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					         Louisiana Purchase
                1803
        • The Corps of Discovery
• “The object of your mission is to explore
   the Missouri River” Thomas Jefferson

• Thirty-three individuals - only one death.
                 “York” slave of Clark




                          Newfoundland Dog - Seaman


Lewis and Clark Expedition
         1804-06
Corps of Discovery
At   Fort Mandan they meet Charbonneau and Sacagawea (who Clark called “Janey.”)




 Jean Baptiste Charbonneau
               Sacagawea
• She was Shoshone - at 11 or 12 she was
  captured in a raid by Hidatsas – she became a
  slave and was sold/married to Frenchman
  Charbonneau.

• Charbonneau showed up at the Mandan village
  with two wives and offered his services as a
  translator. Only one wife could go, he chose
  Sacagawea - even though she was 17 years old
  and pregnant.
                      Jean . . .
• Learned to speak (in addition to English and several Native
  American languages) Spanish, French, and German.

• At age 18 he met the nephew of King Fredrick I of Prussia
  and traveled with him across the US, Europe and Africa.

• Jean returned to the US and worked with explorers and
  mountain men like John C. Fremont, Jim Bridger, Joe Meek,
  Jim Beckwourth

• He also guided the Mormon Battalion in the Mexican War
           Mormon Battalion
              1846-47
• The longest Infantry march in US history!
• Gene became a miner in the California
  Gold Rush – one of the 49ers!

• At age 61 he died of pneumonia in Daner
  Oregon - on his way to new gold fields in
  Virginia City, Montana (1866)
The Corps of Discovery
   Lewis and Clark
        1803-06
            True or False
• 1. Lewis and Clark fought many Indian
  battles during their trip.
            True or False
• 2. They explored wilderness which was
  completely unsettled and undiscovered.
             True or False
• 3. Their trail become the main gate to the
  West, the Northwest Passage that
  Jefferson had hoped for.
             True or False
• 4. Jefferson believed they might find
  dinosaurs, Welshmen, or the lost tribes of
  Israel.
• 5. Venereal disease was unknown in the
  Indian tribes that Lewis and Clark had
  contact with.
• 6. Lewis and Clarks men were happy to
  find an abundance of the great delicacy of
  Salmon, in the lower Missouri River.
• 7. The Congress was unanimously in favor
  of spending $15 million dollars to purchase
  Louisiana from Napoleon AND for funding
  Lewis and Clark’s expedition.
• 8. After their return, Congress
  enthusiastically paid the debts incurred by
  Lewis and Clark on the expedition.
• 9. Lewis was criticized in the press after
  his return and died under unexplained
  circumstances - most likely the result of
  suicide.
• 10. Lewis and Clark had men whipped for
  infractions of discipline during the trip.
        European Exploration
• Spain: Mexico 1519 and S. America

• France: Canada, Saint Laurence River,
  Mississippi River

• Great Britain: Pacific northwest, Hudson Bay; Sir
  Francis Drake up west coast 1579; 1776 Capt.
  James Cook stops at today’s Anchorage, Alaska;
  Capt. George Vancouver up Columbia for 100
  miles

• Russian: Peter the Great sent Vitus Bering along
  Aleutian Peninsula – arctic fox fur!
     Early River Explorations
• 1673: French: Louis Jolliet and Father
  Jacques Marquette ( Fox and Wisconsin
  rivers, down Mississippi to Arkansas River
  - passing by the Missouri R.)

• 1682: La Salle down Illinois River to
  Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico
               Indian Tribes
• French explorers were told of the “Pettikanoui
  River” (Missouri) “which lead to lakes where the
  water could not be drunk”

• 1712: Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont, A French
  soldier, traveled up the Missouri 600 miles to the
  Platte River – soon the French and British were
  trading with Mandan villages hear Bismarck N.
  Dakota (nearly 100 years before Lewis and
  Clark showed up)
     Thomas Jefferson’s Idea
• Jefferson’s teacher, Rev. James Maury,
  attempted to organize an expedition to
  explore the Missouri River

• 1783: George Rogers Clark was offered
  opportunity (Jefferson was Rep. from
  Virginia) to explore land west of
  Mississippi but declined
• 1790: Gen. Henry Knox, Sec. of War,
  planned exploration of Missouri – Lt. John
  Armstrong started out but couldn’t find
  “four or five hardy Indians”

• 1793: Am. Philosophical Society
  (Jefferson belonged) planned expedition,
  George Washington contributed money
  but the plan was not successful
• 1793: Alexander Mackenzie canoed and
  walked across the Rockies to the Pacific
  with nine men (including two Indians) His
  route was not practical for trade but in
  London he wrote of book about his
  adventure - which Jefferson read.
     Jefferson President 1800
• Meriwether Lewis became Jefferson’s personal
  secretary

• Jefferson planed to explore Louisiana but it is
  French (1762-1800 it was Spanish)

• Slave revolt in Haiti – Napoleon needing money
  - Jefferson offers to by New Orleans – Napoleon
  offers all of Louisiana for $15 million!
                    1801-1803
• $2,500 for trip – need training and education, trade
  items, scientific instruments, muskets from Harper Ferry,
  learn secret cipher for messages

• Pittsburgh, collapsible boat

• Philadelphia, Dr. Benjamin Rush (who gave them list of
  questions to ask Indians “do the have bilious fever
  attended with a black vomit” “what affinity is their
  between their religious ceremonies and those of the
  Jews?” “how do they dispose of the dead?”
        Supplies – 170 items
• 32 medications (wintergreen, nutmegs,
  magnesia, laudanum, ipecac, opium, mercury
  ointment, etc.)
• 4 Penis syringes
• 120 gallons of whiskey
• Tobacco
• Soup made from cow hooves and vegetables,
  (men ate 3-5 pounds of meet a day, sometimes
  as much as nine pounds!)
         Supplies – 170 items
•   Jefferson Peace Medals
•   Chronometer to calculate longitude
•   Muskets, lead, gun powder,
•   Air powered rifle!
         Dr. Benjamin Rush
• “Rush’s Thunderbolts!” a mixture of potent
  laxatives – good for everything!

• Rush taught Lewis how to bleed people,
  and that malaria (or “ague”) was caused
  by perspiration of the body attaching itself
  to the linen clothing and mixing with the
  rain!
   Early 19th Century Medicine
• “half of what you know today will be discarded
  fifty years from now. The trouble is, we don’t
  know which half.”     Sir William Osler

• Medicine is a “craft”, physicians are not trained
  as scientists, not licensed, formal education not
  necessary,

• Basic model “Balance of Humours”
      19th century N. America
• 19th century Americans were:
• “plagued with a devil’s cauldron of diseases –
  measles, diphtheria, trachoma, whooping cough,
  chicken pox, bubonic plague, malaria, smallpox,
  yellow fever, cholera, amoebic dysentery,
  dengue fever, typhus, leprosy, hookworm,
  mumps, and venereal disease.”
  – Dr. Bruce Paton, MD.
  – “Lewis and Clark doctors in the Wilderness”
                    Smallpox
                (“great pox” was syphilis)

• Fever, pain in chest and cough

• Vomiting and rash – soon oozing pustular sores
  all over body, severe itching causes patient to
  scratch causing infections, fever increases – as
  patient coughs they infect those around them

• 40% die – if live, then scarred for life

• 18th century London, 1/3rd of the people carried
  smallpox scars
               smallpox
• Documented human population for 10,000
  years – eradicated in 1979 (only exists
  today in weapons labs!)
• In 1777 George Washington
  had Colonial Army at Valley
  Forge vaccinated for
  smallpox

• One Indian tribe had
  members vaccinated – the
  Sioux – one reason they
  were successful
             Indian Illness
• They found little evidence of mental illness
  in the Indian Tribes –
  – Less stress?
  – No lawsuits?
  – Not burdened with many possessions?
  – Support in family and tribe?
• Indians used snakeroot to relieve childbirth
  pain (Puritan settlers believed childbirth
  should be painful)
• Most tribes didn’t have alcohol
  before Europeans arrival –
  disastrous for their society – some
  tribes (Arikaras, Chinooks, and
  Clatsops) wisely refused!

• Lewis and Clark commented that
  the tribes most difficult to deal with
  were the ones with the longest
  exposure to Anglo-Americans

• On first contact most tribes were
  friendly, didn’t steal from them,
  traded for goods and presented
  few issues.
                 August 30, 1803
• Lewis starts down the Ohio River from Pittsburg with a keelboat and
  eleven men
• Well wishers stop them three miles
  downstream and some wanted to
  see the gun that fires without
  gunpowder.

• Mr. Blaze Cenas picked up
  (loaded) air gun and accidentally
  fires it –hitting a woman in the
  head, from 40 yards away!
  (Superficial wounds only. Soon
  they back on their way.)
                                         Jefferson
                                          National
       Gateway Arch – St. Louis
              Missouri                   Expansion
                                         Memorial




630 ft tall   technology of the 1960s!
Completed
1968
Old Court House – St. Louis – Dred Scott Case 1846-
               Lewis and Clark
• Meet up at Clarksville (across
  the Ohio River from
  Louisville). Examined men
  willing to go and enlisted
  them in the Army.

• 55ft Keel boat and two
  “pirogues” (“pee – ro”)

• Dec. 12, 1803: stay winter
  north of St. Louis where
  Missouri and Mississippi
  meet.
                     Janey
• Lost control of his pirogue – he could not swim
  and was crying to his God for mercy – while
  Lewis and Clark yelled at him from shore

• “The Indian woman to whom I ascribe equal
  fortitude (with Cruzatte) and resolution with any
  person onboard at the time of the accident,
  caught and preserved most of the light articles
  which were washed overboard.”
                                          • M. Lewis
             Lewis and Clark
• Record 150 species of fish – nine cat fish
  weighted in at 300 pounds total

• Men eating 6,000 + calories a day and yet
  undernourished much of the time

• Sentences for being absent without leave, being
  drunk on duty etc. = 50 lashes, 100 lashes –
  running the gantlet (whipped with steel ramrods)
      Lewis and Clark – medical
              problems
• Bowel complaints! Diarrhea
• Lewis almost dies tasting a rock (arsenic)
• Sore eyes
• Venereal disease (Sacagawea nearly died of a
  fever thought to be pelvic infection / gonorrhea
• Rattlesnakes,
• Grizzly bears (Indians called the White bear) that
  took ten shots to bring down!
           Sergeant Floyd
• Only one of the group to die along the
  way. – dies August 19, 1804 – appendix?
  “Ocian in view! O! the Joy.”
• Fort Clatsop

• Vote: Stay on north or south side of
  Columbia – York the slave and
  Sacagawea both get to vote! First African
  American and Native American allowed to
  vote in the US!
    Fort Clatsop – 50 ft square
• Fort Clatsop offered, “mildew, spoiled
  meat and numbing boredom.”
  – James Ronda, Un. Of Tulsa


• Elk meat, roots, berries, whale blubber,
  pounded dried salmon
        Louisiana Purchase
• Only gave them jurisdiction to the Rocky
  Mountains – not to the Pacific where the
  British claimed and traded since 1792

• Candle fish: put a wick through them and
  they worked as a candle!
             Lewis is shot
• August 11, 1806

• Shot in the thigh and buttocks by Cruzatte
• The bullet was found in his breeches
 . . . said one of these men, long past seventy
year of age, “I could carry, paddle, walk and sing
 with any man I ever saw . . . No portage was
               ever too long for me.

 Fifty songs could I sing. I have saved the lives
of ten voyagers. I have had twelve wives and six
running dogs. I spent all my money in pleasure.
 Were I young again, I should spend my life the
                 same way over.

  There is no life so happy as the voyageur’s
                      life.”
               James H. Bakker.
     Sept. 23, 1806 Thursday
• Corps of Discovery reached St. Louis

• Failed to find major route to Pacific
  (Oregon Trail 1842)
           Some Sources:
• Paton, Bruce. Lewis and Clark, Doctors in
  the Wilderness, Fulcrum Pub. 2001.

• Stephen Ambrose. Undaunted Courage,
  Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and
  the Opening of the American West, Simon
  and Schuster, NY.1996.

				
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