Background by xumiaomaio

VIEWS: 13 PAGES: 132

									                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




This word document was downloaded from the website: http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, please remain this
                         link information when you reproduce , copy, or use it.
                <a href='http://www.wordwendang.com/en'>word documents</a>




        Recommended Policy Guidelines for Public Health

                (Draft dated 1st May, 2006 for discussion)

               A Report to the MCGM and the NGO Council




                                                         Send comments to:
By Meenakshi Verma, MPH                                  - info@karmayog.com
                                                         - www.karmayog.org
                                                           addressing civic and social issues
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                             http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Public Health Consultant




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                               http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Topic Title:                                                                  Page no.

Background                                                                    4
Probable value of report                                                      4
Conclusion and summary                                                        5
Recommendations (in brief)                                                    7
Patient Bill of Rights                                                        9
Patient Code of Conduct                                                       10


Recommendations (expanded)                                                    12
Executive Summary                                                             22


1. Introduction and Background                                                40

2. National Policies in Health Care in India                                  43
     2.1 National Health Policy                                               43
     2.2 National Population Policy                                           47
     2.3 Report of National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health           50
     2.4 World Health Organization Country Profile                            53

3. The Urban Poor and Health                                                  56
     3.1 Urban Population growth                                              56
     3.2 Health Conditions                                                    56

4. Mumbai, Maharashtra                                                        59
     4.1 Health in Mumbai, Maharashtra                                        60
     4.2 Existing Infrastructure in Mumbai                                    61

5. Services in Detail                                                         66
      5.1 Functions of the Public Health Department                           66
      5.2 Dispensaries and Health Posts                                       67
      5.3 Maternity Homes                                                     67
      5.4 Municipal Hospitals                                                 68
      5.5 Programs                                                            68
      5.5.1 Leprosy Control Program                                           68
      5.5.2 Revised National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Program                69
      5.5.3 Universal Immunization Program                                    70
      5.5.4 Polio Eradication Program                                         72
      5.5.5 National Malaria Control Program (NMCP)                           73
      5.5.6 Mumbai District AIDS Control Society (MDACS)                      73
      5.5.7 School Health Program (SHP)                                       74
      5.5.8 Respiratory System Diseases                                       76

6. Successes                                                                  78
     6.1 School Health Program                                                78
     6.2 Polio Eradication                                                    79




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/


7. Services                                                                   80
      7.1 MCGM Health Budget                                                  82
      7.2 Primary Health Care                                                 88
      7.3 Challenges at Secondary Hospitals and Maternity Homes               92
      7.4 Third Tier Hospitals                                                93
      7.5 Inconvenient Timings                                                99
      7.6 Locations                                                           99
      7.7 Vacancies                                                           99
      7.8 Quality Assurance                                                   100
      7.9 Referral Systems                                                    102
      7.10 Lack of Awareness                                                  105
      7.11 Public Health Disaster Management                                  106
      7.12 Water supply and sanitation                                        107
      7.13 Challenges from the Private Sector                                 108
      7.14 Reporting and Data Collection                                      109

8. Appendices                                                                 111
     a. Patient Bill of Rights                                                111
     b. Patient Code of Conduct                                               112
     c. Probable Value of the Report                                          113
     d. Training Activity for the BMC                                         114
     e. Integrating public health issues into the LACGs                       115
     f. Apex Health Committee                                                 115
     g. Author‘s Note                                                         116

Appendix 1: Questionnaire for Utilization of Tertiary Health Care Services    117
Appendix 2: Health Post Survey Results- Vashi Naka Health Post, Chembur       119
Appendix 3: KEM General Out Patient Department Survey Results                 120

II Best Practices in Other Countries                                          122
     a. Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil                       122
     b. Cambodia‘s Non Profit Path to Health Care                             124
     c. Subsidized Health Care in the Philippines                             125

III Works Cited                                                               126




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                    http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Background
This report started as a discussion between the members of the NGO Council and the MCGM after

it was found that there was no existing public health policy document on accessing health care in

Mumbai. The NGO Council is a representing body of NGOs in Mumbai seeking to collaborate

with local authorities on issues of priority. The NGO council was formed on August 22, 2005. The

Council is comprised over 70 organizations with complementary expertise covering all causes and

sectors. The primary objectives of the NGO council is to work with Government, Donors, NGOs,

and other third-parties to raise awareness and convene to address the important issues effecting the

city of Mumbai.1 On 12/12/2005, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) has entered

into an MOU with the NGO Council, recognizing that an institutionalized partnership between

municipal bodies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) / civil society organizations

(CSOs) is critical for promoting Good City Governance. 2


Probable Value of the Report

In this section, the author has outlined how the report can be of value to the different existing
bodies in the city of Mumbai. The report was not only created for the MCGM, but also for all the
other proponents of health care in Mumbai. The following section details to value to each
constituency:


      a. MCGM: This report should be seen as an objective analysis of the existing programming at
         the MCGM. In addition to giving suggestions, the report also highlights the various
         successes of the MCGM‘s health programming. It will be of value in several aspects:
             1. Assist lawmakers in allocating funds to priority areas
             2. Provide insight to those responsible for programming in terms of areas of
                improvement
             3. Increase the efficiency of the MCGM public health department
             4. Increase the reputation of the MCGM‘s health services in the city
             5. Prove as an impetus that demonstrates the MCGM‘s priority of the health of the
                people of Mumbai
             6. Intimate the top-level management as to the priority areas in various departments
             7. Apprise mid-level management of the awareness of the lack of resources
             8. Inform lower-level staff of the value of their work and increase worker morale

      b. NGOs: Non-Governmental Organizations working in Mumbai are working to provide
         health care to the same citizens that are also the responsibility of the MCGM. This report
         can help bring the two groups together to not replicate programming in high-need areas and
1
    www.karmayog.org, See website for MOU
2
    http://www.karmayog.org/bmcngocouncil/bmcngocouncil.htm
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
       pave the way for NGO-MCGM partnerships. NGO‘s can cite the information in the report
       as representative of the enormous need for improved health care systems in such a large
       and densely populated city.

   c. Donors: With Corporate Social Responsibility representing the progressive era of
      charitable giving, it is important for donors to also be aware of the issues that are effecting
      the communities that benefit from their time, money, and resources.

   d. Citizens: In a city like Mumbai, the average citizen doesn‘t think about health care unless it
      is a situation of urgency or crisis. This report will make citizens aware of the issues in
      health care that effect all those seeking care through the government health sector.

   e. Medical Students, Physicians, and Health Professionals: In light of the recent strike of the
      doctors in Mumbai, it is also important for policy makers to understand the perspectives of
      those working on the ground. This report helps shed light on the needs of physicians and
      avenues for improvement in their occupation.

   f. Media: The MCGM health department is often the recipient of negative publicity by the
      medial. The information in the report can offer some information as to the inner workings
      of the MCGM health department and what the media can do to support the improvement of
      these systems.


Overall, the report provides an in-depth analysis of the existing programs, challenges, and
successes of the MCGM health department. Looking at the history of health policy in India, it is
evident that there has been little emphasis on improving the health of local citizens in recent years.
The report attempts to create a common area for discussion and improvement of health systems
within this city. With good basic infrastructure, there are many avenues that can be pursued if the
aforementioned parties join together to work on a healthy Mumbai.




Conclusions and Summary


In the last 20 years, there have been few initiatives proposed to improve health for the citizens of

India. When looking at the policies and initiatives proposed by the Central Government, there is a

clear emphasis on improving rural health. However, with the urban poor population rising, the

health needs of the urban poor communities are beginning to exceed those in the rural

communities. The health care crisis of the growing urban poor, especially in Mumbai, represents a

new challenge in providing health care to the masses. The health care of the urban poor is often

worse than or equal to that of the rural poor population. Over 50% of Mumbai‘s population of 18



      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                     http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
million3 lives in slums and are part of the growing urban poor. This population is plagued with

uneven access to care, malnutrition, and poor maternal and child health. Therefore, it is critical to

look at the health of Mumbai on a continuum of urban health.


The MCGM (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) provides medical services through three

levels of care, primary, secondary and tertiary. This includes an intricate network of teaching

hospitals, secondary hospitals, maternity homes, health posts and dispensaries. Although the

infrastructure is complex, there is a multitude of improvements needed to address the health needs

of the urban poor population in Mumbai. The various challenges plaguing the MCGM health

system are growing as rapidly as the population and need to be addressed urgently. The challenges

include:


          Human Resources: A large amount of vacancies in the public health department of the

           MCGM lead to the apathy of the staff and patients.

          Infrastructural: Lack of equipment and services at the primary and secondary level of

           care; lack of referral systems to direct patients to the appropriate care level; lack of quality

           assurance

          Systems: Lack of a centralized data system, lack of awareness of existing programs within

           the MCGM

          Ethical: Dilution of the value and faith in the public health system as a facility for all, not

           just the indigent and underprivileged. This is a phenomenon that affects the patients as well

           as the staff.

          Educational: Educational materials for prevention of disease and promotion of health are

           under-utlilized or unavailable, patients do not understand the complexities of their own

           health




3
    www.wikipedia.com/wiki/Mumbai
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
With a confident team, collaborations, and an open attitude toward change, there are many options

for the MCGM health system to become an accessible service for people seeking quality health

care at an affordable price. A no-frills health care system that emphasizes good quality at the

lowest possible cost to the consumer will not only benefit the poor, but also those taxpayers whose

money is being invested in the government run health care system. Working with existing private

providers and NGOs can be beneficial for the MCGM system in terms of decreasing the burden

and using best practices of existing programs.


Utilizing best practices from cities with similar problems to Mumbai will provide some insight into

innovations that could be implemented throughout the existing health systems. While the problems

sometimes seem to vast to deal with, it is important to remember that an implementation strategy

that works on a step-by-step approach will be the ideal method of slowly improving the system.

The MOU between the NGO Council and the MCGM is the critical agreement that should be kept

in mind in the difficult stages of planning and implementation. This agreement is meant to bridge

the gap between the government and the non profit organizations that provide many needed

services to the impoverished. Both have similar goals, it is now time to devise a better strategy

through collaboration.


Recommendations- Brief


A. Education and Information Dissemination
   1. Ensure that a Patient Bill of Rights (enclosed) and Patient Code of Conduct are posted in
       every public health care facility being operated by the MCGM
   2. Create a map of Mumbai (in Hindi, Marathi, English, etc) with locations, timings, and
       services of each healthy care facility.
   3. Improve primary and secondary health care systems by providing training for quality
       assurance at all facilities.
   4. Ensure that educational materials on ALL illnesses and ailments are available in multiple
       languages at respective primary and secondary health care levels via posters, pamphlets,
       and CHVs.

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




B. Reproductive and Child Health
   5. Increase awareness about institutional deliveries by collaborating with local women‘s
       groups.
   6. Develop IEC materials relevant to reproductive and child health as well as other relevant
       diseases by working with NGOs
   7. Ensure all maternal, reproductive and child health services are free of cost.
   8. Ensure that all municipal facilities are always stocked with medications for pre-natal care
       (iron, folic acid etc.)


C. Medical and Administrative Personnel
   9. Increase skills, salaries, and working hours of the Community Health Volunteers and have
       CHV‘s collaborate with health workers from NGOs
   10. Discontinue the practice of allowing doctors to have private practices while employed by
       the MCGM.
   11. De-centralize the management of the primary and secondary health care services


D. Infrastructure
   12. Hire staff to fill vacancies of doctors at the primary health care level (Health Posts and
       Dispensaries) to improve the quality of care
   13. Conduct a needs assessment of the infrastructural (both equipment, human resources) gaps
       in the MCGM public health system via a survey and analysis to apply appropriate
       solutions.
   14. Decrease the gaps in infrastructure (staff, equipment, and training) at the primary and
       secondary levels of health care
   15. Create a referral system so that people can access the medical services at the appropriate
       lowest level.
   16. Utilize the referral system to minimize costs, patient load, and provide better quality
       treatment for serious cases.
   17. Create management information systems to store and utilize data, statistics, and health
       records appropriately.
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   18. Create systems for MCGM circulars to be accessible to all
   19. Revamp the ambulatory system completely to provide emergency care as well as transport.
   20. De-centralize the laboratory system. Ensure all peripheral hospitals have functional labs.




E. Systems
   21. Create a patient feedback system to improve policies, procedures, and services for patients
       and for MCGM staff.
   22. Create a Public Health Monitoring Department that meets once in 2 months to plan for
       upcoming public health issues (i.e. bird flu, leptospirosis).


F. Coordinating with other MGCM Departments
   23. Introduce adolescent health education through the municipal school system.
   24. Increase citizen participation through a public health citizen committee in collaboration
       with the MCGM public health department.
   25. Improve disaster management to minimize public health outbreaks
   26. Improve water supply and sanitation at all slums, this will decrease the amount of diseases
       in the area.


G. Priorities in Health
   27. Create a department that addresses issues of respiratory health in Mumbai, this should also
       be a division of the school health department
   28. Utilizing the existing DOTS program, increase the priorities of TB management
   29. Implement more programs focused on decreasing IMR and MMR (these should be focused
       on nutrition, education, and health of the mother as well as the child)
   30. Create a city-wide campaign regarding Malaria awareness to be promoted during and
       before Malaria months
   31. Ensure that all vitamins and supplements are available to NGOs distributing them to
       children through various programs

Patient Bill of Rights

Each place posting the Patient Bill of Rights needs to affirm the following statement.
 "We, the staff and the administration of {health facility} declare the following Bills of Rights for
the patients of this medical facility. As per the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, we
declare that staff and administration of {the health facility} have read and understood the
following rights of a patient and hereby agree to all the terms listed below. If you have any

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
questions or complaints, please contact {Name of accountable person at health facility} or {name
of accountable person at BMC}."


       To be treated with dignity irrespective of their caste, class, sex, religion, and disease
       To have a list of exact services available and corresponding fees (for supplies, bandages,
        etc)
       To have a visible map of the hospital (in Marathi, Hindi, English, and other languages)
       To have a list of emergency services such as blood banks and ambulatory services listed in
        Marathi, Hindi, English and other languages
       To know and understand the procedures involved
       To be given a reasonable time frame for the treatment and receive a proportional discount
        in fees for all services after the upper limit of approximation is over and treatment needs to
        be continued
       To have a comprehensive (various tests, blood work, x-rays, room tarrifs, operations,
        consulting fees, etc) costs associated with seeking medical care
       To receive prompt and courteous care
       To be informed about the documentation needed for treatment
       To have minimal documentation for emergency cases
       To receive Reproductive and Child Health Services free of cost at public health facilities
       To receive medications and vaccinations from the local public health post or dispensary
       To get medical services which are within the capability of the medical facility
       To obtain from the doctor complete information concerning the diagnosis, treatment, and
        prognosis in language the patient can understand.
       To receive necessary information from the doctor such as long-term effects, side effects
        etc., before giving any prior consent to a medical procedure and/or treatment
       To receive the records or a certified copy that gives the details of the disease, treatment,
        and follow-up necessary at the time of discharge
       To refuse the suggested treatment and be informed of the medical consequences thereof
       To receive medical care in well-equipped and sanitized conditions
       To receive quality care from competent medical professionals
       To select doctor‘s of one‘s choice when possible
       To obtain a second opinion
       To privacy during medical check-ups
       To be assured that all communication and records will be kept confidential
       To educational information about medical problems eg. via a library, IEC materials, etc.
       To receive a bill cum receipt after the payment is made
       To be enabled to pay hospital fees on a payment plan
       To have access to a non-hospital staff member appointed to address complaints as soon as
        possible
       To have the contact information of the responsible person (both at the hospital and head
        office) to register a complaint or give feedback
       To have adequate waiting space
       To allow relatives to have flexible visiting hours




       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
        Patient Code of Conduct

Patients are also responsible for their personal and environmental well-being. The following code
of conduct emphasizes the responsibilities of a patient while seeking medical care.

As a patient:

       You should provide the doctor with accurate and complete information about his/her
        medical history, past illnesses, allergies, hospitalizations, and medications
       You should report the changes in your medical changes
       You should ask for clarity if the doctor‘s prescription and diagnosis seem unclear
       You should follow the doctor‘s treatment plan
       You should pay your medical bills promptly
       You should follow hospital rules and regulations
       You should have realistic expectations of what the doctor can do for you
       You should help your doctor help you, if something isn‘t working, be clear and the doctor
        can advise alternative care
       You should participate actively in your own medical care (in terms of awareness and
        preventions)
       You should ask the doctor questions to clarify any doubts or misconceptions in your mind
       You should treat the doctors with respect
       You should not ask doctors for false bills or certificates for any reason




       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
I. Recommendations- Expanded
A. Education and Information Dissemination
   1. Ensure that the Patient Bill of Rights and Code of Conduct (attached) is posted in every
       public health care facility being operated by the MCGM
Action Steps:
           a. Translate the documents into Hindi, Marathi, and other regional languages
           b. Pilot test it with a core group to ensure comprehension of the concept and what it
                actually would mean
           c. Send around a circular for ALL staff to read and understand the Bill of Rights and
                Code of Conduct
           d. Post accordingly in all health care facilities in Mumbai
Time line: 2 months
   Measure of Success: Increased awareness of rights and responsibilities of patients, perhaps
   greater accountability of staff


   2. Create a map of Mumbai (in Hindi, Marathi, English, etc) with locations, timings, and
       services of each healthy care facility.
Action Steps:
           e. Hire a group of college students for 2 months to work with the Public Health
                Department to come up with a map that identifies all the locations of the health
                facilities
           f. This should include timings, doctor‘s name, and phone number
           g. This map should be updated twice a year by the Public Health Department, once the
                infrastructure is in place
Time line: 2 months
   Measure of Success: Increased awareness of government facilities, accountability for
   doctors, less patient load at tertiary care services


   3. Improve primary and secondary health care systems by providing training for quality
       assurance at all facilities.
           h. Before implementing any kind of quality measures, the entire MCGM public health
                department (from the sweeper to the doctor) should understand the need for such
                innovations
           i. Through role plays and consciousness raising, the staff should become aware of the
                challenges before them
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                   http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
          j. Hold monthly meetings with staff to imbibe aspects of quality assurance throughout
                 the MCGM public health department
          k. Utilizing the health committee formulated, hold trainings for improved quality of
                 care
          l. Provide incentives for randomly conducted surveys of facilities that provide quality
                 care to their patients

Time line: 4 months

Measure of Success: Increased patient satisfaction as well as improved attitudes among staff.

   4. Ensure that educational materials on ALL illnesses and ailments are available in multiple
       languages at respective primary and secondary health care levels via posters, pamphlets,
       and CHVs.
Action Steps:
          m. Collaborate with the HELP library to create educational materials
          n. Make sure such materials are available at ALL health facilities being run by the
                 government sector
          o. Ensure that a wide array of languages are covered in these materials
Time line: 3 months
   Measure of Success: Increased patient health education, awareness of preventable diseases


B. Reproductive and Child Health
   5. Increase awareness about institutional deliveries by collaborating with local women‘s
       groups.
   Action Steps:
          p. Engage NGOs to help involve Mahila Mandals
          q. Create awareness among leaders in these groups about the hazards of home
                 deliveries
          r. Hold events and public gatherings to raise awareness among these women‘s groups
Time line: Ongoing, but start up should be 3 months

Measure of Success: Increase in amount of institutional deliveries at the hospitals in the areas
where the education has taken place.




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   6. Develop IEC materials relevant to reproductive and child health as well as other relevant
       diseases by working with NGOs
   Action Steps:
             s. Team up with 5 NGO Partners in order to start collecting information that already
                exists on these topics
             t. Devise a strategy to review these materials and edit/modify as needed
             u. Print and distribute to all women
Time line: Ongoing, but start up will be 2 months

Measure of Success: Increased awareness of RCH as well as other diseases; may lead to
prevention


   7. Ensure all maternal, reproductive and child health services are free of cost.
   Action Steps:
             v. Appeal to the budget making entities of the value of free RCH services
             w. Create a public service campaign regarding increasing awareness for these
                initiatives
Time line: Ongoing campaign, start up will be 2 months

   Measure of Success: More urban poor women accessing government health care facilities
   for prenatal, postnatal, and neonatal care


   8. Ensure that all municipal facilities are always stocked with medications for pre-natal care
       (iron, folic acid etc.)
   Action Steps:
       a. Partnerships with pharmaceutical companies can guarantee a constant stock of these
       very necessary vitamins and supplements
       b. An education campaign should educate women of the value of the proper utilization of
       these medications before and during pregnancy
Time line: 2 months

   Measure of Success: Decreased infant mortality and maternal mortality rates


C. Medical and Administrative Personnel
   9. Increase skills, salaries, and working hours of the Community Health Volunteers and have
      CHV‘s collaborate with health workers from NGOs
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Action Steps:
          x. Expand job descriptions to include more responsibilities of the CHVs
          y. Increase salary to Rs. 1000 per month
          z. Provide ongoing trainings for them to be more engaged in the work they do
          aa. Allow them to collaborate with local NGOs CHW‘s as well
Time line: 4-6 months

   Measure of Success: Increased job satisfaction and output by the CHVs, greater
   collaboration and raising awareness


   10. Discontinue the practice of allowing doctors to have private practices while employed by
       the MCGM.
Action Steps:
          bb. As an overall initiative, doctors should shut down their private practices at MCGM
                facilities
          cc. Terminate all benefits for those that had such practices
Time line: 1 month

   Measure of Success: Discontinuation of private practices for MCGM doctors


   11. De-centralize the management of the primary and secondary health care services
Action Steps:
          dd. Allow Medical Officers in each ward to take the lead in decision making
          ee. Tell them they have a certain amount of money in the budget and set realistic goals
          ff. Encourage them to reach these goals through collaboration and hard work
          gg. If they demonstrate leadership skills, there can be incentives for group management
                of wards (rather than it always having to be cleared through the main office)
Time line: 4 months

   Measure of Success: Increased job satisfaction and participation in the process


D. Infrastructure
   12. Hire staff to fill vacancies of doctors at the primary health care level (Health Posts and
       Dispensaries) to improve the quality of care
   Action Steps:


     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
          a. Revise the personnel policies for the doctors at the primary health care to improve
          salaries and make sure the following basic facilities are available at every dispensary:

                   Equipment to sterilize the instruments used for examination
                   Ample medications for all basic illnesses (diarrhea, cough, cold, flu, and fever)
                   Enough stock of iron, folic acid, for supplying to all women who may come to
                    register their pregnancies
                   Training in the basics of pre-natal care for community health volunteers
                   X-ray facilities at certain upgraded facilities

          b. Collaborate with medical schools to create incentives for graduating students to
          commit 2 years to service at the primary or secondary level

          c. Involve current doctors in recruiting of new physicians, offer incentives to those who
          can find doctors who sign contracts for 2 years or more.

          d. Improve the overall image of working for the MCGM improving facilities and
          systems through a circular highlighting the successes of the primary health care
          physicians

Time line: 6 months

Measure of Success: Decreased vacancies, greater staff job satisfaction



   13. Conduct a needs assessment of the infrastructural (both equipment, human resources) gaps
       in the MCGM public health system via a survey and analysis to apply appropriate
       solutions.
   Action Steps:
          1. Create a simple survey to assess the equipment, amount of staff, medicines etc.
          2. Utilizing the CHV‘s (increase their work hours and pay to Rs.1000) to have a basic
              assessment of equipment, vaccinations, medicines, vitamins etc (each CHV would
              assess a health post different from their own to maintain objectivity
          3. Put all the data gathered together in a simple report revealing the gaps in services
              and infrastructure at the primary level

Time line: 3 months

     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Measure of Success: A report that identifies the gaps and direct action by the administration.



   14. Decrease the gaps in infrastructure (staff, equipment, and training) at the primary and
       secondary levels of health care
   Action Steps:
           hh. Utilizing the assessment in Recommendation 13, assess the needs of each of the
               primary and secondary health care facilities.
           ii. The health committee can further lobby the administration about improving the
               infrastructure at each of these locations.
           jj. Infrastructure specifies: lab equipment, x-ray facilities, storage for vaccinations,
               provisions for sterilizing needles, and other needs identified by the survey.

Time line: 6 months

Measure of Success: Increase in utilization at the primary and secondary levels of health care,
increased resources and infrastructure.



   15. Create a referral system so that people can access the medical services at the appropriate
       lowest level.
   Action Steps:
           kk. In 5 wards, pilot test the referral system of care described in the Appendix 1,
               already tried once by the Women Centered Health Project.
           ll. Using the lessons learned by SNEHA‘s CINH program that brings together NGOs
               and public health systems, implement 3 wards using their methods.
           mm.         Assess the pilots and determine which was most complementary to the
               needs of the patients that access the MCGM health care system.

Time line: 1 year

Measure of Success: No overcrowding at tertiary hospitals, greater patient understanding of
each of the tiers and what they offer.

   16. Create management information systems to store and utilize data, statistics, and health
       records appropriately.
This can be a part of the TCS created system.
      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   17. Create systems for MCGM circulars to be accessible to all
   Action Steps:
          nn. Using a computerized system, circulars should be sent out to all departments, and
                not just specific departments
          oo. The circulars should be stored in a computer as well as hard copy
          pp. TCS is also implementing a computerized network, this should be a part of it.

Time line: 6 months

Measure of Success: Improved record-keeping and awareness of all the programs/updates going
through the MCGM system.

   18. Revamp the ambulatory system completely to provide emergency care as well as transport.
Action Steps:
          qq. Create a public-private company willing to partner with the MCGM on issues of
                ambulatory care
          rr. Create minimum qualification guidelines of those operating the vehicles
          ss. Ensure the vehicles are well equipped with supplies and equipment for saving lives
          tt. Create a free call system for people to call this number 24 hours a day
          uu. Cost? Should be further discussed
Time line: 6 months

   Measure of Success: Decreased deaths due to the scarcity of quality ambulatory care,
   perhaps some benefits from the public-private partnership


   19. De-centralize the laboratory system. Ensure all peripheral hospitals have functional labs.
Action Steps:
          vv. Using the infrastructure survey, it is important to assess which areas are lacking
                proper labs
          ww.          These labs should be equipped to test for TB, AIDS, and conduct all other
                necessary blood work on site
          xx. There should be no additional user fees associated with this service
Time line: 4-6 months
   Measure of Success: Decreased load on the 3rd tier lab systems, better facilities for patients
   to access blood work results



     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




E. Systems
   20. Create a patient feedback system to improve policies, procedures, and services for patients
       and for MCGM staff.
Action Steps:
             yy. Through a screening process, select non-hospital staff to field the concerns of
                 patients
             zz. Ensure the person is competent in mediation and can handle high pressure situations
             aaa.        The person will then bring the issue to the hospital administration team to be
                 addressed within a certain time frame depending on the emergency
             bbb.        Ensure this process is well documented with appropriate attention from
                 administration for complaint management
Time line: Ongoing, set up time 3 months

   Measure of Success: Decreased frustration among patients and staff alike, decreased attacks
   on doctors


   21. Create a Public Health Monitoring Committee that meets once in 2 months to plan for
       upcoming public health issues (i.e. bird flu, leptospirosis) and acts a citizen body to
       represent the concerns of the locals.
   Action Steps:
             ccc.        Review examples of Porto Alegre and other participatory/citizen committees
             ddd.        MCGM‘s public health department should set up an open house day to
                 invite all interested parties to learn more about how the MCGM works.
             eee.        The main role of the committee should be monitoring upcoming health
                 issues and creating a forum for discussion and preparedness (i.e. avian flu, monsoon
                 related illnesses)
             fff. Utilize media partners to help support and promote the outputs of this collaboration

Time line: 6 months

Measure of Success: Increased citizen participation and actual change as a result of the
participation.



      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




F. Coordinating with other MGCM Departments
   22. Introduce adolescent health education through the municipal school system.
Action Steps:
           ggg.        Work with the Niramaya Health Foundation which just launched SPARSH,
                an adolescent health education initiative
           hhh.        Pilot this initiative at some of the schools
           iii. Replicate and disseminate
Time line: 6 months
   Measure of Success: Increased awareness in adolescent health, increased awareness among
   children on life skills and personal health


   23. Improve disaster management to minimize public health outbreaks


Action Steps:
           jjj. Work closely with the disaster management cell and the NGO Council to start to
                address some of the issues related to disaster management
           kkk.        Educate the city through the LACGs on the importance of preparedness
           lll. Ensure the release of it before onset of monsoon season
Time line: 4 months
   Measure of Success: Increased confidence in the public health system, increased
   preparedness for individuals and families


   24. Improve water supply and sanitation at all slums to decrease the amount of diseases in the
       area.
To be further developed.


G. Priorities in Health
   25. Create a department that addresses issues of respiratory health in Mumbai, this should also
       be a division of the school health department
Action Steps:
           mmm.        Conduct an in-depth analysis of the respiratory health of Mumbai
           nnn.        Work with NGOs to create greater awareness
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
          ooo.          Create a cell within the school department so children can be screened for
                respiratory issues
          ppp.          Further follow up will be needed by the public health and the school
                department
Time line: 6 months
   Measure of Success: Increased awareness of respiratory health, greater initiatives to address
   them


   26. Utilizing the existing DOTS program, increase the priorities of TB management
Action Steps:
          qqq.          Given the numbers of cases and deaths reported in the Mumbai health
                profile, it is critical that there be more initiatives to address TB in Mumbai
          rrr. Create a commission to address why there are still so many cases despite the
                presence of DOTs
          sss. Ensure that people suffering from TB are not building up a resistance to the
                medication.
          ttt. If that is the case, there needs to be further concentration of a public health strategy
                in this area
   Time line: 1 year
   Measure of Success: Decreased deaths and cases reported due to TB in Mumbai


   27. Implement more programs focused on decreasing IMR and MMR (these should be focused
       on nutrition, education, and health of the mother as well as the child)
Action Steps:
          uuu.          Work with NGOs like SNEHA and CCDT to look at how they are
                improving systems to support better Reproductive and Child Health
          vvv.          Utilize the benefits of the new RCH II policy that was released as an
                impetus for improving the health services provided to women and children
Time line: 6 months, ongoing
   Measure of Success: Decreased IMR and MMR (at least by 30-40%)


   28. Create a city-wide campaign regarding Malaria awareness to be promoted during and
       before Malaria months
Action Steps:


     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
           www.        Given the fact that Malaria is a major problem in climates like those of
                Mumbai, it is critical that the Public Health Department address this issue
           xxx.        Teach the public about increasing awareness about the dangers of malaria
                and how to prevent it
           yyy.        Provide citizens with information through the LACG meetings
           zzz.        Information should be circulated in all newspapers
           aaaa.       NGOs and the MCGM can collaborate on this campaign
Time line: Ongoing
   Measure of Success: Decreased cases and deaths by Malaria


   29. Ensure that all vitamins and supplements are available to NGOs distributing them to
       children through various programs


Action Steps:
           bbbb.       Every month the MCGM should conduct an inventory of the stock
           cccc.       NGOs should submit requests for vitamins 2 months in advance
           dddd.       Stock should always be ensured and monitored
Time line: 3 months
   Measure of Success: Increased availability of critical nutrients necessary for the
   development of children


II. Executive Summary


Introduction
This report started as a discussion between the members of the NGO Council and the MCGM after

it was found that there was no existing public health policy document on accessing health care in

Mumbai. The NGO Council is a representing body of NGOs in Mumbai seeking to collaborate

with local authorities on issues of priority. The NGO council was formed on August 22, 2005. The

Council is comprised over 70 organizations with complementary expertise covering all causes and

sectors. The primary objectives of the NGO council is to work with Government, Donors, NGOs,

and other third-parties to raise awareness and convene to address the important issues effecting the



      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                    http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
city of Mumbai.4 On 12/12/2005, Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) has entered

into an MOU with the NGO Council, recognizing that an institutionalized partnership between

municipal bodies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) / civil society organizations

(CSOs) is critical for promoting Good City Governance. 5



The relationship between the NGO Council and MCGM has been utilized in various Solid Waste

& Local Area Citizen Group initiatives. This report was initiated to maximize the output of the

public health system. This report is an in-depth policy analysis into Central and Municipal policies

pertaining to health via an analysis of existing programs, successes, challenges, personal

interviews, conclusions, and recommendations. The purpose of the report is to highlight what is

working and offer suggestions for where improvements can be made. This report serves as an

initial policy document necessary to begin conversations on trends in public health in Mumbai. As

India becomes a major player in the global economy, it is critical that local governments

understand the global repercussions of a weak health system in light of a strong economy. Since

Mumbai already has an existing infrastructure to catalyze these efforts, it is in this spirit that we

propose that the MCGM and NGO Council work together to address the issues in health in

Mumbai.



2. National Policies in Health Care in India

National Health Policy 1982

The first national health care policy was written in 1982 by the Central Government. This policy

was created to set a primary objective of Health Care for All by 2000. The establishment of

efficient and effective primary health care systems, especially for the vulnerable: the

underprivileged, women, and children were critical elements of achieving health care for all by

2000. The GOI had set an ambitious agenda for improvement of health of the Indian citizen. An

4
    www.karmayog.org, See website for MOU
5
    http://www.karmayog.org/bmcngocouncil/bmcngocouncil.htm
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
integrated network of evenly spread specialty and super-specialty services was specified in the

draft. Since implementation of NHP-1983, the national health program was able to achieve some

successes in health care. Smallpox and Guinea Worm Disease have been eradicated from the

country; Polio is on the verge of being eradicated; Leprosy, Kala Azar, and Filariasis can be

expected to be eliminated in the foreseeable future. There has been substantial drop in the Total

Fertility Rate and Infant Mortality Rate. The life expectancy has gone from 36.7 to 64.6 in 50

years. The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has been cut in half since 1951.



Fifty years later, the achievements of this policy only represent a fraction of the need that exists in

India. Ironically, with a hike in user charges, proposals of privatization of government hospitals,

and increasing healthcare costs, the year 2000 represented a dynamic turn in the intended goals of

NHP-1983.6 The burden of cost of care subsequently has shifted from being the responsibility of

the government to becoming a burden on the patient seeking care. A retrospective analysis of the

NHP-1983 alludes to the fact that the policy may have been over ambitious considering the

infrastructure that existed at that time.



National Health Policy 2002

The next National Health Policy was written in 2002, when public health investment was at an all

time low, 1.3% of the GDP in 1990 to .9% of the GDP in 1999 (GOI, 2002). The aggregate

expenditure in the Health sector is 5.2 percent of the GDP. Out of this, about 17 percent of the

aggregate expenditure is public health spending, the balance being what ends up being out-of-

pocket expenses.7 The central budgetary allocation for health over this period, as a percentage of

the total Central Budget, has been stagnant at 1.3 percent, while that in the States has declined

from 7.0 percent to 5.5 percent.



6
    Health Care for All Who Can Afford It, The Lawyers Collective, Mumbai 2000.
7
    National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
NHP 2002 expounds that country wide, less than 20% of the population which seeks OPD

services, and less than 45% of those that seek indoor treatment, avail services such as public

hospitals. This low incidence of seeking OPD (Out-Patient Dispensary) treatment is due to

unsatisfactory factors like time, workday loss, lack of faith in medication as also the outside

medical prescriptions The NHP 2002 firstly stresses the aspect of vertical programming in current

public health services provided by the government; keeping in mind that horizontal programming

(health programming that works within several sectors to accomplish similar goals) would be more

cost effective for the kind of health needs of the population on India. Secondly, there is an

imperative need to upgrade the national and statewide Disease Surveillance Network.

Overall, the NHP-2002 document envisions the existence of an organized primary health care

structure. Since the physical features and needs of urban settings are different from rural areas,

there is a need to set a different set of measurable criteria for urban health care. In addition to

improved ambulatory and emergency care, in urban settings, the NHP-2002 emphasizes a 2 tiered

healthcare system:

        Primary Health Care: 1st Tier; serve a population of 1 lakh, dispensary for OPD and

             essential medications

        Secondary Health Care: 2nd Tier; a government hospital, where a referral is made from the

             primary health centre8



Although the NHP-2002 document is quite thorough, it covers just basic objectives in urban health

care for the poor, which are the upcoming communities that will need the attention of the

government. The aforementioned objectives are part of the mandate for improved services in

public health services in an urban setting.

National Population Policy




8
    National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                              http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
The National Population Policy (NPP), drafted in 2000, also includes the critical aspect of urban

health care and its effect on population policy. The NPP 2000 affirms the commitment of

government towards voluntary and informed choice and consent of citizens while utilizing

reproductive health care services, and continuation of the target free approach in administering

family planning services.9



The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for advancing goals and prioritizing strategies during

the next decade, to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the people of India, and to

achieve net replacement levels (or Total Fertility Rates) by 2010. It is based upon the need to

simultaneously address issues of child survival, maternal health, and contraception, while

increasing outreach and coverage of a comprehensive package of reproductive and child heath

services by government, industry and the voluntary non-government sector, by working in

partnership.10 The NPP document emphasizes the importance of connecting population policy to

health care systems ―it is as much a function of making reproductive health care accessible and

affordable for all, as of increasing the provision and outreach of primary and secondary education,

extending basic amenities including sanitation, safe drinking water and housing, besides

empowering women and enhancing their employment opportunities, and providing transport and

communications.11



Report of National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, a division of the Government of India, submitted this

report in 2005 with the intention of taking an informative look at the health of the nation. The

terms of reference of the National Commission on Macroeconomics & Health (NCMH), included

among others, a critical appraisal of the present health system — both in the public and the private

sector — and suggesting ways and means of further strengthening it with the specific objective of
9
 National Population Policy, Government of India, 2000.
10
   National Population Policy, Government of India, 2000.
11
   National Population Policy, Government of India, 2000.
        Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                          documents .
                                          http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
improving access to a minimum set of essential health interventions to all. It was also intended that

the Commission would look into the issue of improving the efficiency of the delivery system and

encouraging public-private partnerships in providing comprehensive health care.12 According to

the NCMH report, the public health system in India is currently overwhelmed by the co-existence

of communicable and infectious diseases, alongside an epidemic of non-communicable diseases

(Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, etc). Even with existing interventions, communicable

diseases are expected to decline, but there are further risks with the emergence of new infections

and non-communicable diseases that will need to be addressed as well.

As the report is focuses on the macro-economic perspective of health, the NCMH postulates the

three major drivers of health care costs as13:



                1. Human Infrastructure: Cost of staffing the health needs of the country

                2. Drug Regime: Cost of drugs is an issue

                3. Technology Used: Advancing health care to suit the countries needs through

                     the use of technology

World Health Organization Country Profile

The World Health Organization Country Profile gives an overview of the health of the country.

The World Health Organization has also analyzed the health of India. According to a report on

India by the World Health Organization (WHO) there are approximately 501,900 doctors in the

country, which equals 5.2 docs per 10,000. This is important as these doctors not only look after a

large population in urban pockets and many are even employed by many private hospitals. The

number of nurses/midwives are about 607, 376.14 Other problems in health resources include a

shortage of funds and government medical training and there are many vacancies in lab techs,

radiologists, for diseases like malaria and tuberculosis.


12
     Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2005.
13
     Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2005.
14
     India Country Health Profile, World Health Organization, 2001.
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                              http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



Overall, the health policies of India seem to overlap in areas such as access to health, nutritional

deficiencies, lack of resources, high rates of infant and maternal mortality, lack of primary health

care services, lack of expenditure as per the state governments, and the presence of communicable,

non-communicable, and infectious diseases all at the same time. However, through the NHP-2002,

NPP-2002, the NCMH report, and the country health profile of the WHO collaboratively offer

various solutions to the aforementioned challenges in country-wide health care. While it is clear

that there have been initiatives to address health in India, it has primarily been from a rural

perspective. A closer look at the changing population intimates us that the urban poor are the ones

suffering from a new illness: access to health care.



3. Urban Poor and Health

Although the focus of many of the Central government initiatives for health have been focused on

the rural sector, it is critical to now start exploring the gaps in urban health care. Rapid and

unplanned urbanization is a marked feature of Indian demography during the last 40-50 years.

According to the 2001 census, India‘s urban population currently accounts for almost 30% of the

population (approximately 285 million). This represents a 100 times increase in the past century

and nearly 40% increase during the last decade. The population and the amount of urban poor are

rapidly increasing and contributing to a significant strain on resources. The unabated growth of the

urban poor is leading to what is currently being called the ―2-3-4-5 Phenomenon of Population

Growth‖, which states that the Urban Population is India is currently at 285 million15, urban poor

are estimated at 7016-9017 million, and the estimated annual births among the urban poor are 2

million.18




15
   2001 Census of India
16
   Public Private Partnerships for Improving the Health of the Urban Poor, Dr. Siddharth Agarwal, 2005.
17
   Public Private Partnerships for Improving the Health of the Urban Poor, Dr. Siddharth Agarwal, 2005.
18
   Laveesh Bhandhari and Shruthi Shesth, Health of the Poor and the subgroups in Urban Areas, June 2003.
        Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                          documents .
                                     http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
The health conditions of the urban poor are similar to or worse than the rural population and far

worse than urban averages. High infant and maternal mortality, malnutrition, lack of access to

services, sub-optimal health behaviors, and inadequate public sector reproductive and child health

services. The Environmental Health Project (EHP), a project of USAID has re-analyzed the

(NFHS) National Family Health Survey (1998-1999) in 2003 and found that the health of the

urban poor has been under-estimated up to this point. The tables below have been adapted from the

EHP website. A closer comparison between the problems of the rural population versus the urban

poor gives greater insight into the upcoming challenges in urban health. As the country shifts to the

urban areas, evidence demonstrates the need for more of a focus on improving (access to) urban

health care.


Urban health care in Mumbai


In Mumbai, a city of approximately 1819 million people, over 50% of the population lives in the

slums. With a city‘s population expanding at a rate faster than infrastructure to address it, health is

likely to be impacted severely, with the underprivileged communities being the hardest hit. In

Mumbai, urban poverty manifests into informal settlements and slums which have little or no

access to sanitation, water supply, education, and health infrastructure. This dramatic increase in

the population of cities in developing countries has put enormous pressure on services like water,

sewerage, housing and transport.


The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the city is 40% and the maternal mortality rate (MMR) is 14%.

The survey conducted by Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) and Centre for Operations

Research and Training (CORT) in 1999 states the sex ratio in the city as 872 females per 1000

males, net migration has contributed 19% to the population growth of the city. The crude birth rate

(CBR) in the city is 16.6 per 1000 and the general marital fertility rate (GMFR) is 108.7 per 1000.


19
  MCGM Health Profile, 2004 says the population is 12.6 million. Wikipedia.com quotes the population at 18 million
and growing.
      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Nearly 76% of the children and 42.1% of women in the city are anemic; this percentage in the

slum and non-slum areas is 45.5 and 37.4, respectively. Nearly 50% of the children under three

years are underweight (measured in terms of weight-for-age), 40% are stunted (height-for-age) and

21% are wasted (weight-for-age).20



According to the Maharashtra Economic Survey 2004-05, the incidence of poverty in the rural

areas of the State dropped from 58% per cent in 1973-74 to 24% per cent in 1999-2000. In the

same period, in urban areas it dropped from 43.9 per cent to 26.8 per cent. At present, the

incidence of poverty is higher in urban areas than in the rural areas.



Of the 2,38,247 children weighed in June 2005 at various anganwadis in Mumbai, 1,066 were

severely malnourished, according to government figures. In 2002, a study conducted by Neeraj

Hatekar and Sanjay Rode of the University of Mumbai's Department of Economics, projected a

floor estimate of least about 750 children dying of malnutrition in Mumbai alone each year. 21

Further, the rates of malnutrition are higher in the urban poor than the rural average. When looking

at access to health services, the presence of infrastructure seems to make little difference in how

the poor seek health care. Table 3.1 indicates that despite the presence of infrastructure (hospitals,

health posts), only about 43% of the urban poor actually access health services.



Mumbai is a good example of challenges of health care access for the urban poor. With some of

the finest health care institutions in the country, the urban poor often face health problems that are

similar to those effecting the rural population. The next section provides insight into the existing

health infrastructure in the city of Mumbai.



Existing Infrastructure in Mumbai

20
     Health Services in Mumbai, The Bombay Community Public Trust, 2004.
21
     Mumbai‘s Invisible People, The Hindu, November 2005
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
The MCGM‘s existing public health system is a stark contrast in infrastructure and utilization.

Under its programs for public health care, the MCGM runs four major hospitals, 16 peripheral

hospitals, five specialized hospitals, 168 dispensaries, 176 health posts, and 28 maternity homes

with a staff of over 17,000 employees. The Corporation also runs three medical colleges. Of the

total 40,000+ hospital beds in the city, the MCGM run hospitals have about 11,900 beds. As many

as 10 million patients are treated annually in the Out-Patient Departments (OPDs) in the MCGM

hospitals.



The largest hospital, the King Edward Memorial Hospital and Medical College, alone annually

treats 1.2 million patients in its OPD. The state government has one medical college, three general

hospitals and two health units with a total of 2,871 beds. Each of the peripheral hospitals is linked

to one of the four super specialty hospitals. The health posts and the dispensaries are linked to the

peripheral hospitals in their respective Wards. These health posts were established under the World

Bank Funded project called IPP-V, and resulted in the set up of the Health Posts which were meant

to serve as the primary link between the citizen and the government.22



MCGM Facilities and Programs

In addition to the hospitals run by the MCGM there are secondary hospitals, maternity homes,

health posts, and dispensaries that are under their jurisdiction. There are 168 dispensaries and 176

health posts set up in Mumbai. The health posts were set up from a World Bank Initiative called

IPP-5 (India Population Project 5) which sought to set up primary health care centers in Mumbai

from 1988-1996.

The health posts provide medications for DOTS as well as medications for basic ailments (cough,

cold, fever, gastrointestinal issues) while the dispensary has a doctor that is there to provide

medical check ups. These dispensaries and health posts often don‘t function at maximum


22
     Health Services in Mumbai, The Bombay Community Public Trust, 2004.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
utilization rates due to large scale vacancies, disconnect of the staff and the community, and

general ignorance toward quality. While there are always exceptions, due to the overall lack of

facilities and resources given at the primary level, health posts are not universally utilized to access

primary health care.



There are 28 maternity homes run by the MCGM. Maternity homes were meant to be a referral

point from the primary health care systems. In an ideal situation, if a pregnant woman went to a

dispensary for prenatal care, a doctor there would refer her to a maternity home or peripheral

hospital for institutional delivery. However, the maternity homes are suffering under severe

neglect due to lack of equipment, on the site decision making, and quality of care. Additionally,

the controversial practice of charging fees for reproductive and child health has led to an apathetic

view of maternity homes.



Municipal hospitals are meant to be the secondary and tertiary points of care for the patient

seeking healthcare in Mumbai. These hospitals also should be used as referral points, but when

patients have a free range of choices, as is in the MCGM health system, most of the primary

infrastructure is bypassed. There are four major hospitals, 16 peripheral hospitals and five

specialized hospitals. The four major hospitals are also medical colleges which infuse them with a

greater amount of financial resources and recognition than in the peripheral hospitals. The

peripheral hospitals should be a secondary referral point from the primary health care centers;

however, it is also plagued with low resources, centralized decision making, and little attention on

quality of care. If an urgent case is brought to a secondary hospital, it tends to be transferred to a

major hospital, and due to problems in ambulatory care, patients have little chance of survival.

The various programs include:

   1.) Leprosy Program: An initiative to address and contain Leprosy in Mumbai

   2.) Tuberculosis Program: To address, treat, educate and eradicate TB

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   3.) Universal Immunization Program: An initiative to provide children and families in

       Mumbai with proper immunizations

   4.) Polio Eradication Program: To immunize, treat, and eradicate Polio

   5.) National Malaria Control Program: To address and treat Malaria

   6.) Mumbai District AIDS Control Society: Educate, disseminate information, provide

       counseling and treatment, blood safety, monitoring and evaluation

   7.) School Health Program: The SHP aims to provide in school health care for children

       attending the schools run by the MCGM

Successes

Managing such a complex system of health infrastructure has yielded successful initiatives. The

School Health Program and Polio Eradication Programs are 2 of them. The main reasons for

success can be communicated through de-centralization of management, networking with families,

creating community understanding around a certain illness and strong leadership. Among these

few successes, there are many areas that need to be improved throughout the MCGM public health

system.



Challenges

All of the aforementioned programs are run in synergy through the jurisdiction of the Public

Health Department. Many of the reasons the public chooses not to access the care is:

   1.) The MCGM Health Budget: The budget of the MCGM Health Department (over Rs. 800

       Crores) lacks equity in terms of distribution of resources to the secondary and primary

       levels of care

   2.) Primary health care services are weak in resources and manpower, this leads the general

       public to seek healthcare at the tertiary level of care

   3.) Secondary Hospitals and Maternity Care are also not well-equipped and suffer from

       centralized decision making systems that prevent administration for taking decisions

     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   4.) Tertiary Hospitals are on the receiving end of the high monetary assistance and have to

       bear the burden of overcrowding and higher expectations of patients due to the weakness in

       the secondary and primary care systems

   5.) Inconvenient timings, locations, and a high amount of vacancies have lead to a great degree

       of dissatisfaction with the MCGM run services

   6.) Lack of emphasis on quality assurance results in apathy from staff as well as patients

   7.) Lack of referral systems also lead to a misunderstanding of which services are offered

       where and create too much of a free market system for patients that results in overcrowding

       at the tertiary level

   8.) Reporting and data collection, as evident from the Mumbai health profiles needs to be

       improved and expanded with up to date data as well as accurate descriptions of rationale

   9.) Competition from the private sector (practitioners and hospitals) also poses a considerable

       barrier for underprivileged folks to access the public health system

   10.) Lack of public health disaster systems as well as adequate water sanitation and supply

       also contribute to problems in access to health care



Overall, the report looks at various successes and challenges of the MCGM public health system.

Through there are many challenges, the good news is that Mumbai has an existing infrastructure

that can contribute to the improvement of how people in the city access the public health care

system. This report gives various recommendations in terms of:

              Education and Information Dissemination

              Reproductive and Child Health

              Medical and Administrative Personnel

              Infrastructure

              Systems

              Coordinating with other MCGM departments

     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                     http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                 Priorities in Health

The primary step that will be taken will be the initiation of a Bill of Rights for Patients as well as a

Code of Conduct to help education and inform people accessing ALL health care in Mumbai as to

what their rights are and what the expectation is of their behavior.



This report serves as an initial document to signify the NGO Council‘s and the MCGM‘s

commitment to the health care of the people of Mumbai. This document can be utilized by

practioners, administration teams, doctors, nurses, medical students, NGOs and more. An in-depth

analysis of the MCGM‘s health care system can give all those involved in the field some insight

into the inner workings of Mumbai‘s premier public health system in addition to citing specific

areas for improvements. A healthier community can contribute to the overall wealth of Mumbai,

making it healthy, wealthy, and wise.




Accessing Healthcare in Mumbai

Conclusions and Summary


In the last 20 years, there have been few initiatives proposed to improve health for the citizens of

India. When looking at the policies and initiatives proposed by the Central Government, there is a

clear emphasis on improving rural health. However, with the urban poor population rising, the

health needs of the urban poor communities are beginning to exceed those in the rural

communities. The health care crisis of the growing urban poor, especially in Mumbai, represents a

new challenge in providing health care to the masses. The health care of the urban poor is often

worse than or equal to that of the rural poor population. Over 50% of Mumbai‘s population of 18

million23 lives in slums and are part of the growing urban poor. This population is plagued with




23
     www.wikipedia.com/wiki/Mumbai
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
uneven access to care, malnutrition, and poor maternal and child health. Therefore, it is critical to

look at the health of Mumbai on a continuum of urban health.


The MCGM (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai) provides medical services through three

levels of care, primary, secondary and tertiary. This includes an intricate network of teaching

hospitals, secondary hospitals, maternity homes, health posts and dispensaries. Although the

infrastructure is complex, there is a multitude of improvements needed to address the health needs

of the urban poor population in Mumbai. The various challenges plaguing the MCGM health

system are growing as rapidly as the population and need to be addressed urgently. The challenges

include:


       Human Resources: A large amount of vacancies in the public health department of the

        MCGM lead to the apathy of the staff and patients.

       Infrastructural: Lack of equipment and services at the primary and secondary level of

        care; lack of referral systems to direct patients to the appropriate care level; lack of quality

        assurance

       Systems: Lack of a centralized data system, lack of awareness of existing programs within

        the MCGM

       Ethical: Dilution of the value and faith in the public health system as a facility for all, not

        just the indigent and underprivileged. This is a phenomenon that affects the patients as well

        as the staff.

       Educational: Educational materials for prevention of disease and promotion of health are

        under-utlilized or unavailable, patients do not understand the complexities of their own

        health


With a confident team, collaborations, and an open attitude toward change, there are many options

for the MCGM health system to become an accessible service for people seeking quality health


       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
care at an affordable price. A no-frills health care system that emphasizes good quality at the

lowest possible cost to the consumer will not only benefit the poor, but also those taxpayers whose

money is being invested in the government run health care system. Working with existing private

providers and NGOs can be beneficial for the MCGM system in terms of decreasing the burden

and using best practices of existing programs.


Utilizing best practices from cities with similar problems to Mumbai will provide some insight into

innovations that could be implemented throughout the existing health systems. While the problems

sometimes seem to vast to deal with, it is important to remember that an implementation strategy

that works on a step-by-step approach will be the ideal method of slowly improving the system.

The MOU between the NGO Council and the MCGM is the critical agreement that should be kept

in mind in the difficult stages of planning and implementation. This agreement is meant to bridge

the gap between the government and the non profit organizations that provide many needed

services to the impoverished. Both have similar goals, it is now time to devise a better strategy

through collaboration.




Recommendations- Brief


A. Education and Information Dissemination
   30. Ensure that a Patient Bill of Rights (enclosed) and Patient Code of Conduct are posted in
       every public health care facility being operated by the MCGM
   31. Create a map of Mumbai (in Hindi, Marathi, English, etc) with locations, timings, and
       services of each healthy care facility.
   32. Improve primary and secondary health care systems by providing training for quality
       assurance at all facilities.
   33. Ensure that educational materials on ALL illnesses and ailments are available in multiple
       languages at respective primary and secondary health care levels via posters, pamphlets,
       and CHVs.


B. Reproductive and Child Health
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                             http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
34. Increase awareness about institutional deliveries by collaborating with local women‘s
   groups.
35. Develop IEC materials relevant to reproductive and child health as well as other relevant
   diseases by working with NGOs
36. Ensure all maternal, reproductive and child health services are free of cost.
37. Ensure that all municipal facilities are always stocked with medications for pre-natal care
   (iron, folic acid etc.)




  Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                    documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
C. Medical and Administrative Personnel
   38. Increase skills, salaries, and working hours of the Community Health Volunteers and have
       CHV‘s collaborate with health workers from NGOs
   39. Discontinue the practice of allowing doctors to have private practices while employed by
       the MCGM.
   40. De-centralize the management of the primary and secondary health care services


D. Infrastructure
   41. Hire staff to fill vacancies of doctors at the primary health care level (Health Posts and
       Dispensaries) to improve the quality of care
   42. Conduct a needs assessment of the infrastructural (both equipment, human resources) gaps
       in the MCGM public health system via a survey and analysis to apply appropriate
       solutions.
   43. Decrease the gaps in infrastructure (staff, equipment, and training) at the primary and
       secondary levels of health care
   44. Create a referral system so that people can access the medical services at the appropriate
       lowest level.
   45. Utilize the referral system to minimize costs, patient load, and provide better quality
       treatment for serious cases.
   46. Create management information systems to store and utilize data, statistics, and health
       records appropriately.
   47. Create systems for MCGM circulars to be accessible to all
   48. Revamp the ambulatory system completely to provide emergency care as well as transport.
   49. De-centralize the laboratory system. Ensure all peripheral hospitals have functional labs.


E. Systems
   50. Create a patient feedback system to improve policies, procedures, and services for patients
       and for MCGM staff.
   51. Create a Public Health Monitoring Department that meets once in 2 months to plan for
       upcoming public health issues (i.e. bird flu, leptospirosis).


F. Coordinating with other MGCM Departments
   52. Introduce adolescent health education through the municipal school system.
   53. Increase citizen participation through a public health citizen committee in collaboration
       with the MCGM public health department.
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   54. Improve disaster management to minimize public health outbreaks
   55. Improve water supply and sanitation at all slums, this will decrease the amount of diseases
       in the area.


G. Priorities in Health
   56. Create a department that addresses issues of respiratory health in Mumbai, this should also
       be a division of the school health department
   57. Utilizing the existing DOTS program, increase the priorities of TB management
   58. Implement more programs focused on decreasing IMR and MMR (these should be focused
       on nutrition, education, and health of the mother as well as the child)
   59. Create a city-wide campaign regarding Malaria awareness to be promoted during and
       before Malaria months
   60. Ensure that all vitamins and supplements are available to NGOs distributing them to
       children through various programs




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




1. Introduction and Background

Through an initiative between the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) and the

NGO council in Mumbai, health was identified as a major priority. This policy report was written

in order to have a better perspective on health in Mumbai. The NGO Council is a representing

body of NGOs in Mumbai seeking to collaborate with local authorities on issues of priority. The

NGO council was formed on August 22, 2005. The Council is comprised over 70 organizations

with complementary expertise covering all causes and sectors. The primary objectives of the NGO

council is to work with Government, Donors, NGOs, and other third-parties to raise awareness and

convene to address the important issues effecting the city of Mumbai.24 On 12/12/2005, Municipal

Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) has entered into an MOU with the NGO Council,

recognizing that an institutionalized partnership between municipal bodies and non-governmental

organizations (NGOs) / civil society organizations (CSOs) is critical for promoting Good City

Governance. 25



The MCGM was formed in 1873 as Mumbai‘s civic body. Through the multifarious civic and

recreational services that it provides, the MCGM has always been committed to improve the

quality of life in Mumbai.26 It was under this spirit that the MCGM and part of their team took the

initiative to come into an agreement of partnership with the NGO Council. The MCGM has signed

a Memorandum of Understanding with the NGO Council to begin to discuss the critical issues, one

of the major ones being health.

The general responsibilities in Public Health for the MCGM are specified on the website:




24
   www.karmayog.org, See website for MOU
25
   http://www.karmayog.org/bmcngocouncil/bmcngocouncil.htm
26
   http://www.mcgm.gov.in/forms/grindex1.aspx
      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Public Health and Medical Relief Services27

The following functions are performed by the staff in the wards under the supervision and

guidance of the Executive Health Officer, the Deputy Executive Health Officer, 4 Zonal Assistant

Health Officers and the Epidemiologist.

1. Prevention and control over communicable diseases.

2. Maintenance of vital statistics regarding births, deaths and occurrence of diseases.

3. Maternity and child welfare services.

4. Medical relief through dispensaries including mobile dispensaries.

5. Regulation of the places for the disposal of the dead.

6. Prevention of adulteration and misbranding of articles of good.

7. Licensing and controlling trades dealing in food and coming under the purview of sections 394

and 412A of the Bombay Municipal Corporation Act

8. Licensing and controlling trades (Other than food establishments)

9. Controlling places of public amusement from public health point of view, namely, cinema

houses, drama theatres, etc.

10. Registration and inspection of Nursing Homes.

11. Licensing of Nurses Establishments.

12. Expansion programme of public health and medical relief services.

13. Other miscellaneous functions




27
     http://www.mcgm.gov.in
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




For the efficient discharge of these functions, Greater Bombay has been divided into Wards which,

have been grouped into six zones. Each zone is in charge of each of four Assistant Health Officers.

The table below is an organogram of the current hierarchy at the MGCM Public Health

Department.

Table 1.1 Organogram for the MCGM Public Health Department



For the purpose brevity and focus of this report, we have chosen to focus on very specific aspects

of health care and delivery systems. This includes primary health centers, peripheral hospitals,

maternity homes, health posts, dispensaries; communicable, non-communicable and infectious

diseases; health and hygiene, sanitation, access to water, and environmental health. This report will

exclude registrations of births and deaths, stray cattle, disposal of the dead, and such issues such as

licensing. While all issues are important, this report will only cover the aforementioned issues as

they are directly linked with access to public health care facilities.

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                           http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



   2. National Policies in Health Care in India

   This section will identify the various policies that have come in surrounding health care initiatives

   in India. It is important to look at the national initiatives before we focus on Mumbai, because

   these policies can provide the MCGM and the NGO Council with some insight on national health

   policy standards and how good governance can help the city move forward to adherence.

   2.1 National Health Policy

   The Government of India (GOI) first drafted a National Health Policy in 1983 (NHP-1983). This

   policy was created to set a primary objective of Health Care for All by 2000. The establishment of

   efficient and effective primary health care systems, especially for the vulnerable: the

   underprivileged, women, and children were critical elements of achieving health care for all by

   2000. The GOI had set an ambitious agenda for improvement of health of the Indian citizen.

   An integrated network of evenly spread specialty and super-specialty services was specified in the

   draft. Since implementation of NHP-1983, the national health program was able to achieve some

   successes in health care. Smallpox and Guinea Worm Disease have been eradicated from the

   country; Polio is on the verge of being eradicated; Leprosy, Kala Azar, and Filariasis can be

   expected to be eliminated in the foreseeable future. There has been substantial drop in the Total

   Fertility Rate and Infant Mortality Rate. The life expectancy has gone from 36.7 to 64.6 in 50

   years. The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) has been cut in half since 1951. The success of the

   initiatives taken in the public health field are reflected in the progressive improvement of many

   demographic / epidemiological / infrastructural indicators over time – (Table 2.1).28

   Table 2.1 : Achievements Through The Years - 1951-200029

Indicator                                   1951             1981      2000

Demographic Changes



   28
        National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
   29
        National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
            Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                              documents .
                                           http://www.wordwendang.com/en/

 Life Expectancy                            36.7            54                 64.6

 Crude Birth Rate                           40              33                 26

 Crude Death Rate                           25              12                 8

 IMR                                        146             110                70

 Epidemiological Shifts

 Malaria (cases in million)                 75              2                  2

 Leprosy cases per 10,000                   38              57                 4
 population

 Small Pox (no of cases)                    >44,887         Eradicated

 Guineaworm ( no. of cases)                                 >39,792            Eradicated

 Polio                                                      29709              265

 Infrastructure

 SC/PHC/CHC                                 725             57,363             1,63,181

 Dispensaries &Hospitals( all)              9209            23,555             43,322

 Beds (Pvt & Public)                        117,198         569,495            8,70,161

 Doctors(Allopathy)                         61,800          2,68,700           5,03,900

 Nursing Personnel                          18,054          1,43,887           7,37,000

The table above highlights the progression of health infrastructure, demographics, and epidemiology

through 50 years.

    These achievements only represent a fraction of the need that exists in India. Ironically, with a hike

    in user charges, proposals of privatization of government hospitals, and increasing healthcare

    costs, the year 2000 represented a dynamic turn in the intended goals of NHP-1983.30 The burden

    of cost of care subsequently has shifted from being the responsibility of the government to

    becoming a burden on the patient seeking care. A retrospective analysis of the NHP-1983 alludes

    to the fact that the policy may have been over ambitious considering the infrastructure that existed

    at that time.

    30
         Health Care for All Who Can Afford It, The Lawyers Collective, Mumbai 2000.
             Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                               documents .
                                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



The next National Health Policy was written in 2002, when public health investment was at an all

time low, 1.3% of the GDP in 1990 to .9% of the GDP in 1999 (GOI, 2002). The aggregate

expenditure in the Health sector is 5.2 percent of the GDP. Out of this, about 17 percent of the

aggregate expenditure is public health spending, the balance being what ends up being out-of-

pocket expenses.31 The central budgetary allocation for health over this period, as a percentage of

the total Central Budget, has been stagnant at 1.3 percent, while that in the States has declined

from 7.0 percent to 5.5 percent. The current annual per capita public health expenditure in the

country is no more than Rs. 200.32

                               Table 2.2: Public Health Spending in select Countries33



                                                          %Population   %Health       %Public
                                                          with income   Expenditure   Expenditure on
                                                          of <$1 day    to GDP        Health to Total
                                                                                      Health
                                                                                      Expenditure

                   India                                     44%            5%             17%

                   China                                     19%            3%             24%

                   Sri Lanka                                  7%            3%             45%

                   UK                                          -            6%             97%

                   USA                                         -           14%             44%

               The table above demonstrates the public health spending in select countries. India, China,
               and America spend the least amount on their public health expenditure.


These statistics indicate why we are at quality level that does not deliver services at a desirable

standard. Under the constitutional structure, public health is the responsibility of the States. The

general expectation is that the State will give the principal contribution to public health care, with

the supplemental support from the Central government.
31
     National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
32
     National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
33
     National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                              http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



In this backdrop, the contribution of Central resources to the overall public health funding has been

limited to about 15 percent. According to NHP 2002, the fiscal resources of the State Governments

are known to be very inelastic. This is reflected in the declining percentage of State resources

allocated to the health sector out of the State Budget. In order to significantly improve the

decentralized public health system in the country, there needs to be more resource allocation from

the Central Government budget. If the State public health services, which are a major component

of the initiatives in the social sector are not supplemented with additional support, the changes in

National Health Care will be slow and lack universal access at best. The NHP-2002 has been

formulated taking into consideration these ground realities in regard to the availability of

resources.34



NHP 2002 expounds that country wide, less than 20% of the population which seeks OPD

services, and less than 45% of those that seek indoor treatment, avail services such as public

hospitals. This low incidence of seeking OPD treatment is due to unsatisfactory factors like time,

workday loss, lack of faith in medication as also the outside medical prescriptions The NHP 2002

firstly stresses the aspect of vertical programming in current public health services provided by the

government; keeping in mind that horizontal programming (health programming that works within

several sectors to accomplish similar goals) would be more cost effective for the kind of health

needs of the population on India.

Secondly, there is an imperative need to upgrade the national and statewide Disease Surveillance

Network. Without accurate disease surveillance and monitoring, the public health system will not

be able to ascertain the accomplishments and challenges of current and past initiatives. Thirdly,

there is a greater need to have more specialists in public health and family medicine, with an

emphasis on public health nursing and access to medication.


34 National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
        Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                          documents .
                                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



Overall, the NHP-2002 document envisions the existence of an organized primary health care

structure. Since the physical features and needs of urban settings are different from rural areas,

there is a need to set a different set of measurable criteria for urban health care. In addition to

improved ambulatory and emergency care, in urban settings, the NHP-2002 emphasizes a 2 tiered

healthcare system:



         Primary Health Care: 1st Tier; serve a population of 1 lakh, dispensary for OPD and

             essential medications

         Secondary Health Care: 2nd Tier; a government hospital, where a referral is made from the

             primary health centre35



Although the NHP-2002 document is quite thorough, it covers just basic objectives in urban health

care for the poor, which are the upcoming communities that will need the attention of the

government. The aforementioned objectives are part of the mandate for improved services in

public health services in an urban setting.



2.2 National Population Policy

The National Population Policy (NPP), drafted in 2000 also includes the critical aspect of urban

health care and its effect on population policy. The NPP 2000 affirms the commitment of

government towards voluntary and informed choice and consent of citizens while utilizing

reproductive health care services, and continuation of the target free approach in administering

family planning services.36




35
     National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
36
     National Population Policy, Government of India, 2000.
           Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                             documents .
                                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
The NPP 2000 provides a policy framework for advancing goals and prioritizing strategies during

the next decade, to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the people of India, and to

achieve net replacement levels (or Total Fertility Rates) by 2010. It is based upon the need to

simultaneously address issues of child survival, maternal health, and contraception, while

increasing outreach and coverage of a comprehensive package of reproductive and child heath

services by government, industry and the voluntary non-government sector, by working in

partnership.37 The NPP document emphasizes the importance of connecting population policy to

health care systems ―it is as much a function of making reproductive health care accessible and

affordable for all, as of increasing the provision and outreach of primary and secondary education,

extending basic amenities including sanitation, safe drinking water and housing, besides

empowering women and enhancing their employment opportunities, and providing transport and

communications.38



The health related goals of the NPP are defined in a socio-demographic context and include

critical aspects of urban health care:

        1. Address the unmet needs for basic reproductive and child health services through supplies

             and infrastructure

        2. Make school education compulsory until age 14

        3. Reduce IMR to 30/1000

        4. Reduce MMR to 100/100,000

        5. Achieve universal immunization

        6. Promote delayed marriage age

        7. 100% birth, death, and marriage registration

        8. Attain 80% institutional deliveries, 100% by trained persons

        9. Universal access to information and counseling regarding reproductive health

37
     National Population Policy, Government of India, 2000.
38
     National Population Policy, Government of India, 2000.
           Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                             documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   10. Contain AIDS

   11. Prevent and control communicable diseases

   12. Integrate systems in medical education and care

   13. Establish family norms

   14. Social sector and family welfare should be merged

   15. Promotion of family norms



The NPP seems to critically look at population policy and health as an integrated system that needs

to be improved in synergy. Social and health problems contribute to the high population rates

which will effects health care systems adversely. These goals also have some degree of overlap

with the goals of NHP-2002.



The NPP has also has set forth some recommendations for improvements in urban health:

           1.) Finalize a comprehensive urban health strategy

           2.) Facilitate service delivery centers in urban health slums to provide comprehensive

              basic health, reproductive and child health services utilizing relationships with

              NGOs, private sector organizations, and corporate houses

           3.) Promote networks of retired doctors and para/non-medical personnel who may

              serve as providers for clinical and non-clinical services for remuneration

           4.) Strengthen social marketing programs for non clinical family planning products and

              services in urban slums

           5.) Specially targeted information, education, and community campaigns for urban

              slums on family planning, immunization, ANC etc, and other reproductive health

              services




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                          http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                6.) Aggressive integration of health education programs with medical and health

                     programs in environmental health, personal hygiene, nutrition education, and

                     population education

                7.) Promote inter-sectoral coordination between departments and municipal bodies

                     dealing with water and sanitation, industry, housing, transport, education and

                     nutrition

                8.) Streamline referral systems and linkages between primary and secondary levels of

                     care in the urban arena

                9.) Link provision of continued facilities to urban slum dwellers in compliance with the

                     small family norm.



These recommendations fall under the purview of the central and state governments, with both

parties taking some type of responsibility for continued access to health care for the urban poor.



2.3 Report of National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health

The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, a division of the Government of India, submitted this

report in 2005 with the intention of taking an informative look at the health of the nation. The

terms of reference of the National Commission on Macroeconomics & Health (NCMH), included

among others, a critical appraisal of the present health system — both in the public and the private

sector — and suggesting ways and means of further strengthening it with the specific objective of

improving access to a minimum set of essential health interventions to all. It was also intended that

the Commission would look into the issue of improving the efficiency of the delivery system and

encouraging public-private partnerships in providing comprehensive health care.39 According to

the NCMH report, the public health system in India is currently overwhelmed by the co-existence

of communicable and infectious diseases, alongside an epidemic of non-communicable diseases


39
     Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2005.
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
(Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, etc). Even with existing interventions, communicable

diseases are expected to decline, but there are further risks with the emergence of new infections

and non-communicable diseases that will need to be addressed as well.



The NCMH report estimates (based on current data) that by 2015, the number of AIDS cases will

be approximately three times the current level and will be roughly equal to the cases of

tuberculosis (85 lakhs).40 Additionally, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancers will increase

by 25% and mental health issues will affect 6.5% of the population.41 According to the NCMH

report, prevention is the key solution for countries like India that suffer from a lack of resources.

For example:

      Integrated approaches for vector control through de-centralized systems are known to

         reduce water-borne diseases.

      Access to clean water reduces cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhea

      Immunizations reduces onset of diseases caused by lack of immunization

      Vitamin supplementation prevents certain illnesses such as blindness



As the report is focuses on the macro-economic perspective of health, the NCMH postulates the

three major drivers of health care costs as42:



              1. Human Infrastructure: Cost of staffing the health needs of the country

                           There is currently not enough engagement of Community Health Volunteers

                           Specialists such as pharmacists, paramedics, and lab technicians are largely

                            unavailable


40
   Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2005.
41
   Ibid.
42
   Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2005.




       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                      The reproductive health sector (Nurses, midwives) is underdeveloped and is

                       not able to meet the demand

           2. Drug Regime: Cost of drugs is an issue

                      Drugs need to come under price control

                      The industry is largely un-regulated in India

                      There are no patent laws to protect the consumer and innovator

           3. Technology Used: Advancing health care to suit the countries needs through

               the use of technology

                      Technological advances in health should be included as part of the budget

                      Use of modern technology can greatly influence how illnesses are treated in

                       India

The NCMH report discusses the challenges and successes of the state of health care in India, and

cites the following failures in the national health policy:

          Weak management: Key factors include centralized decision-making, problems in

           project management, low budgets, large scale absenteeism, absence of performance

           based monitoring, and conflicting job roles.

          Poor governance and role of state: There is very little accountability at the state level

           and this leads to lack of good governance.

          Lack of strategic mission: There is very little information out there that sets goals for

           where the state of national health care should be.

          Vertical programming: The preponderance of vertical programming is an enormous

           waste of resources and time.



All these aspects of health in India contribute to the lack of access to health care for the citizens of

the country. However, the NCMH report also suggests a way forward, to improve health care

access in India. The various methods they suggest in the report include:

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
           1.) Promoting equity for access by reducing household expenditure on health by

               experimenting with different types of funding (health insurance, public-private

               partnerships etc).

           2.) Restructuring the primary health care program to make it more accountable

           3.) Reduce disease burden and level of risk

           4.) Establish institutional framework for improved quality

           5.) Invest in technology and human resources

The guiding principles should be based on accountability, responsibility, accessibility, adaptability,

courtesy and participation.



2.4 World Health Organization Country Profile

The World Health Organization has also analyzed the health of India. According to a report on

India by the World Health Organization (WHO) there are approximately 501,900 doctors in the

country, which equals 5.2 docs per 10,000. This obviously does not include a large number of

doctors qualified in othe systems like Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Unani or Siddha. This is important

as these doctors not only look after a large population in urban pockets and many are even

employed by many private hospitals. The number of nurses/midwives are about 607, 376.43 Other

problems in health resources include a shortage of funds and government medical training and

there are many vacancies in lab techs, radiologists, for diseases like malaria and tuberculosis.



Further, the external analysis helps assess the major challenges in the health programming. While

overall mortality has decreased, the report states, the living standards are amongst the poorest in

the world. This is primarily due to:

               o Lack of resources

               o Lack of a integrated multi-sectoral approach


43
     India Country Health Profile, World Health Organization, 2001.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
               o Insufficient IEC material

               o Poor involvement of the NGO sector (collaboration rather)

               o Inadequate lab services

               o Manually operated health management system

               o Poor surveillance and poor response

               o Dealing with non-communicable diseases

               o Gender disparities:

                        2. Decline in female/male ratio:

                                    In 1999 and 2001, the ratio went from 927 to 923.

                        3. Violence (domestic and social)

                        4. Nutritional deficiencies

                                    56 % children under 5 said to have Iron Deficiency

                                    Integrated Child Development Service is supposed to cover all but is

                                     slated to reach 54 million pre-school children, pregnant and lactating

                                     women through mid-day meal programs and emphasis on nutrition.

                        5. Stereotypes and discrimination

               o Increase in lifestyle diseases for certain populations44



A critical issue that is not discussed often is Environmental Health:

                   Emissions leading to greater degree of respiratory diseases

                   Agricultural problems

                   All these increase the risk of vector born diseases

                   Significant environmental degradation leads to destruction of natural resources




44
     India Country Health Profile, World Health Organization, 2001.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Environmental health is largely not discussed due to the prevalence of non-communicable and

infectious diseases in India. However, environmental health covers a broad range of issues such as

unsafe drinking water; unhygienic sanitation and air pollution significantly contribute to the

burden of disease, particularly in urban settings.45



In the same country profile, WHO asserts that in 1998, approximately 5.1% of the GDP was spent

on health care. Overall public expenditure on health was 18% and the WHO assessment of the

problem asserts a situation of getting the funds to the right places. The WHO Country Profile

supports the information on national health policy as reported in this paper. The external analysis

added value through its future vision for health care in India. The goal is to achieve optimal health

for the people, which would allow them to lead socially and economically productive lives and be

in keeping with the principles of a Health for All Strategy. The health care system envisaged

would have a public-private mix, with the latter encouraged to take a greater share of secondary

and tertiary health care services.46



Overall, the health policies of India seem to overlap in areas such as access to health, nutritional

deficiencies, lack of resources, high rates of infant and maternal mortality, lack of primary health

care services, lack of expenditure as per the state governments, and the presence of communicable,

non-communicable, and infectious diseases all at the same time. However, through the NHP-2002,

NPP-2002, the NCMH report, and the country health profile of the WHO collaboratively offer

various solutions to the aforementioned challenges in country-wide health care. While it is clear

that there have been initiatives to address health in India, it has primarily been from a rural

perspective. A closer look at the changing population intimates us that the urban poor are the ones

suffering from a new illness: access to health care.



45
     National Health Policy, Government of India, 2002.
46
     India Country Health Profile, World Health Organization, 2001.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                  documents .
                                              http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
3. The Urban Poor and Health

Although the focus of many of the Central government initiatives for health have been focused on

the rural sector, it is critical to now start exploring the gaps in urban health care. The next section

discusses the future of the urban poor population and access to health care.



3.1 Urban Population growth

Rapid and unplanned urbanization is a marked feature of Indian demography during the last 40-50

years. According to the 2001 census, India‘s urban population currently accounts for almost 30%

of the population (approximately 285 million). This represents a 100 times increase in the past

century and nearly 40% increase during the last decade. The population and the amount of urban

poor are rapidly increasing and contributing to a significant strain on resources. The unabated

growth of the urban poor is leading to what is currently being called the ―2-3-4-5 Phenomenon of

Population Growth‖, which states that the Urban Population is India is currently at 285 million47,

urban poor are estimated at 7048-9049 million, and the estimated annual births among the urban

poor are 2 million.50



3.2 Health Conditions

The health conditions of the urban poor are similar to or worse than the rural population and far

worse than urban averages. High infant and maternal mortality, malnutrition, lack of access to

services, sub-optimal health behaviors, and inadequate public sector reproductive and child health

services. The Environmental Health Project (EHP), a project of USAID has re-analyzed the

(NFHS) National Family Health Survey (1998-1999) in 2003 and found that the health of the

urban poor has been under-estimated up to this point. The tables below have been adapted from the

EHP website. A closer comparison between the problems of the rural population versus the urban


47
   2001 Census of India
48
   Public Private Partnerships for Improving the Health of the Urban Poor, Dr. Siddharth Agarwal, 2005.
49
   Public Private Partnerships for Improving the Health of the Urban Poor, Dr. Siddharth Agarwal, 2005.
50
   Laveesh Bhandhari and Shruthi Shesth, Health of the Poor and the subgroups in Urban Areas, June 2003.
        Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                          documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
poor gives greater insight into the upcoming challenges in urban health. As the country shifts to the

urban areas, the evidence below demonstrates the need for more of a focus on improving (access

to) urban health care.



          Table 3.1 MCH Health Conditions of the Urban Poor vs. Rural Population


                         Health Conditions of the Urban Poor vs Rural
                                         Population

              120    103.7     101.3
              100
                                                 73.3                 66                                                 Rural Average
               80          63.1
               60                                            47                            46.7                          Urban Average
                                                                                                    31.739.1
               40                                                                                                        Urban Poor
               20
                0
                    Under 5 Mortality           Infant Mortality                      Neonatal Mortality
                                       Mortality per 1000 births
                              R e- A nalysis o f N F HS- 2 ( 19 9 8 - 9 9 ) b y EHP 2 0 0 3




            This table shows that the urban poor have similar under 5, infant and neonatal mortality
            when compared to the rural population.

                Table 3.2 Malnutrition in the Urban Poor vs. Rural Population


                                                    Rates of Malnutrition

               60                                                                                                       56
                             49.6
               50
                                                                             38.4
               40

               30

               20

               10

                0
                         Rural Average                              Urban Average                                    Urban Poor
                                                           **Weight for age <-2 SD
                                                R e - A na l y si s of N FH S - 2 ( 19 9 8 - 9 9 ) by EH P 2 0 0 3




            This table shows that the urban poor have higher rates of malnutrition than the rural
            average population.


      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



The tables above give a dismal picture into the healthcare of the urban poor. The high rates of

under 5, infant, and neonatal mortality in the urban poor are rising to the level of the rural

population.

                       Table 3.3 How the Urban Poor Access Health Services


                                  Poor Access to Health Services

         70
                                                                  60.5
         60
         50                                                                                               42.9
                          36.6
         40
         30
         20
         10
          0
                      Rural Average                       Urban Average                                Urban Poor
                                  Complete Immunization by Age 12-23 Months
                                       R e- A nalysis o f N F HS- 2 ( 19 9 8 - 9 9 ) b y EHP 2 0 0 3




        This table shows that the urban poor access health services just about the same way the
rural average do.


              Table 3.4 Inadequate Public Sector Reproductive Child Health Services
                                        Inadequate Public Sector RCH Services


                                               1%

                                           5%                   12%



                                                                                                           Government Doctors
                                                                                                           Private Doctors
                                                                                                           Chemists
                                                                                                           Other



                                            82%



              This pie chart shows that private doctors comprise about 82% of the healthcare in
              India.


      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/


Given the fact that government doctors are only 12% of the RCH services, it is clear that the

increasing problems in urban health demonstrate the need for further study and training of issues in

urban health care.

As the urban population expands and health care needs of the urban poor increase, it is critical for

the city and state governments to start focusing efforts on the health of the urban poor. Mumbai is

a perfect example of the growing need for the right to basic health care for the urban poor

population.



4. Mumbai, Maharashtra

Urbanization is one of the most significant processes found in developing countries today.

Maharashtra is one of the most urbanized states in the country with more than 42% of the

population living in cities and towns51.The population of Mumbai has grown from less than four

million at India's Independence fifty years ago, to about 1852 million today. The population of

Mumbai is about 18 million, with a density of 4,205 persons per square kilometer. The overall

literacy rate of the city is 77%, which is higher than the national average (82% of adult males and

71.6% of adult females are literate). The religions represented in Mumbai include Hindus (68% of

the population), Muslims (17% of the population), and Christians and Buddhist (4% each). The

remainders are Parsis, Jains, Sikhs, Jews and atheists.53


Mumbai contributes to a large portion of growth and wealth in India. Mumbai contributes 10% of

all factory employment, 40% of all income tax collections, 60% of all customs duty collections,

20% of all central excise tax collections, 40% of India's foreign trade and Rupees 40 billion (US$ 9

billion) in corporate taxes. A number of Indian financial institutions have headquarters in

downtown Mumbai, including the Bombay Stock Exchange, the Reserve Bank of India, the


51
     Issues in Social Infrastructure, Health Infrastructure in Mumbai, Mumbai Transportation Unit, 2005.
52
     Wikipedia.com reference
53
     Wikipedia.com reference
           Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                             documents .
                                     http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
National Stock Exchange of India, the Mint, and numerous conglomerates (the Tata Group, Godrej

and Reliance etc).54 As economic prosperity sets in early 2006, the public health of Mumbai is

starting to suffer due to neglect.


4.1 Health in Mumbai, Maharashtra

In Mumbai, a city of approximately 1855 million people, over 50% of the population lives in the

slums. With a city‘s population expanding at a rate faster than infrastructure to address it, health is

likely to be impacted severely, with the underprivileged communities being the hardest hit. In

Mumbai, urban poverty manifests into informal settlements and slums which have little or no

access to sanitation, water supply, education, and health infrastructure. This dramatic increase in

the population of cities in developing countries has put enormous pressure on services like water,

sewerage, housing and transport.


The infant mortality rate (IMR) in the city is 40% and the maternal mortality rate (MMR) is 14%.

The survey conducted by Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) and Centre for Operations

Research and Training (CORT) in 1999 states the sex ratio in the city as 872 females per 1000

males, net migration has contributed 19% to the population growth of the city. The crude birth rate

(CBR) in the city is 16.6 per 1000 and the general marital fertility rate (GMFR) is 108.7 per 1000.

Nearly 76% of the children and 42.1% of women in the city are anemic; this percentage in the

slum and non-slum areas is 45.5 and 37.4, respectively. Nearly 50% of the children under three

years are underweight (measured in terms of weight-for-age), 40% are stunted (height-for-age) and

21% are wasted (weight-for-age).56



According to the Maharashtra Economic Survey 2004-05, the incidence of poverty in the rural

areas of the State dropped from 58% per cent in 1973-74 to 24% per cent in 1999-2000. In the

54
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumbai
55
   MCGM Health Profile, 2004 says the population is 12.6 million. Wikipedia.com quotes the population at 18 million
and growing.
56
   Health Services in Mumbai, The Bombay Community Public Trust, 2004.
       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
same period, in urban areas it dropped from 43.9 per cent to 26.8 per cent. At present, the

incidence of poverty is higher in urban areas than in the rural areas.



Of the 2,38,247 children weighed in June 2005 at various anganwadis in Mumbai, 1,066 were

severely malnourished, according to government figures. In 2002, a study conducted by Neeraj

Hatekar and Sanjay Rode of the University of Mumbai's Department of Economics, projected a

floor estimate of least about 750 children dying of malnutrition in Mumbai alone each year. 57

Further, the rates of malnutrition are higher in the urban poor than the rural average. When looking

at access to health services, the presence of infrastructure seems to make little difference in how

the poor seek health care. Table 3.1 indicates that despite the presence of infrastructure (hospitals,

health posts), only about 43% of the urban poor actually access health services.



Mumbai is a good example of challenges of health care access for the urban poor. With some of

the finest health care institutions in the country, the urban poor often face health problems that are

similar to those effecting the rural population. The next section provides insight into the existing

health infrastructure in the city of Mumbai.



4.2 Existing Infrastructure in Mumbai

The MCGM‘s existing public health system is a stark contrast in infrastructure and utilization.

Under its programs for public health care, the MCGM runs four major hospitals, 16 peripheral

hospitals, five specialized hospitals, 168 dispensaries, 176 health posts, and 28 maternity homes

with a staff of over 17,000 employees. The Corporation also runs three medical colleges. Of the

total 40,000+ hospital beds in the city, the MCGM run hospitals have about 11,900 beds. As many

as 10 million patients are treated annually in the Out-Patient Departments (OPDs) in the MCGM

hospitals.


57
     Mumbai‘s Invisible People, The Hindu, November 2005
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



The largest hospital, the King Edward Memorial Hospital and Medical College, alone annually

treats 1.2 million patients in its OPD. The state government has one medical college, three general

hospitals and two health units with a total of 2,871 beds. Each of the peripheral hospitals is linked

to one of the four super specialty hospitals. The health posts and the dispensaries are linked to the

peripheral hospitals in their respective Wards. These health posts were established under the World

Bank Funded project called IPP-V, and resulted in the set up of the Health Posts which were meant

to serve as the primary link between the citizen and the government.58



Mumbai‘s health is reported through the yearly report ―The Mumbai Health Profile‖. Information

from profiles dating 1997-2004 has been used in the following analysis. The first and most

important aspect of Mumbai is the population and its growth. The chart below represents the

growth of the population from 1997-2004.

Figure 4.1 Growth in the Population of Mumbai59


                             Population of Mumbai (1997-2004)

            2004                                                                        12.6

            2003                                                               12.3

            2002                                                        12.1
     Year




            2001                                                 11.9

            1999                                     11.3

            1998                              11.1

            1997                       10.9

               10.0       10.5         11.0            11.5      12.0            12.5          13.0
                                          Population (In Millions)



This table shows population growth in Mumbai from 1997-2004. (Other sources dispute these
numbers).



58
     Health Services in Mumbai, The Bombay Community Public Trust, 2004.
59
     Mumbai Health Profiles, 1997-2004, MCGM, Mumbai.
            Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                              documents .
                                             http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
According to this analysis, the population has been growing at a rate of (to be added).

The birth rates and death rates are often indicative of the population growth. The reason for over

population remains the high birth rate. Despite the fact that the birth rate has decreased, the death

rate has also decreased. The decrease in death rate can be contributed to better health (for some),

increased nutrition, the growing economy and general evolution of the population. However, the

rate at which the death rate decreased is still not equal to the birth rate. Mumbai‘s birth versus

death rate is illustrated in the figure below:

Figure 4.2 The birth rate versus the death rate in Mumbai60


                                     Birth Rate vs Death Rate in Mumbai

                   20
                        17.7
                   18
                                     15.8
                   16                             15.2         15.1         14.7
                   14
      Percentage




                   12
                                                                                         Birth Rate
                   10
                                                                                         Death Rate
                    8          7.2      7.13             6.9          7.1          6.8
                    6
                    4
                    2
                    0
                         1999         2001          2002        2003         2004
                                                   YEAR


This table shows the increase/decrease patterns of the birth rates and death rates.


The high birth rate is often correlated with a high infant mortality rate (IMR). Although the IMR

has significantly decreased in the last 50 years, it still remains a major problem for those who

cannot access health care during pregnancy and after birth of a child. Some parents feel the need to

have a safety net in case on or two children die along the way. The figure below represents the

IMR rate in Mumbai:




60
     Mumbai Health Profiles, 1997-2004, MCGM, Mumbai.
                   Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                                     documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Figure 4.3 Infant Mortality Rates Mumbai61


                                 Infant Mortality Rates Mumbai

     40

                              38.7            38.8
     39
               38
     38

     37
                                                              36                        IMR
     36
                                                                         35.02
     35

     34

     33
              1999            2001            2002            2003        2004
                                              Year



This table shows that the IMR rates in Mumbai have decreased over the last 7 years.


The current IMR reported by the MCGM is at 35% per 1000 births. However, this is merely the tip
of the iceberg as neo-natal deaths are often under-reported and death rates of children under 5
years old are not evaluated by the MCGM. The infant deaths below 1 year of age for the years
1997-2004 are indicated in the table below:



             Table 4.1: Infant deaths of children below 1 year (1997-1999 data unavailable)

              2001                   2002              2003             2004

              7255                   7142              7403             6505



Although the numbers are decreasing, it is unclear according to the data, which intervention has

played the largest part in slowly bringing down the IMR.




61
     Mumbai Health Profiles 1997-2004, MCGM, Mumbai.
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
The Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) is an indicator of how many mothers are dying after

childbirth. Add information about maternal mortality. The figure below indicates the MMR in

Mumbai.

Figure 4.4 Maternal Mortality Rates in Mumbai 1997-2004


                               Maternal Mortality Rates in Mumbai

             30
                                                                         27

             25


             20
                                                             17
                                                 16
   Percent




             15                                                                    MMR


             10      9
                                  8

              5


              0
                    1999         2001           2002        2003         2004
                                                Year



As Mumbai comes into a new age of economic prosperity, one can postulate that the health of the

city as a whole has suffered in this process. As the urban middle and upper classes have more

choices on where they seek care (mostly high specialty, private institutions) the checks and

balances that kept the MCGM public health department running efficiently are no longer

applicable.




             Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                               documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
5. Services in Detail

Healthcare in Mumbai is run under the jurisdiction of the MCGM. It functions to provide health

care to the citizens in affordable and accessible manner. Mumbai‘s health care system is probably

one of the most elaborate urban health systems in the country. It is unique because it provides care

at three different levels, and functions to (hopefully) provide health care at a minimum cost to the

consumer.



5.1 Functions of the Public Health Department

The Public Health Department of the MCGM not only provides basic health care facilities but also

manages other aspects related to preventive and social or community medicine. The Department is

divided into zonal set-ups for administrative purposes. There are five such zones, which cover 23

Wards (nine city Wards, eight western suburban Wards and six eastern suburban Wards). The

Deputy Municipal Commissioner handles each zone. Each Ward has a separate Ward Office and

the Ward Medical Health Officer (MHO) heads the Public Health Department in that Ward. The

Department carries out the following activities:

• Registration of births and deaths and maintenance of statistics

• Regulation of places for disposal of dead

• Maternity and child welfare and family welfare services, school health services

• Control of communicable diseases

• Food sanitation and prevention of adulteration of food

• Control of trades likely to pose a health hazard

• Insect and pest control

• Impounding stray cattle, immunization and licensing of dogs

• Regulation of private nursing homes

• Medical relief through hospitals

• Issuance of international health certificates for traveling abroad

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
• Ambulance and hearse services

• Treatment of contagious diseases

This section is an overview and analysis of the existing MCGM structure in relation to services

and access to health care.



5.2 Dispensaries and Health Posts

There are 168 dispensaries and 176 health posts set up in Mumbai. The health posts were set up

from a World Bank Initiative called IPP-5 (India Population Project 5) which sought to set up

primary health care centers in Mumbai from 1988-1996. When the World Bank pulled out, the

MCGM took the responsibility of the health posts and dispensaries. However, due to various issues

in budgeting, prioritization at the MCGM, and other reasons that are not well-documented, the

quality of services offered at these health posts and dispensaries is not quite meeting the needs and

demands of the public that accesses this system. The health posts provide medications for DOTS

as well as medications for basic ailments (cough, cold, fever, gastrointestinal issues) while the

dispensary has a doctor that is there to provide medical check ups. Unfortunately, these

dispensaries and health posts don‘t function at maximum utilization rates due to large scale

vacancies, disconnect of the staff and the community, and general ignorance toward quality. While

there are always exceptions, due to the overall lack of facilities and resources given at the primary

level, health posts are not universally utilized to access primary health care.



5.3 Maternity Homes

There are 28 maternity homes run by the MCGM. Maternity homes were meant to be a referral

point from the primary health care systems. In an ideal situation, if a pregnant woman went to a

dispensary for prenatal care, a doctor there would refer her to a maternity home or peripheral

hospital for institutional delivery. However, the maternity homes are suffering under severe

neglect due to lack of equipment, on the site decision making, and quality of care. Additionally,

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                   http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
the controversial practice of charging fees for reproductive and child health has led to an apathetic

view of maternity homes.



5.4 Municipal Hospitals

Municipal hospitals are meant to be the secondary and tertiary points of care for the patient

seeking healthcare in Mumbai. These hospitals also should be used as referral points, but when

patients have a free range of choices, as is in the MCGM health system, most of the primary

infrastructure is bypassed. There are four major hospitals, 16 peripheral hospitals and five

specialized hospitals. The four major hospitals are also medical colleges which infuse them with a

greater amount of financial resources and recognition than in the peripheral hospitals. The

peripheral hospitals should be a secondary referral point from the primary health care centers;

however, it is also plagued with low resources, centralized decision making, and little attention on

quality of care. If an urgent case is brought to a secondary hospital, it tends to be transferred to a

major hospital, and due to problems in ambulatory care, patients have little chance of survival. The

aforementioned case is especially true in the cases on deliveries and post-partum emergencies.

5.5 Programs

The MCGM runs a complex set of programs to address the major health issues of the Mumbai. A

government run health department is important for two major reasons:

         Controlling Infectious Disease: If public health sector does not work, diseases like malaria

          etc will increase

         Access to Public facilities: such as ambulatory care and emergency services

The following section describes these programs in detail and provides some insight into how they

are addressed by the MCGM Public Health Department.

           5.5.1 Leprosy Control Program62



62
 The information on the Leprosy Control Program has been from the Mumbai Health Profiles (1997-2004), MCGM,
Mumbai.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
               The Leprosy Control Program was started in 1890 and is based out of the Acworth

               Municipal Hospital in Mumbai. The services provided by the hospital include

               inpatient services, out patient services, peripheral clinics, field work, re-constructive

               surgery, training, and research. The Leprosy Control Program has achieved a

               significant amount of success in Mumbai over the years and is demonstrated in the

               table below:

               Table 5.5.1.a: Cases and Deaths: Leprosy in Mumbai63

                                  1997        1998        1999        2001        2002        2003        2004
                Cases             4966         423         629         310        4297        3384        1651
                Deaths               4          11          10          11           7           5           5
               This table shows that the cases and deaths by Leprosy have decreased significantly in Mumbai due to
               the availability of medication.



               Though there is no explanation for the fluctuation in numbers over the years, it can be

               postulated that treatment and detection methods for leprosy have been improved and

               implemented by the MCGM. The decrease in number of deaths demonstrates that

               treatment programs are working and there are adequate detection methods in place to

               address leprosy in Mumbai. This has just been derived from observation, as there is

               little conclusive information in the Mumbai Health Profiles 1997-2004.



               5.5.2 Revised National Tuberculosis (TB) Control Program

               The Revised National Tuberculosis Program (RNTCP) is a national initiative that is

               run under the provision of the Mumbai District Tuberculosis Control Society

               (MDTCS) since 1999 for the effective control and smooth implementation of the TB

               control program. 64 For the implementation of this program, the MCGM has

               established:

                                 Six District Tuberculosis Officers

63
     Mumbai Health Profiles, MCGM, 1997-2004
64
     Mumbai Health Profile 2003-2004
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                             119 Microscopic Centers have been established at municipal

                              dispensaries, hospitals, and TB clinics

                             903 DOTS Centers (Directly Observed Treatment, Short-Course- a

                              WHO program) have been established to help TB patients seek care

                              for TB.

           The RNTCP conducts many health awareness activities including health awareness

           month, World TB Day, community meetings, street plays and more. MCGM also

           collaborates with private providers in their PPM (Public Private Mix) Project. This

           project was started in 2002 with 2 zones and now covers 5 zones. This program

           consists of a public- private partnership between the MCGM and private providers to

           implement the DOTS and RNTCP. According to the Mumbai Health Profiles, the

           following tables represent the cases of TB that were reported:



Table 5.5.2.a: Cases and Deaths: TB in Mumbai

                         1997        1998       1999       2001        2002       2003       2004
      Cases             44536       37707      14424      38238       40009      24620      25888
      Deaths             9339       10583       8750       9345        8998       8929       8774
      This table shows that the cases and deaths by TB. The number of cases has decreased while the number of
      deaths has stayed relatively constant.



           It is unclear from these numbers what intervention contributed to the change in cases

           reported. The drastic change in numbers is not analyzed as per the Mumbai Health

           Profiles. It could be attributed to the implementation of the RNTCP initiative, but does

           not explain the dramatic drop in the rates of cases reported in 1999. This calls for

           further investigation of the results to take a closer look at the reasons for the changing

           numbers. The number of deaths attributed to TB has been on the decline since 2001.

           The decline rate is (To be added later).




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .
                                       http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                5.5.3 Universal Immunization Program

                The Expanded Program of Immunization was launched in the year 1978 for covering

                all children up to five years. In 1985, the Universal Immunization Program was

                launched in 1985 to cover all the children under one year with all vaccines to achieve

                the following targets:

                          Elimination of Neonatal Tetanus by the year 1995

                          Eradication of polio by 2000

                          Reduction of 90% cases of measles by 1995

                  Specific activities include:

                                   Vaccine distribution and maintenance

                                   Collecting data and information

                                   Performance reports

                                   Extended coverage evaluation survey

                                   Extra activities as needed

                The chart below takes a closer look at the immunization evaluation report for the

                BMC for the most recent year (2004). 65

                 Vaccine                             Target          Achievement        Percentage
                 Hepatitis B                         200591          61,002             30.41%
                 DPT III (Diptheria, Polio,          200591          196526             97.97%
                 Tetanus)
                 Polio III                           200591          196114             97.96%
                 BCG (TB Vaccine)                    200591          203397             101.39%
                 Measles                             200591          174009             86.74%
                 T.T. (M) (Tetanus)                  220650          173249             78.51%
                 D.P.T. (B)                          192570          163325             84.81%
                 Polio (B)                           192570          167531             86.99%
                 D.T. (5) (Diptheria)                226754          156443             68.99%
                 T.T. (10)                           226754          184694             81.44%
                 T.T. (16)                           226754          146324             64.52%
                The table above shows the target and achievement rates, clearly, while some met and exceeded the
                target, others felt quite short.




65
     Mumbai Health Profile, MCGM, 2004.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                         http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                 The interpretation of these numbers demonstrates that while there are some significant

                 successes in the MCGM Universal Immunization Program (UIP), there are still some

                 gaps in targets that are yet to be reached.

                 For example, in 2004, there were 4584 cases of Infectious Hepatitis (reported) and 92

                 deaths66 in Mumbai. The table below represents the cases and deaths in Mumbai of

                 hepatitis:



        Table 5.5.3.a: Cases and Deaths: Hepatitis in Mumbai

                               1997         1998        1999       2001        2002        2003        2004
          Cases                3455         2929        2526       3627        3810        3488        4584
          Deaths                207          192         184        135          78          51          92
         This table shows that the cases and deaths by Hepatitis in Mumbai. It is unknown if it is Hepatitis A or B.



                 These deaths could have been prevented if the achievement rates of Hepatitis B

                 vaccines were better. (Will clarify if we are talking about Hep A or Hep B) Although

                 the deaths are not so high, the number of cases is enough to create concern and

                 demand some type of intervention. It should be noted that this initiative was started in

                 March 2003 and needs some time to actualize its goals. Clearly, the UIP has achieved

                 some significant success in the areas of DPT (Diptheria, Polio, Tetanus), Polio, and

                 BCG (Tuberculosis vaccine), but still needs to meet international standards for

                 Hepatitis, Tetanus and others.



                 5.5.4 Polio Eradication Program

                 The Polio Program is a part of the Universal Immunization Program. The Pulse Polio

                 Program (PPP) has achieved a 97.6% 67rate for vaccinations. The Pulse Polio Program

                 is an administration of extra Oral Polio Vaccine does to all children irrespective of



66
     Mumbai Health Profile, MCGM, 2004.
67
     Mumbai Health Profile, MCGM, 2004.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                their immunization status if they are below 5 years of age. This program has achieved

                significant success due to an aggressive media campaign and drive.




                5.5.5 National Malaria Control Program (NMCP)

                The NMCP pursues malaria control through parasite control (surveillance branch) and

                vector control. The purpose of the surveillance branch is to detect malaria cases from

                the community and treat them immediately. In addition to health awareness to people,

                the NMCP also utilizes 3 methods of surveillance68:

                             Active: House to house survey of fever patients

                             Passive: Blood samples of all fever cases are taken by medical personal of

                              the MCGM

                             Mass Surveillance: Looking at high risk communities more broadly



                Although in 2004, malaria deaths were cited at 2369, the number of reported cases was

                13,522. This cites a need for greater action in prevention, not just in monsoon season,

                but in all seasons.



            5.5.6 Mumbai District AIDS Control Society (MDACS)

                MDACS is a program that was started in 1998 as an initiative of the MCGM. MDACS

                functions as an over-seeing body to all the programs related to HIV/AIDS in the city

                of Mumbai. MDACS has several activities including:

                           Establishing and tracking of STI/RTI services

                           Condom Promotion

                           Targeted Intervention

68
     Mumbai Health Profile, MCGM, 2004.
69
     Mumbai Health Profile, MCGM, 2004.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                       IEC

                       Youth and AIDS

                       Voluntary Counseling and Testing Centers (Confidential)

                       Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT)

                       Blood Safety

                       Care and Support

                       Training and Surveillance

                       Monitoring and Evaluation

                       Inter-sectoral Collaboration: Work Place Intervention



               Through MDACS there are clearly a large amount of interventions focused to address

               and control HIV/AIDS in Mumbai. The tables below give some indication of cases

               and reported deaths according to the health profiles of the MCGM:

               Table 5.5.6.a: Cases and Deaths of AIDS reported in Mumbai70

                              1997       1998       1999       2001        2002       2003       2004
          Cases                180        384       3682       1909        2018       4445       3190
          Deaths                25         66        100        178         179        889        278
          This table shows that the cases and deaths by AIDS in Mumbai. The cases and deaths remain inconsisten with
          little explanation.



               These numbers also seem to bring about some questions as to why there is such a

               fluctuation of reported deaths between 2002-2004. The WHO reports that HIV has a

               0.9% prevalence in India. The numbers from Mumbai do not corroborate with the

               national statistics for many reasons. (Explain reasons here)



            5.5.7 School Health Program (SHP)71



70
     Mumbai Health Profile, MCGM, 1997-2004.
71
     Mumbai Health Profiles, MCGM, 1997-2004
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                       http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                The SHP is a critical component of community health care. As school-going children

                comprise approximately 20% of the population, it is important to promote health

                awareness amongst them and their families. The objectives of the school health

                program include:

                           Promotion of positive health

                           Prevention of diseases

                           Early diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of defects

                           Awakening of health consciousness in children

                           Provision of a healthy school environment

                To achieve these objectives, the SHP provides a mix of health assessments, curative

                services, rehabilitation, follow-up, healthy child and school competitions, child to

                child/family/community programming, immunization, first aid and emergency care,

                statistics, training and other activities. These programs reach approximately 5 lakh

                children per year through Std. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9.72 The school health program is run jointly

                under the health department (which is responsible for administration) and the

                education department (which is responsible for logistics).73 Each year, the SHP plays a

                critical role in helping children access health care. Through parent/teacher/community

                meetings, the idea of community health is re-enforced in these children to underscore

                the important role everyone plays in a healthy community. Additionally, due to the

                nature of follow-up in the SHP, children are able to get treatment without creating a

                stressful situation in their family.



                The SHP works with 7 special school clinics at Nair, Nair Dental, K.E.M., Sion,

                Cooper, Rajawadi, and Bhagwati hospitals. During 2003-2004, the SHP program has

                admitted between 41,980 and 35,991 children into these specialty clinics, respectively.

72
     Conversation with Dr. Usha Ubale, former AHO of the School Health Program, January 2006.
73
     Conversation with Dr. Usha Ubale, former AHO of the School Health Program, January 2006.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
              The SHP has also been beneficial for the screening of TB and Polio and picked up

              such rare conditions such as Rheumatic and Congenital Heart Disease and such

              illnesses. Additionally, the extensive health education program reached out to parents,

              teachers, nurses, and awarded health trophies to deserving children and schools. The

              School Health Program is an innovative method of providing healthcare to children

              who are from impoverished populations.



          5.5.8 Respiratory System Diseases

              One omission from the MCGM health programming is Respiratory Systems Disease,

              which, as demonstrated in the table below, are presenting an increasing health threat

              for residents of Mumbai

 Deaths
 Reported
                      1997        1998        1999       2001       2002      2003   2004
 Respiratory          7270        7377        7332       7223       2412      8293   8174
 Disease
This table shows the deaths reported by respiratory disease from 1997-2004.



          The table above illustrates a disturbing trend in the city, the rapid rise of deaths of

          respiratory problems. Due to the fact that there are many infectious and

          communicable/non-communicable diseases that need to be addressed, respiratory disease

          has been reported, but there are no interventions reported in the Mumbai Health Profiles.

          It is important to note that, these are the deaths reported, and most likely represents a

          fraction of the actual cases of respiratory disease. By respiratory diseases, we are

          specifically referring to asthma, bronchitis, upper respiratory infections, etc. According to

          a study conducted in the D-West ward by the American Journal of Respiratory and

          Critical care medicine, the asthma prevalence in the Mumbai sample (3.5% based on

          physician diagnosis, but 9 to 12% when including symptomatic subjects without



       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                     http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
          diagnosis).74 With an under-reported 9 to 12 prevalence (number of cases of the disease at

          a specific time) of respiratory ailments, there is a greater need for some intervention by

          the MCGM. An NGO called the Oasis Foundation claims the air is so bad in Mumbai, it is

          equivalent to smoking 40 cigarettes per day.75

          In another report by the Environmental Health Department of the MCGM, it was

          estimated that 43.3% of the population has reported some type of a respiratory illness (this

          can be asthma, bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease).76

          This only underscores the imperative need for more of a focus on respiratory care for a

          population that is literally choking on its environment.




74
   http://ajrccm.atsjournals.org/cgi/content/full/158/2/547#DISCUSSION
75
   http://www.oasisngo.org/
76
   Environment status of Greater Mumbai, 2004-2005, MCGM.
      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
6. Successes

6.1 School Health Program

The School Health Program (SHP) is a good indicator of a successful initiative of the MCGM. One

of the main indicators of their success is the fact that they have a very long vacancy rate. Out of 37

positions, only 5 are vacant.77 This statistic seems acceptable compared to the high rates of

vacancies at the MCGM at this time. There are several other reasons that contribute to the success

of this program.

          Decision-Making Process: Since this program falls under the jurisdiction of the Public

           Health Department as well as the Education Department, it enjoys a more independent

           decision-making process. This helps management take the lead in certain situations and can

           lead to greater innovations within the program

          Staff Continuing Education: The SHP encourages doctors to continuously be learning

           throughout their employment process. Staff are encouraged to go to workshops, trainings,

           and courses. This keeps staff stimulated and helps them apply new strategies to the way

           they treat their patients.

          Immediate Follow-Up: If a child is not well and needs urgent care, the doctors are able to

           refer them to clinics immediately. There is no worry about the family taking the time and

           care to go to a hospital, wait, and seek care there itself.

          Administration Team: The administration team seems to be up to date with everything.

           Weekly reports are required in addition to meetings, updates, and follow-up. When staff

           feel accountable to someone, they are more likely to perform their job well.

These are just a few of the examples of what works in the School Health Program. Overall, it

seems that de-centralized decision making, continuing education, timely follow-up and strong

leadership can make a program that sees up to 5 lakh children per year a success.




77
     Interview with Dr. Usha Ubale, MCGM.
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
6.2 Polio Eradication

The eradication of polio was also a successful initiative of the MCGM. Through the National Pulse

Polio Campaign, Mumbai has achieved success due to the publicity and easy dosage. The Pulse

Polio Campaign asserts that any child, regardless of immunization status, should receive a drop of

polio. Community Health Volunteers (CHV‘s) have been a critical aspect of this campaign, by

going door-to-door in various communities to ensure that everyone is receiving the required

dosage. The national emphasis has made a difference to bring together the entire nation around the

focus of polio eradication. The same amount of dedication, for other illnesses, could also be

utilized to eradicate other preventable diseases in Mumbai.




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
7. Services

It has been quite challenging to find clear outlines of the range of services and programs provided

by the MCGM. According to the Executive Health Officer (EHO), the MCGM is constructing

guidelines for provisions of health services in the following areas:

       1 dispensary/health post per 50,000 people within 1.5 km.

       1 facility with a maternity ward for every 150,000 people within 3 km.

       1 general hospital for every 350,000 people within 5 km.

Each of these facilities corresponds to the three-tiered (primary, secondary, tertiary) healthcare

system initiated by the Government of India. The dispensary, the primary health care center, is

expected to provide treatment for fever, cold, etc. and provide outreach services, MCH

vaccinations.



The following guidelines are recommended for areas with a population of 25,000 - 50,000:

       1 female doctor

       1 public health nurse

       3-4 nurse midwives

       3-4 male M.P.W

       1 Class IV (woman)

       1 computer/clerk

       1 voluntary women health workers – 1 for every 20,000 people

       Laboratory

       Sterilization, M.T.P, vaccines

Areas with populations greater than 50,000 need to be divided into two areas with populations of

under 50,000 in each. According to the same report, primary health care consisted of the following

services:

       Outreach services
       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
        o Population Education

        o Information, motivation about family planning

        o Health Education

                   Environmental sanitation

                   Personal Hygiene

                   Communicable diseases

                   Nutrition

                   M.C.H. & E.P.I

    Preventive Services

        o Immunization

        o Ante-natal, Post-natal and infant care

        o Prophylaxis against anemia

        o Prophylaxis against Vitamin A deficiency

        o Presumptive treatment of malaria

        o Identification of suspected cases of leprosy and tuberculosis

        o Filariasis

        o Infant Feeding

    Family Planning Services

        o Nirodh, conventional contraceptives and oral pills

        o I.U.D. insertion

        o Sterlization and other M.T.P. Services via referral to hospital or through mobile

            vans

    Curative

        o Fist aid during accidents and emergencies

        o Treatment of simple ailments

    Supportive Services (Referral)

    Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                      documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
           o High risk maternity cases

           o Sterilization and M.T.P.

           o Diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and leprosy

           o Laboratory services for diagnosis o malaria matter requiring doctors

               services/hospitalization

       Reports and Records

           o Preventive services

           o Family planning acceptors

           o Vital events

           o Morbidity and Mortality in respect of:

                      Malaria

                      Tuberculosis

                      Leprosy

                      Diahrroeal diseases

                      Maintenance of family cards for population covered

Through various policies and guidelines, the MCGM realizes the urgent need for having accessible

and community based services for those that access public health care. However, when it comes to

implementation of these services, there are several challenges that impede the utilization of

municipal-run health care facilities. The following challenges are some of the major barriers to the

provision of equal distribution of health care services to the underprivileged population of

Mumbai.



7.1 MCGM Health Budget

As per the Municipal Corporation Act, the MCGM is primarily concerned with providing

preventive health care services in the city. However, the current focus seems to be leaning toward



       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
        curative care in a major way. In the following budget, it is evident that the majority of funding

        goes to tertiary and secondary care.78

                                                                                                  Rs. In Crore
                                                                 Capital              Plant and
                                    Revenue                      Works (Civil)        Machinery   Total
1. Public Health
Department                                     98.4                     3.7               75           102.1

2. Medical Relief and                 599.4 (537 Medical
Education (Including                         Relief)
Medical Relief and                       (62.4 Medical
Medical Education)                         Education)                   62.7              45.6         707.4
3. Measures to Control
Environmental Air
Pollution                                       3.7                     11.2              69.3            4.4
Total                                         701.5                     66.3              46.2         813.3



        Clearly, the budget illustrates the above point as the budget for curative services and medical

        education are nearly 7/8ths of the entire budget of the MCGM health program. The cost of medical

        relief is greater in comparison with the cost of preventive services. However, for the sake of the

        budget, it all falls under the category of ―Medical Relief‖. Additionally, because medical education

        is mainly subsidized, many colleges can not collect revenue from the medical colleges, as may be

        the case in other countries. This point can be validated when looking at the top four 3rd-tiered

        hospitals79:




        78
             Issues in Health Infrastructure, Mumbai Transformation Support Unit, 2005.
        79
             Issues in Health Infrastructure, Mumbai Transformation Support Unit, 2005.

                 Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                                   documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                                                                    Rs. In Crore

Hospital Name                           Revenue                           Total

KEM Hospital & GSM College              114.1                             137.5

LTMG Hospital & College                 93.2                              124.1

BYL Nair & TNM College                  70.9                              111.7

Nair Hospital & Dental College          7.4                               9.7

Total of Major Hospitals                                                  383



When we look further at the budgets of the special and periphery hospitals, we get a better idea of

where the priorities lie in the funding of medical institutions:

      Name of Special & Peripheral Hospitals                       Rs. In Crore

1     Bhajekar Hospital                                            1.4

2     ENT Hospital                                                 3.0

3     Eye Hospital                                                 1.7

4     K.B. Bhabha Hospital Bandra                                  15.9

5     K.B. Bhabha Hospital Kurla                                   8.4

6     Mun. General Hospital Ghatkopar                              19.9

7     Bhagwati Hospital                                            14.4

8     MTA Mun General Hospital                                     8.9

9     Cooper Hospital                                              21.8

10    DN Mehta Hospital Chembur                                    4.1

11    VN Desai Hospital, Santa Cruz                                8.9

12    MW Desai Hospital, Malad East                                4.6

13    VD Savarkar Hospital, Mulund                                 3.4

14    MGH Barvenagar Hospital                                      3.6

15    SK Patil Hospital Malad East                                 1.7

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
16       Centenary Hospital, Kandivali                                        3.7

17       Centenary Hospital, Govandi                                          6.7

18       Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Hospital, Vikhroli                             4.7

19       Siddhartha Nagar, Goregaon                                           3.4

20       BSES Mun Gen Hospital, Andheri West                                  2.7

         Total                                                                138.9



Many of the peripheral and secondary hospitals listed above are located in the suburbs, while the 4

major hospitals are located on the south side of Mumbai. This presents many challenges for those

that end up having to seek care at secondary and primary institutions. Infectious Disease and

Tuberculosis hospitals also do not get priority in terms of funding80:

         Name of Hospital                                                         Rs. In Thousands

1        Katsurba Hospital                                                        14,37,07

2        GTB Hospital                                                             17,65,48

3        RDTB Clinic Dadar                                                        41,70

4        Shamaldas Gandhi Marg TB Clinic                                          30,74

5        Balaram Street TB Clinic                                                 23,33

6        TB Clinic, Khar                                                          93,04

7        Nawab Tank, TB Clinic                                                    27,16

8        Acworth Leprosy Hospital                                                 1,40,03

         Total                                                                    35,58,55




80
     Issues in Health Infrastructure, Mumbai Transformation Support Unit, 2005.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



And finally, the category of ―others‖ which loosely covers health posts, maternity homes, and

dispensaries is at the bottom of priority list.81

           Name                                                                   Rs. In Thousands

1          Maternity Homes, Children Welfare Services etc                         59,03,21

2          Dispensaries                                                           20,58,71

3          CHMS (PH)                                                              3,54

4          Central Analytical Lab                                                 29,02

           Total                                                                  79,94,40

6          Public Health Department                                               98,39,60

7          Measures to Control Environmental Air Pollution                        3,69,70



The figures above demonstrate that there are several gaps in terms of priority in funding to the

various health initiatives of the MCGM. A close look at the budget shows a major gap in the

primary, secondary and tertiary levels of care.

A budget analysis can demonstrate the trends in fund allocation and expenditure as part of the
MCGM.

Budget analysis:

            Source- Budget Estimates A, 2005-2006, as prepared by Municipal Commissioner, BMC

            Appendices to Budget Estimates A, Revenue Income and Expenditure (combined) 2005-

            2006, as prepared by Municipal Commissioner, BMC

       For- Public Health Dept., comparisons being made between budgeted estimates of 2004-2005

       and 2005-2006

           The increase in income for the budget estimate from 2004-2005 to 2005-2006 is given as

            Rs. 252.47*, whereas the increase in expenditure for the budget estimate from 2004-2005


81
     Issues in Health Infrastructure, Mumbai Transformation Support Unit, 2005.

           Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                             documents .
                              http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
     to 2005-2006 is Rs. 443.53. Deficits for sure with exp. almost double the amount of

     income.

    Budget estimates for the yr. 2005-2006 have increased w.r.t. 2004-2005, but mostly under

     salary and administrative component. For example- General Superintendence- almost

     doubled; under Rabies Control, Licensing of dogs; under Medical Relief and Education for

     King Edward Memorial Hosp. Figures on page H-158 gives a better picture for it. The

     wages since 1999-00 until now have increased by almost 100% and form the major chunk

     of total exp. when compared to others (other budget analysis tools can be employed to

     highlight the above point). Page- H-159 shows ‗wages‘ under the head of ―Controllable

     Expenses‖ that have actually grown in an uncontrollable fashion, whereas the increase in

     ―Obligatory Expenses‖ mentioned above it has not been much.

    Budgeted estimates for repairs (as part of General Superintendence, under Rabies- increase

     by ten times); for Medicines, Instruments and Inoculations (under Epidemics) and for

     Equipment (under Medical Relief and Education for King Edward Memorial Hosp.-

     increase by 100%)have also increased significantly. The thing to be noted is that while all

     these increments are being made on paper, are they also being materialized or do they

     continue to be on paper only.

    The budgeted amount to be invested for equipment (under Vector, Pest and Rodent

     Control) has been reduced by almost Rs. 200, 000.

    Budgeted amount under Rabies Control for ‗payment for sterilization of dogs‘ has gone

     down by Rs. 300,000.

    The exp. under has decreased from Rs. 200,000 to a mere figure of Rs. 30,000.

    The summary and concise form of detailed estimates given at page no. H-160 clearly shows

     that the estimates for 2005-2006 when compared to that of 2004-2005 have been on a

     decline for most of the elements of Public Health Expenditure, though it has also increased

     for others. To mention a few heads where it has declined- Epidemics; Vector, Pest and

    Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                      documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
           Rodent Control; Laboratory; Dispensaries (under Medical Relief and Education) etc.

           Examples where the increase has taken place- Rabies Control; Life Guard Services at Juhu,

           Versova, Hospitals, Maternity Homes etc.



7.2 Primary Health Care

Primary care is supposed to be the first point of access for the citizen. If primary health care

institutions are at the bottom of the priority list, then they will be treated similarly by the consumer

or patient. In Mumbai, the major issues around utilization of the public health care system are

quality of care, convenience, costs, distances, apathy among staff, and wide-spread vacancies. As a

result, people living Mumbai fail to access primary care services and proceed to the tertiary level

hospitals and private vendors for all their care, even that which is normally addressed at the

primary care level. This leads to overcrowding at the city‘s third tier hospitals, which have

comprehensive services and better quality of care. According to a study conducted by CEHAT

(Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes) demonstrates that despite having better health

care services, people residing in Mumbai do not have proper access to health care as 32% of

ailments remained untreated82.



The MCGM‘s described functions for dispensaries and health posts are described below:

Functions of Dispensaries:

       1. Clinical management on OPD basis.

       2. Immunization- polio, DPT, Measles, Tetanus, Toxid, Typhoid.

       3. Preventive services.

       4. In upgraded dispensaries- Laboratory services- Urine, stool, HB blood, and Malarial

           parasite. (Out of 163 dispensaries- 60 are upgraded).

       5. Health Education to the patients attending the dispensaries.


82
     Duggal, R et al, Unmet Need for Public Health Care Services in Mumbai, India, June 2004.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
  6. Medical examination of Municipal employees. On the whole, dispensaries, preventive,

      curative services to the patients.




Functions of Health Posts:

  1. Conducting baselines surveys of the community (of about 65,000 population) residing with

      in the given geographical area.

  2. Enlisting the eligible couples, motivating them for adoption of small family norms and

      providing them with outreach services for contraception.

  3. Immunizing children against the 6 vaccine preventable diseases viz. children tuberculosis,

      diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles through fixed center based and

      camp approaches.

  4. Preventing and treating case of nutritional anemia in mother and children by distributing

      iron-folic acid tablets & syrup.

  5. Vitamin A syrup to all children as prophylactic doses for Vitamin A deficiency.

  6. Oral Rehydration salt packets to children of under-five age group suffering from diarrhea

  7. Conducting Growth Monitoring Program for children of under-five age group.

  8. Giving health education to all slum-dwellers.

  9. Detection and treatment of cases of Leprosy, Tuberculosis, AIDS and Malaria.

  10. Registration of unregistered births and deaths.

  11. Detection of new home births and the motivation of such mothers to get their babies

      immunized.

  12. Establishing effective Management Information System including proper record keeping

      and timely reporting.

  13. Developing and efficient referral system.



    Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                      documents .
                                          http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
According to leading public health experts, improving primary care is the best method to

promoting health and preventing disease in countries with high populations and low resources.83

During a non- research based study of a primary health center in Chembur, Mumbai, the author

found that the majority of the patients coming there were either coming for TB medication (42%)

or basic health problems 53% (fever, cough, cold). Out of 19 people surveyed, only one person

complained about the process of sending a patient to a hospital, then health post/dispensary, then

hospital again. The majority of patients (73%) were satisfied with the quality of health care

because the doctor was good.84 This comment was most always in relation to the doctor and the

effectiveness of the medicines. An analysis of MCGM dispensaries in two wards at Mumbai

showed that an average of 85 patients are treated every day, clearly indicating high level of

utilization of dispensaries as well. The other alternative source is private health-care sector which

is relatively inaccessible to the poor but also characterized by poor quality infrastructure and

manpower and was found to be indulging in profit motivated medical malpractices.85



It is clear that the public health services in Mumbai are certainly utilized; however, it is the quality

of the care that should be addressed. While the research demonstrated that the people going to the

dispensaries and health posts were satisfied by the services, there are other wards that are plagued

with vacancies at curative level positions. For example, an interview of the K east Ward Officer

(also a doctor) revealed that out of 11 positions for medical officers, there are currently 9

vacancies.86 Staff dissatisfaction is high among the Community Health Volunteers (CHV‘s). The

CHV‘s were retained after IPP-V ended to serve as the ―eyes and ears‖ of the MCGM- performing

such duties as immunization campaigns, home visiting, family planning education, and more duties

as required. Of the CHV‘s I met, all of them complained of salaries that were too low. These




83
     Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2005.
84
   Independent Research conducted by the author of the report, 2006
85
   Duggal, R et al, Unmet Need for Public Health Care Services in Mumbai, India, June 2004.
86
   Author interview on December 26, 2005
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                       http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
CHVs make up to Rs. 900 per month, which in contrast to the onus of their work is too low, and if

the burden of community health outreach must fall upon them.



Other examples of challenges at health posts and dispensaries include a visit of Dr. Janaki Desai to

a dispensary on Antop Hill with a group of foreign visitors. ―I saw the doctor use a dirty, old, un-

sanitized needle to give the patient an injection. On top of that they were asking the visitors for

money to help support the health post‖.87 Dr. Desai heads the NGO the Niramaya Health

Foundation. The organization‘s main focus is to provide health education and promote the concept

of prevention. ―Due to the inadequate services provided by the MCGM, our clinics have turned

into the OPD‘s instead of centers for promotion of good health and prevention of disease. We hope

to work more collaboratively on these issues.‖88 Dr. Desai also mentioned that their NGO provides

iron supplements (supplied by the MCGM) to young women, and these vitamins have been

―unavailable‖ for the last 6 months. The challenges of utilizing the public health system is

currently presenting a challenge for those who are trying to work within the system.



In contrast, in other wards and areas of Mumbai, some citizens prefer to access care by a private

provider. In the K East Ward, public preference for outpatient care services from a BMC facility in

the CEHAT study ―Un-met Need for Public Health Care Services, in Mumbai, India‖ was very low

(14 per cent) when compared to that for inpatient care services. Here the majority of households

reported to seek treatment from the private sector (82 percent). As mentioned earlier, there are only

11 public dispensaries in the area, which is grossly inadequate to meet the demand for OPD care

services of over 800,000 people residing in this area. Given the larger and physically more

accessible presence of private doctors, people are likely to prefer services from private providers

rather than seeking care from public health-care services outside the locality, where ―time‖ and

―travel‖ costs are higher. Here the main worry is about the identity of private providers in this low-

87
     Dr. Janaki Desai, Founder and Director of the Niramaya Health Foundation
88
     Dr. Janaki Desai, Founder and Director of the Niramaya Health Foundation
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
income locality as many of the practicing doctors in the locality are likely to be non-qualified

practitioners and /or doing cross practice.89 The reasons cited in this study for choosing private

care cited ―offers good quality service‖ as the main reason. However, in terms of affordability, the

same respondents said they would prefer to go to a public facility- however, due to lack of doctors

and general unavailability; they had to seek care at a private practitioner.90

Clearly, while the primary health care system does have many strengths, it is plagued with issues

of quality and access due to inconvenient timings, widespread vacancies, and lack of motivation of

staff.



7.3 Challenges at Secondary Hospitals and Maternity Homes

As is evident in the MCGM budget, the secondary (also referred to as peripheral hospitals) and

maternity homes do not receive adequate resources to support their respective institutions. The

budgeted allocation of 20 secondary hospitals is equal to the entire budget of KEM Hospital. In a

city that is expanding toward the suburbs, it is critical that the peripheral hospitals are also

prioritized in terms of development and offering of services. According to Dr. Sanjay Nagral, a

physician at Jaslok and Bhabha Hospital (Bandra), certain systems create inefficiency at secondary

hospitals. One is, despite the service, the perception is that government related health services are

always bad. Secondly, part of the problem is the bad attitude of the staff:

         They think the patients are poor, so they deserve bad treatment

         Senior staff reinforces this problem

         Staff is genuinely inefficient

         This is very true at the peripheral hospitals




89
   Duggal, Ravi et al, ―Unmet need for public health care services in Mumbai, India‖, Asia Pacific Population Journal,
2004.
90
   Duggal, Ravi et al, ―Unmet need for public health care services in Mumbai, India‖, Asia Pacific Population Journal,
2004.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                        http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
           Even proper seating arrangements at the OPD could ease the tension that is created by long

            waiting time and staff inefficiencies91

Maternity homes are also not utilized properly, as surveys from the CEHAT study found that seven

to eight per cent of deliveries in Mumbai are still home deliveries. About 40% of the population

utilizes the public sector for antenatal services. According to Dr. Armida Fernandez, founder of

SNEHA, an organization working collaboratively with the MCGM to improve public health care

for Maternal and Child Health, According to Dr. Fernandez, the IMR in Mumbai is 40/1000 and

the amount of neonatal deaths: 25/1000. Shockingly, the MMR in India is equivalent to that in

Mumbai (410/100,000). Clearly, there is a greater need for improvement of care at the secondary

level as well as the primary health care level.



7.4 Third Tier Hospitals

The third tier sector hospitals, KEM, Nair, Sion, and Nair Dental are known world wide for the

breadth and depth of their services. KEM is the flagship institution of medical education and

public facilities in Mumbai. These institutions provide comprehensive care, from general medicine

to cardiac surgery under their care. On the website for KEM, it states ―The medical college

(school) provides training to about 2000 students in undergraduate, postgraduate and super-

specialty medical courses; in undergraduate and postgraduate physical and occupational therapy;

Masters and PhD courses in various allied specialties. A nursing school is also maintained by these

institutions. With about 390 staff physicians and 550 resident doctors, the 1800 bedded hospital

treats about 1.8 million out-patients and 68,000 in-patients annually and provides both basic care

and advanced treatment facilities in all fields of medicine and surgery.‖92 Clearly, colleges and

hospitals of this caliber benefit greatly from the subsidization of their services by the MCGM.




91
     Author Interview with Dr. Sanjay Nagral, January 2006.
92
     http://www.kem.edu/hospital.htm
           Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                             documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
As is evident from the MGCM budget, the majority of the financial resources of the public health

department are allocated to these four major hospitals. In fact, their endowment makes up

approximately 7/8th (86%) of the entire public health budget. It is important to note that because

these are also medical colleges, the government in part, is also subsidizing the medical education

of students attending these colleges. Subsidizing medical education is hardly a new phenomenon;

however, the chances of the future physicians from these colleges integrating into the community

to fill the much needed gaps are minimal. The table below illustrates how minimal the medical

education fees truly are:


ALL FEES ARE FOR A TERM OF 6 MONTHS at Seth GS Medical College:93


First MBBS                                                          Rs.10,100
Second and Third MBBS                                               Rs. 8,100
Postgraduate Medical degree courses (MS,MD,MCH,DM etc) Rs.14,800
Postgraduate Medical diploma courses (DVD,DMRD etc)                 Rs. 14,800
BSc                                                                 Rs. 1750
MSc                                                                 Rs. 5475
PhD                                                                 Rs. 6275
The table above demonstrates how minimal the fees are for medical students.

Although KEM and the other medical colleges are quite competitive at the entrance point, the fees

are not really a barrier for those seeking medical education; even the completely poor fall into

various scholarship categories. As a result, the medical education or the cost of it is not a critical

point of contention for the student. Additionally, students and residents have their own opinions

about the state of the public health system:

―The secondary hospitals have no facilities.‖

―We cannot practice without proper equipment and that is the major problem with the health posts

and dispensaries‖.


93
     http://www.kem.edu/college/fees.htm

         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                       http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
―I would not prefer to work at a government facility if I had the choice‖.94



These were the words of the residents interviewed at a general OPD in a hospital/medical school

by the author. The residents spoke of the challenges they had heard from the field and implied that

they would rather go into private practice or a fellowship than stay to practice in health clinics.

When asked how much they spent on their medical education, many stated that between

scholarships, waivers, and government quotas, many of them did not have to pay anything for their

medical education. Clearly, there is a gap between curative medicine and preventive medicine in

the Indian medical system.



It is known among doctors and faculty that Preventive and Social Medicine (PSM) is like the step-

child of Indian medicine. PSM is not widely developed or even understood by the doctors who

have that qualification. Additionally, the financial value of a doctor practicing PSM is also quite

low. Therefore, the idea of PSM, which is essentially public health, is brushed aside for more

curative services. However, the value of such a practioner, especially in communities and clinics,

would be invaluable for improving the health indicators of the urban community at large. The

undervaluing of PSM has led to a great divide between preventive and curative medicine at the

practical level at 3rd tier hospitals and medical colleges.



Another aspect that has paralyzed the public hospital system, especially at the 3rd tier, is the

opportunity for professors to have a private practice in addition to their work at the hospital. This

not only takes away precious time that could be spent in the community or doing trainings, but it

sets a bad example for young residents and interns about the purpose of a publicly funded

healthcare system. Additionally, as beneficiaries of the public system, their profits should not be




94
     Research Conducted by the author, included in Appendix 1.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                          http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
utilized for personal purposes. While the original creators of the policy may have been thinking

otherwise, this policy ultimately can be detrimental to the public health system.

Also on the website, is the list of salaries for the various posts at the hospital:

 Position                                               Salary
 Resident                                               Rs. 6500-8000 per month

 Lecturer                                               Rs. 15,000 per month

 Associate Professor                                    Rs. 18,000 per month, provisional quarters
                                                        may be provided.
 Professor                                              Rs. 25,000 per month, provisional quarters
                                                        may be provided.


With salaries lower than what most people make at the bustling call center industry, it is no

wonder that doctors are not opting for government positions in health.

Finally, the biggest challenge at the third tier is not just the low school fees, private practices, lack

of emphasis on PSM, or low salaries- it is the lack of a referral system that leads to the

overcrowding of these hospitals. These hospitals are overcrowded with people coming for simple

ailments (cough, cold, fever, backache) that can be addressed at the primary care level.

Another non-scientific survey95 was conducted in the general OPD of KEM hospital by the author

of 20 people visiting the GOPD for health care. Sixty-five percent came from areas that had

government hospitals and facilities: Wadala, Ullhasnagar, Malad, Bhyendar, Andheri, New

Mumbai, Bhandup, Sewri, and Govandi. Patient‘s less serious ailments were cold and cough, high

blood pressure, acidity, dizziness, fever due to no access to cleaning water, and respiratory

infections. These conditions could easily have been cured at the primary health care level, at a

municipal dispensary or health post. When asked why they chose to KEM over their local public

health post or dispensaries, the answers varied from not knowing about local services to

dissatisfaction with quality of care. Overall, the majority of those coming to KEM came because

the doctors were good and the treatment was effective.

95
     The details of this study are attached to this report as an Appendix 2
          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
“Good Doctors, and good facilities for patients”, Housewife, Wadala

“I went to a private hospital and the doctors were rude. I came here and the doctors spoke to me

nicely”, Housewife, Ullhasnagar

“Doctors and facilities are good. Those who leave here, leave well” Male, Parel

“Treatment is done well, and they take time and do good. In the village, they give an injection, and

it doesn't work well. It is good. Its not easy to handle that many people”, Driver, Rajapur Village

“If you come 1-2 times you get better relief. The procedure has become a little complicated, it used

to be better when people were prioritized based on illness”, Saleswoman, Bhayendar. She also

added that she is unaware of the public services offered near her home.



Overall, there was a major lack of awareness of the existing public health services offered near

their home, and a major perception that the doctors treated them with more respect at KEM than

anywhere else. The average amount of money spent going there for just travel averaged at about

Rs. 56 per person. This can be half of one day‘s wages for daily laborers, and the waiting time can

surely cost them another day‘s pay. Of course, this does not include the amount of money they

may have spent seeking health care from alternative sources of treatment. One woman claimed to

have spent Rs. 1000-1200 on her care in a private facility to no avail, and then someone

recommended she come to KEM. This study was conducted to get a sense of why people chose to

come so far to seek care. At the end of everything, more than the actual treatment, it was the fact

that the doctors were attentive, focused, spent time listening to each patient, and generally had an

affable manner about them.



Although this is quite similar to what was observed in the municipal dispensary, some of the

interviewees‘ biggest complaints were that the doctors in the dispensaries did not treat them with

respect and dignity. The affable manner can be related to several different issues:

       The residents are fairly young and were able to work with peers of a similar age group

       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                   http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
        KEM has each and every facility that is required for a doctor to come up with a proper

         diagnosis

        The residents expressed that the emphasis on quality came from the senior management,

         underscoring the administration‘s commitment to quality of care

        There was a good team environment where the work was distributed evenly and senior

         doctors were very supportive to the juniors

Through this observational analysis, it seems that most people want someone who can speak to

them nicely and help them out with whatever ailment they are having. They don‘t mind waiting, or

traveling for days, they just want respect and affability.



The other side of this survey is that due to timing problems, many of the doctors were present

during the interviews. This could have skewed the results of the survey as perhaps the patients did

not want to seem ungrateful. In fact, some of these patients arrive at the hospital so desperate, any

form of care that results in better health is helpful. While the responses do show a positive image

of the hospitals, it is important to remember the conditions under which the survey was conducted.

It is also important to remember that this was just a small survey of the patients and is not meant to

be indicative of the entire population that utilizes it.



While this example is just of one of the best institutions in Mumbai, another municipal teaching

hospital- Sion (and LTMG Medical College) often bears the geographical brunt of the influx of

patients bypassing the primary health care system. Since Mumbai is an island city and has

developed toward the suburbs, the majority of the 3rd tier hospitals ended up in the southern part of

Mumbai. This creates major barriers to access in care due to the distance and time involved in

reaching these hospitals from the suburbs. Sion hospital provides a break in that geographical

barrier from the suburbs to ―town-side‖. As a result, Sion hospital bears the burden of most

emergency cases, transfers from peripheral hospitals, casualties, and most aspects of urgent care.

        Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                          documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
As a result, Sion‘s services are compromised due to work-overload on physicians, scarcity of

resources, and difficulty in managing overcrowding.



Clearly, there are many complicating factors regarding efficiency and access at municipal hospitals

in Mumbai. Even though services are of high quality at 3rd tier hospitals, they are still plagued by

issues of overcrowding, lack of referral systems and non-utilization of primary health care

services. It is important to understand the detrimental effect an uneven distribution of services ends

up having on the entire public health system. Indeed, due to some of the compromised conditions

(financial and otherwise) at primary and secondary levels, the system itself encourages uneven

access to health care.




7.5 Inconvenient Timings

The MCGM‘s timings for health posts and dispensaries are generally 9am-4pm. This is often an

inconvenient time for people who are employed. Leaving work and spending an unspecified

amount of wait time can contribute to the frustration with public health facilities.



7.6 Locations

As it was alluded to previously, the major 3rd tier hospitals are located in the southern part of

Mumbai, while the city has expanded toward the suburbs in the north and east. This is common

urban phenomenon known as urban sprawl, is leading to compromised access to public health care

and is increasing the market for private practitioners (both qualified and un-qualified). In the

surveys conducted of the KEM OPD ward, many of the patients that came from various distances

were unaware of the locations or services offered near their home. Apart from the ones who had a

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
negative perception of it, many claimed to not know the locations of the government health

facilities. This happens for many reasons:

       Due to extremely large populations to be covered by community health volunteers (1 per a

        population of 60,000), each home that is supposed to be visited is often not

       Since word of mouth is the most common method of reaching out to communities, the lack

        of awareness propitiates throughout the community

       If people know of a 3rd tier hospital that is effective, they will bypass the primary health

        care system regardless of proximity.

Additionally, there was no map of Mumbai that had explicitly drafted the locations, timings, and

doctors at each health facility. A pamphlet of that nature would be useful to promote the

availability of government health care services.



7.7 Vacancies

Wide spread vacancies continue to plague the MCGM health system. In K East Ward, as

mentioned previously, there are nine vacancies out of eleven positions for Medical Officer‘s of

Health. This is in an area that already suffers because of the lack of the municipal hospital in the

ward. When the survey was conducted at KEM General Out Patient Department, the residents

working there also mentioned that they were not interested in working at municipal dispensaries

due to lack of resources and facilities. The general disposition of the MCGM public health

department seems rather apathetic in relation to the high rates of vacancies. It seems to be an

acceptable norm that should just be accepted. This further complicates the case for expecting

patients to seek primary health care. If a patient goes once or even twice and the doctor is not there

or has left early, it becomes a dysfunctional health care center for them. Further, due to a hiring

freeze due to budget problems a few years ago, there were no positions filled.




       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
There are several reasons for wide-spread vacancies at MCGM. First, the salaries for doctors are

not at a standard of living that would be appealing to many young doctors and the older doctors

that have been MCGM position for years often wait to retire to get benefits. Secondly, there are no

incentives for working at a community service level. Thirdly, there are hardly enough facilities at

primary and secondary level that make a doctor feel like they can diagnose/treat a condition

without having to refer the patient to a tertiary institution for further investigation.

Finally, given the financial remuneration is so limited for doctors, many would prefer to start their

own practice or work in a private institution.



7.8 Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance or quality of care does not mean sophisticated or exclusive care, but is

concerned with fully meeting the needs of those who need the service the most, at the lowest cost

to the organization, within limits set by higher authorities. Quality of care is cited as the main

reason the interviewees at the KEM GOPD chose to travel to KEM for their care. One hundred

percent of the patients mentioned the doctors are facilities were good. The doctors spoke to them

nicely and the treatment was effective. One woman mentioned that it was ―very clean‖ as

compared with other hospitals she had been to. These correlated with the residents‘ comments that

the facilities and resources available to them helped them serve the patients better. Additionally,

the presence of systems and availability of ―one stop servicing‖ is extremely beneficial. Because

KEM has everything from X-ray facilities to MRI‘s, patients don‘t need to seek care elsewhere.

In summary, Quality Assurance, as a concept is a systematic way of ensuring and maintaining

―quality‖ of services and has proved useful globally. Quality of care has 3 dimensions:

        1. Client’s perspective: What do clients expect from the health services?

        2. Professional’s perspective: Do services follow health care provider‘s professional

            standards?



      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
        3. Management or Administrative perspective: Are the resources being used

           productively? Are the services efficient?

Through a collaborative initiative between the MCGM and XXX project, an action research

project was implemented in 2 wards: H East and G North. This included 17 health posts, 16

dispensaries, 2 maternity homes, and 1 secondary hospital.



The focus of the project was to look at providers as agents of change. The project was limited in

terms of its interaction with the community, primarily because the project was aiming to reach the

community through the providers. The overall goal was to ensure quality health services for

women within the context of reproductive rights and health. The objectives were:

       Improve, strengthen, and increase quality and range of health care services for women at all

        levels

       Enable women to have access to gender sensitive and user friendly services

       Develop and build capacity of staff at 2 wards, training, monitoring and evaluation, and

        health of women

This project worked closely within the MCGM structure with senior decision makers and health

managers in planning and intervention. Also the project focused on the capacity building of staff in

counseling, communication skills, training skills etc. The project also promoted quality assurance

and monitoring and evaluation.

This quality assurance system was implemented over 4 years and the team took every initiative to

ensure proper planning and implementation:

       Workshops, planning, experimentations and interventions

       Advocacy

       Research

And in order to make sure everyone felt involved in the process, they established committees to

serve as links to the system, conducted participatory research and gave feedback, took all efforts to

       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
ensure administrative support, and involved key persons from the MCGM. The main issues that

needed to be addressed were:

       Information needs of clients

       Attitudes of staff toward clients

       Communication process between staff and clients

       Diagnosis and prescriptions given by CHVs and ANMs (Auxilliary Nurse Midwives)

       Training and supervision of staff

       Referral process

       Use of routine data

This project was very well planned, but was not accepted by the staff and administration teams as

it was thought of as a foreign concept. The project was opposed from many sides, and most people

claimed to not receive enough support from senior staff. The project did accomplish some

formidable goals, including two manuals for clinical guidelines in reproductive health for both

makes and females and a referral process that is described in the next section.



7.9 Referral Systems

The nature of the way people in Mumbai access public health care facilities would be greatly

improved if there were a referral system in place. In most countries, if a patient needs to see a

provider for a specialty, they must go through their primary care provider first. However, in a

system where the public is free to access health care at any level, the primary health care system in

bypassed and the patient heads straight to the tertiary or specialty care. When patients choose to

seek care at their own discretion, resources for primary and tertiary care are wasted and tertiary

resources are exhausted. This was evident in the KEM General OPD survey, where many of the

patients came for such common health issues such as fever, cold, cough, backache and dizziness. If

these patients had gone to their primary health care facility, it would have saved both the hospital



       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
and the patients time and money. A referral system was tried and tested at MCGM by the Women

Centered Health Project. The process is described below:



An effective referral system would ensure optimum utilization of the three tier health care delivery

system of the MCGM and therefore use the available resources:

           I. Objectives of the Referral System:

                  To ensure appropriate utilization of available resources

                  To ensure accessible, affordable health care services

                  To ensure patient and provider satisfaction

       II. Pre-Requisites of an idea referral system:

                  Well defined levels of health care services based on availability of specialty

                   services

                  Standard referral protocols

                  Administrative guidelines agreed upon by appropriate authorities governing

                   various levels of health care facilities

                  A well defined and well implemented feedback system

                  Focus on client and client centered in nature

                  Involvement of public as well as private sector

                  Strategies to enforce compliance



       II. The proposed system for MCGM

       This was looking at a well defined three tiered system with health posts and dispensaries at

       the primary level, secondary hospitals, maternity homes and post partum centers as

       secondary and teaching hospitals. The way it was proposed to work was that the priority

       would be given to the referred patient. Patients being referred were getting a specially

       designed slip and would be afforded benefits at the primary level.
      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



This entire process did not work in the end because some of the staff were not clear about the

referral slips, this led to further patient dissatisfaction, people were unclear about how the system

was supposed to actually make things better.



This process is also being implemented through an NGO called SNEHA (Society for Education,

Health and Action for Women and Children). CINH (City Initiative for Neonatal Health) is a

collaborative initiative between the SNEHA, the International Perinatal Care Unit (IPU), UK and

the Bombay Municipal Corporation (BMC), CINH uses participatory techniques to involve

community members in urban slums and municipal health service providers to achieve:

   • Improvements in maternal and newborn care practices and care seeking

   • Provision of high quality antenatal and postnatal care at public health posts

   • Continuous quality improvements for maternal and neonatal services at maternity homes and

hospitals



CINH has three essential components:

    1. Improving public health systems

    2. Improving maternal and neonatal health outcomes at the community-level

    3. Developing these supply and demand interventions into a replicable model for urban slum

        settings



A four-pronged approach will address these essential components:

   a. Improvement in the quality of maternal and neonatal health care in all levels through the

       development of a formal referral system in the BMC. This includes implementation of

       clinical and administrative protocols for referral and transfer. To ensure sustained change,



      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                    http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
          the Appreciative Inquiry model will be used in addition to supportive supervision

          techniques.



      b. The participatory development of antenatal, postnatal and neonatal (APN) service package

          for health posts was developed to build support at the community level.



      c. The use of action-research cycles with community groups to improve maternal and

          neonatal health outcomes. This low-cost intervention trains local facilitators to lead

          community groups through a process of identifying local challenges in maternal and

          neonatal health and evolving workable strategies.



      d. The development of evidence-based models for urban slums by building action research

          projects with a strong evaluation component. Each intervention is participatory and

          includes capacity building for sustainability. 96

As CINH is being implemented throughout various public health care facilities in Mumbai, it is

important to look at it as a replicable model that can be utilized universally throughout the system.

Such a model can lead to greater efficiency as well as increased quality assurance throughout the

process.



7.10 Lack of Awareness

Lack of awareness covers a range of categories, lack of awareness of the patients regarding the

availability, locations, and timings of government services; lack of awareness within the staff

about quality assurance and quality of care; and lack of awareness of the multi-dimensional aspect

of the MCGM‘s programming. There is no availability of a map in of the health services being

offered in each area. This leads to the general lack of awareness of services offered by the MCGM.


96
     SNEHA CINH Project Summary, 2005.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Patients feel there is a free range for them to access services anywhere, regardless of the

inconvenience. Staff are also largely unaware of the overall goals for quality services and perform

on a ―fire-fighting‖ strategy, in which only the exigent issues are addressed, and there is little

adherence to ongoing strategy planning and setting up goals and work plans. Finally, it just seems

that there is a great disconnect between the different aspects of MCGM programming. While some

programs get national level priority (Polio and TB), some of the other programs like environmental

health and primary health care delivery through the CHV‘s is not set as a priority for funding.

Although these programs are multi-dimensional and could be inter-sectoral, the programming

tends to run in a vertical fashion, all working toward goals without thinking of the benefits of a

more horizontal approach toward programming.



7.11 Public Health Disaster Management

In light of the recent outbreak of avian influenza, the MCGM needs to have a separate cell that

deals with public health disasters and outbreaks of diseases. If there is a cell that monitors public

health outbreaks around the world and tracks them before they reach Mumbai. Having a team

whose expertise is public health disaster management would be beneficial to the public health

department. This team would consist of media persons, public health experts, hospital

administration team, doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and community health workers. In this situation,

the outbreak needs to be attacked through a multi-dimensional approach:

       A media person can be in charged of the reports that go out to the press. In its current state,

        the communication between the media and the MGCM is antagonistic with plenty of

        skirting the blame.

       Public health experts can help figure out medical and preventive strategies to address the

        outbreak. Currently, various staff from many departments have been pulled from other

        work to address this issue. There is no real assessment of how far Mumbai bas been

        affected, thus creating a state of panic and fear.

       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
       A hospital administration team is critical to setting up an operation to deal with the

        possibility of a public health outbreak. The hospital beds to be used for quarantine as

        needed should be decided beforehand as well. This team can be responsible for carrying out

        administrative and laboratory tests as needed.

       Doctors and Nurses are needed to help any urgent needs related to people who have already

        contracted the illness. These providers should be vaccinated (if possible) before hand to all

        illnesses that pose a threat.

       Pharmacists can ensure that medications needed for the outbreak are available and not

        expired. They should ensure enough stock just in case an outbreak is likely.

       Finally, community health workers are needed to help keep the community educated and

        not panic; especially the communities that live in large slum populations. The MCGM has

        put out pamphlets regarding the Avian Flu, however, they are only in Hindi and Marathi,

        thus excluding a large part of the slum-dwelling populations and impoverished

        communities.

   Addressing issues during a time of disaster are never smooth, no matter how well planned out

   the process is. However, adequate planning and team preparation can help decrease the

   ―learning‖ that happens along the way. In other words, disaster management teams should be

   adequately prepared beforehand so that while some things may require thinking on the spot,

   other processes can go according to standard procedure.



7.12 Water supply and sanitation

To be added




7.13 Challenges from the Private Sector

       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                      http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
According to a World Bank Study, nearly 82 per cent of all health spending in India is private. 97

The increasing competition of the private sector of health care combined with a larger disposable

income of the middle class has resulted in loss of patients from the public to the private sector.

These patients cannot necessarily afford the exorbitant cost of the private health care facilities, but

are willing to go into debt or risk their financial security to seek care in the private sector. The

reputation of public health services, unfortunately have become so negative that those who can,

and even those who can‘t, will opt to seek care in a private facility. According to Dr. Sanjay

Nagral, ―this was not the case 20-25 years ago, because back then people did access the BMC

services‖. At that time, the private sector was also not as developed. This also helped keep the

system in check, as everyone from politicians to plumbers were accessing the system. Today the

average middle-class person or upper class person doesn‘t think to use the BMC‘s services. Even

the poor re-consider it at times. Even though there are segments of the private sector which are too

expensive for the average middle class to afford, they will still seek care there.



According to Lokshahi Hakk Sanghatana, a democratic rights organization, said in its report,

`Creeping Privatization in Public Hospitals in Mumbai — Private Profit, People's Loss'98, that

public hospitals come forward and administer care during times of social strife such as natural

calamities, riots and outbreak of diseases, while private hospitals do not. The report claims that the

MCGM is moving toward privatization at most of the municipal health facilities. According to the

report, privatization of health facilities has been taking place in many ways — hospitals, services

such as blood banks, dialysis centers and intensive coronary care units (ICCUs) have been handed

over to NGOs or private entrepreneurs. If there are no private funds available, the report says, and

then the expansion projects are generally unavailable.




97
     ―Are we ready for medical tourism?‖ The Hindu, Sunday April 17, 2005.
98
     ―NGO slams public health system in Mumbai‖, The Hindu Business Line, Wednesday, November 16, 2005.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                       http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
The MCGM collaborates with some private practitioners for tuberculosis treatment, but other

private practioners do not report having the same treatment regimen across the board for TB

treatment. These types of partnerships need more transparency and communication so the health

outcomes of the patient are not affected negatively. Further, out of approximately 40,000 hospital

beds in Mumbai, the MCGM holds about 10,000, which means that over 3/4ths of the beds are

under the jurisdiction of the private sector.



Newer complications are due to arise out of the latest trends in medical tourism. With foreigners

investing their dollars and pounds in private health care in India, the hospitals will make a lot of

money, no doubt, but again the poor will remain without quality or quantity in terms of available

services. According to a report in the Hindu magazine, ―Only seven years from now, the most

optimistic industry forecast posits, medical tourists hosted by India can pump Rs. 10,000 crores

into our economy. An estimated 1,50,000 such visitors a year already spend about Rs. 1,500 crores

in India for treatment.‖99 The major question everyone is asking is, what does this mean for the

impoverished citizens of Mumbai. Although private hospitals have obligations for their not-for-

profit status under the Public Trust Act to provide healthcare free to the extent of 20 per cent of

their resources, there is no accountability or follow-up for this provision. As a result, the poor

don‘t even see private care as an option, thus the frustration ends up coming out on the public

healthcare system.



7.14 Reporting and Data Collection

The Mumbai Health Profile is put out every year (approximately) in order to give an update of the

health programming and accomplishments. What is missing from the report is an analysis of the

numbers reported. It seems very haphazard that the numbers are just reported without any

indication of what could have led to an increase or decrease. For example, there are no


99
     ―Are we ready for medical tourism?‖ The Hindu, Sunday April 17, 2005.
         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
explanations for why the TB numbers have fluctuated so much over the years. One can assume

that the different policies that have been implemented may have contributed to it, but the report

itself does not make a connection between the interventions and the numbers. The reporting

process is a critical part of showing the successes and challenges of the MCGM.



Another aspect of the MCGM that needs to be revised is data collection. For example, the School

Health Program is a successful intervention, but the data is not centralized so that there can be

effective epidemiological monitoring of growth, malnutrition, rates of TB and other illnesses, and

follow up. In order to decrease the paper burden, it is important to establish a global information

system that allows staff to input data and allows universal access to it from all MCGM facilities. A

centralized, computerized data system could result in increased efficiency of the process. This

would in turn improve the reporting process as well.




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
8. Appendices
a. Patient Bill of Rights

Each place posting the Patient Bill of Rights needs to affirm the following statement.
 "We, the staff and the administration of {health facility} declare the following Bills of Rights for
the patients of this medical facility. As per the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, we
declare that staff and administration of {the health facility} have read and understood the
following rights of a patient and hereby agree to all the terms listed below. If you have any
questions or complaints, please contact {Name of accountable person at health facility} or {name
of accountable person at BMC}."

       To be treated with dignity irrespective of their caste, class, sex, religion, and disease
       To have a list of exact services available and corresponding fees (for supplies, bandages,
        etc)
       To have a visible map of the hospital (in Marathi, Hindi, English, and other languages)
       To have a list of emergency services such as blood banks and ambulatory services listed in
        Marathi, Hindi, English and other languages
       To know and understand the procedures involved
       To be given a reasonable time frame for the treatment and receive a proportional discount
        in fees for all services after the upper limit of approximation is over and treatment needs to
        be continued
       To have a comprehensive (various tests, blood work, x-rays, room tarrifs, operations,
        consulting fees, etc) costs associated with seeking medical care
       To receive prompt and courteous care
       To be informed about the documentation needed for treatment
       To have minimal documentation for emergency cases
       To receive Reproductive and Child Health Services free of cost at public health facilities
       To receive medications and vaccinations from the local public health post or dispensary
       To get medical services which are within the capability of the medical facility
       To obtain from the doctor complete information concerning the diagnosis, treatment, and
        prognosis in language the patient can understand.
       To receive necessary information from the doctor such as long-term effects, side effects
        etc., before giving any prior consent to a medical procedure and/or treatment
       To receive the records or a certified copy that gives the details of the disease, treatment,
        and follow-up necessary at the time of discharge
       To refuse the suggested treatment and be informed of the medical consequences thereof
       To receive medical care in well-equipped and sanitized conditions
       To receive quality care from competent medical professionals
       To select doctor‘s of one‘s choice when possible
       To obtain a second opinion
       To privacy during medical check-ups
       To be assured that all communication and records will be kept confidential
       To educational information about medical problems eg. via a library, IEC materials, etc.
       To receive a bill cum receipt after the payment is made
       To be enabled to pay hospital fees on a payment plan
       To have access to a non-hospital staff member appointed to address complaints as soon as
        possible
       To have the contact information of the responsible person (both at the hospital and head
        office) to register a complaint or give feedback
       To have adequate waiting space
       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                               documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
       To allow relatives to have flexible visiting hours

b. Patient Code of Conduct

Patients are also responsible for their personal and environmental well-being. The following code
of conduct emphasizes the responsibilities of a patient while seeking medical care.

As a patient:

       You should provide the doctor with accurate and complete information about his/her
        medical history, past illnesses, allergies, hospitalizations, and medications
       You should report the changes in your medical changes
       You should ask for clarity if the doctor‘s prescription and diagnosis seem unclear
       You should follow the doctor‘s treatment plan
       You should pay your medical bills promptly
       You should follow hospital rules and regulations
       You should have realistic expectations of what the doctor can do for you
       You should help your doctor help you, if something isn‘t working, be clear and the doctor
        can advise alternative care
       You should participate actively in your own medical care (in terms of awareness and
        preventions)
       You should ask the doctor questions to clarify any doubts or misconceptions in your mind
       You should treat the doctors with respect
       You should not ask doctors for false bills or certificates for any reason




       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
c. Probable Value of the Report

In this section, the author has outlined how the report can be of value to the different existing
bodies in the city of Mumbai. The report was not only created for the MCGM, but also for all the
other proponents of health care in Mumbai. The following section details to value to each
constituency:


   g. MCGM: This report should be seen as an objective analysis of the existing programming at
      the MCGM. In addition to giving suggestions, the report also highlights the various
      successes of the MCGM‘s health programming. It will be of value in several aspects:
          1. Assist lawmakers in allocating funds to priority areas
          2. Provide insight to those responsible for programming in terms of areas of
             improvement
          3. Increase the efficiency of the MCGM public health department
          4. Increase the reputation of the MCGM‘s health services in the city
          5. Prove as an impetus that demonstrates the MCGM‘s priority of the health of the
             people of Mumbai
          6. Intimate the top-level management as to the priority areas in various departments
          7. Apprise mid-level management of the awareness of the lack of resources
          8. Inform lower-level staff of the value of their work and increase worker morale

   h. NGOs: Non-Governmental Organizations working in Mumbai are working to provide
      health care to the same citizens that are also the responsibility of the MCGM. This report
      can help bring the two groups together to not replicate programming in high-need areas and
      pave the way for NGO-MCGM partnerships. NGO‘s can cite the information in the report
      as representative of the enormous need for improved health care systems in such a large
      and densely populated city.

   i. Donors: With Corporate Social Responsibility representing the progressive era of
      charitable giving, it is important for donors to also be aware of the issues that are effecting
      the communities that benefit from their time, money, and resources.

   j. Citizens: In a city like Mumbai, the average citizen doesn‘t think about health care unless it
      is a situation of urgency or crisis. This report will make citizens aware of the issues in
      health care that effect all those seeking care through the government health sector.

   k. Medical Students, Physicians, and Health Professionals: In light of the recent strike of the
      doctors in Mumbai, it is also important for policy makers to understand the perspectives of
      those working on the ground. This report helps shed light on the needs of physicians and
      avenues for improvement in their occupation.

   l. Media: The MCGM health department is often the recipient of negative publicity by the
      medial. The information in the report can offer some information as to the inner workings
      of the MCGM health department and what the media can do to support the improvement of
      these systems.

Overall, the report provides an in-depth analysis of the existing programs, challenges, and
successes of the MCGM health department. Looking at the history of health policy in India, it is
evident that there has been little emphasis on improving the health of local citizens in recent years.
The report attempts to create a common area for discussion and improvement of health systems

      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
within this city. With good basic infrastructure, there are many avenues that can be pursued if the
aforementioned parties join together to work on a healthy Mumbai.




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
d. Training Activity for the BMC

Organizing and Managing Urban Health Services:

   1.) Identify the guiding principles of the municipality- If they are not explicit, they should be
       drafted.
           a. Example: Is the guiding principle equity of access, ensuring a simple, basic
               minimum package of health care is accessible to all?
           b. Is collaboration between health and other sectors, such as education a guiding
               principle?

   2.) Purpose of the Municipality:
          a. Is it to provide appropriate and affordable primary health services for the entire city
              population?
          b. Or is it to provide for the poor, and to facilitate private service provision for higher
              income groups?

   3.) Assess the internal environment
          a. Are the resources available? (Staff, money, infrastructure)
          b. The current structure and stated function of the government services
          c. Various service tiers
          d. Needs careful delineating

   4.) Evaluate the External Environment
          a. Current national policy, with direct respect to direct provision of service compared
              with promoting and regulating the private sector
          b. Direction of decentralization
          c. National policy for health sector financing
          d. National norms setting service standards or configurations
          e. Level of flexibility within the BMC in interpreting these policies
   5.) Goals and Objectives
           a. Use these to formulate a strategic plan
           b. Broad objectives
           c. Operational objectives
Key areas to consider:
       a. Current decentralization policies altering government and administrative structures,
       b. The debate over government health service tiers
       c. Relationship between government and private sector
       d. Institutional development to improve managerial capacity in government health
           services

*Private sector notes:
       -The quality of care of private providers varies a lot from very high to very low.
       -In low income areas, care is often of low quality
       -Even if private providers are more polite, the quality of care is not necessarily better
       -Private providers are driven by market forces
       -Preventive measures are often neglected

*Governments have a definite responsibility to ensure a minimum quality of care to protect the
population from the adverse effects of healthcare:
       Healthcare is important because it relieves suffering
       Healthcare is dangerous, especially if inappropriate therapies are given.
     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
       Governments can consider voluntary accreditation of the private sector.

e. Integrating public health issues into the LACGs

With the recent success of the LACG‘s for the littering rules and other community issues, it is
important to use this resource to address issues of public health as well. The type of activism
coming from these groups can be well-utilized as a springboard for other community problems that
need the focus and energy of an organized constituency.

The following ideas can be incorporated:
   1.) Circulate a brief summary of the Public Health Policy Document
   2.) Each LACG can identify its area of priority and take up a particular issue in health (i.e.
       child health/school health, health of pregnant mothers etc)
   3.) This can be a yearly campaign for the LACGs to work with the local MCGM health
       centers/dispensaries
   4.) The Bill of Rights and Code of Conduct can be promoted through these groups as well

f. Apex Health Committee

Possible Members:

   1.) Dr. Ratna Magotra, Former Cardiac Surgeon at KRM
   2.) Dr. Janaki Desai, Niramaya Health Foundation
   3.) Ms. Dipika Banerjee, Program Director, AVSAR


Role of Committee:

The role of the committee will be focused on:
   a. Promoting the relevant recommendations in the report
   b. Being the voice for public health issues for the NGO Council
   c. Approving appendices and annexures for other health topics not yet covered in the report
       (mental health, sanitation & water issues, etc)
   d. Meeting once a month to monitor progress of the MCGM on proposed issues (i.e. new
       programming, follow up, recommendations etc.)




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
g. Author’s Note

Although the concept of public health dates back to ancient times, the practice is something
relatively new and upcoming in the world space. The idea of conducting an analysis of the health
care system in Mumbai was not only challenging, but a part of this growing awareness of public
health as a critical force in the medical/health world.

The challenges I encountered while writing this report taught me a lot about public health and its
applications in India, a nation with so much potential. Going through all the health policies of
India, identifying the key areas of importance, summarizing 200-400 page reports, meeting with
people that were either very willing to help or willing to make it harder and finally meeting the
patients who came the hospitals, health posts etc to seek medical care. The challenges greatly
outweighed the benefits of writing such a report.

The most important question we should ask at this point is: why wasn‘t a report like this written
years ago? Unfortunately, this seems to be a trend in global public health, with decreased funding
and low priority given to health systems and public health. All things are inter-connected here-
how 26 July 2005 effected health to the recent striking doctors- in terms of the long-term affect of
negligence on the importance of providing high quality medical care for the masses. I hope that
this report can add value to the hard work of NGOs, MCGM, and all the other groups involved in
bringing health care to the masses.

Overall, this project was of great value to me and I hope it serves as a springboard for those
wishing to promote the benefits of good public health systems in Mumbai and all over the world.

Thank you for entrusting me with such a task.

Meenakshi Verma
March 2006




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
Appendix 1
Questionnaires

                            Mumbai Public Health Policy Framework

                 Questionnaire for Utilization of Tertiary Health Care Services

Date:
1. Age

2. Location

3. Address

4. Occupation/Education


5. Why did you come here for your
medical services?


6. What stopped you from seeking
care close to your house?


7. How much did it cost you to come
here today?


8. If the services were closer to your
home, would you access them?
9. If you feel comfortable, can you
share your health problems with us?

10. What do you like about the care
here?



Comments or Concerns:

Data Number:_____      Entered:_________




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



                            Mumbai Public Health Policy Framework

                 Questionnaire for Utilization of Primary Health Care Services

Date:
1. Age

2. Location

3. Address

4. Occupation/Education


5. Why did you come here for your
medical services?


6. Do you ever seek care at a hospital,
why?


7. How much did it cost you to come
here today?


8. If you feel comfortable, can you
share your health problems with us?

9. What do you like about the care
here?

10. How long was your waiting time?

Comments or Concerns:




Data Number:_____      Entered:_________




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                              http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
         Appendix 2
         Health Post Survey Results- Vashi Naka Health Post, Chembur

    Age Sex      Location Occupation   Education   Q1              Q2                  Q3       Q5                 Q6
A   35   Female VNHP      housewife    none        cold, fever,    goes to Mah        Free      Medicine is good Waited for 1/2 hour
                                                   cough           hospital sometimes
B   12   Male    VNHP     Student      4th         TB              Only diagnosis      Free     Everything is      No wait time
                                                                   was there                    good
C   18   Female VNHP      Student      11th        fever, cough    No                  Free     Medicine and       Waited for 1 hour
                                       comm                                                     check up is good


D   55   Male    VNHP     Business     10th        4 year old      Went to shetabdi    Free     Gave medicine      Waited for 1/2 hour
                                                   child has TB    hospital and felt            but waiting to see
                                                                   kicked around                if it works
                                                                   feels he doesn't
                                                                   know what is
                                                                   going on
                                                                   medically with the
                                                                   child and no one is
                                                                   giving him a
                                                                   straight answer
E   20   Female VNHP      Makes        5th         Boil on neck    No                  Free     Medicine is good Waited for 1/2 hour
                          ganpati
                          statues

F   17   Female VNHP      None         10th        TB              no                  Free     Medicine is good Waited for 1 hour

G   25   Female VNHP      None         12th        fever, cough    Goes to private   Rs. 10     Medicine is good Waited for 1 hour
                                                                   doctors sometimes
H   17   Female VNHP      None         7th         vomiting,       no                  Free     Medicine is good Waited for 1 hour
                                                   diarreah                                     and it works


I   27   Female VNHP      None         10th        children have comes to              Free     Doctor is good,    Waited for 1/2 hour
                                                   fever         dispensary first,              medicine is
                                                                 then to hospital               perfect

J   29   Male    VNHP     None         5th         TB              no                  Free     Medicine makes     No wait time
                                                                                                a difference
K   55   Male    VNHP     None         none        TB              Goes to Shetabdi    Free     Facility is good   No wait time
                                                                   sometimes
L   35   Male   VNHP      Plumber      6th         TB              No                  Free     Doesn't know       No wait time
M   26   Female VNHP      None         6th         stomach         No                  Free     Everyone here is   waited for 2 hours
                                                   illness and                                  good
                                                   fever of
                                                   children
N   22   Female VNHP      None         none        Fever, cough,   Private providers   Rs. 20   Its ok             No wait time
                                                   cold
O   64   Male    VNHP     None         5th         TB              Somaiya             Free     Good because he No wait time
                                                                                                gets his
                                                                                                medications on
                                                                                                time

P   18   Male    VNHP     None         none        TB              No                  Free     Doesn't know       No wait time
Q   26   Female VNHP      None         5th         Children are    Rajawadi Hospital Free       1st time here, if it No wait time
                                                   not well                                     works, she will
                                                                                                come back

R   7    Female VNHP      None         none        Girl has a      Went to Sion        Free     Care is better     No wait time
                                                   huge boil       Hospital and they
                                                                   told him to come
                                                                   here
S   15   Female VNHP      None         10th        TB              No                  Free     Medicine is good No wait time


                Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                                  documents .
                                                 http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
   T
           Appendix 3
           KEM General Out Patient Department Survey Results

Age Sex     Address     Occupation   Education Q1                    Q2                 Q3    Q4           Q5          Q6
                                               No cure despite
                                               repeated                                                    Fever,      Good Doctors, and good
N/A Female Wadala       Housewife    N/A       medicines             No relief            20 No            Backache    facilities for patients
                                                                                                           Fever, no
                                                                     Not improved                          access to   Believes KEM cures Malaria
                                               Referred by a         despite                               clean       better than other centers, good
N/A Male    Wadala      Carpentar    9th       private doctor        treatment            30 No            water       investigation services
                                               Patient had
                                               already taken
                                               treatement from                                             Cough,
                                               a BMC health          Not improved                          vomiting,
                                               post but was not      despite                               fever and   Good doctors and lots of good
 13 Female Worli        N/A          7th       cured.                treatment            16 Yes           chills      facilities are available
                                               Went to Goyal
                                               hospital, didn't
                                               make a
                                               difference,
                                               although it was a
                                               private hospital,     No health
                                               it didn't make a      facilities close
                                               difference, also      to home (that                         Chest
           Ullhasnag                           the doctor spoke      she was aware                         pain,
 30 Female ar        Housewife       5th       rudely                of)                  50 Yes           fainting    Doctors spoke to her nicely
                                               local doctor          Did not know if
            Sakinaka,                          advised him to        there are BMC
            Andheri     Embroidery             go to the big         facilities close                                  Doctors, and he doesn't know
N/A Male    (E)         Worker       N/A       hospital              to his home          30 Yes           N/A         about the investigation facilities
                                                                     Services not
                                                                     good at health
                                               Went to Nayyar        post, the
                                               hospital, but that    problem was                                     She came here from other people
                                               was not helping,      more severe                                     telling her it was good, Nayyar
           Grant                               so she came to        than they could                       Migrane   was good but the medicine was
 24 Female Road         Not workin   6th       KEM                   handle               20 Yes           headaches not working
                                                                                             Indira
                                                                                             Gandhi
                                                                                             hospital is
                                                                                             there, but
                                                                                             the
                                               Company friend        Doesn't know            facilities
            New         Shipping               said to come to       any other               are not so                Everything is good here. Good
 32 Male    Mumbai      Company      12th      KEM                   facilities           70 good          Hernia      people and doctors
                                                                     No health posts
                                                                     near his home
                        Factory                He had a fever        (that he was                         Fever,       Doctors treated him well, his
 46 Male    Parel       Worker       N/A       and a cold            aware of)             0 No           cold         mother also comes here
                                                                                             Yes, there
                                                                                             are not
                                                                                             many
                                                                                             services in
                                                                                             the village.
                                               In the village, his                           Even if                   Treatment is done well, and they
                                               BP went up and        Not many                someone                   take time and do good. In the
                                               he had to come        health services         gets sick,                village, they give an injection,
                                               to KEM for            in the village          they have                 and it doesn't work well. It is
            Rajapur                            further tests.        (475 km from            to travel 95              good. Its not easy to handle that
 36 Male    (Village)   Driver       10th      Jijaji sent him.      Mumbai)             256 km           BP           many people.




                    Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                                      documents .
                                             http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
                                                                                         Yes, left
                                                                                         home at                     If you come 1-2 times you get
                                                                                         7am,                        better relief. The procedure has
                                            Tried at 2-3       No public care            nothing                     become a little complicated, it
                                            private hospitals, (that she is              close to her                used to be better when people
30 Female Bhayendar Saleswoman 12th         nothing helped     aware of)            20   house          Acidity      were prioritized based on illness
                                                                                         Yes. There
                                                                                         is a doctor
                                                               Municipality              at the
                                                               hospital is               municipal
                                                               there, but they           hospital,
                                                               don't give                but he
                       Housecleani                             enough                    hardly         Lymph        Treatment is effective and
40 Female Andheri      ng            7th    Dizziness          attention            50   comes          nodes        doctors are good
                                                                                         Yes, all the
                                                               Feels Sion and            current        Dizziness,
          Matunga      Works for a                             KEM are the               ones are       frozen     Doctors are good and money is
50 Female Road         company       11th   Dizziness          same.                 8   private        shoulder   saved
                                                                                         Primary
                                                                                         health
                                                                                         center is
           Lower       Bus                                     This is closest           just for       Lump in
45 Male    Parel       conductor     10th   Lump in finger     to his house          0   basic care     finger       Doctors are good
                                                                                                        General
                                            Lives in the                                                pains in
                                            village, but came                                           knee, hip,   Everyone talks well and I like the
59 Female Bhandup      Not workin    7th    here for care     N/A                    0 No               and chest    hospital
                                                              Came from the                             Shoulder
                                            Shoulder pain     village, so                               pain and
                                            and stomach       doesn't know                                   Doctors and facilities are good.
                                                                                                        stomach
60 Male    Parel       Not working 10th     problems          about PHC            400 No                    Those who leave here, leave well
                                                                                                        problems
                                                              There are                Services
                                                              municipal                currently
                                                              hospitals, but           are good,
                                                              no doctor                but doctors
                                                              facilities but not       are not     Headache,
29 Male    Sewri       Driver        8th    Headache          gone there            10 available   dizziness Treatment is good
                                                              There is a clinic
                                                              on Saini Road,
                                                              but only goes                                          Doctors are good, cleanliness,
          Elephistin                                          there for                                              and care is good. Other hospitals
30 Female e          Not working 7th        Backache          immunizations          0 No               Backache     Nayyar and Sion are not clean
                                                                                       Doctors are
                                                                                       better here,
                                                               There are               rupees are
                                            Health is not      (Facilities) but        complete         Cough and
35 Female Worli        Not working 10th     good               small. Its ok.       10 here             Pnemonia Full treatment is good
                                                                                       Yes I
                                                                                       would.
                                            There is a KEM    went to the              There is an      Baby has
                                            branch in Malad, PHC in Borivali           ease to the      a           Doctors are good, except
                                            but medicine is  but there were            services         respiratory sometimes the care is
48 Male    Malad       Tailor        5th    not available,   problems              100 here             infection compromised




                   Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                                     documents .
                                       http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
II. Best Practices

Utilizing best practices from other cities with similar challenges in terms of healthcare can

improve the health outcomes of the city of Mumbai. The following section further analyzes several

of these best practice models.



a) Participatory Budgeting in Porto Alegre, Brazil100

Until the beginning of the 1980s, Porto Alegre experienced accelerated population growth, which

left one third of its population with only marginal access to urban infrastructure. In 1989 a large

proportion of the population lived in non-legalized areas, in shacks without drinkable water,

sewerage systems or paved streets. Local government decided on all municipal investments,

without any consultation of residents. However, the city's income, which was based on taxes

collected, was not adequate to finance even a minimum of public works needed to sustain

development.



Participatory budgeting was introduced as part of the political platform of the Labour Party in 1989

to involve the residents in setting priorities for public works; ensure a more equitable distribution

of municipal investment; promote transparency in municipal activities and reduce opportunities for

corruption; and increase popular participation in municipal government. Following its introduction

the program gained strength as the public gained more experience in decision making and as tax

reforms strengthened municipal finances.



The program has developed into an international model of participatory government. The general

rule that applies is that there is a direct connection between the spending in the local

neighborhoods and what motivates people to attend meetings. If you don‘t attend a meeting for

your district, chances are that your road light won‘t be working. Since participatory budgeting

100
      Case Study 2 - Porto Alegre, Brazil: Participatory Approaches in Budgeting and Public Expenditure Management

         Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                           documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
began in Porto Alegre in 1991, over $700 million has been invested in basic urban infrastructure,

including water supply, sanitation, road improvements and public lighting. An opinion survey at

the end of 1997 showed that 85 percent of city residents either had been active in the budgeting

process or considered the investments to be highly relevant to their circumstances.



In 1990, when the program started, people thought it wouldn‘t work, so only 1000 people

participated. In 1999, over 40,000 people were participating. The concept is simple, Porto Alegre

is divided into 16 districts for purposes of the budget. A council is created in each district as a

space for citizens to meet and discuss spending priorities. Meetings are open to anyone who would

like to attend. Citizens set two priorities: district and citywide spending. District spending focuses

on specific public works projects in the neighborhood, such as paving streets or improving sewer

systems. Citizens identify three priorities, with funds allocated based on population size and need.

Need-based allocation of funds means that poorer neighborhoods receive more money than

wealthy ones.



World Bank study found substantial quality-of-life improvements in Porto Alegre:

       Between 1989 and 1996, the percentage of the population with access to water services

        rose from 80% to 98%.

       Those served by the municipal sewage system increased from 46% to 85%.

       The number of children enrolled in public schools doubled.

       In poorer neighborhoods, 30 kilometers of roads were paved annually.

       Tax revenue increased by nearly 50 percent, a fact the World Bank attributes to

        ―transparency affecting motivation to pay taxes.‖

The MCGM is plagued with issues of transparency and disclosure regarding how decisions are

made in the domain of health. It may be worthwhile to explore small levels of participatory

budgeting and see how that might be of value to the citizens that utilize the public health sector.

       Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                         documents .
                                  http://www.wordwendang.com/en/



b) Cambodia’s Non Profit Path to Health Care

Cambodia‘s public health care system was plagued with some of the same issues that limit the

potential of the MCGM Public Health Department. Large scale absenteeism, vacancies, and

corruption caused massive under-utilization of the public health care system. However, the

government decided to take a low-cost approach to improving health care for the poor by

contracting international or local non profits to run the health centers and hospitals at a fraction of

the cost. The approach is catching on in a growing number of poor countries around the world,

from Bangladesh and Afghanistan to Congo and Rwanda, to Bolivia and Guatemala, reaching tens

of millions of people.



These contracted services have allowed international donors and concerned governments to cut

through dysfunctional bureaucracies - or work around them, and to improve health care and

efficiency at modest cost. In Cambodia, the nonprofit groups - all of them international - are

instilling discipline and clarity of purpose in a health care system enfeebled by corruption,

absenteeism and decades of war and upheaval. They have introduced incentives to draw

Cambodia's own doctors and nurses back into the system. Patients, especially the poorest ones,

have followed in droves. The international NGOs are paid based on performance, based on their

ability to achieve immunization targets, decrease Infant Mortality Rates, and make sure women are

getting prenatal care and following up with institutional deliveries.


Although Mumbai does not seem to be at the same level as Cambodia at this time, there can be

potential benefits to having foreign NGOs setting up and running operations to improve efficiency

and subsequently transitioning to a local team.




      Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                        documents .
                                         http://www.wordwendang.com/en/
c) Subsidized Health Care in the Philippines101


The Makati Health Program (MHP) was designed to provide residents of the city of Makati in the

Philippines earning monthly incomes less than US$156 access to quality health care. However,

when the program was evaluated in 1986, they found that people in that income bracket were

unable to afford the health care provided by the MHP. The local government of Makati partnered

with the private sector partner, Makati Medical Center and two NGOs.


The program has afforded beneficiaries access to services such as major surgeries in one of the

best private hospitals in the Philippines. In 2000, over 50,000 cardholders were treated at the

Makati Medical Center, with bills totaling US$ 3.3 million. Under the terms of the expenses

sharing scheme, the city government of Makati shouldered US$1.9 million while Makati Medical

Center contributed US$1.4 million.


Together with the local government's initiatives in preventive health care, the Makati Health

Program has contributed to declines in the mortality rate and improvements in morbidity rates

across all ages. Makati is one of the few cities in the Philippines that provide subsidized quality

health care to its constituents.


The idea of health subsidies can be a good idea for the MCGM Public Health System. Utilizing the

networks of private hospitals in the city, there can be value added if both the government and the

private sector actively participate in improving health care for all.


All the different initiatives mentioned above are merely suggestions for improving aspects of the

MCGM health systems. Clearly, the process of implementing different strategies is going to be a

challenge, but the use of best practices from other institutions should be a good starting point for

those positive about changing the system.


101
      http://www.bestpractices.org/bpbriefs/social_services.html

          Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                            documents .
                             http://www.wordwendang.com/en/




Works Cited


  1.) Understanding our Civic Issues, The Bombay Community Public Trust, Health Services in
      Mumbai, 2004.

  2.) Public Private Partnerships for Improving Health of Children in Urban Slums,
      Dr. Siddharth Agarwal, Urban Health Resource Center, 2005.

  3.) ―Unmet needs for Public Health Care Services in Mumbai, India‖, T.R. Dilip and
      R. Duggal, Asia-Pacific Population Journal, 2004.

  4.) ―Mumbai‘s Invisible People‖, The Hindu, November 2005.

  5.) ―Maternal Care in India Reveals Gaps Between Urban and Rural, Rich and Poor‖,
      Population Reference Bureau, July 2003.

  6.) ―The USAID/India Urban Health Program: An evaluation of activities to date and
      recommendations for the future‖, October 2005.

  7.) World Health Organization South-East Asia Regional Office, Vol. 3 Issue 2, September
      2003

  8.) Health Concerns and Organizing Health Care Delivery to Urban Slums, Dr. Siddharth
      Agarwal, Urban Health Resource Center, 2005.

  9.) Health Delivery and Health Wants In Mumbai Slums, India, Centre for Water Policy and
      Development, University of Leeds, Date Unvailable.

  10.) Country Health Profile- India, World Health Organization, 2002.

  11.) National Family Health Survey, Maharasthra, March 2000.

  12.) Report of the National Commission on Macroeconomics and health, Government of India,
      2005.

  13.) US AID Health Report, 2002.

  14.) Personal Interviews with Dr. Sanjay Nagral, Dr. Khandare, Dr. Ambe, Dr. Thanekar, Dr.
      Usha Ubale, Dr. Janaki Desai, Dr. Armida Fernandez, Ms. Leena Joshi, Mr. Ravi Duggal,
      Dr. Ratna Magotra

  15.) National Health Policy 2002 & 1983

  16.) Moving Toward the Right to Health Care, CEHAT, 2005/

  17.) BMC Health Profiles 1997-2004.

  18.) National Health Policy 2002.
    Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                      documents .
                                http://www.wordwendang.com/en/


  19.) http://phm-india.org/pdf/hungerwatch/draft_guidelines_starvation.pdf

  20.) http://www.maharashtra.gov.in/english/ecoSurvey/ecoSurvey1/economySurveyShow.php

  21.) www.blonnet.com/2005/11/16/stories/2005111601821300.htm

  22.) www.hindu.com/2006/01/01/stories/2006010104671200.htm

  23.) www.hindu.com/thehindu/mag/2005/04/17/stories/2005041700060100.htm

  24.) www.worldbank.org/

  25.) www.earthinstitute.columbia.edu/images/TheLancet_slum_dwellers.pdf

  26.) www.hindu.com/2005/11/03/stories/2005110304381100.htm

  27.) www.mezomorf.com/health/news-19949.html

  28.) www.indianpediatrics.net/feb2004/137.pdf

  29.) Urban Health Resource Center: http://www.uhrc.in/

  30.) WHO Newsletter: http://w3.whosea.org/extrelations/pdf/vol3-2/RD%20mess.pdf

  31.) www.swissre.com/INTERNET/pwswpspr.nsf/alldocbyidkeylu/BMER-
      5GBLEN?OpenDocument

  32.) www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mumbai




This word document was downloaded from the website: http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, please remain this
                         link information when you reproduce , copy, or use it.
                <a href='http://www.wordwendang.com/en'>word documents</a>




     Please go to http://www.wordwendang.com/en/, where you can download million word
                                       documents .

								
To top