# 04_Intro_to_TPM_31_pgs

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```					        The Lean Enterprise
Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance

Lean Foundations
Continuous Improvement Training
Learning Objectives

   Learn the basic philosophy of TPM

   Explain OEE and how it contributes to a TPM
project, explore OEE components; define and
calculate OEE

   List 6 major components of equipment loss

   Review and adopt the 7 steps to Autonomous
Maintenance

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TPM – The Need

   Process Industry relies heavily on equipment
that is integrated and runs continuously

   When down, losses are costly

   With lower inventories, machines need to be
reliable

   Machining and Assembly industries becoming
more mechanized to save manpower and do
difficult jobs
– More machines to maintain
– Need to save energy

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TPM – The Philosophy
   TPM aims at using equipment to its maximum
and aids in reducing Life Cycle Costs (LCC)
In other words - going all out to eliminate the
Losses (Waste) caused by the equipment

   TPM improves work activities that deal with
Equipment Set-up, Operating parameters,
Maintenance, Tear down, Repairs and
Breakdowns

   It specifically aims at the complete elimination
of the „six major losses‟ while striving for a
goal of zero unscheduled downtime

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TPM - The Six Major Losses (Waste)

 Downtime Losses
– (1) Equipment failures
– (2) Set-up and adjustments

 Speed Losses
– (3) Idling and minor stoppages
– (4) Reduced speed (actual operating
vs. designed)
 Defect Losses
– (5) Defects in process
– (6) Reduced yield between start of
production and stable production
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OEE Formulas
Loss                Measure                      Formula                Metric
1. Unexpected          Availability              Load – Down Time x 100%
Eq. Breakdown
=
Load Time
2. Set-up &
adjustments
]     example:                 460 min – 60 min           = 87%
460
The Theoretical Cycle
3. Idling and           Efficiency
minor stoppages
=      Time x Processed Qty
x 100%

4. Reduced
speed
]     example:
Operating Time
0.5/ unit x 400 units      = 50%
400 minutes

5. Defects in          Ratio of Quality          Processed Amount –
Process
6. Reduced Yield
]   Products            =
Amount of Defects
Processed Amount
x 100%

400 – 8               = 98%
example:
400
Overall Equip.
.87 x .50 xfreeleansite.com 46.2 %
.98 =
Effectiveness:
OEE Pareto Analysis by Loss Category
Overall
Equipment
Effectiveness

Loss
1&2

Loss
3&4    Loss
5&6

46.2 % OEE

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TPM attacks 6 major “Losses” plus
Elimination of other Wastes (Mura, Muri, Muda)
 Operator Time Losses
– Manpower losses due to operation time being
done more slowly than standard time (Cycle
Time > Standard Time)

 Material Losses
– Losses in yield due to „inherent waste‟ (cut-off
stock, set-up pieces, prototype, etc)
– Energy losses such as electricity, gas, and
water when machinery is not doing value-
added work
– Idling losses due to inadequate sensors and
product buildup on conveyors and chutes
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Best Practices
World-Class Goals (A TPM “Vision”)

Before          After
Availability                                   87%     > 90%
Performance Efficiency                         50%     > 95%
Ratio of Quality (Yield)                       98%     > 99%
Overall Eq. Effectiveness                      42.6%   > 85%

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TPM – Operational Goals (Qualitative)

   Increase number of suggestions
   Improve level of teamwork of shop floor
   Improve cross-functional teamwork
   Establish maintenance throughout the total
equipment life cycle
   People maintain their own equipment
   Machines available for just-in-time (JIT)
application
   Improve machine availability
   Improve working environment (6S)
   Improve Corporate culture and image
   Improve Business performance
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TPM – Operational Goals (Quantitative)

   Cost Reductions
– Actual and to be reduced
– Energy savings
– Maintenance

   Equipment Efficiencies
– Zero failures (ultimate goal)
– MTBF (mean time between failures)
– MTTR (mean time between repairs)
– Idle Time

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TPM – Operational Goals, cont.
(Quantitative)
   Safety
– Zero accidents

   Quality
– Zero failures
– Zero complaints

   Education
– Hours of training/ number of sessions
– Number of KAIZEN projects
– Number of Suggestions

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TPM – Definition of „Total‟

   Total Effectiveness
– Reduction in losses of all equipment to optimize its
effectiveness and improve costs
   Total Maintenance
– Involves the whole maintenance system inclusive of
equipment manufacturer, equipment engineering, and
equipment user to improve maintainability
   Total Participation
–   Everyone has a role to make TPM work
–   Management to set policy
–   Middle management, staff to support and lead
–   Maintenance to maintain and train
–   Operators to take on new maintenance challenges

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TPM – Role of Maintenance Function

   Provides technical support for autonomous
maintenance done by operators

   Restores deteriorated equipment through checks,
inspections, and overhauls

   Identifies Design weaknesses and improves the
equipment to error-free function (via poka-yoke)

   Improves technical maintenance skills for checks,
inspections, and overhauls

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TPM – Role of Operator Function

   Maintains basic condition (cleaning and lubrication)

   Maintains proper condition and standards for
equipment usage

   Partially restores deterioration

   Basic skill levels in:
– Changeover and set-up
– Reduction of minor stoppages and adjustments

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TPM – Autonomous Maintenance

Definition:

 Operations maintains its own equipment

 Utilize 7-step plan*
(*Source: Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance)

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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

Step 1 – Initial clean-up (External)

   “Kick-off” program
   Closely aligned with 6S (5S + 1)
   Management and Staff show commitment
   Clean, Sand and Paint
   Identify sources of defects:
– Gauge hidden
– Limit switch buried in debris
– Crack in Housing

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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 2 – Stop sources of defects (External)

•   Ask „why ?‟ five times
•   Replace parts with cracks
•   Replace worn seals
•   Teach Operators how to modify equipment
•   Conduct Set-up Workshops; Practice Set-ups
•   Modify Equipment for easier checking and to
eliminate sources for debris and
contamination
– Guards
– Chip removal
– Acrylic covers to see V - belts and moving parts

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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

Step 3 – Standards Formulation

   Standards for clean-up and checking
–   What equipment should be cleaned and checked?
–   What points should be checked?
–   Who should check?
–   What check sheet should be used?
–   How to react to changes.

   Standards are to capture what has been learned
in steps 1 and 2

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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 4 – Overall Checkup (Internal)

   Leaders (1st line Supervisors) trained
–   Hydraulics
–   Air Pressure
–   Electrical/ Electronics
–   Lubrication
–   Mechanical

   One point lessons developed (Visual Management)
   Team up Engineers, Maintenance, and Operators
– Tear down equipment
– Analyze defects
– Present findings
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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

Step 5 – Autonomous Checkup

   Develop Standards for routine internal checkup
–   Hydraulics
–   Air Pressure
–   Electrical/ Electronics
–   Lubrication
–   Mechanical

   Operator executes routine checks

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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance

Step 6 – Orderliness and Tidiness

 Improve on Supplier Activity
– Spare parts supply partners
– Spare parts stores
– Spare parts inventory
 Improve on Tool Activity
– Tool Crib orderliness
– Tools frequently used at work station
(refer to Visual Management/ Visual Control)

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7 Steps to Autonomous Maintenance
Step 7 – “All out” Autonomous Management
   Process never ends
– Metrics
– Audits

   Each process post Result* (actual) against Goal (target)
– Zero lost time accidents
– Zero Defects
– Zero Breakdowns
– Zero set-up time or at least < 10 minutes
• Practice Quick Changeovers/ SMED (see separate module)

* Utilize Accountability Meetings (see separate module)
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TPM – Kaizen and Reliability Maintenance

KAIZEN (see separate module)
   SWAT Team approach to major problems
(Focus improvement effort around 6 big Losses)
   Reduction in Changeover/ Set-up time

RELIABILITY
   Driven by Pareto Analysis to prioritize
   Data based
   Reduction in MTTR
   Increase in MTBF

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Reliability Maintenance
   Meantime to Failure (Goal is to maximize)
– Machine Breakdown
– Tool Breakdown
– Part Failure

   Meantime to Repair (Goal is to minimize)
–   Diagnose problem
–   Correct problem
–   Set up Machine to make good parts
–   Spare parts control

   Analyze using Statistical Tools
– Reliability Measures
– Problem Solving Tools
– Vibration Analysis Tools
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TPM - Reliability Kaizen Examples
1) Tool cutting Tip (Nissan Motors) Life Cycle = 45
pieces
KAIZEN #1 – Vibrational analysis to optimize rotational
speed. Life cycle = 132 pieces.
KAIZEN #2 – Analysis of wear pattern to optimize tool
geometry. Life cycle = 305 pieces.

2) Tool cutting (Toyota Motors) Tool expensive and
takes long time to set up
KAIZEN #1 – Reduced set-up time from 15 minutes to less
than 10 seconds.
KAIZEN #2 – Studied correlation between life of tool and
number of cuts between sharpening – increase life of tool
five-fold.
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Planned Maintenance Best Practices
 Maintenance department primarily responsible
 Re-adjustment of Machines to bring back to
original state
   Feedback information to Maintenance Prevention
Group
   Collection of Reliability Data
–   MTBF
–   MTTR
–   Finding and coping with chronic defects
–   Machine accuracy control (calibration)
–   Schedule boards (Visual Management)
–   Control of
• Spare Parts
• Lubrication
• Vibrational Analysis
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Maintenance Prevention Best Practices
   New equipment design integrated w/ New Product
Introduction (NPI) efforts
   Input from Reliability Maintenance
   Input from Preventative Maintenance
   Input from KAIZEN activities
   Life Cycle Costing
   Design reviews (Operators, Supervisors, Engineers)
   Assembly at Supplier
   Final Inspection at Supplier
   Maintenance and Operations Manual preparation
   Safety Issues visible, aware and worked
   Preventative Maintenance Schedule posted,
adhered to
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TPM – Summary

 Total Productive Maintenance is about:
– improved equipment performance
– increased equipment availability
– increased equipment FPY (first pass
yield) or also called FTT (first time through)
– reduced emergency downtime
– increased return on investment
– increased employee skill levels
– increased employee empowerment

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TPM – Breakout Activity
With a small group,
With regard to Maintenance - Decide at least 3
new improvements to put into place in your
area.

Decide at least 3 new measures/ metrics to
adopt to sustain your Maintenance activities.

Present your plan to Supervision.

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The Lean Enterprise
Introduction to TPM – Total Productive Maintenance

Lean Foundations
Continuous Improvement Training

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