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STRESS WORKSHOP FOR TEACHERS

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STRESS WORKSHOP FOR TEACHERS Powered By Docstoc
					                                       Stress Inventory                                   167

                                            TABLE 1
                          Ratings of Severity of Stress of Lqe Events by
                       Alental Health Professionals and Tearhers (N - 66)

Rank                                     Event                            .     M      SD

 I     Physical Child Abuse                                                   20.00    1 .00
2      Death of a Parent                                                      19 .43   1 .50
3      Divorce of Parents                                                     17 .80   2.56
4      Death of a Brother or Sister                                           17 .78   2 .63
 5     Acquiring a Visible Deformity                                          16 .71   3 .02
6      Marital Separation of Parents                                          16 .66   2 .55
7      Foster Home Placement                                                  16.39    3 .51
 8     Serious Illness Requiring Hospitalization orChild                      15 .87   3 .55
 9     Death of a Close Friend                                                15 .47   3 .95
10     Jail Sentence of a Parent                                              15 .16   3 .82
11     Severe Illness Requiring Hospitalization of Parents                    15 .12   3 .38
12     Having a Visible Congenital Deformity                                  14 .16   3 .83
13     Increase in Number of Arguments Between Parents                        13 .66   3 .50
14     Becoming Involved with Drugs and Alcohol                               13 .57   4.32
15     Marriage of Parent to Step-parent                                      13 .31   3 .86
16     Increase in Number of Arguments with Parents                           12 .92   3 .24
17     Frequent Absence of One or Both Parents                                12 .83   4 .28
18     Change in Child's Acceptance by Peers                                  12 .83   3 .96
19     Family Moves ; Relocations                                             12 .68   4 .18
20     Academic Failure                                                       12 .27   3 .45
21     Changed Schools                                                        12 .27   4 .21
22     Learning Problems in School                                            11 .95   3 .27
23     Illness Requiring Hospitalization of Brother or Sister                 11 .16   4 .25
24     Beginning School                                                       11 .10   4 .84
25     Death of a Grandparent                                                 11 .07   4 .42
26     Speech Problems                                                        10.77    4 .07
27     Hearing Problems                                                       10.74    4 .00
28     Child Needed Special Education Services                                10 .40   3.83
29     Suspension from School                                                 10 .06   4 .25
30     Mother Beginning to Work                                               10 .00   3.56
31     Loss of Job by Parent                                                   9 .83   4 .36
32     Poor Grades in School                                                   9 .69   3 .64
33     Birthof Brother or Sister                                               9 .27   3 .81
34     Increased Argument with Brothers and Sisters                            9 .15   3 .53
35     Brother or Sister Leaving Home                                          8 .93   4 .27
36     Addition of a Third Party to Family (i .e ., Grandmother, etc .)        7 .98   3 .27
37     Vision Problem Requiring Glasses                                        6 .21   3 .69
PREVENTION SKILLS
   Become knowledgeable about stress
  Understand the process and effects of stress . Identify your major sources of stress . Anticipate
  stressful periods and plan for them . Find your optimum stress levels in all the areas of your life
  - be honest about what you really can cope with .


" Keeping physically fit
  Research consistently has demonstrated that the fitter you are the less likely you are to
  develop physical illnesses but also mental illness. If you are fit you have more energy to
  engage the daily problems you encounter and more resilience when things do not work out
  well .


0 Develop a style of life that will act as a buffer against the effects of stress
  Drink in moderation . Eat a balanced diet, have regular meals and always begin the day with an
  adequate breakfast. Cut out or reduce smoking. Minimise your use of foods high in sugar, salt
  and saturated fats . Increase your fibre intake . Maintain your recommended weight .


  Manage your time
  Determine your priorities, dis?inauish between what must be done and what it would be
  desirable to do .


" Be assertive
  Develop the skills of asking for what you want, stating your preferences, and saying 'no' to
  people and organisations who demand too much of your time .


0 Develop an effective support system
  Having people to turn to, talk and rely on has been shown to be perhaps the most significant
  factor in helping people minimise the occurrence and impact of stressors in their lives and on
  their health .


   Have clear objectives
  Many of us end up doing too much, inefficiently, and too quickly. This is often because we
  have not stopped to ask ourselves what it is that we really want . Training oneself to think in
  terms of objectives is a crucial Lifeskill (and will be represented in a future volume of Teaching
  Programmes). It does not refer only to major life decisions but to all activities in our lives . How
  often do we ask ourselves, 'is this what I want to be doing right now, and why do I want to do
  it?'

9 Be clear about your values
   Until you know what is important to you, you will find it difficult to set objectives for yourself .
   Page 211 in Lifeskills Teaching gives a variety of teaching resources to enabie teachers to help
   students clarify and crystallise their values . It is important to remember, however, that values
   change and require periodic reassessment .


 0 Be systematic about making decisions and solving problems
   Learn to divide a problem into manageable components, gather sufficient information about
                                                                                             learn
   the problem to put it into perspective. Discover your range of decision-making styles and
   which is appropriate  to what decision .
                                                                                      DESTRESS 8
 HAND007 8 .2

MANAGEMENT SKILLS
" Exercise
  Physical exercise, whether through a sport, dancing, fitness programme or any strenuous
  activity, helps to dissipate the stress response as well as re-energising you to engage the
  problem .


  Relax
  There are many ways of relaxing and perhaps it appears strange to read of this as a skill. We
  would certainly not wish to prescribe to people as to how they should relax, but we do in this
  Teaching Programme wish to acquaint students with a variety of relaxation techniques, some
  of which may well be new to them . We also frequently encounter people who do not seem to
  know how to relax. The time when we most often are in need of relaxation is that time when
  we believe that we do not have the time! Some relaxation techniques do work directly on our
  physiology, for example, meditation, deep breathing, progressive relaxation, autogenics,
  massage, whereas others work indirectly through a psychological process - listening to
  music, having a drink, watching TV, reading a book . Students need to have access to a variety
  of techniques to help them discover what works for them and in what situations .



0 Give yourself a treat
  Stress prevention and management programmes can sound like just so much hard work ;
  requiring dedication, time and exuding a certain joylessness.
      Sometimes it is really important to say to oneself in times of stress, 'I've had enough . That's
  it ; I'm going to enjoy myself' . It is sad to relate but some people need to be given permission to
  enjoy themselves . Do whatever you enjoy doing - have that calorific cream cake, go to the
  cinema, buy yourself that ludicrously expensive blouse . Who are we to tell you what you
  should do to give yourself a treat!


  Use constructive self-talk
  The Teaching Programme : 'How to manage negative emotions', gives considerable
  background to this concept . Constructive self-talk is simply what you can say to yourself as you
  deal with a particular source of stress . It's the old-fashioned device of 'talking to yourself' ; the
  only difference is that you decide in advance the thoughts that you are going to have in the
  midst of the stress-producing event . You will want to practise speaking thoughts to yourself
  that are going to enable you to cope better than you otherwise would . There are four points in
  any situation where you can use this to help manage a stressful experience :

          1.    preparing for a stressful experience, for example, taking an examination ;

          2.    dealing with it when it is underway - in the examination room ;

          3.    dealing with the anxiety of being overwhelmed by it - panicking when you fail to
                recognise any of the questions on the paper;

          4.    rewarding yourself after it is all over - congratulating yourself in your head for
                having completed the examination .
                                           Calming Down
                                       Dr. George S. Everly, Jr.

  During the course of an average day, many of us find ourselves in anxiety producing situations . Our heart
rates increase, our stomachs may become upset, and our thoughts may race uncontrollably through our
minds . It is during such episodes as these that we require fast-acting relief from our stressful reactions . The
brief exercise described below on this page has been found effective in reducing most of the stress reaction
that we suffer from during acute exposures to stressors - in effect, a quick way to "calm down" in the face
of a stressful situation .
      The basic mechanism for stress reduction in this exercise involves deep breathing. The procedure is as
      follows:
      STEP 1 - Assume a comfortable position . Rest your left hand (palm down) on top of your abdomen.
      More specifically, place your left hand over top of your navel. Now place your right hand so that it
      comfortably rests on your left. Your eyes should remain open. (See Figure 1).
      STEP 2 - Imagine a hollow bottle, or pouch, lying internally beneath the point at which your hands
      are resting. Begin to inhale . As you inhale, imagine that the air is entering through your nose and
      descending to fill that internal pouch. Your hands will rise as you fill the pouch with air. As you
      continue to inhale, imagine the pouch being filled to the top . Your rib cage and upper chest will
      continue the wave-like rise that was begun at your navel. The total length of your inhalation should be
      3 seconds for the first week or so, then lengthening to 4 to S seconds as your progress in skill
     'development .
      STEP 3 - Slowly begin to exhale - to empty the pouch . As you do, repeat to yourself the phrase
      "My body is calm ." As you exhale, you will feel your raised abdomen and chest recede .
   Repeat this exercise two times in succession. Then continue to breathe normally for S to 10 successive
breath cycles, but be sure to emphasize the expiration of each breath as the point of relaxation . Then, you
may repeat the entire process again - 2 deep breaths followed by S to 10 normal breaths during which you
concentrate on releasing any stored tension on the expiration. Should you begin to feel light-headed or
should you experience any discomfort, stop at that point.
   Practice this exercise S to 10 times a day. Make it a ritual in the morning, afternoon, and evening, as well
as during stressful situations. After a week or two of practice omit Step 1 . This was for teaching the
technique only. Because this form of relaxation is a skill, it is important to practice at least 5-10 times a day .
At first you may not notice any on-the-spot relaxation. However, after a week or two of regular practice
you will increase your capabilities to relax "on-the-spot ." Remember - consistent practice of these daily
exercises will lead to the development of a more calm and relaxed attitude - a sort of anti-stress attitude -
and when you do have stressful moments, they will be far less severe .
                       STRESS MANAGEMENT


What is Stress?              Stress is a process  -   it is an
                             interaction between the coping skills of the
                             individual and the demands of his
                             environment .



 5   Components of Stress :


      1.   Stressors     -     S tuations which put demands on
                                   ur coping skills . (particularly
                               yoif one feels uncertain of believe
                               t ey lack control) .   It can be increase
                                of decrease (e .g ., boredom) .


      2.   Thoughts      -      a)   YOU see an event/situation as
                                     a stress one

                                b)   YOU have decided it is a stressor
                                     (expectations)

                                c)   If YOU dont expect to be able to
                                     cope you will have expectations of
                                     the consequences of not coping .


                                (Exagerated and unrealistic thinking
                                 plays a big role in creating stress) .


     3.    Physiological Responses -        Your body reacts -

                                a)   Changes in blood flow and pressure
                                b)   heart rate,
                                c)   breathing
                                d)   muscle tension and perspiration

                                Stress at one level can become a boost
                                to allow you to meet the demands of the-
                                situation - at another level it develops
                                health problems and sometimes death .


           (HEALTH     is a state of balance between the physical .

            mental, social and spiritual aspects of people) .
4.   Feelings                -            Excitement and exhilaration
                                          are positive
                                          Stress is associated with
                                          negative feelings - anxiety
                                          anger, tension, frustration and
                                          hopelessness .  (Feeling bad
                                          itself acts as a stressor because
                                          people get upset with themselves
                                          for feeling upset) .


5.   Behaviour               -            Our response to stressors -
                                          Fight or Flight
                                          Fight could be constructive problem
                                          solving or losing ones temper .
                                          Agression can be active or passive
                                          people who dont fight may have
                                          very agressive silences .



Some stress is inevitable and even desirable - but too much is
harmful - it is a question of degree .   Eustress -    Good)
                                         Distress  -   Bad .


Stress is the non-specific response made on us_ it can produce :

           Pressure              Autonomic response
           Panic                 Incongruence
           Despression           Dis-organised
           Tension               Money
           Anxiety
           Headache


It can be      the      cause/effect/consequence


Stages :        Alarm                  (chemical infusion in body)
                Resistance             (body mobilises)
                Exhausion              (overload)


Some people are more prone to stress than others e .g ., Type A
and Type B persons .
                        STRESS MANAGEMENT


What is Stress?               Stress is a process  -   it is an
                              interaction between the coping skills of the
                              individual and the demands of his
                              environment .



 5    Components of Stress :


      1.   Stressors            Situations which put demands on
                                your coping skills . (particularly
                                 if one feels uncertain of believe
                                 they lack control) .   It can be increase
                                 of decrease (e .g ., boredom) .


      2.   Thoughts       -      a)   YOU see an event/situation as
                                      a stress one

                                b)    YOU have decided it is a stressor
                                      (expectations)

                                 c)   If YOU dont expect to be able to
                                      cope you will have expectations of
                                      the consequences of not coping .


                                 (Exagerated and unrealistic thinking
                                  plays a big role in creating stress) .

     3.    Physiological Responses -         Your body reacts -

                                a)    Changes in blood flow and pressure
                                b)    heart rate,
                                c)    breathing
                                 d)   muscle tension and perspiration

                                Stress at one level can become a boost
                                to allow you to meet the demands of the .
                                situation - at another level it develops
                                health problems and sometimes death .


           (HEALTH     is a state of balance between the physical_
            mental, social and spiritual aspects of people) .
4.   Feelings                -           Excitement and exhilaration
                                         are positive
                                         Stress is associated with
                                         negative feelings - anxiety
                                         anger, tension, frustration and
                                         hopelessness .   (Feeling bad
                                         itself acts as a stressor because
                                         people get upset with themselves
                                         for feeling upset) .


S.   Behaviour               -            Our response to stressors -
                                          Fight or Flight
                                          Fight could be constructive problem
                                          solving or losing ones temper .
                                          Agression can be active or passive
                                          people who dont fight may have
                                          very agressive silences .



Some stress is inevitable and even desirable - but too much is
harmful - it is a question of degree .   Eustress  -   Good)
                                         Distress  -   Bad .


Stress is the non-specific response made on us.i t can produce :

           Pressure              Autonomic response
           Panic                 Incongruence
           Despression           Dis-organised
           Tension               Money
           Anxiety
           Headache


It can be      the    cause/effect/consequence


Stages :        Alarm                  (chemical infusion in body)
                Resistance             (body mobilises)
                Exhausion              (overload)


Some people are more prone to stress than others e .g ., Type A
and Type B persons .
WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT STRESS :

Management :            Stress prevention      e .g ., re-organise schedule
                        Stress reduction       e .g ., cognitive restructing
                        Stress Management      e .g ., relaxation, exercises .



These could include       Changing jobs
                          Quitting jobs
                          Improving jobs
                          Changing relationships
                          Quitting bad relationships
                          Improving relationships
                          Changing Intrusive Thoughts
                          Coping with worrying thoughts
                          Thought Stopping
                          Setting up a personal plan for changing
                          Stressors (perhaps a contract system)
                          Changing irrational thoughts to rational thoughts
                          Learning to relax  -  ex yoga,
                          Increasing your endurance capacity (being fit)
                          Getting in touch with your feelings
                          Reward your sucesses
                          Become more assertive    (recognise assertion)
                          Improve communication skills
                              e .g ., levelling, listening, validating .
                          Gain skill in solving problems -
                              e .g ., define problem
                                      brainstorm solutions
                                    evaluate possibilities
                                    Select a solution
                                    Impli ment the plan (practise)


Self analysis and self help is available if the problem is extemely
stressful seek professional help .


Social Networks are vital in overcoming stress -

         1   .   Value of confident
         2   .   Self care (as per caring for others)
         3   .   Small group social support
         4   .   Someone to affirm "I'm O .K ." image
Example 1

Accepted : When I feel accepted,

     I feel warm inside .
     I feel safe.
     I feel free to be myself .
     I feel I can let my guard down .
     I feel like sharing myself .
     I feel my strengths more-deeply .
     Some of my fears ease away .
     I feel at home .
     I feel at peace .
     I feel some residues of loneliness drain away.


Example 2

Scared : When I feel scared,

     My mouth dries up .
     My bowels become loose .
     There are butterflies in my stomach.
     I feel like running away.
     I feel the need to talk to someone understanding .
     I'm unable to concentrate .
     I turn in on myself .
     I feel extremely vulnerable .
     Sometimes I feel like crying out .
   Some of the symptoms we may see when our body is'aroused by the "fight/flight" response are
   summarised below :-

  Heart pumps faster                 --~      Blood pressure rises            .--j    Thudding heart beat
  Air passages enlarge and
    brcarhing faster                 -----~   Hyperventilation                ----~   Dizziness
  Blood drawn from skin to
    muscles                          --j      Face becomes white
  Digestion interrupted                  Appetite changes or "screwed-up" feeling in stomach,
                                     ----~
  Cortisone secreated by                 Dampens body's immune               Colds, flu and infections
    adrenals             ,           --~   response                   --~      more likely .
 Body metabolism increases           --~ Stores raided and organ's    --~ "Run down" feeling ;,nd
                                           overworked                          ill health
 Ccistro-intestinal tract                     Diarrhoea or ulcers over time
   works overtime
 Pupils dilate                       ---~     Better sight                    --~     Eye soreness over time
 Muscles tense                       ---~     Ready for action                ----~   Muscle tension & soreness
                                                                                        over time .
 Ile ;iring becomes acute
 I,'lood supply to head              -.~      More oxygen to brain            ---~    Throbbing heed
    increases
 Blood drains from extremeties --~            Hands & feet feel cold and
                                                sweaty .

OnlY trio often nowadays the strenuous action which makes use of all these functions does not

 follow and our bodies are prone to being constantly tuned to a higher action level .                  We cannot   i*(: l ;i:-:

mid i f this continues too long it precipitates "dis-ease" .          The disease is the body's way of w;lrii i           ll ;-,




it :;   Lh;it something is wrong .
3 _,Al o

                         How Much Change Can You Take?

       Dr . Thomas H . Holmes, Professor of Psychiatry at the University
       of Washington, has devised a scale assigning point value to
       changes, both good and bad, that often affect us .    When enough
       changes occur during one year to add up to 300, a danger point
       has been reached .    In the population he studied, 80 percent of
       the people who exceeded 300 became seriously depressed, had heart
       attacks, or suffered other serious illnesses .

            meet a series of life events .   Holmes and Rahe have called
            this list "the social readjustment scale" .      The scale is
            based on interviews with 394 individuals .         The actual
            numerical rating was the average number of units these
            individuals assigned to the various life events after being
            told marriage was equivalent to fifty units .      Heading the
            list is death of a spouse .   The doctors subsequently found
            that ten times more widows and widowers die during the first
            year after the death of their husbands or wives than all
            others in their age group ; that divorced persons have an
            illness rate twelve times higher than married persons in the
            year following the divorce .     According to the doctors,
            change whether for "good" or "bad" causes stress to a human
            being, leaving him more susceptible to disease .
                                         TABLE 1

                          THE STRESS OF ADJUSTING TO CHANGE

            Events                                        Scale of Impact

            Death of Spouse                                              100
            Divorce                                                       73
            Marital separation                                            65
            Jail term                                                     63
            Death of close family member                                  63
            Personal injury or illness                                    53
            Marriage                                                      50
            Fired at work                                                 47
            Marital reconciliation                                        45
            Retirement                                                    45
            Change in health of family member                             44
            Pregnancy                                                     40
            Sex difficulties                                              39
            Gain of new family member                                     39
            Business readjustment                                         39
            Change in financial state                                     38
            Death of close friend                                         37
            Change to different line of work                              36
            Change in number of arguments with spouse                     35
            Mortgage over $10,000                                         31
            Foreclosure of mortgage or loan                               30

                                                                /2 . .
Change in responsibilities at work                     30
Son or daughter leaving home                           29
Trouble with in-laws                           --      29
Outstanding personal achievement                       28
Wife begins or stops work                              26
Begin or end school                                    26
Change in living conditions                            25
Revision of personal habits                            24
Trouble with boss                                      23
Change in work hours or conditions                     23
Change in residence                                    20
Change in schools                                      20
Change in recreation                                   19
Change in church activities                            19
Change in social activities                            18
Mortgage or loan less than $10,000                     17
Change in sleeping habits                              16
Change in number of family get-togethers               15
Change in eating habits                                15
Vacation                                               13
Christmas                                              12
Minor violations of the law                            11
Our approach is similar in that      we define stress as
environmental  conditions that       require  behavioural
adjustment .
                              LIST FCR TE::SICK AND ANXIETY INDICATORS




                                                            SPORT :

                                                        CIRCLE FREQUENCY OF OBSERVATION
 J am _ .J   C F TEN S 10.I                                  .AL'AYS _ SOMETIMES  NEVER
  Excessive butterflies                                           3           2       1
  Facial gimaces                                                  3           2      1
 Clenching teeth, grinding teeth                                 3.           2      1
 General bodily restlessness                                     3            2      1
 Moving body part continuously : foot, hands, knee               3            2      1
 Tightness in throat                                             3           2       1
 Tightness in chest                                              3           2      1
 Headaches                                                      3            2      1
 Neckaches                                                      3            2      1
 Backaches                                                      3            2      1
 Stomach discomfort or pain                                     3            2      1
 Diarrohea                                                      3            2      1
 Constipation                                                   3            2      1
 Irritable bowel                                                3           2       1
 Indigestion                                                    3           2
 Irritable G .I . tract                                         3-          2       1
 Fatigue                                                        3           2
 Insomnia, disrupted sleep                                     3            2        1
 Restless legs                                                 3            2       1
 Restless hands                                                3            2       1
 Pulling, tugging on hair, moustache, eyebrows, etc .          3            2       1
Muscles twitches, spasms, cramps, tics                         3            2       1
 Excessive sweating                                            3            2       1
Cold, clammy hand and/or feet                                  3            2       1
Chewing fingernails                                            3            2       1
Chewing inside of cheek or lips                                3            2       1
General irritability                                           3           2        1
Heart pounding or racing                                       3           2       1
Feelings of irritability                                      3            2       1
Feelings of aggression                                        3            2       1
Anger, hostility .                                            3            2       1
Shaking hands, tremors                                        3            2.      1
Irregular breathing rates, shortness of breath                3       -    2       1
Uncontrollable thoughts                                       3           2       1
Negative thoughts                                             3           2       1
Mental confusion                                              3           2       1
Forgetfulness                                                3            2       1
Skin rashes                                                  3            2       1
Loss of appetite                                             3            2       1
Execessive eating                                            3            2       1
Increased drinking                                           3            2       1
Unexplained fears                                            3            2       1
Feelings of a lack of control                                3            2       I


                                                        TOTAL SCORE



                              (Modified from Harris a Harris, 1984)
WHAT CAN WE DO ABOUT STRESS :

                                                                              J
Management :          Stress prevention          e .g ., re-organise schedule
                      Stress reduction           e .g ., cognitive - restructing
                      Stress Management          e .g ., relaxation, exercises .



These could include     Changing jobs
                        Quitting jobs        .
                        Improving jobs
                        Changing relationships
                        Quitting bad relationships
                        Improving relationships
                        Changing Intrusive Thoughts
                        Coping with worrying thoughts
                        Thought Stopping
                        Setting up a personal plan for changing
                        Stressors (perhaps a contract system)
                        Changing irrational thoughts to rational thoughts
                        Learning to relax - ex yoga,
                        Increasing your endurance capacity (being fit)
                        Getting in touch with your feelings
                        Reward your sucesses
                        Become more assertive (recognise assertion)
                        Improve communication skills
                            e .g ., levelling, listening, validating .
                        Gain skill in solving problems -
                            e .g ., define problem
                                  brainstorm solutions
                                  evaluate possibilities
                                  Select a solution
                                  Imph ment .the plan (practise)


Self analysis and self help is available if the problem is extemely
stressful seek professional help .


Social Networks are vital in overcoming stress -

         1.    Value of confident
         2.    Self care (as per caring for others)
         3.    Small group social support
               Snmnnna to affirm "T Im 0 K
                          THE PIE OF LIFE
This,circle represents a typical day in your life (24 hours) . Divide it into
segmefts to show the various activities of your day and the time spent on each .
(N .B : Don't forget the hours spent sleeping) .




1.   Are you satisfied with the relative sizes of your slices?
2.   Ideally, how big would you want each slice to be? Draw your ideal pie .
3.   Realistically, is there anything you can do to begin to change the size
     of some of your slices?
4.   Is there a Self-Contract you'd be willing to make and sign your name to?
PURPOSE :
This strategy is a variation of Percentage Questions . In its simplest form, it
asks us to inventory our lives - to see how we actually do spend our time, our
money, etc. This information is needed if we hope to move from what we are getting
to what we want to get out of life . The Pie of Life can also be used to raise
some thought-provoking questions about how we live our lives .
TO THE TEACHER:
Do stress the fact that there is no right way to divide up a pie . Each of us
lives a different life . There is no implication that it is necessary to change
the time devoted to any specific category . The focus is on inventorying and
looking at our lives more closely . Any decisions to change are up to the
individual .
There are many things that can be looked at in terms of slices of the pie of life .
For example : A pie on where the mohey goes each week, a pie on the kinds of clothes
hanging in your closet, a pie .on the music your listen to, or toe books and
magazines and newspapers you read, or the people who visit your home, etc .
In addition to being a factual inventory of our lives, the Pie of Life can ask , for
a subjective inventory .  For example, you can plot the proportions of the day that
you feel HIGH, NEUTRAL or LOW . Or, a WORK pie can be drawn to show the portions
that are CREATIVE, INTERESTING, DULL but important, and BUSY-WORK (dull and
relatively unimportant) .
             LIFELINE
Lifeline The line on the right
represents your lifespan .
Locate the present on the line .
Identify in the major events in
the past .
Write in some of the things
We hope to do this month, this
year, within five years, ten years,
twenty years, and so on .
List under each of these goals,
or draw how your life-style could
change as a result of working
towards the goal of achieving it .
State the goals that are particularly
important to you . Fix them in your
mind . Visualize yourself achieving .
                               Session One

                                 VALUES

                           Values Exercise #1


Purpose :     To identify the priorities in your value system

Procedure : From the list below, pick the 5 most important values
            for you as guiding principles of your life . Think of
WHY you have selected these 5 values . Concentrate on things you
have done in the past and choices you have made which show that
these are guiding principles for you . VALIDATE each of the 5
values you have selected by noting one thing you do or have done
which illustrates this value for you .

       a comfortable life (prosperous life)
       equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all)
       an exciting life (stimulating, active life)
       family security (taken care of)
       happiness
       inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict)
       mature love (sexual and spiritual intimacy)
       national security (protection from attack)
       pleasure (an enjoyable leisurely life)
       salvation (eternal life)
       self-respect (self esteem)
       a sense of accomplishment (making a lasting contribution)
       social recognition (respect and admiration)
       true friendship
       wisdom (a mature understanding of life)
       world peace (freedom from war arid tonflict)
       a world of beauty
       ambitious (hard working and aspiring)
       brood-minded (open minded)
       capable (competent and effective)
       cheerful (light hearted and joyful)
       clean (neat and tidy)
       courageous (standing up for your beliefs)
       forgiving ( willing to pardon others )
       helpful (working for the welfare of others)
       honest (sincere and truthful)
       imaginative (daring and creative)
       independent (self-reliant and self-sufficient)
       intellectual (intelligent and reflective)
       logical (consistent and rational)
       loving (affectionate and tender)
       obedient (dutiful and respectful),
              .
       polite ( courteous and well-mannered)
       self-control (restrained and self-disciplined)
IRRATIONAL BELIEFS

At the root of all irrational thinking is the assumption that
things are done to you :   "That really got me down . . . .She_makes
me nervous .- .Places like that scare me . . . Being lied to makes
me see red ." Nothing is done to you . Events happen in the
world . You experience those events (A), engage in self-talk(B),
and then experience an emotion (C) resulting from the self-
talk . (A) does not cause (C) - (B) causes (C) . If your self-
talk is irrational and unrealistic, you create unpleasant
emotions .

Two common forms of irrational self-talk are statements that
"awfulise" and "absolutise" . You awfulise by making catastrophic,
nightmarish interpretations of your experience . A momentary
chest pain is a heart attack, the grumpy boss intends to fire
you, your mate takes a night job and the thought of being alone
is unthinkably terrible . The emotions that follow awfulise self-
talk tend themselves to be awful - you are responding to your
own description of the world .

Irrational self statements that " absoluti .se" often include
words such as "should, must, ought, always and never" . The
idea is that things have to be a certain way, or you have to
be a certain way . Any deviation from that particular value
or standard is bad . The person who fails to live up to the
standard is bad . In reality, it is the standard that is bad
because it is irrational .

Albert Ellis has suggested ten basic irrational ideas, which
are listed below . To these we have added some additional
common self statements which are highly unrealistic . Check the
ones that seem to apply to you .

1.   IT IS AN ABSOLUTE NECESSITY FOR AN ADULT TO HAVE LOVE AND
     APPROVAL FROM PEERS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS .

In fact, it is impossible to please all the people in your life .
Even those who basically like and approve of you will be turned
off by some behaviours and qualities . This irrational belief
is probably the single greatest cause of unhappiness .

2.   YOU MUST BE UNFAILINGLY COMPETENT AND ALMOST PERFECT IN
     ALL YOU UNDERTAKE .

The results of believing you must behave perfectly are self
blame for inevitable failure, lowered self esteem, perfection-
istic standards applied to mate and friends, and paralysis and
fear at attempting anything .

3.   CERTAIN PEOPLE ARE EVIL, WICKED AND VILLANEOUS, AND SHOULD
     BE PUNISHED .

A more realistic position is that they are behaving in ways
which are antisocial or inappropriate, . They are perhaps stupid,
ignorant or neurotic, and it would be well if their behaviour
could be changed .
 V   \ ,0
VI
                                                                                            DE-STRESS 3


                                       S E L F         T A L K



        MAKING STRESSFUL EVENTS LESS STRESSFUL


        Often, the things that really stress us are only stressful because of
        the way we perceive them .               It's your self-talk that can cause stress .


        For instance, look at this situation -

              Julie thinks that it's about time she got a raise,
              but her boss hasn't yet said anything about one .
              The thought of asking him leads to her feeling
              stress - anxious, upset, fidgeting .

              Why
              Julie thinks, "He might say 'no' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
              or,"He'll tell me I'm no good, I don't deserve one . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ."
              or,"He'll think I'm big-headed and aggressive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ."
              or,"He might laugh in my face - oryell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ."


        This thinking can be rational, or irrational .                         It is irrational if

        1.    It is largely self put-down's (I don't deserve it . . . . . .")

        2.    It immediately assumes others will be negative (He'll laugh in
              my face) ;

        3.    It turns a "want" into a vital "need"                     (I must . . . .") ;

        4.    It suggests that if the need is not met, the result will be really
              disastrous (I'd die if he said no . . . . . .) ;

         S.   It does not consider all the evidence ;

         6.   It leads to wrong conclusions .
Think of a situation in which you get tense .    It could be a situation
of conflict of interests, or one in which you want to be more assertive,
or in which you are criticised - or whatever .


"Take a few minutes to think about this situation .


Write down all the FACTS d: that situation (DO NOT include any impressions,
interpretations of what happened or any value judgements) .




How did you FEEL?




What was your SELF-TALK     (What did you tell yourself about yourself
in this situation?      What were your impressions about what was
happening?)




Were there any irrational thoughts in your self-talk?      If so, take each
thought and ask yourself      -

1.   Is that thought really TRUE?

2.   Why is it FALSE?

3.   Realistically, what good and bad things could happen as a result of
     this situation?
                               TEN THINGS 1 LIKE TO DO
 List ten         Alone      Planned             New        How long    Frequently (F) Most Like
 things I           or           or               or          since I   Sometimes (S)      to
  like to      With Others Spontaneous           Old         last did     Rarely (R)   Least Like
    do           (A or O)     (P or S)         (N or O)          it       Never (N)    (1 to 10)
1.


2.


3.


4.


5.


6.


7.


8.


9-


 10.


1.     Fill in the list of things you like to do. Think of the things you really do enjoy I
2.     Go through the columns and make the appropriate entries.
3.     When you have completed the list, ask yourself
       (a)     have I any immediate reactions to doing the list?
       (b)      have I reactions to looking at my entries in column 1 ; any reactions to column 2; and
       so on?
       (c)     how much time do I spend doing the things I enjoy?
       (d)      how consciously do I actively 'build-in' to my life activities that I do enjoy?
        (e)     if I wanted more time to do more of what I enjoy what would I have to change?
        (f) do I want to do that?
        If you are prepared to exchange your list with another person, it could be interesting to talk
       to each other about your reactions and about anything that strikes you in reading each
        others sheets .
4.      If individuals are interested the list could be re-headed TEN THINGS I DONT LIKE TO
        DO', and filled in accordingly. This can focus on how much of one's time can be given to
        activities which give little satisfaction and can be compared quite usefully with the first list,
        as a basis for some re-evaluation of 'How I spend my time'.
                                                                                                      33
                                                                                                                                                             sty and/or environment -        stood . on loving rather than
   1 Gct up riftecn min-       wait fit a post office line                 Relax your scan "     19- Turn "needs" Into                                                                                                          43 . Do one thing at a
                               almost pleasant  .                                                                                                            may be just what you need,      on being loved,
utes earlier In Uhc morning.                                    cards. Tihc world will not     Preferences. Our basic                                                                                                        time. 1Vhen you arc busy
The Inevitable morning            8 Procrastination is          end If the grass doesn't get   physical needs trutstate                                         30 . Talk It Out.            38 . Do someth ing              with a project. concentrate
mishaps will be less stress-   stressful. Whatever you          mowed Oils weekend,            Into food, water, and                                         Discussing your              that wit improve your ap-          on doing that project and
ful .                                                                                          keeping warm . Everything                                     problems with a 0~           pearance. Looking beacr            forget about everything
                               want to do tomorrow, do             1 5 . Pollyanna Power!
                               today. whatever you want                                        else Is a pmrcrcnce. Don't                                    trusted fiend                                can help you       else you have to do . ,
  Z . Prepare for the                                           For every one Uhlng that       get attached to prcfcmnccs .
morning Uhc evening            to do today, do It now.                                                                                                       an help                    ~!r feel better.
                                                                goes wrong, there ate                                                                        clcu                                                               44 . Allow yourself
before. Set the brcaklut                                        probably 10 or 50 or 100          20 " Simplify, S!m-                                                                                        39 .            lime - everyday - for
table, make lunclhes, put        9 . Plan ahead. Don't
                               let the                          blessings . Count'cml          plify, simplify,                                                                                           Schedule a         privacy, quiet and Intro-
out the clodus you plan to                                                                                                                                                                              aliaic day.          spection .             "
wear, VC.                                                         16 . Ask questions.             .'21 . Make friends                                             s
                          _
                                                                                               with non worriers. Noth .                                                                  Avoid the tendency to                 466. ironespcci,liy
                                                               Taking a fewmoments to                                                                                                     schedule back to back ap-
                                                               repeat back directlom           Ing can get you Into the                      `hilt\                                       polntmcnts ;allow time             "unpleasant" task faces
                                                               what someone expects of         habit of worrying faster                                                   your mind of                                       you, do it early In the day .
                                                               you. etc. can save hours .      than assoclaUng with           When Wing stressed,            confusion so you can con- between appointments for a            and get it over with . Tlrn
                                                                                               chronic worrywarts,            most people tend to breathe ecntrate on problem sole-_ breathing spell .                       the rest of yourday will be
                                                                   17 . Say "Nol"                                             In clan, shallow breaths,      Ing.                                                            froc of anxiety,
                                                                Saying no to extra projects,    22 . Gct up and                                                                              40 . Become mono
                                                                                                                              Qcck your breathing                                         flexible. Some things arc
                                                                social activities, and       strotch periodically If your     throughout the day, and           31 . One of the most                                                 . Lcam to dclcEale
                                                                Invitations you know you     job requires that you sit for                                   obvious ways to avoid        worth not doing perfectly
                                                                                                                              before, during, and alter                                   and some Issues am well to         responsibility to othcrea.
                                                   fuel tank    don't have the time or       extended periods.                                               unnecessary steles is to
                                                                                                                              high pmssvro sltuatlons. i t                                                                   pable people-
                                get below one quarter full,     energy for takes pratdcc,                                     your stomach muscles am        select an environment . , compromise upon.                . ,
                                keep a wcIJ stocked "emer-      sdrrapca, and a belief          23 . Weuearplugs.             knelled and your breathing (wont, home. ktsum)                 *l .     , Eliminate de .          4`7. Don't forget w
       3. Don't rely on         gencyshelf" of home sup.        that cvcryonC, everyday      If you need to rind quiet at     Is shallow, relax all your      xhtdt is to Unc with your                                      take a lunch break. Try to
yourmcmory. Writedown ics,don't wait until you're               needs quiet time to relax    home, pop In some car.           muscles andtake seversl        p:"iona! noods and desires. struClive self talk. "I'm too       get away from your desk or
appointment limes, what to down to your last postage            and to be alone.             plugs,                           deep brcaft                    Ir you hate desk jots. don't old to . . .." "I'm too fat to .   work area In body and
pick up the laundry, when       stamp to buy more. etc.                                                                                                      accept a job which requires . .; etc.                           mind,even If It's lust for
library books arc due. etc.                                        18 . Unplug your             24. Oct enough                   27. Writing your            that you sit at a desk all      42 . Use your week.             15 or 20 minuta-
("hire palest ink is better .       10. Don't put up with       plhonc . Want to take a long sleep. If necessary use an       thoughts and Palings down day. If you tut to Wk             end Ume for a change of
Chart Uhc most mrcntivc         something that doesn't          bath, meditate, sleep,       alarm clock to remind you        On ajournal, or on paper to politics. don't associate       pace. If your workweek is             46 . Forget about
memory."                        work iigtu- if your alasm,      or read without                  to go to bed.                b e thrown away) an help       with people who love to      slow and patterned, make           counting to 10 . Count to
        Ofd Chinae Proverb) cock, wallet. shoe laecs.           Intcrrupdon?                                                  you dully things and an        Wk polities, etc.            surfs thetc Is aalon and           1000 before doing some-
                                                                                                         25. Create                                                                                                          thing or saying anything
                                windsercen wipers - what-      .Drwn up the            ,-/                                    give you a renewed per-
   4. Do nothing which, cvcr-aro a consunt sggra-               courage to
                                                                                                      order out of chaos.                                       32 . Lam to live one time for spontaneity built              that could make matters
after being done, leads you vatlon, get tern fixed or                                                Organise your home                                      day at a Um-                 Into your weekends . If            .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             worse
to tell a lic.                                                                                       and workspace $0                                                                     your work week is fast
                                                                                                                                 28 . Inoaalate           ..
                                get new ones.                                                           that you always       Self agalrhst a faredyour
                                                                                                                                                      ovcru-
                                                                                                                                                                .
                                                                                                                                                                -33 Evcryday,do           paced and full of people                     Have a forgivln
   5 . Make duplicates     of                                                                                                                                                             and deadlines, seek peace
                                   11 Allow 15 minutes                                                     know cucUy         Example; before speaking somdhlng you MIUY                  and solitude during your
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             view of events and people,
all keys. Bury a house key extra to got to appoint-                                                                           In public, take time to go
                                                                                                                                                             enjoy.                                                          Accept the fact that we live
in a secret spot In the                                                                                                                                                                           .
                                                                                                                                                                                          days oft Foci u iryou              In an Imperfect world .
                                menus, Plan to arrive                                                                         over everypart of the             3'S'. Add an ounce or an=t accomplishing
gird= and carry a dupii-        at an airport one hour                                                                        cxpcdmce In your mind .
ate wkey in your wallet. before domestic                                                                                                                     love to cvcryWng you do . anything tangible at work?               .50 . Have an optimls-
                                                                                                                              You'll likely find that                                     Tackle a job on the week-          Ucview of thc wodd I3c-
apart from your key ring.       dcpanums .                                                                                    when the Umccomes to               35 . Take a hot bath     end which you can finish to        licvc that most people an:
    6. Practlcc pmvuuivc                                                                                                      make the atXnII prescrus-      or shower (or a cool one, In your satisfaction.                 doing the best they can.
                                   1Z Eliminate                                                                               lion . It will be "old fat"    summertime) to relieve
maintcnanx YOufCaf,             (or restrict) the amount
appliances,    home, and                                                                                                      and much or your anxiety       tension .                         Stan .: rr.p rr-.r.a
                                of eafcne in your diet .                                                                      will have [led.
mlationshIps will be less                                                                      wb=e things-arc . Put
likely a break downtrall            13 Always setup             temporarily dtseonnect.                                                                          36- Do
                                                                                               things away where they           29 " When the stress         something for
 apart "at the worst possible contingency plwu .-just in        l;DC possibility of them       belong and you won't huvc
                                                                being a terrible emergency                                    of having to get a jobdone somebody else      .
 moment   ."                    case." ("If for some season                                    to go through the stress of    gcu In the way of getting
                                either of us aredelayed,        In the nest hour or so is      losing things .                the job done, diversion . a       37. Focus on
          Be prepared         .
                       to wait hero's what we'll do . . "       almost all.)
 A paperback can make a                                                                                                       voluntary dtange In actJv- understanding rather
                                kind of thing.                                                                                                               than on being under-
                              YOU THE LEARNER


SESSION 2 :


DEVELOPING YOUR OWN ACTION PLAN :     HAVE A GO!


Choose one of your short-term goals, and complete the Action
Plan below :

My goal :



List the necessary steps for achieving the goal :




Some difficulties which might prevent me from reaching my goal .
(These could be lack of money, lack of time, other people) .




How could I overcome these difficulties?




Where can_I get help?




Possible outcomes of this goal :




The first step :



.... ........................ . . ....... . ........ ..... . .................... .
      41



I will take this step :                                  today
                                                         tomorrow
                                                         this week
                                         .               next week
                                                         when?

I will reward myself for achieving this goal by :
                        CONTRACT FOR STRESS CONTROL




During the next                                I will undertake
the following programme to help prevent and manage my stress
levels :




2.




3.




4.




When I have successfully completed this programme, I will
reward myself with :




Signed :   ... . .:. . . . . .... . . . .. . . . ..   Witness : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Date :
IRRATIONAL BELIEFS

At the root of all irrational thinking is the assumption that
things are done to you :     "That really got me down . . . .She makes
me nervous . . . Places like that scare me . . . Being lied to makes
me see red ." Nothing is done to you . Events happen in the
world .  You experience those events (A), engage in self-talk(B),
and then experience an emotion (C) resulting from the self-
talk . (A) does not cause (C) - (B) causes (C) . If your self-
tall: is irrational and unrealistic, you create unpleasant
emotions .

Two common forms of irrational self-talk are statements that
"awfulise" and "absolutise" .  You awfulise by making catastrophic,
nightmarish interpretations of your experience .  A momentary
chest pain is a heart attack, the grumpy boss intends to fire
you, your mate takes a night job and the thought of being alone
is unthinkably terrible . The emotions that follow awfulise self-
talk tend themselves to be awful - you are responding to your
own description of the world .

Irrational self statements that "absolutise" often include
words such as "should, must, ought, always and never" .   The
idea is that things have to be a certain way, or you have to
be a certain way .   Any deviation from that particular value
or standard is bad .   The person who fails to live up to the
standard is bad .  In reality, it is the standard that is bad
because it is irrational .

Albert Ellis has suggested ter. basic irrational ideas, which
are listed below . To these we have added some additional
common self statements which are highly unrealistic . Check the
ones that seem to apply to you .

1.   IT IS AN ABSOLUTE NECESSITY FOR AN ADULT TO HAVE LOVE AND
     APPROVAL FROM PEERS, FAMILY AND FRIENDS .

In fact, it is impossible to please all the people in your life .
Even those who basically like and approve of you will be turned
off by some behaviours and qualities . This irrational belief
is probably the single greatest cause of unhappiness .

2.   YOU MUST BE UNFAILINGLY COMPETENT AND ALMOST PERFECT IN
     ALL YOU UNDERTAKE .

The results of believing you must behave perfectly are self
blame for inevitable failure, lowered self esteem, perfection-
istic standards applied to mate and friends, and paralysis and
fear at attempting anything .

3.   CERTAIN PEOPLE ARE EVIL, WICKED AND VILLANEOUS, AND SHOULD
     BE PUNISHED .

A more realistic position is that they are behaving in ways
which are antisocial or inappropriate . They are perhaps stupid,
ignorant or neurotic, and it would be well if their behaviour
could be changed .
4.    IT IS HORRIBLE WHEN PEOPLE AND THINGS ARE NOT THE WAY
      YOU WOULD LIKE THEM TO BE .

This might be described as the spoiled child syndrome . As
soon as the tire goes flat the self-talk starts : "Why does
this happen to me? Damn I can't take this .  It's awful,
I'll get all filthy ." Any inconvenience, problem or failure
to get your way is likely to be met with such awfulising self
statements . The result is intense irritation and stress .

5.    EXTERNAL EVENTS PCAUSE MOST HUMAN MISERY - PEOPLE SIMPLY
      REACT AS EVENTS TRIGGER THEIR EMOTIONS .

A logical extension of this belief is that you must control
the external events in order to create happiness or avoid
sorrow . Since such control has limitations and we are at a loss
to completely manipulate the wills of others, there results
a sense of helplessness and chronic anxiety . Ascribing un-
happiness to events is a way of avoiding reality .  Self state-
ments interpreting the event caused the unhappiness . While
you may have only limited control over others, you have
enorm: ous .control over your emotions .

6.    YOU SHOULD FEEL FEAR OR ANXIETY ABOUT ANYTHING THAT IS
      L'NRNOWN, UNCERTAIN OR POTENTIALLY DANGEROUS .

 ?any describe this as, "a little bell that goes off and I think
I oug-t to start worrying ." They begin to rehearse their
scenarios of catastrophy . Increasing . the fear or anxiety in the
face of uncertainty makes coping more difficult and adds to
stress .  Saving the fear response for actual perceived danger
allows you to enjoy uncertainty as -a novel and exciting experience .

7 .   IT IS EASIER TO AVOID THAN 10 FACE LIFE DIFFICULTIES
'     AhD RESPONSIBILITIES .

There are many ways of ducking responsibilities : "I should
tell him/her I'm no longer interested - but not tonight . . . . I'd
like to get another job, but I'm just too tired on my days off
to look . . . .A leaky faucet won't hurt anything . . . We could shop
today, but the car is making a sort of funny sound ."

If you have checked this idea, please add your standard excuses
to avoid responsibility here :

AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY                      METHOD OF AVOIDANCE
                                                               De- St~esS .   !t-


8.   YOU NEED SOMETHING OTHER OR STRONGER OR GREATER THAN
     YOURSELF TO RELY ON .

This belief becomes a psychological trap in which your
independent judgement, and the awareness of your particular
needs are undermined by a reliance on higher authority .

9.   THE PAST HAS A LOT TO DO WITH DETERMINING THE PRESENT .

Just because you were once strongly affected by something,
that does not mean that you must continue the habits you formed
to cope with the original situation . Those old patterns and
ways of responding are just decisions made so many times they
have become nearly automatic . You can identify those old
decisions and start changing them right now . You can learn
from past experience, but you don't have to be overly
attached to it .

10 . HAPPINESS CAN BE ACHIEVED BY INACTION, PASSIVITY AND ENDLESS
     LEISURE .

This is called the Elysian Fields syndrome .   There is more to
happiness than perfect relaxation .

OTHER IRRATIONAL IDEAS

11 . YOU ARE HELPLESS AND HAVE NO CONTROL OVER WHAT YOU EXPERIENCE
     OR FEEL .

This belief is at the heart of much depression and anxiety .
The truth is we not only exercise considerable control over
interpersonal situations, we control how we interpret and
emotionally respond to each life event .

12 . PEOPLE ARE FRAGILE AND SHOULD NEVER BE HURT .   (Farquhar & Lowe)

This irrational belief results in failure to openly communicate
important feelings, and in self sacrifice that gives up what is
nourishing and pleasurable . Since everything you need or want
seems to hurt or deprive someone else, you feel frustration,
helplessness and depression . Relationships become full of dead
space where conflicts developed and nothing was said .

13 . GOOD RELATIONSHIPS ARE BASED ON MUTUAL SACRIFICE AND A
     FOCUS ON GIVING .

This belief rests on the assumption that it is better to give
than to receive . It is expressed in a reluctance to ask for
things and the anticipation that your hidden needs will be
divined and provided for . Unfortunately, constant self denial
usually results in bitterness and withdrawal .

14 . IF YOU DON'T GO TO GREAT LENGTHS TO PLEASE OTHERS, THEY WILL
     ABANDON OR REJECT YOU .

This belief is a by-product of low self esteem . You usually
rein less risk of rejection if you offer others your true
unembellished self .  They can take it or leave it . But if they
respond to the real you, you don't have to worry about slacking
off, letting down your guard, and being rejected later .
 15 . WHEN PEOPLE DISAPPROVE OF YOU, IT INVARIABLY FANS YOU ARE
"     WRONG OR BAD . (Farquhar and Lowe .

This extremely crippling belief sparks chronic anxiety in most
interpersonal situations . The irrationality is contained in
the generalisation of one specific fault or unattractive
feature to a total indictment of the self .

    16 . HAPPINESS, PLEASURE AND FULFILLMENT CAN ONLY OCCUR IN THE
         PRESENCE OF OTHERS, AND BEING ALONE IS HORRIBLE . (Farquhar
         & Lowe) .

 Pleasure, self worth and fulfillment can be experienced alone
 as well as with others . Being alone is growth-producing and
 desirable at times .

    17 . THERE IS A PERFECT LOVE, AND A PERFECT RELATIONSHIP .

 Subscribers to this belief often feel resentful of one close
 relationship after another . Nothing is quite right because
 they are waiting for the perfect fit . It never comes .

 18 . YOU SHOULD'NT HAVE TO FEEL PAIN, YOU ARE ENTITLED TO A GOOD
      LIFE .

The realistic position is that pain is an inevitable part of
human life . It frequently accompanies tough, healthy decisions
and the process of growth .. Life is not fair, and sometimes you
Will suffer no matter what you do .

 19 . YOUR WORTH AS A PERSON DEPENDS ON HOW MUCH YOU ACHIEVE AND
      PRODUCE . (Farquhar & Lowe, 1974) .

 A more rational assessment of your real worth would depend on
 such things as your capacity to be fully alive, feeling every-
 thing it means to be human .

    20 . ANGER IS AUTOMATICALLY BAD AND DESTRUCTIVE .   (Farquhar & Lowe)

 Anger is frequently cleansing . It can be an honest communication
 of current feelings, without attacking the personal worth and
 security of others .

    21 . IT IS BAD OR WRONG TO BE SELFISH .

 The truth is that no one knows your needs and wants better than
 you, and no one else has as great an interest in seeing them
 fulfilled . Your happiness is your responsibility . Being
 selfish means you are accepting that responsibility .

    It is quite probable that you could add other irrational ideas
    to this list . Please do . The best way to uncover your own
    irrational ideas is to think of situations in which you experience,
    anxiety, depression, anger, guilt .or a sense of worthlessness .
    Behind each of these emotions, particularly if they are chronic
    is irrational self-talk .
                               STRESS



    (A) What is it?
    (B) Where does it come from?
    (C) Recognition
    (D) What to'do about stress.
    (E) References .



(A) Some stress can be productive and even deliberately self-induced
    (mountaineering, etc.) but excessive negative stress can be crippling .
    Such stress may be defined as a (perceived) substantial imbalance
    between demand and response capacity, under conditions where failure
    to meet demand has important (perceived) consequences .

        Such anxiety can result from a failure to meet demands or
    expectations made by self .


(B) Where does it come from?      (for teachers in particular)

    Stress can result from :

    (1) Factors outside of the work situation. Sometimes these can result
        from personality difficulties .

    (2) A perceived or real inability for self to carry out the task,
        e.g. controlling difficult children, personal relationships with
        certain children, teaching the (difficult to teach', etc .

    (3) A perceived lack of training or knowledge .

    (4) Time press     ea .

    (5) Tension in waiting for the next crisis t o occur .

    (6) Frustration with lack of career expansion or change.

    (7) A lack of professional or intellectual stimulation .

    (8) Professional development away from what was previously a learning
        situation .

    (9) Inability, to cope with    physical demands of job .

   (10) Inability to cope with emotional demands of job .

   (11) Inability to cope with cognitive demands of job .
(12) IInderconfidence in (professional) self .

(13) Fear of failuze and retribution .

(14) A clash of values . Other ways or values considered to be
     wholly more appropriate .

(15) Boredom with the task.

(16) Boredom with the children.

(17) Working in a critically judgemental climate or a negative or
     cynical one.

(18) Personality clashes within sub-groups or with individuals .

(19) Inadequate formal and informal support .

(20) A clash of perceived function, e .g. routine care or control
     as opposed to "real teaching " .

(21) Being professionally misjudged, de-valued or blamed .

(22) Private lives made too public by job situation .

(23) Ineffective interpersonal communication .

(24) Poor teem morale .

(25) Covering for absent colleagues .

(26) Role distortion .

(27) A shortage or mismatch of resources which may prevent the
     task to be carried out at the expected level .

(28) A sub-standard, or otherwise unsuitable work environment .

(29) Poor ethos within the organisation .

(30) Poor organisation and management .

(31) Unrealistic job demands .   Incompatible expectations .

(32) Mccessive group size .

(33) Frequent changes in methodolosrical approach .

(34) Organisational changes .

(35) Salary inadequacies .
       (36) A lack of professional or creative opportunity (or to be self. )

       (37) Overwork. Excessive time commitments .

       (38) Inability to reconcile shoe-term and long-term needs of the
            pupils .

       (39) Job insecurity .


(C) Stress recognition .

    (1) Physical symptoms - these can take countless forms but some of the
        more common physical reactions to stress are : Exhaustion,
        headaches, muscle-tension, 'backache, abdominal pains and ulcers,
        eye-flicker, alcoholism, heart disorders, etc .

    (2) Personality can be significantly altered by stress . For example,
        lowered tolerance, irritability, negativism, depression, attention-
        seeking, emotionality and tearfulness, nausea and sickness,
        excessive craving for tobacco, alcohol or food, withdrawal from
        others or task, feeling threatened or paranoid tendencies, cynical
        approach to task or others, etc .


(D) What to do about stress .

    First of all recognise the stress and the stressors . Flan an
    avoidance or coping strategy for each area to suit your own personality
    and life circumstances .

    (1) Sufficient rest and sleep .

    (2) A suitable diet .

    (3) Eliminate or reduce excesses .

    (4) Self-purging via sport, creativity, prayer, etc.

    (5) Increase self-awareness .

    (6) Cultivate a more satisfying life-style.

    (7) Welcome some problems as an academic exercise.

    (8) Seek and maintain emotional and social support .

    (9) Seek a fresh environment .

   (10) Relaxation exercises, ,yoga, meditation, etc .

   (11) Short-term and longer-term. personalised goals .
  (12) Learn more skills .

  (13) Academic study .

  (14) Change job or role.

  (15) Concentrate more or less, as applicable, on the needs of others .

  (16) Be yourself . Tom can't be anybody elset

  (17) Avoid stressful circumstances if possible .

  (18) Wholesome sex.

  (19) Personal time management .

   (20) Better personal organisation .

   (21) Ability to say 'no' .
   (22) Seek medical or psychological advice .


BIBLIOGRAPHY


    1 . Appley R .H., de Tarnbull R. (1967) Psychological Stress .
        Appleton - Century - Crofts .

    2 . Cax P. et al (1978) 'Stress and well-being in school teachers' .
        Paper presented to conference of Ergonomics Society .

    3 . hsnham J. (1980 'Stress and the Teacher'
        Croom Helm :

    4. Croyle G. (1982) The development of a stress management programme
       far teachers .
       University of Pittsburgh .

    5 . Msor K. (1983) The impact of barn-ctt wor?tshops and social support
        systems on tender's ability to cope with job stress .
        University of San Francisco.

    6 . Hargreives D. (1978) 'What teaching does to teachers' .
        New society   43 pp 540-542 .

    7 . Sa~badse A.      (1982) People and Organisations .
        Gower.

    8 . Kearns J . L. (1973) Stress in Industr7 .
        P_-ior7 Press .

    9 . Inpi I.T. (1983) Stress management workshops for promptinn coping
        behaviors in special education teachers .

   10 . Meagher L. (1983) Variables associated with stress and born-vat
        of regular and special education teachers .
        University of Kansas (research study) .
       i"Iills, J .'J . , _93=x )   Cop? za with Stress : i 7u-i de to Li Jin';   ailey .

				
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