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									NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION – DIVYA OVERSEAS PUNCTUATIONS PUNCTUATION MARKS A full stop or period ( . ) is used: ¨ to mark the end of a sentence. Example: There are two sides to every question. ¨ to show the shortened form of a word Example: exam ¨ at the end of an abbreviation. Example: Dr. Comma ( , ) is used: ¨ to separate words in a list. Example: We saw monkeys, lions and tigers in the zoo. ¨ to show a pause in a sentence or reading. Example: Yesterday, as I was jogging, I saw a big snake. ¨ before inverted commas of actual words spoken. Example: He told us, “The world is round.” ¨ to separate the name of the person spoken to. Example: “John, let’s start work straightaway.” ¨ to separate parts of an address. Example: 99, Downing Street, Kingston. ¨ to separate relative clause from the rest of the sentence. Example: The man, who lives next door, is a doctor. Question Mark ( ? ) is used at the end of a sentence to show a question. Example: “When will the train arrive?” Exclamation Mark ( ! ) is used at the end of a sentence to show surprise, excited, or angry. Example: We won! Quiet! Colon ( : ) is used to introduce an example, quotation, etc. Example: This box contains the following items: bandages,plasters, lotion, medicines and a pair of scissors. Semicolon ( ; ) is used to join two sentences or two complete parts of a sentence which are closely connected in meaning. Example: He gives up smoking; obviously, he fears smoking-related disease may strike him. Apostrophe ( ‘ ) is used: ¨ to show that numbers or letters have been left out. Example: ’86 (=1986); don’t (=do not).


NEW ZEALAND INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION – DIVYA OVERSEAS PUNCTUATIONS ¨ to show that something belongs to someone or something. Example: John’s mother; Charles’ book ¨ to the plural of letters and numbers. Example: Your c’s / 5’s are too big. Hyphen ( - ) is used to join two words or more to form compound words. Example: good-looking, pro-American, forty-one, mother-in-law. Quotation Marks ( “ “ ) are used: ¨ to show the beginning and end of reported speech. Example: “Turn on the light” she said to me. ¨ to show a quoted word, phrase or title. Example: “War and Peace” is a novel by Leo Tolstoy.


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