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					Using Sources
Properly
Intro to Citations and
Bibliographies
Step One:
Evaluating
Sources
    Questioning Sources
• Not all sources are equally reliable.
  Especially since the advent of the
  internet, we are surrounded by
  sources of dubious credibility.
• Before using information from a
  source, consider these three criteria:
    o Authority
    o Accuracy    and Verifiability
    o Currency
    Authority
• Authority: the extent to which the source
  knows what it’s talking about.
• Most books on scholarly topics have
  inherent credibility because of the rigors of
  the publishing process.
• Many periodicals (magazines, newspapers,
  etc.) are credible, but not all. “Peer
  reviewed” periodicals are your best bet.
• Internet sources are the most dangerous,
  because there are no standard publishing
  guidelines or restrictions (think Wikipedia).
    Authority
•   Consider the following when evaluating a source’s
    authority.
    o Author: Who created and edited the source, and
      what are their qualifications? What are their
      academic and/or professional credentials?
    o Publisher or Sponsoring Organization: Knowing
      this information can clue you in to the source’s level
      of authority on a subject and also to the potential
      biases or assumptions of a source (is your article
      on ANWR published by PETA? The EPA? An oil
      company? A university geology dept.?). On a
      website, look for info about the publisher or
      sponsor.
    Domain Names
•   The domain classification of a
    website provides valuable information
    about a source’s authority:

•   (.com) Commercial Enterprise
•   (.edu) Educational Institution
•   (.gov) Government Agency
•   (.org) a Not-for-Profit Organization
Accuracy and Verifiability
•   How accurate is the information in the
    source?
    o Check against your current knowledge.
    o Check against your other sources.

•   Can you verify the source’s information?
    o Are there references to the source’s
      sources?
    o On a website, are there hyperlinks that
      guide you through these references?
Currency
New information and new theories are constantly emerging
in every field of study, and if you're not careful in the
selection of your sources, you may be referencing
information that is out of date. Here are a few things to
consider to make sure your research is as current as
possible.
 • Consider your subject. How old can your sources be
   before they are too old?
 • For a print source, consult the publication date to judge
   currency.
 • For an online source, look for dates that mark the most
   recent updates.
 • Peruse the Works Cited lists of your source, and judge
   how current were the source's sources.
Works Cited Page
Works Cited Page Formatting
•   Each source you reference in a paper must be
    recorded on a Works Cited page immediately
    following your essay.

•   The Works Cited page is part of your essay--it
    should be spaced, margin-ed, numbered and font-
    ed as though it were just another page of your
    essay (though it should be a page unto itself).

•   See the handout for formatting guidelines.
Bibliographic Style in MLA
Each different type of source has a unique style for presenting its most
important information.

For a book by a single author:

1. Name of the author, editor, compiler, or translator as it appears on
the title page (Lastname, Firstname).
2. Title of the work (italicized)
3. City of publication, name of the publisher, and year of publication.
4. Medium of publication consulted (Print, web, etc.)

Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. New York:
   Penguin, 1987. Print.
Bibliographic Style in MLA
Each different type of source has a unique style for presenting its most
important information.

For a piece in an anthology or collection:

1. Author, title ("quotes," if published originally as a piece in a collection;
italics if originally published independently) and (if relevant), translator.
2. Editor (Ed.), translator (Trans.), or compiler (Comp.) of the collection.
3. City of publication, name of the publisher, and year of publication.
4. Page numbers of the cited piece.
5. Medium of publication consulted (Print, web, etc.)

Swanson, Gunnar. "Graphic Design Education as a Liberal Art:
  Design and Knowledge in the University and The 'Real World.'"
  The Education of a Graphic Designer. Ed. Steven Heller. New
  York: Allworth Press, 1998. 13-24. Print.
Bibliographic Style in MLA
Each different type of source has a unique style for presenting its most
important information.

For an article in a reference book:

1. Author, title ("quotes," if published originally as a piece in a collection;
italics if originally published independently) and (if relevant), translator.
2. Editor (Ed.), translator (Trans.), or compiler (Comp.) of the collection.
3. City of publication, name of the publisher, and year of publication.
4. Page numbers of the cited piece.
5. Medium of publication consulted (Print, web, etc.)

More, Hannah. "The Black Slave Trade: A Poem." British
   Women Poets of the Romantic Era. Ed. Paula R.
   Feldman. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997. 472-82.
   Print.
Bibliographic Style in MLA
Each different type of source has a unique style for presenting its most
important information.

For websites (generally):

1. Author and/or editor names (if available)
2. "Article Name" if applicable
3. Title of the website
4. Any version numbers available, including revisions, posting dates,
volumes, or issue numbers.
5. Publisher information, including the publisher name (n.p. if no publisher)
and publishing date (n.d. if no date).
6. Medium of publication (Web).
7. Date you accessed the material.
8. URL (if required, or for your own personal reference).

"How to Make Vegetarian Chili." eHow.com. eHow, n.d. Web. 24 Feb.
2009.
Bibliographic Style in MLA
Each different type of source has a unique style for
presenting its most important information.


Remember, these are only four of the dozens of
formatting options for your Works Cited
page. You will never memorize them all, so it is
imperative that you learn to follow the templates
found in handbooks or on websites like this
one: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/
In-Text Citations

 (a.k.a Parenthetical Citations)
What is in-text citation?
• In addition to using a Works Cited page
  to keep track of the information you use
  in your paper, you must also indicate in
  the paper itself exactly which source the
  information comes from and where it is
  located within that source.
• The citations are formatted in such a
  way as to directly reference an entry on
  your works cited page.
When do I have to cite?
You must include a citation every time you use information
from a source in any way, including:

•   Summary
•   Paraphrasing
•   Direct Quotation
•   Any other usage (use your common sense)

Although direct quotation is an indispensable part of
legitimizing your paper, you must balance it with the other
methods of incorporating information from a source.
Citation Style
A citation is placed in a parenthesis at the end of the phrase,
clause, or sentence that contains the info from your source.

In the citation, you list the first word(s) from the Works Cited
entry (usually an author's last name(s)), then a single space,
then the location (usually a page number.

Medieval Europe was a place of both "raids, pillages,
slavery, and extortion" and of "traveling merchants, monetary
exchange, towns if not cities, and active markets in grain"
(Townsend 10).

(Note the placement of the punctuation)
Citation Style
If you mention the name of the source in the
sentence, do not include it in the citation--merely
state the location in parenthesis.

               Author's Name in Text

Tannen has argued this point (178-85).

             Author's Name in Citation

This point has already been argued (Tannen 178-85).
Citation Style
If you mention the name of the source in the sentence, do not include it
in the citation--merely state the location in parenthesis.

                         Author's Name in Text

It may be true, as Robertson maintains, that "in the appreciation of
medieval art the attitude of the observer is of primary importance"
(136).

                       Author's Name in Citation

It may be true that "in the appreciation of medieval art the attitude of the
observer is of primary importance" (Robertson 136).
Managing Quotations
Quotations
• Quotations are perhaps the most
  important form of evidence in literary
  analysis, because they connect the
  reader directly to your source.
• There are two main types of quotations,
  though they do overlap:

    o Complete quotations
    o Imbedded quotations
Complete Quotations
•   A complete quotation gives an entire
    quotation uninterrupted, with only a
    speaker tag attached:

    o WilliamShakespeare once said, “All the
     world’s a stage, and all the men and women
     merely players” (qtd. in Johnson 348).
    o Romeo  tells Juliet, “Oh, speak again, bright
     angel!” (II ii 26).
Imbedded Quotations
•   An imbedded quotation is a word,
    phrase, or clause inserted into an
    existing sentence with quotation marks.

    o According  to Shakespeare, human life is
     similar to a play, acted out on a “stage,”
     with all of humanity “merely players.”

    o Romeo  calls Juliet a “bright angel” and asks
     her to speak again. (I i 47-51).
Homework
Step 1: Using any authoritative, accurate, and current
source at your disposal, find three interesting
autobiographical facts about William Shakespeare or
Romeo and Juliet, consulting at least two different sources.

Step 2: Create a Works Cited entry for each of your
sources, taking care to use the correct format.

Step 3: Write out one of your facts as a paraphrase, one as
a complete quotation, and one as an imbedded quotation.

(Note: you should type the assignment, with the properly
formatted Works Cited page at the top and your properly
cited facts below.)

				
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posted:9/20/2011
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