INTEGRATED COMMUNITY BASED RISK REDUCTION
A JOINT RISK REDUCTION INITIATIVE IN EAST AND WEST JAKARTA
Jakarta, January 2006
INTEGRATED COMMUNITY BASED RISK REDUCTION
Climate change is one of the main global issues of the 21 century. In the past century, the global
temperature has risen faster than ever in the past 1000 years, and nine out of the past ten years
have been among the hottest years on record. This warming is projected to continue, and even
accelerate during the coming decades. Besides serious changes in the average temperature and
rainfall, scientists project an increase of extreme weather events like floods and droughts, more
intense hurricanes, the spread of diseases like malaria, and global sea level rise. Tens of millions
of people, in particular in developing countries, are likely to be affected every year. These
changing risks directly affect the work of the Red Cross/Red Crescent, particularly in disaster
response, disaster preparedness, and healthcare.
In order to address these new challenges, the Netherlands Red Cross and the International
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent (IFRC) Societies in 2002 established the Red
Cross/Red Crescent (RC/RC) Climate Centre, which supports national RC/RC societies and
others in understanding and addressing the risks of climate change. The Climate Centre
facilitates the cooperation between national RC/RC societies, climate scientists and policy
makers to enhance programs, policies and research that can help to strengthen the resilience of
vulnerable people. Based in the Netherlands, the RC/RC Climate Centre serves the whole
RC/RC movement, especially in developing countries.
Rabobank Netherlands is also facing up to the challenges of global climate change, including
through efforts in climate change mitigation (development of innovative climate neutral products)
and its interest in adaptation (people all over the world are already dealing with an increasing
number of extreme weather events and have to adapt to the changing risks).
Based upon this common interest in climate risk reduction, a dialogue started between Rabobank
Netherlands and the RC/RC Climate Centre, soon also involving Interpolis (and since its
establishment the Micro Insurance Association Netherlands, that has a keen interest in risk
management in developing countries) and the Rabobank Foundation.
One particular interest of the Rabobank Foundation in the field of adaptation to climate change,
and broader disaster risk reduction, is the use of financial instruments, in particular micro finance.
The RC/RC has little experience in integrating such mechanisms in its programs, but is interested
to explore the benefits, particularly also in the context of climate risk reduction.
January 2006 2
In 2005, this dialogue resulted in generous financial support of 25,000 by the Rabobank
Netherlands to the Climate Centre, to develop a program with a climate change and a micro
finance component in a developing country. Rabobank Foundation expressed a preference for
Indonesia or Sri Lanka. In light of the challenging times for the Red Cross societies in these two
countries after the 2004 tsunami, the decision was made to proceed with the Indonesian Red
Cross, which showed the strongest capacity and interest. The development phase took place
from August 1 until December 16, 2005, and resulted in the project described in this concept
Disasters and climate change in Indonesia
Indonesia is the largest and widest archipelago country (17,508 islands) in the world. The total
population was 165 million in 1985, increased to 191 million in 1994 and over 235 million in 2005,
of which 27% is living below the poverty line. The country is under the constant threat of a range
of natural disasters. With large parts of its territory covering fault lines between tectonic plates,
there is much seismic activity and earthquakes are frequent. There is also a high risk of volcanic
eruptions, tidal waves, floods, forest fires and landslides; periodic El Niño episodes cause
catastrophic droughts and forest fires. The southern and western islands (including Java) are
exposed to the largest number of hazards, particularly droughts, floods, landslides, earthquakes
and volcanic eruptions. Compared to other hazards, floods have the largest risk when weighted
by the proportion of GDP and mortality .
Under a changing climate, rainfall in Indonesia is projected to increase in some regions, and
decrease in others; the difference between the wet and dry seasons, and the return period of
extreme events such as droughts and floods are projected to increase . While there might be
benefits for some areas, such as enhanced water supplies for irrigation in areas with higher mean
rainfall, increased precipitation intensity would also accelerate soil erosion and reduce land
productivity, particularly in upland regions. Furthermore, with a total coastline exceeding 81,000
kilometers, Indonesia will suffer significant impacts from sea level rise. Even very small rises in
mean sea level will threaten industry, infrastructure, fisheries and populations that are
concentrated in low-lying coastal areas. It will affect millions of Indonesians, if not by directly
displacing them, then by eliminating the industrial or agricultural zones or fisheries upon which
their livelihoods and welfare depend, salinating their drinking water supplies, overwhelming flood
control and sewer systems and thus leaving them more vulnerable to water-borne disease or
Indonesia natural disaster profile, IRI, Center for Hazards and Risk research at the Columbia University.
An integrated assessment of climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in watershed areas and
communities in Southeast Asia, Current and future rainfall variability in Indonesia, AIACC 2004.
January 2006 3
disrupting marketing and transportation networks and hence their access to goods . A rise of the
sea level is of particular concern to Jakarta because parts of the city are already subsiding due to
excessive exploitation of ground water and soil compression by heavy construction. At the same
time, sea levels are gradually rising along the northern coast. Unfortunately the areas most
vulnerable to inundations caused by tidal waves and riverine flooding are inhabited by Jakarta’s
poorest people, living in slums.
In addition, climate change will affect the occurrence of vector-borne diseases such as malaria
and dengue fever, as well as diarrhea (through increases in droughts and floods). All three of
these are already serious health problems in Indonesia.
Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI), the Indonesian Red Cross
Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI) was founded in 1945 and recognized by Presidential Decrees of
1950 and 1963. PMI is in a unique position to respond to disasters because of the mandate it has
from the government to assist local governments in the first two weeks following a natural
disaster, and because it is the only organization that is recognized by the government’s Disaster
Management boards at central, provincial and district levels (BAKORNAS, SATKORLAK,
SATLAK and SATGAS). PMI has an extensive network of 32 chapters at provincial level, 361
branches and 2.560 sub-branches at district and sub-district level. No less than 1,000,000
volunteers are extending a helping hand to those in need. The annual budget of PMI is around $
13 million, including hospitals and blood services. The International Federation of Red Cross and
Red Crescent Societies, national Red Cross/Red Crescent societies in donor countries, the
Indonesian government and UN agencies are the main financial contributors.
In addition to its activities in disaster response, PMI has over the last years increasingly invested
in disaster risk reduction, in particular through an integrated community based risk reduction
strategy (ICBRR). The objective of ICBRR is to strengthen the capacities of vulnerable
communities at risk to cope with disasters and to reduce their vulnerabilities to natural and man
made hazards. The strength of an integrated approach lies in the fact that PMI will assess and
address all risks communities are dealing with. Hazards (including those enhanced by climate
change), health and environmental risks, economical and social issues will all be considered
holistically when looking at the vulnerabilities within a community. The members of the community
and the local government together with PMI will develop activities to address the different risks,
making the community more resilient to the impacts of future disasters.
Socioeconomic Impacts of Climate Change and a National Response Strategy: Country Study of Indonesia,
January 2006 4
Project vision: linking disaster risk reduction, climate change, and micro finance
Disasters erode development gains and are a result of underdevelopment. Vulnerability to
disasters is closely linked to poverty and poor health, but disasters themselves also throw people
deeper into poverty. Besides the risk of losing their lives, people face the loss of personal assets,
business capital and business places and the decrease of income. After a disaster the economic
infrastructure is often heavily damaged or even destroyed which means that people have no
sources of income. The impact of a disaster can throw people years back in their economic
These concerns, which underlie PMI’s efforts in ICBRR, are aggravated by climate change, which
is increasing the frequency and/or intensity of weather-related disasters. PMI is aware of the need
to step up its efforts in disaster risk reduction. With the assistance of the RC/RC Climate Centre,
Rabobank Foundation, Rabobank Netherlands and Interpolis, as well as the IFRC and the
German Red Cross, it has been exploring new ways to enhance its risk reduction work. One
element is the integration of the changing patterns of risk due to climate change into its regular
operations. Another is to engage in innovative partnerships, and to muster the opportunities of
microfinance solutions for disaster risk reduction.
Micro finance is a strong and effective tool to address poverty issues, leading to poverty reduction
and even to poverty elimination. Where micro credit, as part of micro finance, provides a limited
range of financial services such as small credit dispenses and small saving mobilization, including
withdrawal facilities, aiming the poor in order to help them to generate income and support self-
employment, micro insurance is focusing on risk awareness and risk prevention (risk
management). A micro credit and/or micro insurance pilot scheme will help the selected
communities transfer risk and protect livelihoods from disasters.
Supported by the Rabobank Foundation, Yayasan Pengembangan Perdesaan (YPP) has built up
years of experience in Indonesia in the field of micro finance. YPP supports the establishment of
so called Self Help Groups (SHGs)4, a tool to empower economically poor people at the
community level. This empowerment will have a positive effect on the resilience of the community
because not only will people be trained and supported in dealing with existing and new risks, they
will also generate income and become less vulnerable to the impacts of disasters.
PMI may not have direct experience with the implementation of micro finance projects, but it
realizes the opportunity of micro finance as a risk reduction tool, directly addressing the
economical poor situation of the people in the selected villages. Because of its strong and
A SHG consists of a group of people who are united at a voluntary basis and who agree to cooperate and
help each other, with the aim to develop their resources to enhance the quality of life. The SHGs will help
develop its member’s enterprises and will build the capacities of its members on all existing risks, such as
hazards, health, climate change, environment, economical and social issues. The SHG will prove to be a
self help mechanism that educates its members to support each other to solve problems.
January 2006 5
trustworthy network at the national, provincial, district and sub-district level PMI could contribute
to the micro finance part of the project by for example providing volunteers that can be trained by
YPP trainers on how to mobilize, support and motivate SHGs.
This vision of integrating disaster risk reduction, adaptation to climate change, and microfinance
is the key concept underlying the current project concept. The following paragraphs outline the
In August 2005 the Netherlands Red Cross (with direct support from the RC/RC Climate Centre),
the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) and the International Federation of Red Cross/Red Crescent
Societies started a joint integrated community based risk reduction / climate change program.
The German Red Cross expressed interest to join the implementation phase of the program.
After several meetings with the team members in Jakarta, a period of networking and data
collection on the impacts of climate change in Indonesia took place. PMI became part of an
Indonesian climate change network consisting of the State Ministry of Environment and its
Climate Change Focal Point, the national meteorological office BMG, Pelangi (independent
research institute that advises the State Ministry of the Environment on the UNFCCC
negotiations), WWF (Global environmental conservation organization), WAHLI (Friends of the
earth Indonesia), the Global Environment Facility (GEF) operational focal point (helps developing
countries fund projects and programs that protect the global environment), the United States
Agency for International Development (USAID), Bogor Agricultural University (Institute of Pertania
Bogor - IPB) and others.
In order to learn how to address these new challenges, the program is focusing on one PMI
chapter and two PMI branches. The process of selecting these branches was based on risk of
extreme weather events and projected climate change impacts6; poverty issues facing the area;
The development team consisted of the following members: Irman Rachman (Head of the Disaster
Management division of PMI), Arifin (Senior risk reduction officer PMI), Latifur Rahman (Disaster
Management delegate IFRC), H. Chandra (Director Yayasan Pengembangan Perdesaan, micro finance
counter part of Rabobank Foundation in Indonesia), Piet Kessels (Coordinator Netherlands Red Cross
development program in Indonesia), Ari Yahya (Program officer Netherlands Red Cross Indonesia), Elike
van Sluis (Red Cross/Red Crescent Climate Centre).
The team reviewed the following research and policy documents: ´First National Communication on
Climate Change Convention, State Ministry of Environment Indonesia, 1999´; ´Indonesia natural disaster
profile, IRI, Center for Hazards and Risk research at the Columbia University´; ´An integrated assessment of
climate change impacts, adaptation and vulnerability in watershed areas and communities in Southeast Asia,
Current and future rainfall variability in Indonesia, AIACC 2004´; ´Climate change scenarios for Indonesia,
Climatic Research Unit for WWF, 1999´; ´Socioeconomic Impacts of Climate Change and a National
Response Strategy: Country Study of Indonesia, ADB, 1994´.
January 2006 6
and the following additional criteria: strong or at least moderate capacity of the PMI
chapter/branches; availability of (infra) structure of chapters and branches; commitment from
chapters and branches; support from local government; community easy to mobilize and
committed to the program. Agreed upon by PMI’s board and all parties it was decided that the
Jakarta chapter together with its East and West Jakarta branches would be very suitable to run
the program because several villages in their area fitted all criteria.
The PMI branches and their local governments of East and West Jakarta provided information
about the villages in these areas. Based on this information and a map analysis (where are the
villages located; how many people are living there; which parts are most vulnerable; etcetera), the
team, with help from forty PMI volunteers, targeted the local governments, health and public work
agencies and community members with a pre assessment in November 2005, using
questionnaires, ocular surveys and focused group discussions. The outcome of this pre
assessment helped the PMI branches selecting the two most vulnerable villages and provided
information to develop this concept paper.
In February 2006 a hazards, vulnerability and capacity assessment (HVCA) will be conducted in
the four selected villages. This process will be used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of
households, communities and institutions. An additional important aspect of the HVCA is its ability
to raise public awareness on hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities and the risk taken by society.
The detailed information resulting from this assessment will be used to develop the final program
document, including timeframe, logical framework with indicators, how to monitor and evaluate
the project and detailed budget. After a Memorandum of Understanding between PMI and the
Jakarta chapter has been signed together with an Agreement with the involved villages, the
implementation phase of the activities can start.
The 5 year program will be funded (still to be confirmed) by Rabobank Netherlands, Rabobank
Foundation and Interpolis, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies,
the German Red Cross and the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI). The partnership not only involves
joining these organization’s financial means and human resources, but also integrating their
knowledge on climate change and micro finance into community based risk reduction. The people
in the targeted villages will contribute by supporting the implementation of some of the activities
on a voluntary basis and also by the financial support of small scale disaster mitigation measures
(through micro credits).
January 2006 7
Integrated community based risk reduction (ICBRR).
The capacities of vulnerable communities at risk to cope with disasters are strengthened and their
vulnerabilities to natural and man made hazards, including the negative impacts of climate
change, are reduced.
1) To develop and strengthen the capacities in two districts of the Jakarta Province, EAST
JAKARTA (Villages: Bidara Cina and Cawang) and WEST JAKARTA (Villages: Kedaung
Kaliangke and Rawa Buaya), to undertake integrated community-based risk reduction activities
(including climate change adaptation);
2) To learn about integrating risk reduction, climate change adaptation and micro finance in one
1. PMI’s ICBRR program capacity have been developed and implemented;
2. Community based risk reduction activities have been undertaken, including community
empowerment (see overview below);
3. Comprehensive public awareness and advocacy campaigns on the risks people are
dealing with have been developed and undertaken;
4. The awareness of the importance of ICBRR within the targeted communities has
increased, leading to improved preparedness and the active involvement of communities
in advocacy campaigns with stakeholders like the local governments;
5. Local governments have recognized the holistic ICBRR approach leading to enhanced
• Consensus within PMI about an integrated program approach;
• Policy and guidelines development through participatory process;
• Wide stakeholders’ involvement and integrated participation and capacity building
January 2006 8
• Bottom-up approach, community participation (including women, elderly, children, ethnic
minorities, children, and disabled people) and ownership;
• Promotion of a ‘culture of coping with crisis’ and a ‘culture of disaster reduction’ through
awareness, action and advocacy;
• Best possible utilization of risk reduction measures / tools to ensure a safe environment
and a resilient local economy through the necessary capacity building of the targeted
communities and the service provider, PMI, the Indonesian Red Cross;
• Well-delivered training and other necessary project inputs in accordance with the
objectives of the project and the needs of the targeted communities, including awareness
about climate change and community empowerment.
LOCATION & TARGET GROUPS
1) The most vulnerable people of:
• Bidara Cina. Total population: 43,542; households: 13,176.
• Cawang. Total population: 32,384; households: 8,173.
• Kedaung Kaliangke. Total population: 18,914; households: 7,358.
• Rawa Buaya. Total population: 26,323; households: 11,445.
Total: 121,163 people.
(Note: the ‘most vulnerable people’ will be defined after conducting the HVCA in the four
villages in February 2006).
2) PMI National Headquarters, the DKI Jakarta chapter and the East and West Jakarta branches
including its staff, members and volunteers involved in the ICBRR program.
STARTING DATE & DURATION
01 January 2006 – 31 December 2010 (five years).
(Based on the results of the pre assessment that took place in November 2006. More details will
follow after the HVCA in February 2006).
January 2006 9
Physical /health /environmental:
• Floods (enhanced by climate change);
• Fires (caused by tapping electricity and use of mal functioning stoves);
• Environmental damage: River pollution, soil erosion along the river banks, behaviour
• Fragile housing construction and often damaged houses (by continuous floods);
• Shortage of public facilities (health centres, schools etc.);
• Diarrhea, skin diseases, respiratory problems, dengue, HIV/AIDS;
• Limited access to fresh water and lack of hygiene knowledge;
• Location of the villages.
• Urban area’s, people with many different ethnic backgrounds;
• Densely populated and disaster prone villages;
• Weak Village Committees;
• Lack of early warning mechanisms;
• Drugs, gambling, gang fights.
• East Jakarta: Majority of people have irregular, low paying jobs;
• West Jakarta: Many women earn low wages in factories. High unemployment rate
• No saving habits.
• General lack of community awareness about risks (hazards, health, environment, climate
change, social issues).
After five years the beneficiaries will:
• Have access to safe water;
• Have access to safe health/hygiene facilities;
• Learn how to live in and maintain a clean environment;
• Uplift their economical level resulting in a significant change in their life and living style, in
their knowledge, attitude, awareness, action, behaviour, practices and adaptation, in
handling all aspects of daily risks;
• Have high risk awareness within their community.
January 2006 10
As mentioned before a program document will be developed after conducting a HVCA. This
document will contain a logical framework with general and specific objectives, outputs, indicators
and assumptions so the impact of the project can be measured, monitored and evaluated.
Since four very vulnerable villages have been selected we know for a fact that within the five year
period of the project disasters will keep on happening. However, the people will be better
• Due to a functional community based early warning system, a contingency plan and a
contingency fund (funded by the beneficiaries themselves);
• Because of their improved knowledge and practices of community based mitigation
measures that will help them to take all precautionary actions beforehand to reduce the
SECTOR ACTIVITIES COSTS
Capacity building of targeted • Building bridges with PMI and targeted 2006: $ 200,000
communities communities; 2007: $ 200,000
• Community organization and mobilization 2008: $ 200,000
(Micro credit scheme**) (centering Village Committees); 2009: $ 200,000
• Strengthen / reactivate targeted community 2010: $ 200,000
structures / Village Committee (VC);
• Support VC to form community volunteers Total: $ 1,000,000
and self help groups: formation of CBAT
(community based action team);
• Training / orientation of VC, CBAT and self
• HVCA / Risk mapping;
• Develop Community Risk Reduction Plan;
• Mass community awareness raising on risk
reduction measures (i.e. hazards, health,
water and sanitation, livelihood / safe
economy, environment, climate change,
social risks etc.);
• Self-help group formation to improve
• Teachers training and school children
education program including best practices
of risk reduction measures at targeted
• Reactivate multi hazard community early
warning system and linking it with the local
government / PMI initiatives;
• Install Community Risk Reduction Funds /
January 2006 11
in-kind community pre-position stock;
• Drill / simulation and best practices of
indigenous knowledge and coping
• Encourage safe community livelihoods and
Capacity building of targeted Joint initiative between PMI’s DM, OD, 2006: $ 100,000
volunteers/ branches/ chapters Health, Communication & Information, and 2007: $ 90,000
and national headquarters Finance divisions: 2008: $ 80,000
• Formation of Task Force, guidelines, tools; 2009: $ 70,000
• Recruitment staff / orientation and training; 2010: $ 60,000
• In-kind capacity building activities;
• HVCA / Risk Mapping; Total: $ 400,000
• SOP (standard operational procedures) /
• Coordination / planning / implementation /
follow-up / monitoring / evaluation and
• Lessons learned / exchange visits locally,
regionally and internationally;
• Publication and distribution of best
Small scale structural mitigation • Identification of viable projects together with 2006: $ 200,000
initiatives the targeted communities; 2007: $ 200,000
• Seek support from local government at best 2008: $ 200,000
possible manner; 2009: $ 200,000
• MOU between communities, local 2010: $ 200,000
governments and PMI;
• Construction / building with the active Total: $ 1,000,000
participation of targeted communities;
• Ensure building maintenance capacity at
community level and local government
support for longer term.
Total activities: $ 2,400,000
2006: $ 500,000
2007: $ 490,000
2008: $ 480,000
2009: $ 470,000
2010: $ 460,000
Total micro credit scheme: $ 2,000,000
GRAND TOTAL: $ 4,400,000
January 2006 12
**MICRO CREDIT SCHEME:
During the HVCA in February 2006 the team members of Rabobank Foundation in Jakarta,
together with PMI staff, will execute an assessment to map the type of communities, the attitude,
level of trust, commitment, existence of SHGs, financial institutions etcetera.
This information will be available after the HVCA and will be described in the program document.
The following numbers are based on experience – the final numbers of families to be supported
through a micro credit scheme still has to be decided.
Credit scheme (loan equivalent: $ 200):
Yr 2006: minimum of 500 households
Yr 2007: minimum of 1000 households
Yr 2008: minimum of 2000 households
Yr 2009: minimum of 3000 households
Yr 2010: minimum of 3500 households
TOTAL: $ 2,000,000 (10,000 households)
One hundred percent of the total amount that will be used for the economical empowerment of
the communities will be returned, as this support will be available under a credit scheme. This
means that in a later stage this fund could be used for another community empowerment project.
If and how this will be developed should be decided by Rabobank Foundation and its partners in
The budgets of the risk reduction activities and the micro credit schema will be separated. PMI
will be responsible for the first one. An Indonesian partner of the Rabobank Foundation will be
responsible for the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the micro credit scheme.
• Developing capacities of the most vulnerable communities, living with many hazards and
having low capacities, by providing a safe environment and a resilient local economy;
• Enhancing PMI’s disaster risk reduction initiatives at all levels (national headquarters,
chapter, branches, volunteers and communities) to deliver service to its ultimate
customer: the people in vulnerable communities;
• Contributing to global experience building on how to integrate disaster risk reduction and
climate change adaptation;
January 2006 13
• Contributing to the experience on linking community-based disaster risk reduction and
adaptation with micro finance as well as ways to build bridges between humanitarian
NGOs and financial institutions such as the Rabobank and its partners.
UP SCALING OF THE PROJECT
The ICBRR program in Jakarta serves as a pilot for PMI and partners. Looking closely at, and
learning from the development phase in East and West Jakarta, PMI and other partners are
already preparing other projects that will have the same ICBRR/climate change approach and will
possibly be interested in micro credit schemes.
One of the scheduled activities will be ´mass awareness campaign´ (see capacity building of
targeted communities). A campaign like this will for example consist of:
• Involvement of local radio and television to raise awareness on the different risks,
including climate trends, covering the whole of Jakarta (12 million people);
• Periodic drills / simulations for which all other heads of villages will be invited to observe
the preparedness measures and to learn more about the program;
• Awareness materials like brochures, posters, comic books, documentary on best
practices (including PMI´s first experiences with micro credit scheme’s) that will be
shared widely within PMI and in potential villages and communities;
• Direct communication during events for specific target groups (youth, women, village
Part of the development phase of the pilot project was used to develop a background document
on the impacts of climate change on Indonesia, on risk reduction and micro finance as a tool to
empower communities and reduce the vulnerability of people. This document will be shared with
other interested parties, both within and outside of PMI.
As mentioned above, besides mass communication and the pro active sharing of best practices
and awareness materials, PMI is already starting ICBRR preparations, following the same
concept as the pilot in the following area’s:
• Aceh: 1 district/19 communities (supported by PMI and the Danish Red Cross);
• Aceh: 5 districts/160 communities (supported by PMI and the American Red Cross);
• Aceh and Nias: 13 districts/200 communities (supported by PMI, International Federation
and the Canadian Red Cross);
• Nusa Tenggara Timur (NTT): 5 districts/15 communities (supported by PMI, International
Federation and the German Red Cross);
• Papua: 1 district/3 communities (supported by PMI, International Federation and the
German Red Cross).
January 2006 14
Facilitators and trainers of the projects above will be trained by trainers from the pilot project. All
projects will start with conducting a HVCA to assess the hazards, vulnerabilities and capacities of
the communities. Some of the tools in the HVCA will contain climate related questions.
YPP, Rabobank Foundation’s representative in Jakarta, is involved in the new projects and can
decide whether and where to participate.
Except for the micro finance part, funding for the new projects is already secured.
On the long run PMI is working on a nation wide partnership with other agencies (government,
United Nations, NGOs). In January some first ideas on the way PMI works on disaster risk
reduction were shared with the Vice President of Indonesia and BAKORNAS, the national
coordination board for disaster management, both showed keen interest in PMI´s approach.
Within PMI there is a lot of experience on health issues, water and sanitation (hygiene,
community based first aid, drilling of wells and construction of latrines) and community awareness.
Trained competent professional staff is running programs in three provinces in Indonesia over the
past five years. For example, with help from PMI volunteers they were able to establish a
community based water and sanitation program in East Timor. Because of the tsunami, PMI is
currently in the process of establishing a special WATSAN (water and sanitation) Division within
the headquarters to coordinate an enormous WATSAN program in the whole of Aceh and
PMI still lacks experience in climate change and micro finance. On climate change competence of
the RC/RC Climate Centre will be used together with the climate change network PMI recently
The activities of the Climate Centre are based on:
Awareness: Organizing education and information activities about climate change and extreme weather
events, aiming at the Red Cross / Red Crescent Movement and the general public.
Action: Supporting the development of concrete climate adaptation activities within the existing context of
disaster risk reduction programs.
Advocacy: Raising concerns about the impacts of climate change on vulnerable people and offering practical
examples of climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction programs within the International Federation and
with policy and political leaders globally.
The Climate Centre was established assuming that there are new opportunities to integrate growing
knowledge about climate change, its impacts and policies to adapt to it within existing disaster risk reduction
programs. The Climate Centre also promotes, within the humanitarian community, the importance of
disaster risk reductionas part of the development of effective climate change adaptation programs. See also
January 2006 15
established. This network consists of some very good climate change resource persons that will
be able to improve PMI´s knowledge on the topic.
Regarding micro finance PMI works closely together with its micro finance partner in Jakarta
(YPP) who has a lot of experience in micro credit scheme’s in Indonesia and has been working
for Rabobank Foundation for some years. In the case SHG´s are interested in micro insurance
the competence of MIAN (Micro Insurance Association Netherlands) will be asked. MIAN could
for example contribute by sending an expert from one of their programs in India or Sri Lanka.
• PMI National Headquarters: 1 Program Coordinator, 1 Program assistant and 1 Finance
• DKI Jakarta chapter: 1 Program Officer and 1 assistant;
• East Jakarta branch: 1 Project Officer and 1 assistant;
• West Jakarta branch: 1 Project Officer and 1 assistant;
• Village Committee (VC);
• Volunteers (SATGANA / KSR / CBAT);
• Self help groups;
• 1 Staff NLRC / GRC / International Federation available for first two years (not full time);
• Support and input from RC / RC Climate Centre;
• Five years financial commitments;
• In-kind resources for capacity building of targeted communities / PMI branches / chapter.
PARTNERS (IMPLEMENTING, FINANCIAL, COORDINATION / FOLLOW-UP/ MONITOR)
PMI national headquarters, DKI Jakarta chapter and East and West Jakarta branches.
PMI, Netherlands Red Cross (funded by Rabobank), German Red Cross, the International
Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the local governments and the targeted
Coordination / Follow-up / Monitoring Partners:
Targeted villages through Village Committees, PMI, local governments, Netherlands Red Cross,
Rabobank / Rekadesa, German Red Cross, International Federation, RC / RC Climate Centre,
other interested stakeholders (national RC/RC societies from donor countries, UNDP, private
January 2006 16
1. Arifin M. Hadi, Head DM Division, PMI.
2. Ujang Dede, Senior risk reduction officer, PMI.
3. Latifur Rahman, Disaster management delegate, IFRC.
4. Marc Souvignier, Logistics delegate, German Red Cross.
5. Piet Kessels, Development coordinator, Netherlands Red Cross.
6. H. Chandra, Director Yayasan Pengembangan Perdesaan (micro credit
representative Rabobank Foundation).
7. Elike van Sluis, Program manager, RC / RC Climate Centre.
January 2006 17