Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in THAILAND

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Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in THAILAND Powered By Docstoc
					Acid Deposition & Air Quality Monitoring
               in Thailand


          Air Quality & Noise Management Bureau
                      Pollution Control Department
    Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment
Acid Deposition & Air Quality Monitoring
                               in Thailand
 • Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Network
 • Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Bangkok
 • Meteorological Monitoring Network
 • Acid Deposition Monitoring Network
     Objectives of air quality Monitoring

 To determine whether the general levels of pollutants
    in the atmosphere are like to be harmful

 To evaluate the magnitude of air pollution problem

 To evaluate long term air pollution trends

 To asses the effectiveness of air pollution control
   program and mitigation measures implemented to
   prevent adverse effects of air pollutants
Objectives of air quality Monitoring (con.)

 To provide information on a problem of particular
  concern for which actions are needed
 To serve as source data on which to base planing
  decisions and for use in Environmental Impact
  Assessment of a particular installation on project
 To isolate individual rogue emission and to justify
  control action
 To provide information for different kinds of reports
  and also for validation of studies
 To provide information for correlation with medical
  studies
        National Ambient Air Standards ( 1995 )

Pollutants                  Conc ( mg/m3)                         Method
             1hr avg.8hr avg. 24hr avg. 1m avg. ann avg.
   CO         34.20   10.26      -          -         -      Non-dispersive IR
   NO2         0.32     -        -          -         -      Chemiluminescence
   SO2         0.78     -       0.30        -       0.10 *   Pararosaniline UV
                                                             Fluorescence
  SPM           -       -       0.33        -       0.10 *   Gravimetric-High
                                                             Volume Sampling
 PM-10          -       -       0.12        -       0.05 *   Gravimetric-High
                                                             Volume Sampling
   O3          0.20     -        -          -         -      Chemiluminescence
  Lead          -       -        -       1.5 **       -      Atomic Absorptin
                                                             Spectrophotometer

             * geometric mean        ** : ug / m3
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Network




    51 stations
          Ambient Air Parameters :
Pollutants :
• CO
• NO , NO2 , NOx
• SO2
• THC , CH4 , NMHC
• O3
• PM-10
• TSP
         Ambient Air Parameters : (con.)
Meteorology :
• Wind speed
• wind direction
• Relative humidity
• Temperature
• Solar radiation
• Net radiation
• Barometric pressure
• Rain
Schematic Diagram of Ambient Air Monitoring Station and
               Data Transmission System
         REMOTE STATION

                                       Modem      Telephone
                                                   Service
          Gas Anal.

                                    Data Logger               CENTRAL STATION
                                                   Alarm
                                                   Printer     Modem

          Met. Anal.                                               Computer
                                     Computer
                                     Computer

                       Calibrator                                      Extended
                                                                       File Storage
Ambient Air Quality Monitoring in Bangkok




                          17 stations
  Bangkok’s air quality monitoring program

 General ambient air quality monitoring
 Roadside ambient air monitoring
 * long-term continuous Roadside
   ambient air monitoring
 * short-term temporary Roadside
   ambient air monitoring
                           Trend of Ambient Air Quality Situation
                            in Bangkok between 1995-2001
                      14
                      12
% Exeeding standard




                      10
                       8
                       6
                       4
                       2
                       0
                             1995         1996       1997       1998      1999      2000      2001

                              TSP 24-hr      PM-10 24-hr    CO 1-hr    CO 8-hr   Pb monthly   O3 1-hr
                           Trend of Roadside Air Quality Situation
                            in Bangkok between 1995-2001
                      80
% Exeeding standard



                      60

                      40

                      20

                      0
                             1995          1996          1997       1998        1999         2000        2001

                                    TSP 24-hr     PM-10 24-hr   CO 1-hr    CO 8-hr     Pb monthly   O3 1-hr
                         CO (average 8 hr.) in Bangkok from 1992-2001




                                                                                                                 No. of Vehicles Registered in Bang kok
                          5                                                                          5,000,000

                         4.5                                                                         4,500,000
CO Concentration (ppm)




                          4                                                                          4,000,000
                         3.5                                                                         3,500,000
                          3                                                                          3,000,000

                         2.5                                                                         2,500,000

                          2                                                                          2,000,000

                         1.5                                                                         1,500,000
                          1                                                                          1,000,000

                         0.5                                                                         500,000

                          0                                                                          0
                               1992   1993   1994   1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001
                                               Roadside     Ambient      No. of Ve hicles
Annual Average of SO2 in Bangkok during 1996 -
                     2001
            14
            12
            10
 SO (ppb)



             8
             6
             4
             2
             0
                 1996   1997    1998      1999        2000   2001


                               ROADSIDE     AMBIENT
Annual Average of NO2 in Bangkok during 1996 -
                    2001
             50.0

             40.0
 NO2 (ppb)


             30.0

             20.0

             10.0

              0.0
                    1996   1997    1998      1999    2000   2001

                                  ROADSIDE     AMBIENT
   Annual Average of O3 in Bangkok during 1996 -
                       2001
           20

           15
O3 (ppb)




           10

           5

           0
                1996   1997    1998      1999        2000   2001


                              ROADSIDE     AMBIENT
  Annual Average of TSP in Bangkok during 1986 -
                       2001
              0.6

              0.5
TSP (mg/m3)



              0.4

              0.3

              0.2

              0.1

               0
                    1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001


                                                  ROADSIDE       AMBIENT
Annual Average of PM10 in Bangkok during 1992 -
                     2001
                 100

                  80
 PM-10 (ug/m3)




                  60

                  40

                  20

                   0
                       1992   1993   1994   1995     1996     1997     1998    1999   2000   2001

                                                   ROADSIDE          AMBIENT
Meteorological Monitoring Network




               100 meter Met tower & Radar System

  6 stations
            Meteorological parameter
100 meter Met station :    Radar system :

• Wind speed               • Wind Profile
• wind direction           • Temperature Profile
• Relative humidity
• Temp & Temp Difference
• Solar radiation
• Net radiation
• Barometric pressure
• Rain
Acid Deposition Monitoring Network




  10 stations
Acid Deposition Monitoring Activities

 1. Wet Deposition Monitoring

 2. Dry Deposition Monitoring

 3. Soil and Vegetation Monitoring

 4. Inland Aquatic Monitoring
Wet & Dry Deposition Monitoring
                               Vachiralongkorn Dam




Soil & Vegetation Monitoring




                               Inland Aquatic
                               Environment Monitoring
             Acid Rain in Thailand (pH)
Sites           1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001
Bangkok         6.4    5.6    5.2    5.3    5.0    5.0

ERTC            -      -      -      4.8    5.3    5.1

Vachi. Dam      -      6.0    5.8    5.6    5.6    5.8
TMD             -      -      -      -      4.8    -
Chiang Mai      -      -      -      -      -      5.7
Thank you very much

				
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