoceptor stimulants: noradrenaline, adrenaline, isoprenaline, indirectly-acting sympathomimetic amines, pharmacological effects, clinical use. 14. Beta-receptor blockers and selective beta-agonists: pharmacological effects, clinical use, side effects. 15. Drugs acting on alpha receptors: classification, clinical use, adrenergic neuron blocking drugs (guanetidine, reserpine). 16. Skeleteal muscle relaxants: classification, pharmacological effects, clinical use. 17. Local anaesthetics: classification, pharmacological effects, clinical use. 18. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: mechanism of action, pharmacological actions and unwanted effects. Aspirin: clinical use, toxicity, comparison of new structures with aspirin. Paracetamol. 19. Pharmacology of histamine, antihistamines (H1 antagonists). 20. Slow-acting anti-inflammatory drugs: gold, penicillamine, chloroquin. Drug therapy of rheumatoid disorders. Drugs used in gout. III. 1. Drugs used in hypertension: diuretics, vasodilators, angiotensin antagonists, adrenoceptor blockers, sympathetic neuron blockers. 2. Treatment of angina: organic nitrates, calcium antagonists, beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. 3. Cardiac glycosides and other cardiotonic agents. 4. Antidysrhythmic drugs (group I, II, III and IV). 5. Diuretic agents. 6. Drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipidaemias. 7. Drugs acting on the respiratory system (cough suppressants, mucolytics, drug therapy of bronchial asthma). 8. Drugs used in coagulation disorders. 9. Drugs affecting gastrointestinal tract (anti-emetics, management of peptic ulcer, purgatives, antidiarrhoeal agents). 10. Agents used in anaemias, vitamines. 11. Corticosteroids. 12. Thyroid and antithyroid drugs, parathyroid hormone, drugs used in disorders of calcium and phosphate metabolism. 13. Sex hormones and their antagonists, oral contraceptives. 14. Insulin and oral antidiabetic agents. 15. Sulphonamides, trimethoprim. 16. Beta-lactame antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins and other beta-lactams). 17. Aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, erythromycin. 18. Fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, metronidazol, vancomycin. 19. Antimycobacterial agents. 20. Drugs for malaria. 21. Antifungal agents. 22. Antiviral chemotherapy, immunosuppressant drugs and immunomodulating agents. 23. Anthelminthic drugs. 24. Cancer chemotherapy.
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