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					     Plagiarism
Plagiarism . . . . . .




              the dark side of research
Plagiarism is the act of taking someone else’s work and
presenting it as your own.




             Plagiarism is stealing


             Plagiarism is lying

             Plagiarism is cheating

             Plagiarism is dishonest

             Plagiarism comes with a set of consequences
    Paraphrasing is often offered as the defense for
    plagiarizing. A researcher reads the work of another,
    then takes that material and puts it “in his /her own
    words.”




If that is truly the case and direct quotes, footnotes and citations
are used correctly, then the researcher is on solid ground.
      Many researches say they “paraphrased” the work of
      another, but what they have really done is plagiarized.




Are you clear about how to create a document
from an original source without taking what is not
legally yours?
   The passage on the left was written by David Noonan. The passage
   on the right was turned in by a student writer.


 After the scalp and the skull,        First is the scalp and the skull,
the next layer protecting the         and then there is the next layer
brain is the dura. A thin, tough,     protecting the brain called the
leathery membrane that encases        dura. This thin, tough, but
the brain, the dura (derived          leathery membrane wraps
from the Latin for hard) is dark      around the brain. The dura
pink, almost red. It is rich with     (which means hard in Latin) is
blood vessels and nerves (when        dark pink, nearly red. It is also
you have a headache, it’s the         rich with blood vessels and
dura that aches), and now it can      nerves. When you have a
be seen stretching across the         headache, it’s the dura doing
expanse of the opening pulsing        the aching. The dura can be
lightly. The outline of the           seen stretching across the
cerebellum bulging against the        expanse of the opening beating
dura is clear. With a crease in       lightly. The outline of the
the middle, the dura-sheathed         cerebellum ballooning against
cerebellum looks oddly like a         the dura is clear. The dura
tiny pair of buttocks.                wraps around the cerebellum
                                      and has a crease in the middle.
                                      It looks, oddly, like a butt.


     This is an example of word-for-word plagiarism
The passage on the left was written by David Noonan. The passage on the
right was turned in by another student writer.


       After the scalp and the skull,       Noonan (1997) explains that the
    the next layer protecting the          brain is made up of several layers.
                                           The outer layer is known as the
    brain is the dura. A thin, tough,      scalp, next is the skull, and then
    leathery membrane that encases         there is a casing of the brain called
    the brain, the dura (derived           the dura. The dura is a thin, tough,
    from the Latin for hard) is dark       leathery membrane with a tough,
    pink, almost red. It is rich with      ruddy texture. In fact, dura is
    blood vessels and nerves (when         derived from the Latin word meaning
    you have a headache, it’s the          hard. The dura is a pinkish-red color
                                           which is probably due to the fact it is
    dura that aches), and now it can       rich with blood vessels and nerves.
    be seen stretching across the          (It is the nerves in the dura that ache
    expanse of the opening pulsing         when a person suffers with a
    lightly. The outline of the            headache). As it stretches across the
    cerebellum bulging against the         space of the opening, it throbs
    dura is clear. With a crease in        accentuating the outline of the
    the middle, the dura-sheathed          bulging cerebellum. The fold in the
                                           middle of the dura-sheathed
    cerebellum looks oddly like a          cerebellum is similar in looks to a
    tiny pair of buttocks.                 baby’s bottom.




                  Example of “Patchwork Plagiarism”
The passage on the left was written by David Noonan. The passage on the
right was turned in by another student writer.

    After the scalp and the skull, the next   In his profile of brain surgeons
    layer protecting the brain is the dura.   performing a complicated surgery,
    A thin, tough, leathery membrane          Noonan (1997) notes the
    that encases the brain, the dura          resemblance of the cerebellum to a
    (derived from the Latin for hard) is      tiny buttock. This appearance is due
    dark pink, almost red. It is rich with    to the fact that the cerebellum bulges
    blood vessels and nerves (when you        inside a thin membrane (called the
    have a headache, it’s the dura that       dura) which has a seam running
    aches), and now it can be seen            down the middle. The humor in the
    stretching across the expanse of the      comparison belies the seriousness of
    opening pulsing lightly. The outline      the membrane’s function. The dura
    of the cerebellum bulging against the     is the part of the brain where
    dura is clear. With a crease in the       headaches occur although its
    middle, the dura-sheathed                 function is “to protect the brain”.
    cerebellum looks oddly like a tiny        The membrane is thin, but tough. In
    pair of buttocks.                         fact, the word dura comes from “the
                                              Latin meaning hard” (Page 2). It is
                                              resilient to the rhythmic pulse of the
                                              cerebellum ballooning through the
                                              opening.




             Legitimate paraphrase that needs to be cited.
Researching a topic involves looking at the ideas of
another who has already studied a subject/issue.


A researcher can only use another’s ideas to
create a unique interpretation of the information or
make a contribution to the subject/issue based on the
information found if they credit their source


                           That is called learning.
 So how do you avoid Plagiarism?




 One way is by using: MLA - 3 File Organization:


File 1: Your Original     File 2: Summaries of     File 3: Direct Quotes
Ideas                     other’s ideas- notes
                          you have taken
Another way is to: Read; Contemplate; then Write




         Read the passages you are researching enough times
         so you really understand the information. Think about it
         and put it in your words . . .the way you would explain it
         to a friend. Write it down.
A third way is to abbreviate your notes:




                 Take notes using key/words ideas and using
                 “ordinary” language
You can also avoid plagiarism by Changing the
Structure & Order:



   Begin putting information into Note form by starting
   at different points in the passage from which you
   are reading. This will help change the order of
   information (somewhat). Also look at how
   language/sentences are structured. Use words
   that are part of your vocabulary.
                   Do                                         Don’t
Take abbreviated notes of main ideas      Don’t copy word for word


Work to understand what you read,         Don’t cut/paste then modify
then record
You can build on work & ideas that you    Don’t use another’s work as your own
research, but cite it
Figure out a time line for getting your   Don’t put something off to the last minute
assignment done, & stick to it
Explore a way to make your                Don’t pick a topic that does not interest you
assignment relevant
Put your new learning into terms that     Don’t use someone else’s words (unless it’s a
make sense to you                         direct quote & cited)

Take a scholarly approach; embrace        Don’t justify a million reasons why the
the challenge                             assignment is “dumb”

Remember, there is software that          Don’t purchase a paper or allow someone to
detects plagiarized work                  write it for you.

Learn your school’s honor code &          Don’t take unnecessary risks that could
consequences for violating it             sabotage your learning
     Cite your sources


Sometimes you need to take a phrase/sentence/passage
someone else has written, word for word. When you are
presented with this situation, use quotation marks and write a
citation. When you write your paper, you can make a decision
as to whether or not you need to use those quotes to make
your paper more clear. You have to cite more than words. You
have to cite pictures, graphs, charts, (anything) that is not your
original work. Keep in mind, stringing a bunch of quotes
together is not writing and it is not learning.
Citing Your Sources is necessary when. . .


             You use someone else's words/ideas (no matter where they came from).

             When quoting a person’s exact words or the words put together that make up
             THEIR idea

             When using pictures, charts, graphs assembled/created by another

                      That means:

                      When you summarize a passage (or condense/shorten
                      something using your own words) – Cite it

                      When you paraphrase a passage (or restate something in
                      your own words but more detailed than a summary) –
                      Cite it

                      Use another’s exact words – Cite it
     Read the selection below, then see three different ways of using the material
For some lucky Roman children, growing up consisted only of play and school. Roman fathers
educated their own children until the time of the emperors, when those who could afford it
hired tutors. Many also sent the children to school from the age of seven to learn the basics,
with abacus and wax tablet. On the way to school children stopped at a breakfast bar, as
Italian children still do. School ran from dawn until noon; there was much learning by heart,
and children were often thrashed when they made mistakes. Girls rarely received more than a
basic education, after which they had to learn household skills from their mothers. Sons of the
nobility would go on to prepare for a careen in law or government. However, school was for
the privileged few. Most children came from poor families; they could not read or write and
were put to work at an early age. (154 words) all content on this page From book by Barbara Francis – “Other People’s Words

Summary: In his book Ancient Rome, Simon James describes what school was like for children in that
civilization. Formal schooling was reserved primarily for upper-class boys, who could then as a adults take the
best positions in society. Girls were left to learn primarily home-making skills from their mothers. However,
most of the population was poor and those children had to work rather than go to school. (65 words)


Paraphrase: In his chapter on the education of Roman children, Simon James writes in Ancient Rome that
the best-educated children were boys from the upper class. Some of these boys not only attended a school,
but also had private tutors. These boys could the go on to become important adult citizens. Girls were mostly
schooled at home to learn basic home-making skills. However, children who received any education at all
made up a small portion of the population. Most roman children were poor and generally received little to no
education and were forced to work at a young age. (98 words.)

Direct quote: In his book entitle Ancient Rome, Simon James notes that Roman children centuries ago went
off to school in a similar fashion to modern-day kids. “On the way to school children stopped at a breakfast
bar, as Italian children still do.” He adds that Roman children, mostly upper-class boys, attended school only in
the morning.
A parenthetical documentation is the simplest way to cite a source.
What that means is RIGHT NEXT to the information you put in your
paper, you place the author’s last name and the page(s) in parenthesis.

                                              Page 91 of Barbara Francis’ book
 Book by Barbara Francis




                                       Students own the responsibility not to plagiarize.
                                       That means they need to learn what plagiarism is,
                                       how to avoid it, and how to properly document
Student paper with a parenthetical     their sources. In addition they need to take
citation. A full bibliography of the
book would appear on the Works         responsibility to do their best to understand the
Cited page
                                       assignment and ask their teacher for help in areas
                                       where things are not clear. (Francis 91).
If the writer wishes to cite another passage from the same work s/he has
already cited, then only the page number is needed in the parenthetical
citation.




                 Students own the responsibility not to plagiarize. That means they need to learn

              what plagiarism is, how to avoid it, and how to properly document their sources. In

              addition they need to take responsibility to do their best to understand the

              assignment and ask their teacher for help in areas where things are not clear.

              (Francis 91). It is also important for student to be informed of the rules by which

              they are judged or evaluated. That means becoming familiar with the school’s

              honor code and the consequences for violating it. (92)




The 2 slides that follow this one are taken from the Internet. The site is called the Research Guide for
Students. http://www.aresearchguide.com/
It does a good job of explaining the process. Another resource can by accessed by going to the MHS
Library Web Page; select tutorials; select Zipper Research
Sample page from Web Site Research Guide for Students. http://www.aresearchguide.com/
It illustrates a paper on the topic of Taboo using parenthetical citations



                                          The Many Faces of Tabu

 The World Book Encyclopedia defines Taboo as "an action, object, person, or place
 forbidden by law or culture" (Dundes).
          As pointed out in the Occultopedia, another word for taboo is "tabu" a Polynesian
 word meaning that which is banned. The Occultopedia also points out that taboo is found
 among many other cultures including the ancient Egyptians, Jews and others ("Taboo").
          Mary Douglas has analyzed the many facets and interpretations of taboos across
 various cultures. In her view, taboos could be considered a kind of "brain-washing"
 (2549) as they are transmitted to individuals along with an entire cultural system made
 up of a pattern of values and norms.
          In reference to Freak Shows at circuses, an interesting observation is made that
 people who possess uncommon features and who willingly go out in public to display such
 oddities to onlookers are acting as "modern-day taboo breakers" by crossing the "final
 boundary between societal acceptance and ostracism." (Rothenberg).
          In traditional British East Africa, between the time of puberty and marriage, a
 young Akamba girl must maintain an avoidance relationship with her own father (Freud
 17).
          Looking at taboo in a modern society, Marvin Harris gives an interesting example
 of the application of cultural materialism to the Hindu taboo against eating beef (qtd. in
 McGrath).
Sample page from Web Site Research Guide for Students. http://www.aresearchguide.com/

It illustrates citation page for paper presented in the last slide




                                                       Works Cited

Douglas, Mary. "Taboo." Man, Myth & Magic. Ed. Richard Cavendish. New ed.
      21 vols. New York: Cavendish, 1994. 2546-2549.


Dundes, Alan. "Taboo." The World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed.


Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo. New York: Random, 1918.


McGrath, Stacy. "Ecological Anthropology." Anthropological Theories: A Guide
     Prepared by Students for Students. 19 Oct. 2001. U. of Alabama. 18 Jan.
     2005. <http://www.as.ua.edu/ant/Faculty/Murphy/ecologic.htm>.

Rothenberg, Kelly. "Tattooed People as Taboo Figures in Modern Society."
     1996. BME/Psyber City. 18 Jan. 2005 http://www.bme.freeq.com/tattoo/tattab.htjl.


"Taboo." Occultopedia: Encyclopedia of Occult Sciences and Knowledge. Site created and designed by
Marcus V. Gay. 18 Jan. 2005
      <http://www.occultopedia.com/t/taboo.htm>.
    There are 3 things that will make you not only a
    researcher. . .but, a better scholar.
    They are:




Rigor                                           Relevance

         Relationships
When you connect to your topic in an emotional,
mental, and thoughtful way, you are RELATING.
You are involved. You are taking ownership of your
learning.
When you take that information and apply meaning
to your life, your goals, and your future you are
making it RELEVANT. You have made a decision
that it matters to you and it will help you grow.
When you pursue information for the sure joy of it. . .
Because it matters. . .
Because it’s tough, but you are tougher. . .
Because it will make you smarter and you will improve



That is   RIGOR!!!
                                    Works Cited




"Chapter 9: Parenthetical References in MLA Style - Sample Page." A Research Guide
   for Students. OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc. , n.d. Web. 14 Jan.
   2010.


Francis, Barbara. Other People’s Words: What Plagiarism Is and How to Avoid It.
   Berkeley Heights, NJ.: Enslow Publishers, 2005.

Noonan, David. Neuro: Life on the Frontlines of Brain Surgery and Neurological
   Medicine. New York, NY: Ivy Books, 1990. Print.
Plagiarism Power Point Presentation
              Created by


          Peggy Christensen
           September 2006
        (updated January 2010)

				
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