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					        The Lean Enterprise
Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance



Lean Foundations
Continuous Improvement Training
Learning Objectives

    Learn the basic philosophy of TPM

    Explain OEE and how it contributes to a TPM
     project, explore OEE components; define and
     calculate OEE

    List 6 major components of equipment loss

    Review and adopt the 7 steps to Autonomous
     Maintenance



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TPM – The Need

    Process Industry relies heavily on equipment
     that is integrated and runs continuously

    When down, losses are costly

    With lower inventories, machines need to be
     reliable

    Machining and Assembly industries becoming
     more mechanized to save manpower and do
     difficult jobs
      – More machines to maintain
      – Need to save energy

                          freeleansite.com
TPM – The Philosophy
     TPM aims at using equipment to its maximum
      and aids in reducing Life Cycle Costs (LCC)
      In other words - going all out to eliminate the
      Losses (Waste) caused by the equipment

     TPM improves work activities that deal with
      Equipment Set-up, Operating parameters,
      Maintenance, Tear down, Repairs and
      Breakdowns

     It specifically aims at the complete elimination
      of the „six major losses‟ while striving for a
      goal of zero unscheduled downtime


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TPM - The Six Major Losses (Waste)

   Downtime Losses
    – (1) Equipment failures
    – (2) Set-up and adjustments

   Speed Losses
    – (3) Idling and minor stoppages
    – (4) Reduced speed (actual operating
          vs. designed)
   Defect Losses
    – (5) Defects in process
    – (6) Reduced yield between start of
          production and stable production
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OEE Formulas
   Loss                Measure                      Formula                Metric
1. Unexpected          Availability              Load – Down Time x 100%
Eq. Breakdown
                                           =
                                                    Load Time
2. Set-up &
adjustments
                   ]     example:                 460 min – 60 min           = 87%
                                                          460
                                                  The Theoretical Cycle
3. Idling and           Efficiency
minor stoppages
                                           =      Time x Processed Qty
                                                                          x 100%

4. Reduced
speed
                   ]     example:
                                                      Operating Time
                                                  0.5/ unit x 400 units      = 50%
                                                      400 minutes


5. Defects in          Ratio of Quality          Processed Amount –
Process
6. Reduced Yield
                   ]   Products            =
                                                 Amount of Defects
                                                 Processed Amount
                                                                          x 100%


                                                       400 – 8               = 98%
                          example:
                                                          400
Overall Equip.
                               .87 x .50 xfreeleansite.com 46.2 %
                                            .98 =
Effectiveness:
OEE Pareto Analysis by Loss Category
 Overall
 Equipment
 Effectiveness


                         Loss
                         1&2


                                     Loss
                                     3&4    Loss
                                            5&6

                                                   46.2 % OEE




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TPM attacks 6 major “Losses” plus
Elimination of other Wastes (Mura, Muri, Muda)
   Operator Time Losses
    – Manpower losses due to operation time being
      done more slowly than standard time (Cycle
      Time > Standard Time)

   Material Losses
    – Losses in yield due to „inherent waste‟ (cut-off
      stock, set-up pieces, prototype, etc)
    – Energy losses such as electricity, gas, and
      water when machinery is not doing value-
      added work
    – Idling losses due to inadequate sensors and
      product buildup on conveyors and chutes
                         freeleansite.com
Best Practices
World-Class Goals (A TPM “Vision”)


                                       Before          After
Availability                                   87%     > 90%
Performance Efficiency                         50%     > 95%
Ratio of Quality (Yield)                       98%     > 99%
Overall Eq. Effectiveness                      42.6%   > 85%




                            freeleansite.com
TPM – Operational Goals (Qualitative)

     Increase number of suggestions
     Improve level of teamwork of shop floor
     Improve cross-functional teamwork
     Establish maintenance throughout the total
      equipment life cycle
     People maintain their own equipment
     Machines available for just-in-time (JIT)
      application
     Improve machine availability
     Improve working environment (6S)
     Improve Corporate culture and image
     Improve Business performance
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TPM – Operational Goals (Quantitative)

     Cost Reductions
       – Actual and to be reduced
       – Energy savings
       – Maintenance

     Equipment Efficiencies
       – Zero failures (ultimate goal)
       – MTBF (mean time between failures)
       – MTTR (mean time between repairs)
       – Idle Time


                          freeleansite.com
TPM – Operational Goals, cont.
(Quantitative)
     Safety
       – Zero accidents


     Quality
       – Zero failures
       – Zero complaints


     Education
       – Hours of training/ number of sessions
       – Number of KAIZEN projects
       – Number of Suggestions

                               freeleansite.com
TPM – Definition of „Total‟

     Total Effectiveness
       – Reduction in losses of all equipment to optimize its
         effectiveness and improve costs
     Total Maintenance
       – Involves the whole maintenance system inclusive of
         equipment manufacturer, equipment engineering, and
         equipment user to improve maintainability
     Total Participation
       –   Everyone has a role to make TPM work
       –   Management to set policy
       –   Middle management, staff to support and lead
       –   Maintenance to maintain and train
       –   Operators to take on new maintenance challenges

                                freeleansite.com
TPM – Role of Maintenance Function

    Provides technical support for autonomous
     maintenance done by operators

    Restores deteriorated equipment through checks,
     inspections, and overhauls

    Identifies Design weaknesses and improves the
     equipment to error-free function (via poka-yoke)

    Improves technical maintenance skills for checks,
     inspections, and overhauls


                           freeleansite.com
TPM – Role of Operator Function

    Maintains basic condition (cleaning and lubrication)

    Maintains proper condition and standards for
     equipment usage

    Partially restores deterioration

    Basic skill levels in:
      – Changeover and set-up
      – Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments

                            freeleansite.com
TPM – Autonomous Maintenance

 Definition:

  Operations maintains its own equipment

  Utilize 7-step plan*
   (*Source: Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance)




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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

 Step 1 – Initial clean-up (External)

    “Kick-off” program
    Closely aligned with 6S (5S + 1)
    Management and Staff show commitment
    Clean, Sand and Paint
    Identify sources of defects:
     – Gauge hidden
     – Limit switch buried in debris
     – Crack in Housing



                             freeleansite.com
7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 2 – Stop sources of defects (External)

     •   Ask „why ?‟ five times
     •   Replace parts with cracks
     •   Replace worn seals
     •   Teach Operators how to modify equipment
     •   Conduct Set-up Workshops; Practice Set-ups
     •   Modify Equipment for easier checking and to
         eliminate sources for debris and
         contamination
         – Guards
         – Chip removal
         – Acrylic covers to see V - belts and moving parts

                              freeleansite.com
7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

 Step 3 – Standards Formulation

    Standards for clean-up and checking
      –   What equipment should be cleaned and checked?
      –   What points should be checked?
      –   Who should check?
      –   What check sheet should be used?
      –   How to react to changes.


    Standards are to capture what has been learned
     in steps 1 and 2


                              freeleansite.com
7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
 Step 4 – Overall Checkup (Internal)

    Leaders (1st line Supervisors) trained
      –   Hydraulics
      –   Air Pressure
      –   Electrical/ Electronics
      –   Lubrication
      –   Mechanical

    One point lessons developed (Visual Management)
    Team up Engineers, Maintenance, and Operators
      – Tear down equipment
      – Analyze defects
      – Present findings
                                    freeleansite.com
7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

 Step 5 – Autonomous Checkup

    Develop Standards for routine internal checkup
      –   Hydraulics
      –   Air Pressure
      –   Electrical/ Electronics
      –   Lubrication
      –   Mechanical

    Operator executes routine checks




                                    freeleansite.com
7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

 Step 6 – Orderliness and Tidiness

  Improve on Supplier Activity
    – Spare parts supply partners
    – Spare parts stores
    – Spare parts inventory
  Improve on Tool Activity
    – Tool Crib orderliness
    – Tools frequently used at work station
      (refer to Visual Management/ Visual Control)

                             freeleansite.com
7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 7 – “All out” Autonomous Management
   Process never ends
     – Metrics
     – Audits

   Each process post Result* (actual) against Goal (target)
     – Zero lost time accidents
     – Zero Defects
     – Zero Breakdowns
     – Zero set-up time or at least < 10 minutes
        • Practice Quick Changeovers/ SMED (see separate module)

        * Utilize Accountability Meetings (see separate module)
                                    freeleansite.com
TPM – Kaizen and Reliability Maintenance

 KAIZEN (see separate module)
    SWAT Team approach to major problems
     (Focus improvement effort around 6 big Losses)
    Reduction in Changeover/ Set-up time

 RELIABILITY
    Driven by Pareto Analysis to prioritize
    Data based
    Reduction in MTTR
    Increase in MTBF

                           freeleansite.com
Reliability Maintenance
     Meantime to Failure (Goal is to maximize)
       – Machine Breakdown
       – Tool Breakdown
       – Part Failure

     Meantime to Repair (Goal is to minimize)
       –   Diagnose problem
       –   Correct problem
       –   Set up Machine to make good parts
       –   Spare parts control

     Analyze using Statistical Tools
       – Reliability Measures
       – Problem Solving Tools
       – Vibration Analysis Tools
                               freeleansite.com
TPM - Reliability Kaizen Examples
  1) Tool cutting Tip (Nissan Motors) Life Cycle = 45
     pieces
    KAIZEN #1 – Vibrational analysis to optimize rotational
    speed. Life cycle = 132 pieces.
    KAIZEN #2 – Analysis of wear pattern to optimize tool
    geometry. Life cycle = 305 pieces.

  2) Tool cutting (Toyota Motors) Tool expensive and
     takes long time to set up
    KAIZEN #1 – Reduced set-up time from 15 minutes to less
    than 10 seconds.
    KAIZEN #2 – Studied correlation between life of tool and
    number of cuts between sharpening – increase life of tool
    five-fold.
                              freeleansite.com
Planned Maintenance Best Practices
   Maintenance department primarily responsible
   Re-adjustment of Machines to bring back to
      original state
     Feedback information to Maintenance Prevention
      Group
     Collection of Reliability Data
       –   MTBF
       –   MTTR
       –   Finding and coping with chronic defects
       –   Machine accuracy control (calibration)
       –   Schedule boards (Visual Management)
       –   Control of
           • Spare Parts
           • Lubrication
           • Vibrational Analysis
                                    freeleansite.com
Maintenance Prevention Best Practices
    New equipment design integrated w/ New Product
     Introduction (NPI) efforts
    Input from Reliability Maintenance
    Input from Preventative Maintenance
    Input from KAIZEN activities
    Life Cycle Costing
    Design reviews (Operators, Supervisors, Engineers)
    Assembly at Supplier
    Final Inspection at Supplier
    Maintenance and Operations Manual preparation
    Safety Issues visible, aware and worked
    Preventative Maintenance Schedule posted,
     adhered to
                          freeleansite.com
TPM – Summary


 Total Productive Maintenance is about:
  – improved equipment performance
  – increased equipment availability
  – increased equipment FPY (first pass
    yield) or also called FTT (first time through)
  – reduced emergency downtime
  – increased return on investment
  – increased employee skill levels
  – increased employee empowerment

                         freeleansite.com
TPM – Breakout Activity
 With a small group,
 With regard to Maintenance - Decide at least 3
  new improvements to put into place in your
  area.

 Decide at least 3 new measures/ metrics to
  adopt to sustain your Maintenance activities.

 Present your plan to Supervision.

                      freeleansite.com
        The Lean Enterprise
Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance



Lean Foundations
Continuous Improvement Training

				
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