Louisiana Purchase 1803 • The Corps of Discovery • “The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri River” Thomas Jefferson • Thirty-three individuals - only one death. “York” slave of Clark Newfoundland Dog - Seaman Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804-06 Corps of Discovery At Fort Mandan they meet Charbonneau and Sacagawea (who Clark called “Janey.”) Jean Baptiste Charbonneau Sacagawea • She was Shoshone - at 11 or 12 she was captured in a raid by Hidatsas – she became a slave and was sold/married to Frenchman Charbonneau. • Charbonneau showed up at the Mandan village with two wives and offered his services as a translator. Only one wife could go, he chose Sacagawea - even though she was 17 years old and pregnant. Jean . . . • Learned to speak (in addition to English and several Native American languages) Spanish, French, and German. • At age 18 he met the nephew of King Fredrick I of Prussia and traveled with him across the US, Europe and Africa. • Jean returned to the US and worked with explorers and mountain men like John C. Fremont, Jim Bridger, Joe Meek, Jim Beckwourth • He also guided the Mormon Battalion in the Mexican War Mormon Battalion 1846-47 • The longest Infantry march in US history! • Gene became a miner in the California Gold Rush – one of the 49ers! • At age 61 he died of pneumonia in Daner Oregon - on his way to new gold fields in Virginia City, Montana (1866) The Corps of Discovery Lewis and Clark 1803-06 True or False • 1. Lewis and Clark fought many Indian battles during their trip. True or False • 2. They explored wilderness which was completely unsettled and undiscovered. True or False • 3. Their trail become the main gate to the West, the Northwest Passage that Jefferson had hoped for. True or False • 4. Jefferson believed they might find dinosaurs, Welshmen, or the lost tribes of Israel. • 5. Venereal disease was unknown in the Indian tribes that Lewis and Clark had contact with. • 6. Lewis and Clarks men were happy to find an abundance of the great delicacy of Salmon, in the lower Missouri River. • 7. The Congress was unanimously in favor of spending $15 million dollars to purchase Louisiana from Napoleon AND for funding Lewis and Clark’s expedition. • 8. After their return, Congress enthusiastically paid the debts incurred by Lewis and Clark on the expedition. • 9. Lewis was criticized in the press after his return and died under unexplained circumstances - most likely the result of suicide. • 10. Lewis and Clark had men whipped for infractions of discipline during the trip. European Exploration • Spain: Mexico 1519 and S. America • France: Canada, Saint Laurence River, Mississippi River • Great Britain: Pacific northwest, Hudson Bay; Sir Francis Drake up west coast 1579; 1776 Capt. James Cook stops at today’s Anchorage, Alaska; Capt. George Vancouver up Columbia for 100 miles • Russian: Peter the Great sent Vitus Bering along Aleutian Peninsula – arctic fox fur! Early River Explorations • 1673: French: Louis Jolliet and Father Jacques Marquette ( Fox and Wisconsin rivers, down Mississippi to Arkansas River - passing by the Missouri R.) • 1682: La Salle down Illinois River to Mississippi to Gulf of Mexico Indian Tribes • French explorers were told of the “Pettikanoui River” (Missouri) “which lead to lakes where the water could not be drunk” • 1712: Etienne Veniard de Bourgmont, A French soldier, traveled up the Missouri 600 miles to the Platte River – soon the French and British were trading with Mandan villages hear Bismarck N. Dakota (nearly 100 years before Lewis and Clark showed up) Thomas Jefferson’s Idea • Jefferson’s teacher, Rev. James Maury, attempted to organize an expedition to explore the Missouri River • 1783: George Rogers Clark was offered opportunity (Jefferson was Rep. from Virginia) to explore land west of Mississippi but declined • 1790: Gen. Henry Knox, Sec. of War, planned exploration of Missouri – Lt. John Armstrong started out but couldn’t find “four or five hardy Indians” • 1793: Am. Philosophical Society (Jefferson belonged) planned expedition, George Washington contributed money but the plan was not successful • 1793: Alexander Mackenzie canoed and walked across the Rockies to the Pacific with nine men (including two Indians) His route was not practical for trade but in London he wrote of book about his adventure - which Jefferson read. Jefferson President 1800 • Meriwether Lewis became Jefferson’s personal secretary • Jefferson planed to explore Louisiana but it is French (1762-1800 it was Spanish) • Slave revolt in Haiti – Napoleon needing money - Jefferson offers to by New Orleans – Napoleon offers all of Louisiana for $15 million! 1801-1803 • $2,500 for trip – need training and education, trade items, scientific instruments, muskets from Harper Ferry, learn secret cipher for messages • Pittsburgh, collapsible boat • Philadelphia, Dr. Benjamin Rush (who gave them list of questions to ask Indians “do the have bilious fever attended with a black vomit” “what affinity is their between their religious ceremonies and those of the Jews?” “how do they dispose of the dead?” Supplies – 170 items • 32 medications (wintergreen, nutmegs, magnesia, laudanum, ipecac, opium, mercury ointment, etc.) • 4 Penis syringes • 120 gallons of whiskey • Tobacco • Soup made from cow hooves and vegetables, (men ate 3-5 pounds of meet a day, sometimes as much as nine pounds!) Supplies – 170 items • Jefferson Peace Medals • Chronometer to calculate longitude • Muskets, lead, gun powder, • Air powered rifle! Dr. Benjamin Rush • “Rush’s Thunderbolts!” a mixture of potent laxatives – good for everything! • Rush taught Lewis how to bleed people, and that malaria (or “ague”) was caused by perspiration of the body attaching itself to the linen clothing and mixing with the rain! Early 19th Century Medicine • “half of what you know today will be discarded fifty years from now. The trouble is, we don’t know which half.” Sir William Osler • Medicine is a “craft”, physicians are not trained as scientists, not licensed, formal education not necessary, • Basic model “Balance of Humours” 19th century N. America • 19th century Americans were: • “plagued with a devil’s cauldron of diseases – measles, diphtheria, trachoma, whooping cough, chicken pox, bubonic plague, malaria, smallpox, yellow fever, cholera, amoebic dysentery, dengue fever, typhus, leprosy, hookworm, mumps, and venereal disease.” – Dr. Bruce Paton, MD. – “Lewis and Clark doctors in the Wilderness” Smallpox (“great pox” was syphilis) • Fever, pain in chest and cough • Vomiting and rash – soon oozing pustular sores all over body, severe itching causes patient to scratch causing infections, fever increases – as patient coughs they infect those around them • 40% die – if live, then scarred for life • 18th century London, 1/3rd of the people carried smallpox scars smallpox • Documented human population for 10,000 years – eradicated in 1979 (only exists today in weapons labs!) • In 1777 George Washington had Colonial Army at Valley Forge vaccinated for smallpox • One Indian tribe had members vaccinated – the Sioux – one reason they were successful Indian Illness • They found little evidence of mental illness in the Indian Tribes – – Less stress? – No lawsuits? – Not burdened with many possessions? – Support in family and tribe? • Indians used snakeroot to relieve childbirth pain (Puritan settlers believed childbirth should be painful) • Most tribes didn’t have alcohol before Europeans arrival – disastrous for their society – some tribes (Arikaras, Chinooks, and Clatsops) wisely refused! • Lewis and Clark commented that the tribes most difficult to deal with were the ones with the longest exposure to Anglo-Americans • On first contact most tribes were friendly, didn’t steal from them, traded for goods and presented few issues. August 30, 1803 • Lewis starts down the Ohio River from Pittsburg with a keelboat and eleven men • Well wishers stop them three miles downstream and some wanted to see the gun that fires without gunpowder. • Mr. Blaze Cenas picked up (loaded) air gun and accidentally fires it –hitting a woman in the head, from 40 yards away! (Superficial wounds only. Soon they back on their way.) Jefferson National Gateway Arch – St. Louis Missouri Expansion Memorial 630 ft tall technology of the 1960s! Completed 1968 Old Court House – St. Louis – Dred Scott Case 1846- Lewis and Clark • Meet up at Clarksville (across the Ohio River from Louisville). Examined men willing to go and enlisted them in the Army. • 55ft Keel boat and two “pirogues” (“pee – ro”) • Dec. 12, 1803: stay winter north of St. Louis where Missouri and Mississippi meet. Janey • Lost control of his pirogue – he could not swim and was crying to his God for mercy – while Lewis and Clark yelled at him from shore • “The Indian woman to whom I ascribe equal fortitude (with Cruzatte) and resolution with any person onboard at the time of the accident, caught and preserved most of the light articles which were washed overboard.” • M. Lewis Lewis and Clark • Record 150 species of fish – nine cat fish weighted in at 300 pounds total • Men eating 6,000 + calories a day and yet undernourished much of the time • Sentences for being absent without leave, being drunk on duty etc. = 50 lashes, 100 lashes – running the gantlet (whipped with steel ramrods) Lewis and Clark – medical problems • Bowel complaints! Diarrhea • Lewis almost dies tasting a rock (arsenic) • Sore eyes • Venereal disease (Sacagawea nearly died of a fever thought to be pelvic infection / gonorrhea • Rattlesnakes, • Grizzly bears (Indians called the White bear) that took ten shots to bring down! Sergeant Floyd • Only one of the group to die along the way. – dies August 19, 1804 – appendix? “Ocian in view! O! the Joy.” • Fort Clatsop • Vote: Stay on north or south side of Columbia – York the slave and Sacagawea both get to vote! First African American and Native American allowed to vote in the US! Fort Clatsop – 50 ft square • Fort Clatsop offered, “mildew, spoiled meat and numbing boredom.” – James Ronda, Un. Of Tulsa • Elk meat, roots, berries, whale blubber, pounded dried salmon Louisiana Purchase • Only gave them jurisdiction to the Rocky Mountains – not to the Pacific where the British claimed and traded since 1792 • Candle fish: put a wick through them and they worked as a candle! Lewis is shot • August 11, 1806 • Shot in the thigh and buttocks by Cruzatte • The bullet was found in his breeches . . . said one of these men, long past seventy year of age, “I could carry, paddle, walk and sing with any man I ever saw . . . No portage was ever too long for me. Fifty songs could I sing. I have saved the lives of ten voyagers. I have had twelve wives and six running dogs. I spent all my money in pleasure. Were I young again, I should spend my life the same way over. There is no life so happy as the voyageur’s life.” James H. Bakker. Sept. 23, 1806 Thursday • Corps of Discovery reached St. Louis • Failed to find major route to Pacific (Oregon Trail 1842) Some Sources: • Paton, Bruce. Lewis and Clark, Doctors in the Wilderness, Fulcrum Pub. 2001. • Stephen Ambrose. Undaunted Courage, Meriwether Lewis, Thomas Jefferson, and the Opening of the American West, Simon and Schuster, NY.1996.
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