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Dust Explosion Elimination at Work

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					Its more than housekeeping
       Its also about



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What is Dust?
  One Micron-Size Dust Particle
         on a Pin Head




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   How is Dust Recirculated?
• Release of previously generated dust
  during such processing operations as:

   – Loading
   – Dumping
   – Transferring
• What types of Loading, Dumping, or
  Transferring Equipment do you have?

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 How is Dust Recirculated?

• Also, dust can be recirculated by:
   – Wind
   – Movement of Workers
   – Movement of Equipment
• What activities or conditions kick up dust at
  your mine?


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Dust Classification

• Fibrogenic Dust (Causes Disease)
  – Crystalline Silica (Quartz)
  – Asbestos
  – Beryllium
• Nuisance Dust - Dust that does not
  contain harmful quantities of asbestos
  & less than 1% quartz.

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   Dust Classification by Size
• Dust is classified by size into two
  primary categories.
  – Respirable Dust
  – Inhalable Dust




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  Inhaleable Dust
• Dust that enters the body, but is trapped
  in the nose, throat, and upper
  respiratory tract.




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Dust & the Respiratory System



Human
Respiratory
System




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     Why Control Dust?
• Health Hazards
    – Occupational respiratory diseases
    – Irritation to eyes, nose, throat
    – Skin irritation
•   Damage to Equipment
•   Impaired Visibility
•   Community Relations
•   Can you think of other reasons?
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   Health Hazards
• The harm Dust can cause depends on the
  following:
    Dust Composition
    Dust Concentration
    Particle Size and Shape
    Amount of Exposure Time
• Excessive exposure to harmful dusts can cause
  Pneumoconiosis - a dust related lung disease.

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   Dust Related Lung Diseases
• Silicosis
    Caused by Silica Dust
• Black Lung
    Caused by Coal Dust
• Asbestosis
    Caused by Asbestos Dust
• Damage from these diseases is irreversible!


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    Controling Dust Exposure -
    Safer Machinery & Tools
•   Fully enclosing dusty processes.
•   Local exhaust ventilation/dust collection equipment.
•   Tools with dust extraction (vacuum) devices.
•   Using water to suppress dust.
•   Operator enclosures with an air filtration system.
•   Use abrasives other than sand for abrasive blasting.




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Dust Control Systems




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 Controling Dust Exposure -
 Safe Work Procedures
• Wetting down dusty work areas or processes
  prior to work.
• Working upwind of dust sources where possible.
• Posting warning Signs where necessary.
• Limiting Exposure time.
• Training all employees on appropriate work
  procedures.
• Good housekeeping practices.

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Controling Dust Exposure -
Respiratory Protection
• Fit testing of all employees required to wear
  respiratory devices.
• Training employees in the proper use of
  respiratory devices.
• Making sure employees understand the hazards of
  dust and the importance of respirator use.
• Regular checking and cleaning of non-disposable
  respirators.


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   Reasons for Repirators?
• Certain Breathing conditions are hazardous to
  life and lung.
• The air can be contaminated with:
  – Dusts, Mists, Fumes
  – Toxic Vapors
• The air can have too little oxygen.



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  How do we control these Airborne
             Hazards?
• First - Use Engineering Controls to eliminate
  the hazard.
• Second - Use Administrative Controls to
  reduce exposure to the hazard.
• Last - Use Respirators as a temporary
  protective measure until Engineering and
  Administrative Controls are in place.


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   2 Basic Types of Respirators
• Air Purifying Respirators
  – Used to filter out or neutralize contaminants
  – Examples: Dust; Organic Vapor
• Air Supply Respirators
  – Used when there is a lack of oxygen, when the
    hazard is unknown or is undetectable by smell
    or taste.
  – Examples: Compressor & Hose; SCBA

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          Filtering Respirators
• Particulates - Dusts, Mists & Fumes
  – New Classes; N, R, P; 95, 99, 100
  – Non-Resistant(Oil), Resistant(Oil), (Oil) Proof
• Toxins - Organics, Acids, etc.
  – Neutralizing or Absorbing
• Filtering Respirators are Hazard Specific
  – Don’t expect one respirator to protect you from
    all hazards!

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    How long do Respirators last?
• Particulate (Dust) Filtering Respirators
  – Change them when the breathing resistance gets
    high.
• Toxin Filtering Respirators
  – Change when you first smell or taste a
    contaminant (Break-through)




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      Health Conditions that Interfere
            with Respirator Use
•   Heart Conditions
•   Asthma or other breathing problem
•   Claustrophobia (fear of enclosed space)
•   Missing Teeth




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  Other Conditions that can Interfere
         with Respirator Use
• Contact Lenses
• Eyeglass Temples (certain types)
• Skullcaps (Beanies)




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  Respirators Used at Your Workplace
• How to don your respirator.
  – Look at the manufacturer’s instructions.
• How to clean & Maintain your respirator.
  – Look at the manufacturer’s instructions.
• How to Self-Fit Test your respirator.
  – Not possible with Filter-Face Types
  – Look at the manufacturer’s instructions.


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                 Dust Explosion Properties


How an explosion occurs                                  Fuel
1) Dust has to be combustible
2) Particles form a cloud
  exceeding min. explosion
  concentrations
3) Dust is confined
4) Ignition source is present


                                          Confined Space
                                       (equipment, building)




              Oxygen                                          Ignition Source
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Take one out no fire




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        Dust Explosion Pentagon
                Combustible                              Confinement
(< 420 microns)       Dust



    Turbulence
  (dispersed with
     [C] > MEC)                                                  Oxidant

                          Ignition Source



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Why do we care?

    Secondary Explosions




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           What is the effect?
• Poor housekeeping, and secondary explosions,
  heighten the damage potential
  – Larger portion of facility, and more people,
    potentially involved
  – Longer duration events  greater impulse 
    more damage to structures and equipment




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              Housekeeping

• Importance stressed and guidance provided
  in NFPA 654
  – Dust layers >1/32 inch deep are a concern
  – Can be hazardous if >5% of floor area covered
  – Beams, ductwork, cabling, piping, walls all
    gather dust and should also be considered
  – Construct buildings and equipment for ease of
    cleaning
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      Dust Explosion Locations



Bucket elevators

Roller mills

Storage bins or tanks

Headhouse

Dust collector

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Preventing Dust Explosions


         Preventive maintenance
                Looking at all mechanical
                 and safety control
                 equipment associated with
                 preventing fires

                Examples: dryers, dust
                 collection equipment,
                 bucket elevators

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     Preventing Dust Explosions


 Blowdown operations
  Shut down machinery which
   presents an ignition source
  Remove all other
   potential ignition
   sources

 Employee
  participation

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Want Proof?




         13 Dead, > 40 injured

                       2008 - Imperial Sugar, GA
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2003 - West Pharmaceutical, NC
         West Pharmaceuticals, NC
6 Dead
37 Injured




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Good Housekeeping

   Maintaining focus




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    Benefits of Good Housekeeping
• Eliminates accident and fire hazards
• Maintains safe, healthy work conditions
• Saves time, money, materials, space, and
  effort
• Improves productivity and quality
• Boosts morale
• Reflects a well-run organization
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       Cost of Poor Housekeeping
• Slips, trips, falls
• Fires
• Chemical and machine accidents
• Injuries from electrical problems
• Collisions and falling objects
• Health problems

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When Cleaning or Dusting Equipment
             Always




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     Good Housekeeping Habits
• Make time for housekeeping
• Evaluate your workspace
• Remove hazards before starting work
• Turn equipment off after using it
• Clean up as you go
• Never ignore a safety hazard

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    Daily housekeeping checklist
• Floors
• Aisles
• Workstation
• Equipment
• Storage
• Waste disposal

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  Injuries from Slips, Trips, and Falls
• Strains and sprains
• Torn ligaments
• Broken bones
• Back or spine injury
• Death



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   Prevent Slips                                          Prevent Trips
• Clean up spills                                     Clean up straps and
                                                       bands
• Repair leaks
                                                      Put away electrical cords
• Pick up objects
                                                       and air hoses
• Sweep up debris
                                                      Don’t stack items in
• Wear slip-resistant shoes                            walkways
                                                      Keep drawers closed
                                                      Be careful when you
                                                       carry objects
                                                      Put away tools
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   Prevent Falls                               Preventing Fires

• Be careful on stairs (do                   Store flammable and
  not run, use three point                    combustible liquids in
  contact)                                    properly labeled
                                              containers
• Use ladders safely
                                             Keep reactive chemicals
• Replace fall protection
                                              separate
  chains and barriers
                                             Prevent accumulation of
• Use fall arrest
                                              combustibles
  equipment when
  required                                               Keep combustibles away
                                                          from electrical
                                                          equipment and hot
                                                          material
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        Exits and Fire Equipment
• Keep evacuation routes clear
• Don’t block emergency exits
• Make sure fire extinguishers are
  accessible
• Ensure that electrical panels can
  be opened




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             Chemical Safety
• Make sure containers are properly labeled
• Inspect containers for signs of damage
• Wear required PPE
• Follow safe storage and handling procedures
• Immediately clean up spills



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   Machine Safety                                                Electrical Safety

• Keep the area around machines                            Keep heaters and furnaces clear
  clear
                                                           Inspect electrical cords before use
• Inspect machines before use
                                                           Don’t overload outlet or circuits
• Make sure all guards are
  operating safely                                         Keep electrical equipment clean

• Follow lockout- tag out
  procedures
• Clean machines and put away
  tools




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  Prevent Cuts, Bumps, and Scrapes
• Don’t leave objects sticking out
• Pad head hazards
• Clean up broken glass immediately
• Properly store blades and sharp tools
• Properly discard old blades
• Keep utility knives sheathed or retracted

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                                                            Personal
    PPE Housekeeping                                      Housekeeping
• Inspect PPE before each                             Eat well and exercise
  use
                                                      Get enough sleep
• Clean PPE regularly
                                                      Take time to relax
• Store PPE properly
                                                      Never work or drive
• Replace PPE when                                     under the influence of
  necessary                                            alcohol



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       Key Points to Remember
• Good housekeeping helps prevent workplace
  fires and accidents
• Keeping the workplace neat, clean, and safe is
  everyone’s responsibility
• Keep alert to housekeeping hazards
• Eliminate or report hazards you identify
  anywhere in the facility

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   Quiz
• Silicosis is a disease whose effects can
  be reversed, given time.
     True
     False




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  Quiz
• Dust respirator masks are not the
  preferred protection from dust because:
   A. They can leak if not fitted properly.
   B. They are uncomfortable to wear.
   C. They cost very little.
   D. Both A & B




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Description: worker safety