A Guide to OIE Certified Laboratory Twinning Projects

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					                      A Guide to OIE Certified Laboratory
                               Twinning Projects

Contents                                                                            Introduction to Twinning
                                                                                    The rapid cross continental spread and wide
Introduction to Twinning ...........................................            1
                                                                                    occurrence of major animal diseases, such as
OIE Standards (the Codes and Manuals) ................                          3   highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI),
Scope of the Twinning project ..................................                3   bluetongue and foot and mouth disease has
                                                                                    highlighted the need for a global approach to the
Principles for selecting Parent and Candidate                                       diagnosis,     surveillance     and     control     of
Laboratories ............................................................       4   Transboundary Animal Disease (TAD), including
Roles of the Parent Laboratory, Candidate                                           zoonoses. It is clear that, with the current levels of
Laboratory and the OIE............................................              5   global movements and trade, an outbreak of a TAD
Submission of proposals for OIE-supported                                           in any one country can be a threat to the whole
Twinning projects .....................................................         5   international community. Successful containment
                                                                                    and control of TADs and widely disseminated
Project plan ..............................................................     7
                                                                                    diseases will only be achieved through a rapid
Exception report .......................................................        7   global response.
Budget request ........................................................         7
                                                                                    For control to be effective it is essential that,
Funding for complementary needs that are not                                        through accurate diagnosis, disease is detected
within the scope of twinning .....................................              8   early, promptly reported to the international
OIE laboratory Twinning without OIE financial                                       community, and that standardised, internationally
support .....................................................................   8   approved     control    measures  are     applied
Assessment of laboratory material needs ................                        8   appropriately with minimum delay.

Guidance for training ................................................          8   Accurate and early disease detection allows
Monitoring ................................................................     9   measures to be implemented at a time when the
                                                                                    disease situation is more amenable to control,
Reporting requirements............................................ 10               ensuring that resources are used more efficiently
Financing arrangements and payments .................. 10                           and that direct losses are kept to a minimum. Early
Verification of expenditure........................................ 10
                                                                                    warning of a possible threat allows neighbouring
                                                                                    regions to be vigilant and ultimately reduces the
Premature termination of the project ........................ 11                    risk of further disease spread.
Project closure ........................................................ 11
                                                                                    On a national and regional level, early detection
Annexes                                                                             and effective control depends on access to
Annex 1: Mandatory documents............................... 12                      expertise and reliable laboratory diagnostic
                                                                                    facilities. On a global scale there is a need for such
Annex 2: Project plan ............................................... 12
                                                                                    facilities and expertise to be distributed evenly so
Annex 3: Budget template ........................................ 13                that all countries and territories can readily access
Annex 4: The final project report .............................. 14                 them.
Annex 5: Timeline for Twinning projects................... 14                       To allow safe trade in animals and animal products,
                                                                                    trading countries must have confidence in

  February 2010                                                                                                                        1
surveillance programmes and testing regimes used         prophylaxis, and control, and that, when justified,
to support claims of disease freedom. This requires      reliable evidence and scientific justification can be
expertise and reliable internationally approved          provided to certify animals and animal products as
diagnostic tests and procedures.                         ‘safe for trade’.
International standards and guidelines for the           One of the main objectives of the OIE Twinning
control, detection and diagnosis of major animal         Programme is to ensure a better distribution of the
diseases are developed and set by the OIE on the         Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres
basis of scientific principles. This supports the        in developed and developing countries.
requirement of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary
Agreement of the World Trade Organisation (WTO)
that ‘sanitary measures should be scientifically
justifiable’. All Members of the OIE are obliged to
comply or move towards compliance with these             Twinning essentially involves creating and
international guidelines and standards that are          supporting a link that facilitates the exchange of
prescribed in the OIE Codes and Manuals for              knowledge, ideas and experience between two
terrestrial and aquatic animals. The standards for       parties. It has been adopted by the OIE as a
diagnostic tests are laid down in both the               method for improving laboratory capacity and
Terrestrial and Aquatic Diagnostic Manuals. OIE          expertise in developing and in-transition countries.
Reference Laboratories uphold these and act as           A recent example of the successful application of
centres of expertise for specific diseases, whereas      twinning on a large scale was the European Union
OIE Collaborating Centres are centres of expertise       (EU) enlargement programme. Over 1000 twinning
in a specific designated sphere of competence (for       projects were implemented to assist accession
example epidemiology, risk analysis, etc.).              countries in meeting and maintaining the standards
                                                         required for entry into the EU.
OIE Standards are based on reliable scientific
evidence provided by the existing network of over        The OIE Laboratory Twinning Programme will
220 OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating         therefore create opportunities for developing and
Centres. They are continually reviewed, through          in-transition countries to develop laboratory
debate, and then adopted by consensus of the             diagnostic methods based on the OIE Standards.
World Assembly of OIE Delegates at the OIE               This will be achieved through individual Twinning
General Session each year.                               projects. The eventual aim is to create more OIE
                                                         Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres
Through the strength of their veterinary services,       in geographic areas that are currently under-
Members of the OIE need to be scientifically             represented and to achieve a better balance in the
competent and have sufficient capacity to:               global distribution of high-level laboratory expertise.
• Debate the scientific justification for standards
                                                         Although the ultimate aim is for Candidates to
  on an equal footing with other Members.
                                                         reach OIE Reference status, it is acknowledged that
• Where appropriate, conduct risk analyses as a          this will be beyond the scope of some projects. In
  basis for establishing and justifying national         such cases, Twinning will bring the Candidate
  policies.                                              closer to OIE Reference status by improving
                                                         standards in specific selected areas.
• Readily apply the guidelines and standards.
                                                         Each Twinning project is a partnership between an
It is essential that veterinary scientific communities
                                                         OIE Reference Laboratory (or an OIE Collaborating
in developing countries are strengthened so that
                                                         Centre demonstrating specialist expertise to OIE
they are able to contribute fully to discussions
                                                         standards) and a Candidate Laboratory. The
leading to the adoption of OIE standards.
                                                         Reference Laboratory or Collaborating Centre
At present the expertise and diagnostic capacity         provides the Candidate Laboratory with technical
provided through Reference Laboratories and              support, guidance and training.
Collaborating Centres is located mainly in
developed countries. This tendency leads to a            Objectives for each Twinning project are jointly
geographical distribution favouring the northern         agreed by the OIE and the two participants. The
hemisphere. There is a need for a more even spread       guiding or parent OIE Reference Laboratory and its
both in terms of geography and countries’                designated expert will be the driving force, ensuring
development status.                                      the success of the project. A strong relationship will
                                                         ensure a flow of expertise that will benefit the
Capacity and expertise needs to be extended to           Candidate Laboratory. Links should be formed
developing and in-transition countries so that they      between staff at all levels.
can become self-sufficient in effective surveillance,

 2                                                                                               February 2010
The concept should be flexible and adaptable to a        Animal Health Code, the Manual of Diagnostic
range of situations, from, as a first step, helping to   Tests and Vaccines for Terrestrial Animals, the
report reliable diagnostic results to eventually         Aquatic Animal Health Code and the Manual of
achieving the level required to become an OIE            Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals. The Codes
Reference Laboratory. Twinning aims to harmonise         relate to rules that Members can use to protect
procedures but not necessarily replicate them and        themselves from the introduction of diseases and
needs to be adapted to existing systems in the           pathogens via trade, without setting up unjustified
Candidate Laboratory.                                    sanitary barriers. The OIE standards for laboratory
                                                         testing and vaccination of terrestrial and aquatic
The benefits from the Twinning project should be         animals are laid out in the Manuals.
sustainable, remain long after the project has
closed and lead to the maintenance and further           Early, rapid and accurate detection of disease
development of expertise in the region.                  followed by immediate reporting to the international
                                                         community are primary and essential steps for
Ideally the relationship between the              two    effective control of TADs. For most OIE listed
laboratories should be a long and lasting one.           diseases, clinical diagnosis alone is not sufficient
                                                         to confirm infection in animals. Reliable laboratory
To increase the chances of success the project           diagnostics are therefore essential for disease
should focus on well defined, achievable and             control and safe trade.
measurable outputs. Clear-set benefits are realised
throughout the project allowing it to be divided into    Assurances about the quality and validity of
stages with set outputs from each stage. Progress        laboratory results can be provided when laboratories
can be monitored through achievement of these            comply with OIE Standards. These Standards also
goals.                                                   ensure international harmonisation of laboratory
                                                         diagnostic techniques; they are upheld by OIE
The World Animal Health and Welfare Fund,                Reference Laboratories.
managed by the OIE and supported by donors, will
provide financial support for Twinning projects.         OIE Reference Laboratories are designated to
This is to support and sustain the link between the      pursue all the scientific and technical problems
two participating institutes for the duration of an      relating to surveillance and control of a named
approved project and to ensure the effective             disease on the OIE list. The Expert, responsible to
transfer of expertise and capacity to the Candidate      the OIE and its Members with regard to these
Laboratory. It is not an objective of Twinning to        issues, should be a respected and active scientist.
fund the purchase of laboratory hardware, such as        The Reference Laboratory provides scientific and
laboratory equipment or construction material.           technical assistance, advice and training for OIE
However, the Twinning project may include an             Member laboratories. They may also coordinate
assessment of the needs for such hardware, so that       scientific and technical studies in collaboration
other necessary resources – beyond those provided        with other laboratories or organisations (see OIE
for Twinning – can be allocated appropriately.           Mandate and Internal Rules for Reference
                                                         Laboratories available on the OIE website at
If it is the aim of the project to reach Reference       http://www.oie.int/eng/OIE/organisation/en_LR.htm?e1d8)
Laboratory/Collaborating    Centre    status,  the
Candidate Laboratory must understand the                 OIE Collaborating Centres are centres of expertise
implications of becoming an OIE Reference                for specific designated spheres of competence (for
Laboratory, including its obligations to meet the        example epidemiology, risk analysis, etc.).
OIE Reference Laboratory/Collaborating Centre
Mandate.                                                 Scope of the Twinning project
Twinning is part of the wider OIE initiative to          The scope of subjects covered by Twinning is wide;
improve the capacity of Veterinary Services in           objectives of individual projects may range from
developing countries; it therefore has synergy with      improving capacity in a specific technical area to
the OIE Evaluation of Performance of Veterinary          improving capacity for a group of diseases. For
Services (PVS) programme.                                example, one laboratory may have a requirement for
                                                         improving its capacity to sequence avian influenza
OIE Standards                                            type A viruses, whilst another laboratory may wish
                                                         to improve its pig viral diagnostics or the content of
OIE Standards are recognised by the World Trade          a training programme. The project should always be
Organization as reference international sanitary         relevant to the needs of the area/region in which
rules and are laid down in four texts: the Terrestrial   the Candidate Laboratory is situated. The length of

 February 2010                                                                                               3
the project will depend on the project’s scope; OIE      Candidate Laboratories wishing to reach OIE
Twinning projects have a minimum duration of 1           Reference Laboratory status must be aware of, and
year and a maximum of 3 years.                           able to meet the principles laid down in the
                                                         Mandate for OIE Reference Laboratories.
To maximise the benefits of the project it is
important to select realistic, achievable objectives     A tried and tested relationship has a good chance
where significant improvements can be made.              of being sustainable and successful. Twinning
Choosing objectives that are too ambitious will          between laboratories that already have a good
introduce a risk of project failure and may further      relationship should be encouraged.
reduce the operational performance of a laboratory.
It is important to focus on improving specific           A Parent Laboratory must have the required level of
techniques within the Candidate Laboratory’s             expertise and capacity relevant for the Twinning
technological capability. This will form a solid         project. A Parent Laboratory must be an OIE
platform on which to build.                              Reference Laboratory for the disease in question or
                                                         an OIE Collaborating Centre with specialist
Candidate laboratories may be already benefiting         expertise to OIE standards.
from other bilateral or multilateral projects aimed
                                                         Candidate Laboratories should have the real
at increasing their capacity or expertise. In this
                                                         potential to make significant improvements in
case, a Twinning project should be designed to
                                                         terms of capacity and expertise. They will need
ensure coordination between related projects and to
                                                         adequate facilities and infrastructure, and
avoid duplication, thereby maximising synergy
                                                         demonstrate that they have the will to improve. The
among the current and future projects. Dual
                                                         resources for administering the project and for
funding for the same activities should be avoided;
                                                         training must be considered at both the Parent and
co-financing of complementary activities should be
                                                         Candidate Laboratory.
                                                         The partnership will require effective and reliable
Although some Twinning projects will result in the       communication links between the two laboratories
Candidate Laboratory reaching OIE Reference              and experts.
Laboratory status, this will not be possible or
advisable in all cases. In some cases Candidate          The location of the Candidate Laboratory is
Laboratories may attain OIE Standards only in            important. It should be located where transport
specific areas of work, for example a limited range      links are reliable and where there are unlikely to be
of diagnostic tests.                                     serious delays in transporting samples or reagents
                                                         across its national borders. It is important that
Principles for selecting Parent and                      diagnostic samples, reagents and equipment can
                                                         be transported to and from the laboratory safely and
Candidate Laboratories                                   effectively with minimal delay.
The success of a Twinning project depends on the         If the project is to succeed, goals that are set at the
selection of appropriately matched laboratories and      outset must be realistic and attainable.
well defined achievable objectives.
                                                         The selection of Twinning partnerships should be
The project relies on the support and governance of      transparent and open.
National Veterinary Services. It is essential that the
OIE National Delegates overseeing the two                The twinning project is principally between the two
laboratories involved and the respective laboratory      institutes, and the formal agreement is between the
Directors support and agree to such a Twinning           OIE, the lead Parent Laboratory and the lead
arrangement.                                             Candidate Laboratory. However, there is scope to
                                                         involve more than these two institutes in some of
Twinning aims to extend the OIE network of               the activities. For example, to broaden the scope of
expertise to areas where there is a need. The need       the twinning project the Parent Laboratory may
may be influenced by the disease situation,              wish to partner with another Parent Laboratory for
features of animal production systems in that area,      some of the capacity building activities in the
or it may be based on a risk assessment. Candidate       Candidate Laboratory.
Laboratories should be in a region where expertise
and capacity is currently deficient.                     There may also be advantages to involving staff
                                                         from more than one recipient laboratory in activities
In terms of capacity and access to expertise,            such as training – these additional staff may belong
Twinning should provide regional benefits.               to laboratories from within the Candidate
                                                         Laboratory’s country or region. The intention to do

 4                                                                                               February 2010
this should be clearly stated in the project plan and   The expert (or someone he/she nominates) at the
any additional budgetary needs should be clearly        Candidate Laboratory is project leader for activities
identified. The formal agreement will still remain      of the Candidate Laboratory.
between the OIE, the lead Parent Laboratory and
the lead Candidate Laboratory.                          The OIE
Experts may choose to engage other laboratories as      The OIE Central Bureau provides support and
a way of sharing resources for training and for         coordination for the overall Twinning programme.
strengthening links between more than two               The Scientific and Technical Department will
laboratories.                                           collate the proposed projects and applications for
                                                        referral to the Biological Standards Commission or
Multiple twinning projects in the same                  Aquatic Animal Health Standards Commission.
                                                        The OIE will make sure that technical and financial
To manage resources effectively and to maintain an      controls, outlined in the mutual agreement between
even geographical balance, it is not recommended        the participating laboratories, are applied and
that a Parent Laboratory is involved in more than       comply with the requirement of the donors
two twinning projects at the same time.                 involved.

Any restrictions on the number of projects that an      The OIE will initiate and facilitate negotiations
Institution or Organisation - housing more than one     between the OIE and potential financial donors to
OIE Reference Laboratory, Collaborating Centre, or      further assist Twinning projects.
Candidate Laboratory - is involved in may be
considered on a case by case basis.                     The Biological Standards Commission or in the
                                                        case of aquatic animal disease, the Aquatic Animal
Roles                                                   Health Standards Commission is responsible for
                                                        reviewing and providing advice on the technical
The Parent OIE Reference Laboratory (or                 components of the Twinning projects.
Collaborating Centre)                                   The OIE World Animal Health and Welfare Fund
                                                        provides financial support for the OIE Twinning
The Parent OIE Reference Laboratory or
Collaborating Centre and the designated expert(s)
from that laboratory are the driving force, ensuring
the success of the Twinning agreement.                  Submission of proposals for OIE-
                                                        supported Twinning
The expert at the Parent Laboratory is the project
manager. He/she may decide to nominate a project
                                                        Initial approach and project brief
leader who will be responsible for the activities of
the Parent Laboratory.
                                                        A Candidate or Parent Laboratory may express
                                                        interest in taking part in a Twinning project. This
The Parent Laboratory finalises the project proposal
                                                        may be a joint or individual expression of interest.
and work plan with the Candidate Laboratory and
                                                        The initial approach should be accompanied by a
submits this to the OIE Central Bureau in Paris.
                                                        ‘project brief’, which may be in the form of an
                                                        email or letter to the OIE Central Bureau. This is a
The Parent Laboratory is responsible for the
                                                        brief description of the reasons for the project and
implementation and use of the financial resources
                                                        the benefits that the project will provide. It should
supporting the Twinning project.
                                                        summarise the justification or ‘mandate’ for the
                                                        project. This should also be sent or copied to the
Candidate Laboratory                                    OIE Delegate(s) of the country(ies) or territory(ies)
                                                        in which the laboratory(ies) is/are located.
The Candidate Laboratory should be fully
committed to improving its capacity and expertise       It should be clearly stated when the Parent or
with the eventual aim of reaching OIE standards, in     Candidate Laboratory submitting the ‘expression of
compliance with the Terrestrial or Aquatic Manuals.     interest’ has chosen a Laboratory with which it
                                                        wishes to twin. The Parent Laboratory must be an
Although the Parent Laboratory is the driver of the     OIE Reference Laboratory or Collaborating Centre
project, the Candidate Laboratory, being the            with relevant expertise.
beneficiary, owns the end result that has been
achieved through the partnership.

 February 2010                                                                                            5
In other cases, where a Parent Laboratory has not       The budget proposal should be drafted in
been indicated by the Candidate Laboratory and the      accordance with the template (Annex 3). Wherever
initial interest is supported, the OIE may suggest a    possible, there should be justification for costs.
suitable partner, depending on the specific request,    There will not be scope for funding expenditure
location, and disease situation.                        outside of the agreed final budget.

The OIE may also receive expression of interest         A letter confirming the agreement of both OIE
from a Parent Laboratory and propose a Candidate        Delegates must be received by OIE before funds can be
Laboratory to the Parent Laboratory.                    transferred to the Parent Laboratory.

Following receipt of the project brief, the OIE will    The OIE provides a template for the project plan,
advise on further action.                               budget and Twinning contract, this is available on
The agreement of the OIE Delegate(s) of the countries
of the Parent Laboratory and of the Candidate           Evaluation of proposal
Laboratory will be sought.
                                                        Advice on technical components of the Twinning
Project proposal                                        proposal will be provided by the OIE Biological
                                                        Standards Commission or, in the case of aquatic
Any Candidate or Parent Laboratory that has the         animal diseases, the OIE Aquatic Animal Health
agreement of the OIE Delegate can submit a project      Standards Commission. In certain circumstances
proposal to the OIE following submission of a           where the OIE agrees that there is an urgent need
project brief. The OIE may advise on factors that       to approve a Twinning project, the procedure may
make it unlikely for the application to be              be ‘fast-tracked’, by seeking the advice of the
successful; this might include duplication with an      Biological Standards Commission or, in the case of
existing or proposed Twinning project in the region.    aquatic animal diseases, of the Aquatic Animal
                                                        Health Standards Commission, by means of
The potential Parent Laboratory should submit the       electronic communication. The final decision will
project proposal to the Director General of the OIE.    be made by the Director General of OIE.

The Twinning proposal should include:                   To cater for the variable nature of Twinning
                                                        projects, the evaluation process will consider each
• An official letter signed by Directors of both        application on a case-by-case basis.
  institutes. This must indicate that the Directors
  of both institutes support the Twinning Project.      Feedback following evaluation
• The details of the laboratories and the
                                                        The OIE will consider each proposal and respond by
  responsible experts at the Parent and Candidate
                                                        accepting the proposal, seeking further clarification
  Laboratories. If the responsible expert leaves or
                                                        or rejecting the proposal. In the case of the latter,
  is replaced, the OIE needs to be informed of
                                                        the OIE will give a reason for the failed application.
  this and agree to the change.

• Curriculum Vitae of the experts at the Parent         Signature of contract following              project
  and Candidate Laboratory.                             approval and project initiation
• A project plan (including timetable and all the
                                                        Following technical review by the Biological
  points covered in Annex 2).
                                                        Standards Commission a financial contract must be
• A budget proposal (Annex 3).                          signed by the responsible expert, nominated by the
                                                        Director of the Parent Institute, and the OIE.
The application dossier should be submitted in one      Annexed to this is the project plan, which should
of the official languages of the OIE (English,          be signed by the Directors of the Candidate and
French or Spanish). A hard copy and an electronic       Parent Laboratories; each page should also be
copy should be sent to the Director General of the      initialled by the signees.
                                                        The contract and project plan templates are provided
Consideration of selection criteria and a statement     by the OIE.
of clear, measurable and achievable objectives will
improve the chances of a successful application.        The project should be initiated without undue

 6                                                                                             February 2010
Project plan                                            An example might be a dramatic increase in sample
                                                        shipping costs.
The project plan describes what the project             The OIE will consider the report and communicate
objectives are exactly and how they will be met, at     on further action.
what cost, when and by whom. It houses the details
of the project and will be a reference point
throughout the project.                                 Budget request
                                                        A budget for the project is agreed between OIE and
The plan should emphasise the key areas of work
                                                        the Twinning participants. An initial draft budget is
where improvements will have a significant impact
                                                        jointly submitted by the Parent Laboratory and
on the overall benefits of the project.
                                                        Candidate Laboratory as part of the project
                                                        proposal. It must reflect the subjects and activities
The project should be divided into stages with
                                                        outlined in the project plan.
defined measurable outputs from each stage.
Examples may include the completion of a                As a guide the budget should fit the template in
workshop or the attainment of a certain level of        Annex 3 and should be subdivided into subjects
competence in a laboratory procedure. At the end        and activities. A subject is a general item (e.g.
of each stage it is important to hold a review to       training) whereas an activity is more specific (e.g. a
assess project progress and address any                 workshop); each activity forms a budget line. An
outstanding issues. This would include checking         activity should be an isolated cost, i.e. separate
that targets have been met, assessing budgetary         and not linked to any other costs in the budget
expenditure, considering project risks and planning     plan.
for the next stage. Any lessons that have been
learned should be used to improve the project. For      Justification for costs should be provided wherever
future reference, it is important to summarise the      possible.
review in a brief written report.
                                                        The budget should be expressed preferably in Euros
In some cases changes will need to be made to the       (EUR), or otherwise in US Dollars (USD).
plan as priorities shift or as project issues arise.
Examples may include the validation of a new            Following review of the draft budget by the OIE, it
technology or procedure (e.g. a better laboratory       will be accepted, returned with comments or
test) not accounted for in the project plan,            rejected. If it is accepted, the draft becomes the
developments in the disease situation, or changes       final version. If it is returned with comments, the
to the political, commercial or legislative             Parent Laboratory has the opportunity to consider
environment. The project plan is a dynamic              and submit a revised version in consultation with
document and needs to be updated when                   the Candidate Laboratory.
necessary. Any changes to the project plan should
not take expenditure outside the project budget.        A budget will only be allocated to activities for
                                                        which financing is requested and where those
Significant changes to the project plan, affecting      activities are eligible for funding.
the overall project or budget, should be submitted
                                                        The following are examples of eligible costs:
to the OIE for approval before being adopted.
                                                        • Travel costs and per diem for experts visiting the
To ensure optimal benefits and avoid duplication,
                                                          Parent or Candidate Laboratory to participate in
the project plan should account for the activities of
                                                          activities directly related to the Twinning
any other ongoing OIE Twinning projects in the
                                                          project. Travel costs, including per diem, must
Candidate Laboratory, and where possible, other
                                                          be in line with current OIE rules (contact OIE for
laboratory capacity building initiatives.
                                                          guidance and current rates).
An outline of what the project plan should include      • The costs of laboratory reagents that are directly
is shown in Annex 2.                                      linked to the Twinning project. This includes
                                                          reagents used for practical training activities,
Exception report                                          assessments, and ring trials.
                                                           Note: The total cost of laboratory consumables
If a serious ‘exceptional’ issue is encountered that       (including reagents) should not exceed 30% of
affects the overall project or budget, the OIE should      the subtotal of the budget minus these costs.
be notified immediately by way of a report. The            For example if c=cost of laboratory consumables
report should provide a full description of the            and t=total cost of project then c/(t-c) ≤ 0.3.
problem and identify recommended actions.

 February 2010                                                                                             7
• Shipment of diagnostic samples and reagents          OIE summarising the approximate needs, with a
  directly related to the Twinning project.            short explanation of how this will complement the
                                                       twinning project. The OIE can use this document,
• Training activities and material such as             on request, to assist the laboratory to obtain
  stationery specifically for seminars, excluding      resources from specific donors.
  certain items such as printers, Information
  Technology (IT) equipment, photocopiers, paper,
  ink for printers. Details of the training activity   OIE laboratory Twinning without OIE
  and specific costs must be submitted.                financial support
• Communication costs for telephone conferences
                                                       Some laboratories may wish to apply for OIE
  (with sufficient justification). The use of cost
                                                       Laboratory Twinning without making a request for
  effective communication means is encouraged
                                                       financial support from the OIE; for example they
  (e.g. Internet-based phone calls).
                                                       may receive funds from their own country or from
• The use of external consultants, or inclusion of     other donors. In such cases a budget does not need
  bench fees, shall be limited to certain restricted   to be submitted nor does a contract need to be
  specific consultant activities, or trainings where   signed. However the project should comply with all
  external expertise is essential, such as             other aspects of OIE Laboratory Twinning, in
  preparation of a call for tender for equipment, or   particular monitoring of outputs and performance.
  external training on a relevant specific
  topic. Justification must be provided and the        Assessment of laboratory material
  outcome should be made available to the OIE.
  Approval of any consultancy fees will be decided     needs
  on a case by case basis, and must be approved
  before the project has started; claims cannot be     During the Twinning project, the Parent Laboratory
  submitted without prior approval for these costs.    may arrange, in the framework of the Twinning, for
                                                       an assessment of the material needs of the
Funding is not available for:                          Candidate Laboratory. This will take into account
-       General overheads, administrative costs, and   the expertise at the Candidate Laboratory, the level
        contingencies;                                 of expertise required to use the equipment and the
                                                       capability to maintain and run the equipment.
-       Laboratory hardware (such    as   equipment,
        construction, clothing).                       Funding for purchase of laboratory hardware will
                                                       not be provided by the OIE Twinning budget.
It is not an objective of Twinning projects to         However, an assessment of material needs may
directly provide funds to equip laboratories with      help the Candidate Laboratory to source other
hardware or building materials. However, a             external funding or use existing funds to maximum
Twinning project may include an expert assessment      benefit.
of the laboratory’s needs for additional hardware.
                                                       Guidance for training
The OIE will provide guidance and advice for
participants wishing to make an application for        Training will be an inherent part of the Twinning
Twinning. However there will not be financial          project and must contribute to the overall
support for the preparation of the proposals.          objectives of the project. The nature of training
                                                       activities may include day-to-day communication
Funding for complementary needs that                   on specific issues, sharing of scientific
                                                       communications, comments on draft papers, short
are not within the scope of twinning                   secondments between laboratories, participation in
Resources for needs that are not within the scope      technical meetings and conferences, joint seminars
of laboratory twinning and are available from other    and structured workshops for staff from both
sources may complement or enhance the capacity         laboratories. Training should focus on developing
building objectives of twinning. This may include      self reliance in the Candidate Laboratory.
funds for laboratory hardware, reagents, or other
                                                       Training activities should be regularly evaluated to
activities, such as research. When such funds are
                                                       assess that the objectives are being met so that
available, OIE may assist the Parent or Candidate
                                                       improvements can be made, when necessary.
Laboratory in accessing them.
                                                       When planning a workshop or seminar it is
In this situation the Parent and Candidate
                                                       important that participants are chosen for their
Laboratory should submit a joint one page proposal,
                                                       experience and expertise or are chosen from a
separate to the twinning project proposal, to the
                                                       specific related area of work. Learning material

    8                                                                                        February 2010
must be relevant. The objectives of the training         Secondments
activity should be clearly defined at the outset so
that suitable participants can be selected. In           During a secondment, a member of staff at either
deciding on suitability of participants, it may help     laboratory spends time at the other laboratory on
to review applicants’ CVs or brief biographies.          detached duty. Good examples include for ‘hands
                                                         on’ training of the staff or for the assessment of
Links between staff                                      material needs and working practices in the
                                                         Candidate Laboratory. Secondments that are part of
To maximise the benefits and to avoid the risk of        the Twinning project must have direct benefits for
knowledge gaps, it is important that strong links are    the Twinning project.
formed between staff of the Parent and Candidate
Laboratory at every level. Whilst the experts are        Secondments should be well planned. Specific
involved with high level expertise and management,       needs should be discussed in advance of the
other laboratory staff, researchers and technicians      secondment period to allow a plan to be
have hands-on, day-to-day experience in essential        constructed and, if necessary, appropriate materials
technical and practical activities. Knowledge will       to be sourced. The maximum length of a
be shared more effectively through direct links          secondment supported by OIE is usually 3 months,
between people.                                          with the possibility to repeat this once.

Flexibility                                              Monitoring
The approach to training and the training material       Monitoring is essential to ensure that the project
should take into account factors such as the             remains within its scope, meets its objectives and
language spoken in the laboratory, cultural issues,      uses its financial resources effectively.
technological capability and budget. Some of these
will be limiting factors and will need to be             Monitoring performance
considered in the early planning stages of the
project.                                                 To ensure that the project achieves its objectives in
                                                         the set period it is important to regularly monitor
Training trainers                                        progress and take corrective action when necessary.
                                                         Underperformance needs to be identified as early
It is important that people are trained in a way that    as possible to minimise the impact on the project.
allows them to disseminate expertise to their            Performance should be monitored by the
colleagues and to stimulate debate in their own          achievement of predefined set goals within the
region. This involves selecting attendees with good      project timeframe.
communication skills who are in a position to pass
on their knowledge. The training activities should       To facilitate monitoring, the project plan can be
take this into consideration, when relevant, by          divided into stages; at the end of each stage a
incorporating teaching skills into the work              result is delivered. Examples of a product or output
programme and using training material that is            may include completion of a workshop, publication
suitable for wider dissemination.                        of a training manual, or attainment of a certain
                                                         level of competence in a diagnostic procedure.
Assessment                                               These should be set to a timetable.
It is essential to assess that training is meeting the   At the end of each stage a review should take place
expectations of the participants. This may be            led by the expert (or someone he/she nominates) at
achieved through a pre- and post-training                the Parent Laboratory; this can be brief and
questionnaire that allows suggestions about how          informal. The review provides the opportunity to
training could be improved. Accurate and useful          ‘take stock’, summarise the achievements of the
feedback is more likely when questions are               previous stage, and, if targets haven’t been met, to
carefully considered and participants have the           understand why so that action can be taken. It is a
opportunity for anonymity, and are set a convenient      good idea to document this and it is important to
time to complete the questionnaire. This should be       reflect any necessary changes in the project plan.
done as close to the training as possible or during
the training period.                                     Monitoring expenditure
To assess whether training is having the desired         Actual spending should be documented regularly
effect it may be helpful to evaluate the level of        throughout the project (see ‘verification of
competence of those being trained. This                  expenditure’).
assessment may be informal.

 February 2010                                                                                             9
Project risks                                           • A final report, as soon as possible on completion
                                                          of the project. The final reports should be jointly
It is important to be realistic and have an               prepared by the Parent and Candidate
awareness of factors that may hamper project              Laboratory, co-signed and submitted to the OIE
progress and increase project costs. These risks          Central Bureau. The final report should include
may be present from the beginning of the project or       the items listed in Annex 4.
arise after it has started.
                                                        Annual and final reports must include details of
Every Twinning project is likely to encounter project   actual expenditure and a summary of the technical
risks. An awareness of potential project risks is the   activities carried out within the project (e.g.
first step to avoiding them.                            training courses or seminars (including dates,
                                                        venue, and number of participants), preparation for
Before starting and during the project it is            an accreditation procedure etc.).
advisable to:
                                                        In addition to these reports and when relevant it is
• Identify project risks;                               recommended       that   end-stage   reports    are
• Consider the impact that they may have on the
  project if they occur;
                                                        Financing arrangements and payments
• Consider how likely they are to occur;
                                                        Funds will be transferred to and managed by the
• Consider what action can be taken to minimise
                                                        Parent Laboratory; payments will be made when the
  their impact.
                                                        project is initiated, following an interim
• Document tentative plans to be used should an         report/request, and after receipt of each report. The
  identified risk occur.                                size of the payments, as a proportion of the total
                                                        budget, will be calculated on a case-by-case basis.
Risks that need to be considered may include            As a general rule approximately 50% of the total
political factors, such as the frequent replacement     budget will be transferred to the Parent Laboratory
of the Chief Veterinary Office or Director of the       when the project is initiated. The remaining budget
laboratory concerned.                                   will be transferred to the Parent Laboratory over the
                                                        course of the project, following receipt of interim,
Many, but not all risks can be identified prior to      annual and final reports.
starting the project. It is important to regularly
monitor risks and evaluate them as they arise. A        Any budget that remains unspent at the close of
convenient time to do this is at the end of each        the project must be refunded to the OIE (or will be
defined stage of the project.                           deducted from the final payment, as appropriate).

If a risk becomes an issue that may affect the          Verification of expenditure
whole project or budget then the OIE must be
notified immediately (see Exception report).            It is important that financial expenditure complies
                                                        with the project plan, budget and eligibility rules.
Reporting requirements                                  In certain circumstances the OIE may require that
                                                        an audit is carried out during or after the project.
As a minimum the Parent Laboratory should – after       Therefore, all financial records and detailed
agreement with the Candidate Laboratory – submit        accounts, including evidence of expenditure
the following reports to the OIE Scientific and         (receipts etc.) must be kept available for at least
Technical Department in the OIE Central Bureau,         5 years after the project has closed.
Paris. These should be typed in one of the official
languages of the OIE (English, French or Spanish).      The OIE may request verification of expenditure at
                                                        any point during the project. It is very important
• An interim report, within the first year,   but at    that financial records are kept up to date and that
  least 4 months after the project has        started   receipts of expenditure are available for a random
  (date of transfer of funds to the           Parent    exceptional audit.
  Laboratory) – a brief summary of            project
  progress from initiation, including          actual   Any audit (exceptional or post-project) will be
  expenditure to date.                                  carried out by authorised OIE staff or an
                                                        independent financial expert appointed by the OIE
• Annual reports, within 1 month of the end of          or by a Donor in agreement with the OIE.
  each year from the project start date.

 10                                                                                            February 2010
Premature termination of the project                    Project closure
In the unlikely event that the project needs to be      The Parent Laboratory should immediately inform
terminated prematurely, the OIE, Candidate or           the OIE in writing that the project has closed.
Parent Laboratory may initiate this by providing        Within 1 month of this date, the Parent Laboratory
3 month’s notice to the other parties, in writing.      should submit a final report jointly prepared with
                                                        the Candidate Laboratory.
In the event of premature termination, payments for
costs actually incurred or indissolubly committed       The final project report will be the most
during the project, that have not yet been financed,    comprehensive of all reports submitted over the
will be reimbursed by the OIE. No payments other        course of the project and should include all the
than these will be due to the Parent or Candidate       information listed in Annex 4.


 February 2010                                                                                        11

                                           Annex 1: Mandatory documents
Project proposal dossier – including:                                         •   Signed financial contract between Parent
                                                                                  Laboratory and OIE
     •   Official letter signed by Directors of both
         institutes                                                           •   Project plan and budget signed by Parent
     •   Details of the experts (including their CVs)                             and Candidate Laboratories (including
         and laboratories or Collaborating Centres.                               initials on each page)

     •   Project plan
                                                                          Project reports – as a minimum:
     •   Budget proposal
                                                                              •   An interim project report
Following project approval
                                                                              •   Annual project reports
     •   Official letter signed by Delegates of both
         OIE Member Countries or Territories (this can                        •   A final project report
         be submitted to the OIE at any time before
         funds are transferred to the Parent
                                                                          Notification of project closure

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                                                Annex 2: The Project Plan
1.       Project plan, including:                                            1.10. Timetables and measurable                       outputs
                                                                                   (targets) for each stage
  1.1. The validated budget
                                                                             1.11. Any foreseeable risks to the project
  1.2. The background to the project
                                                                             1.12. A communication plan – including
  1.3. A short and concise summary of the                                          laboratory to laboratory or centre to centre
       objectives                                                                  and laboratory or centre to OIE, and
                                                                                   frequency of project updates/end-stage
  1.4. Description of how the objectives will be

  1.5. Reporting schedule (in accordance with the                            1.13. A coordination plan (where relevant) –
       OIE Twinning Manual)                                                        including a list of past and existing
                                                                                   bilateral and multilateral projects involving
  1.6. A work plan showing who is involved in                                      the Candidate Laboratory (e.g. OIE
       which task, including administration and                                    Twinning) and ways to how to avoid
       budget management                                                           duplication and ensure synergy .

  1.7. A training plan (if appropriate)                                      1.14. Where relevant, provisions for shipment of
                                                                                   samples    in    accordance     with   the
  1.8. Details of Directors of the institutes for the                              requirements for postage and packaging of
       two countries concerned                                                     biological materials described in the
                                                                                   relevant chapters and appendixes of the
  1.9. Details of the experts (including their CVs)                                OIE Terrestrial or Aquatic Code and
       and laboratories/collaborating centres                                      Manual.

 12                                                                                                                        February 2010
                    Annex 3: Budget proposal for an OIE Laboratory Twinning
                (This template is for guidance and may be adapted to suit the project)
 • Recipient            (laboratory A)
 • Animal Disease       (name of disease)                                     Boxes to be filled in by the applicant
 • Currency             (preferably EUR, otherwise USD)
 • Application          (name)
   Prepared by          (contact details)

                                   Budget Proposal for an
                 OIE Laboratory (or Collaborating Centre)Twinning between
                          (name of Parent institute A),             (name of country A)
                      (name of Candidate institute B),              (name of country B)

                                                             Unit Amount             No.             Sub-total
                                                                                Expert 1 (name)
 Travel                                                                                                   -
 (From A to B or from B to A)
 Daily Allowance                                                                                          -
 (from day of arrival to day of departure)
                                                Sub-total                                                 -
                                                                                Expert 2 (name)
 Travel                                                                                                   -
 (From A to B or from B to A)
 Daily Allowance                                                                                          -
 (from day of arrival to day of departure)
                                                Sub-total                                                 -
 Meetings / Workshops

                                                                                  Meeting 1
 Purpose                                                          Place
 Number of invitees
 Organisation cost                                                                                        -
 Travel                                                                                                   -
 Per diems                                                                                                -
                                                Sub-total                                                 -
                                                                                  Meeting 2
 Purpose                                                          Place
 Number of invitees
 Organisation cost                                                                                        -
 Travel                                                                                                   -
 Per diems                                                                                                -
                                                Sub-total                                                 -
 Laboratory Material Needed for Training                                                                  -
 including reagents, antisera, etc.
 Hardware equipment is NOT eligible
                                                Sub-total                                                 -
                                                    Total                                                 -

February 2010                                                                                                     13
                                          Annex 4: The final project report
The final report must be submitted within 1 month                         • Description of activities including training,
of the project closing. It should be jointly prepared,                      secondments, workshops, joint research and
and signed, by the Parent and Candidate                                     publications, sharing of diagnostic material,
Laboratories then submitted to the OIE Scientific                           assessments, project reviews.
and Technical Department by the Parent
Laboratory.                                                               • Situation in Candidate Laboratory at the end of
                                                                            the project including the ability to maintain and
The final project report should cover the following:                        sustain the achieved objectives.

• Summary of the project aims and objectives set
                                                                          • A final report of expenditure.
  out at the start, including the justification for
  the project.
                                                                          • Lessons learned to improve future projects.
• Description of situation in Candidate Laboratory
  at the beginning of the project and the priority                        • Recommendations for future projects.
  areas that were selected for improvement.
                                                                          • Mid to long term strategy for the Candidate
• Any changes that were made to the initial                                 Laboratory and sustaining the link between the
  project plan, such as a change in direction or                            two laboratories.

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                        Annex 5: Summary of steps during a Twinning project
1. Expression of interest by Candidate Laboratory;                                The transfer of funds cannot take place before
   a letter with a brief description and justification                            receipt of the agreement signed by both OIE
   for Twinning project.                                                          Delegates from the countries or territories
                                                                                  involved in the Twinning project.
2. Comments from the OIE.
                                                                             7. Length of project up to an initial estimated
3. Submission of formal application dossier to the                              period of 3 years.
   OIE. This should include signed letters from
   the Directors of the institutes indicating their                          8. Interim and annual project reports. The
   support for the Twinning Project.                                            frequency of project reports will be described
                                                                                in the project plan. Ideally there will be a
4.    Approval procedures.                                                      brief written report at the end of each project
5. Following approval of the Project Plan and                                     As a minimum there must be an interim report
   Budget, a financial contract is signed by the                                  in the first year, at least 4 months after the
   OIE and Parent Laboratory. The Project Plan is                                 project has been initiated, there should be an
   signed (and pages initialled) by the Parent and                                annual reports, a final report.
   Candidate Laboratories.
                                                                             9. Project closure, immediate notification to
6. Project initiation (date of transfer of funds from                           OIE.
   OIE to the Parent Laboratory).
                                                                             10. Final project report within 1 month of project

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 14                                                                                                                        February 2010
                                                   de la Santé

                                                   for Animal

                                                   de Sanidad

12 rue de Prony 75017 Paris France • tel.: 33(0)1 44 15 18 88 • fax: 33(0)1 42 67 09 87 • oie@oie.int • www.oie.int

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