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Use of Computers by the Agricultural Extension Personnel in Riyadh

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Use of Computers by the Agricultural Extension Personnel in Riyadh Powered By Docstoc
					    Use of Computers by the Agricultural Extension Personnel in
    Riyadh and Qaseem Regions: A Review of the Prime Obstacles


 Mohammed S. Al-Shayaa, Mohammed S. Al Shenifi; and Hani Salman Al Abdu Al Hadi
              Department of Agricultural Extension and Rural Sociology,
                      College Food and Agricultural Sciences,
                            K.S.U Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

                                 Email: mshayaa@gmail.com



Abstract

The research aims at determining the major obstacles that prevent the agricultural extension
staff/professionals in the Riyadh and Qassim regions from using computers. Research was
conducted in the Agricultural Directorates and their branches in Riyadh and Qassim, which
consists of 24 branches and 8 Directorates of agriculture in the region of Riyadh, and 12
branches and two Directorates of agriculture in the Qassim region. The population of the study
consisted of 169 agricultural extension staff. Eighty-six agricultural professionals were from
Riyadh and eighty-three were from Qassim. Data were collected by utilizing a questionnaire
prepared for this research. Data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS. The
significant differences tested on the level (0.05).

Results showed that 50% of respondents aged in their thirties, 67% of them obtained the
agricultural diploma, 38% worked in agriculture from 10 to 20 years, and 35% worked in
agriculture for more than 20 years. These results indicate that the majority of respondents, are
young who are at the stage of intellectual maturity, and have the ability to deal with computer.
Results showed that the major obstacles to the uses of computers were due to lack of: computers,
computers in the work place, incentives from management, knowledge of using computer,
interest in learning computer, proficiency skills in English language, training programs. In
addition, the respondents indicate that the contents of the training programs were weak and the
level of the trainers for imparting training was low.

Based on the findings of the study, launching of an educational program for the agricultural
extension staff, supervisors and the managers to familiarize them with the importance of the role
of computers in extension work is recommended. Such a program would help establishing the
role of computers in extension work and building a good computers infrastructure and a network.
This sort of initiative in turn holds a great potential to improve the activities and services
rendered by agricultural extension.


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Key words: ICT role, Capacity building, Extension Service, Improvement, Model replicable

Introduction

The use of computers in Saudi Arabia started in early 80s. Saudi Arabia recognizes the
importance of computers, and their role in promoting development in all spheres of life, such as
economic, health, education, and agriculture etc. The development plans of the Kingdom place
high emphasis on the application of technologies, including computer technology and to harness
computer technology for the benefit of Developments services (Haj, 1995)

Although the computers are in use since long, yet their uses still face a number of obstacles. Al-
Homile, (1424) conducted a study to enlist the obstacles faced by public on the use of computers
in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to find solutions to these obstacles. The study indicated that
computers were highly beneficial in the government agencies. The scale of usefulness of
computer application increases and corresponds with the sizes of the departments. About 69%
workers believe that the lack of continuous training facilities for workers is a major obstacle in
the use of computers in the government agencies. The departments making computer facilities
available to the other sections suffer financial constraints, and face problems in communications
infrastructure that prevent the optimal use of the computers.

Al-Abdulgader (1990) conducted a study to identify and diagnose the obstacles, preventing the
absorption of information technology in the public sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He
noticed the poor absorption of information technology in government agencies. Possible
attributing reasons include: poor information system, poor quality training programs and
insufficient in number, inadequate participation of employees in the programs of computers
applications, and a weak support from top management for information technology. His study
further revealed that formal and stiff administrative procedures were employed to such a degree
that resulted in: obtaining the technical information difficult, poor technical computer center,
producing poor human resources specialized in technology, poor management of information
technology and finally, providing little support to the users of computers.

The study also indicated some individual obstacles such as managers accord low importance to
the applications of computers, the alienation of managers to high degree from computers
software, the feeling of no need for the computers in their work; they question their abilities in
the use of information technology. The managers have skepticism in the abilities of their
subordinates to use information technology. The managers lack the adequate knowledge of
computer automation and they are too old to learn and use computer in their official work.



 Similarly, Shuaib (1417) also reported a number of obstacles experienced on the use of
computers applications in the government agencies in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The
obstacles were:

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   1. Administrative obstacles

In any organization, administration wing remains the formal central body which develops and
implements policies including the use of computers. The administrators are usually not experts
and are unable to select computers for enhancing the efficiency and working of their
organizations. They may lack of interest in computer departments to use computers. They may
not have necessary skills and knowledge to purchase a suitable hardware, software and they
could be unable to design and develop information systems. The senior management may lack
awareness on the importance of computers and their right applications. Finally, the
administration in government agencies may not be interested to evaluate the potential benefits of
the use of computers and their applications. These obstacles cause the negative impacts on the
overall performance of the departments.

   2. Obstacles of human resources

Factors like: lack of incentives, little or no understanding of the managers on the nature and
capacity of computers, low and the uneven experience of computer professionals, low wages,
and slow promotions make the computer specialists reluctant to work in government agencies.

   3. Technical obstacles

The management lacks the follow-up of the maintenance after the purchase of computers, the
frequent repetition of crashes of computers are the factors which impede the production. The
computers are not well maintained in accordance with the maintenance plan. The computers are
not used at their optimum levels. Due potential of the benefits of computer applications in the
office work could not be realized due to the lack of sufficient experience of the employees on the
hardware of computers as well as the lack of incentives for the workers.

   4. Financial obstacles

Low sizes of the fiscal budgets are allocated for the trainings of the computers personnel,
designing and the development of the programs, maintenance of the hardware, software and
updating computers.

Al Harbi (1419) studied the uses of computers, obstacles experienced and viable solutions for the
improvement in the governmental organizations of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. He identified a
number of obstacles which include: no special program for the trainings of staff within the
computer department; no specific budget for staff training; no specialized library in the
department dealing with computers and their applications; absence of the section that could
identify the training needs of the management and staff on the use of computers, absence of an
independent organization dealing with the systems used in management, the difficulty on the
expansion of foreign systems and programs, and the skills and competence of the staff using
computers were less than the potential benefits computers could offer.


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Computers play a vital role in enhancing and improving the effectiveness of education and
extension work by providing multiple choices and channels to support the educational process
and extension work and making speedy access to information (Wilkinson, 1980; Alfaifi,1426),
therefore, it seems imperative to identify and enlist the obstacles preventing the use of
computers in agricultural extension. Al-amri (1416) also stressed to identify reasons preventing
the use of computers in the government agencies. Realizing the importance of the subject,
present study to identify the obstacles on the uses of computers in education and extension work
has been undertaken.

Materials and methods

A descriptive research study with the aim to identify the prime obstacles preventing the
agricultural workers to use of computers in the departments of Agricultural Affairs in Riyadh and
Qaseem was conducted. All the agricultural workers in the departments of Agriculture and its
branches in Riyadh and Qaseem make the population of the study. Some 169 workers are dealing
with the farmers; about 86 of them are working in Riyadh region and 83 are located in Qassim
region (Ministry of agriculture, 1419H)

Data collection tools

Data were collected against a well-designed and pre-tested questionnaire. During the preparation
of the questionnaire, extensive input from a group of faculty members in the department of
agricultural extension and rural sociology, faculty of science of food and agriculture, King Saud
University, and a number of specialists in the field of computers was solicited. A number of
obstacles were added, deleted, modified and re-phrased, until the questionnaire got its final form.

During the preparatory phase, necessary information was gathered by reviewing the previous
research and visiting the various departments, including the department of agricultural extension
and the department of administrative, and computer department at the Ministry of Agriculture.
The questionnaire Included a personal characteristics of workers such as age, educational level,
occupation, years of experience. All the efforts made in the direction, helped the researcher to
enlist 17 prime obstacles preventing the employees using computers, consequently they were
placed on the questionnaire to check their validity. The response of respondents was measured
on the basis of the degree of impediment and that was divided into three levels, namely: weak =
1, average = 2, large = 3.

The questionnaires were distributed among the agricultural workers in Riyadh, with the
assistance of the department of agricultural extension and its branch in the ministry of agriculture
in the Riyadh area. Similarly, the questionnaires were distributed to agricultural workers in the
Qassim region with the assistance of the department of agriculture in the region of Qassim. After
three months the questionnaires were returned to the researchers. The data were tabulated and
analyzed by using (SPSS, 2009) for statistical analysis.


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The statistical analyses

The descriptive analysis used to determine the obstacles to the use of computers among
Agricultural workers in Riyadh and Qassim. The frequencies and percentages were used to
determine the obstacles to using computers. The T-tests and F-tests were being run to find out
the differences between the respondents of workers according to their personal characteristics.
Personal characteristics represent independent variables whereas the obstacles on the uses of
computers are treated as the dependent variables. The differences were determined by using
(0.05) level of significance. When differences were noticed in the F- tests, Scheffe test used to
locate differences.

Results and desiccation

   Personal characteristics

Data in Table - 1 show that the agricultural workers (50%) were in their thirties indicating that
most of the workers were young. They were at the stage of intellectual maturity and at this age
they can absorb the idea of using computers. In addition, because of their age and their ability,
they can embrace other new and emerging modern technologies. The results also revealed that 67
% of the respondents held a diploma in agricultural sciences. The educated workers were more
proficient on using the computers when good training programs and financial resources were
made available to them. Approximately 68% of the agricultural workers were employed as
technicians. About 38% of the workers had been working from 10 to less than 20 years in the
agriculture department. The computers were available to almost half of the workers (50%) at
their workplace. To elevate the competencies of workers in the areas of data entry, word
processing, maintenance, programming, and international license for computer (ICDL) almost
28% of the workers were enrolled in training programs. A significant segment almost 59% of
agricultural workforce had learned computers by playing around at the workplace. It indicates a
desire to learn computers and willingness to enhance their IT skills.




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Table -1 Personal characteristics of the respondents



                    1. Education                                            2. Age

  Level of education         No         %                         Age                No        %

  Agricultural Diploma       551        66.9      < 30 years                         51        8.9

  B.Sc in Agriculture        15         30.7      from 30 to less than 40 years      48        49.7

  Above the University       8          2.4       from 40 to less than 50 years      15        34.9

                                                        > 50 years                   55        .6


                    4. Experience                                       3. Occupation

          Experience               No         %                Occupation                 No         %


  Less than 10 years          14        55.1      Agricultural Engineer              13        55.5


  From 10 to 20 years         18        13.5      Agricultural Research              51        5.1


  More than 30 years          15        18.5      Agricultural Technician            551       14


  did not mention             4         8.3       did not mention                    5         6.1


      6. Method of Learning Computer                     5. Provision of computers at work

      Method of Learning           No         %         Do you have computer?             No          %


  Training programs           83        54        Yes                                41        16.1


  By doing                    51        11.4      No                                 48        85.3




There were many obstacles to the use of computers are noticed in departments of
agricultural extension in Riyadh and Qassim, These obstacles are summarized as under.

 1 - Financial and administrative obstacles:

It is clear from Table (2) that the majority of workers agreed that the financial and management
obstacles was one of the largest and most prominent obstacles that hindered agriculture workers
from using computer to perform jobs in extension. A large number of respondents, about 99%
agreed that the non-availability of the computers remained a major obstacle for the use of
computers.

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One should understand that computers were available at the workplace but not available to all the
employees. However, some of workers were facing the difficulties, leading to disruption of work
or delays were experienced when a colleague was completing his work.

   The other obstacle agreed upon by most of workers was the lack of management incentives.
About 97% workers believed that the absence of incentives happened to be a major limiting
factor in the use of the computers. Because some departments do not encourage staff to
participate in training courses, even if the departments have the enough financial resources. In
addition, some of management officers feel that there is no needs for an employee to equip
himself with the computer skills, even through the expenses of the training programs are to be
paid by the departments, or by the trainee himself as stated by some of the workers. Lack of
financial incentives was an obstacle to the using of computer as reported by 97% of the workers.
Some of workers may not care about the administrative incentives compared to his interests in
financial incentives, such as increase in salary or giving rewards, when passing a training
program. The findings are in consistence with results of the study of Osaimi, (1425H).

About 96% of workers viewed the weak financial support as the strong obstacle. The importance
of financial support seemed necessary for the development of the staff working in any sector.
Finances help the departments providing computers, software, and establishing a good network
that links between employees and departments. In addition, it can provide training equipment for
staff that will enable them to take advantages of the computer. It is therefore, important that each
department should provide budget, allocated for staff development, hardware and network
infrastructures.

Failure to allocate time for the training and education programs for the workers was found to be
a factor that hampers the use of computers as reported by about 93.5% respondents. About 93%
of workers viewed weak communication infrastructure (network), essentially needed for the use
of computers, as an obstacle. However, lack of interest of some officials, on the use of computers
to carry out the activities of the department, was a source of hindrance to the use of computers
and about 97% of respondents agreed to this statement. Most officials were not interested in the
use of computers and their applications in working of offices as they were of older age. They had
almost lost the enthusiasm and interest in the development of work. In addition, they lacked
knowledge in computers, and did not have knowledge on the benefits that computers could offer
in the office work. They were of the opinion that learning could be difficult in that old age. The
arrogance, intransigence and lack of sense of importance of the developments in modern
technologies, on the part of the managers, certainly affects the activities of the department and
that leads to unnecessary delays on office routine work in the departments.




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2. Learning and culture obstacles

As Table -2 indicates that the obstacles to the use of computers could also experienced due to the
culture and method of learning how to use computers. Factors like illiteracy and lack of interest
in use of computer emerged as the important obstacles that limited the use of computers. The
computers uses and their applications have been included in the curriculum of the schools and
universities in recent years. This means that most of the workers, if not all, had not been
subjected to any education or training on the use of computers through the early stages of
learning. About 96% of the workers considered computer literacy had a great impact on the use
of computers. The data are in agreement with the study of Omari (1416). About 96% of the
respondents believed that the lack of interest on the use computer was one of the major obstacles.
In general, due to prevailing culture, some managers do not recognize the importance of
computer, though all the issues of our life in this age depend on computers and others electronic
devices.

Table 2: Distribution of the workers according to the obstacles in the use of computers
                                                                           Degrees of obstacle                Not
                       Obstacles                                   Low         Moderate         High        obstacle
                                                              No         %     No      %      No     %     No     %
                      Lack of computers                       55     55.8      81    51.8   561   16.5      5     5.1
               Lack of administrative incentives              55      3.5      53     51    551   38        1      1
                  Lack of financial incentives                55      3.5      54    51.1   558   31.8      1      1
      Weak financial support in the use of the computer       51      4.5      11    55.1   551   14        1     1.1
                          Lack of time                        84     54.8      11    11.5    18   15       55     1.1
       Poor communications infrastructure (network)           16     53.4      11    56.3    55   18.8     55     3.5
              necessary for the use of computers
      Lack of interest of some officials in this technology   55      3.5      15    16.5   565   15.4      1      1
                       Computer literacy                      11     55.1      13    11.3    36   85.8      1     1.1
          Lack of interest of workers in Computer             13     55.5      11    13.1    11   13.1      1     1.1
                    Poor English language                     54     51.1      11    11.5    31    81       5     1.1
           Lack of training programs in computer              51      4.5      55    55.5   515   34.5      1     5.4
                Lack of trainers in computers                 53      56       55    53.5   554   15.4      1      1
         Distance of training places form job places          11     55.1      88     51     35   81.3     51     3.4
         Distance of training places from my house            15     51.5      85    58.1    31   81       51     3.3

     The establishment of training at inappropriate times     14     55.1      81    51.1    36   85.8     51      5.1
             Poor contents of training programs               16     53.4      88     51     33   81.1     54     56.1
                    Low level of trainers                     13     55.5      16    55.1    13   11.3     51     58.4


Poor English language proficiency was reported as an obstacle to the use of computer by about
95% of workers. This problem should not be considered that big, because most of the software
such as Windows and Office are now translated in the other languages including Arabic.
However, most of the novices on the use of computer take English language as a barrier in their
learning, despite of the fact that many had learned the computer being not fluent in English. On
the contrary, the use of computers had caused the reasons that helped some people learning
English.



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2. Training obstacles

Table - 2 presents the number of obstacles in the use of computers based on various aspects of
training. The workers felt the shortage of training programs on the use of computers which
remains the responsibility of the Ministry of Agriculture. About 98% of respondents believed
that the lack of training programs was an impediment to the use of computers. The training
programs are the biggest proof of interest in using the computer, either by the employee or by the
departments of agricultural extension. It may be difficult for the workers to take advantage of
training programs in the absence of a dedicated budget for training. It is becoming increasingly
important in the present era of IT revolution; every employee should contribute from his income
to learn the use of computers, because the computers are crucial in accomplishing the job related
tasks especially while doing agricultural extension work.

The lack of instructors in computer in the departments of Agricultural Affairs was an obstacle to
the use of computers. A large proportion of the workers (97%) agreed that the lack of trainers
was an obstacle to the use of computers. The distance of training places from the work place was
one of the obstacles to training. About 92% of respondents believed that farness of the training
places was one of the obstacles to training on the use of the computer. Whereas 92% workers
also reported that farness of the training places from the home was an obstacle that hinders the
training and was noted as an obstacle. One of the impediments of the training programs was
inappropriate timings; about 90.5% workers did not consider the timings of training programs
were appropriate. Weakness of the content of the training programs offered both by the Ministry
of Agriculture or by private institutions was an impediment to the use of computers. Some 89%
believed that the weakness of contents of the courses was an obstacle to the use of computers. In
addition, it found that the low level of trainers was one of the obstacles to training, about 85% of
workers found the trainers with low abilities and poor skills.

T and F tests

While examining the differences between the mean scores of workers on the obstacles to use of
computers according to their way of learning the subjects of computer, significant differences
between the mean scores of workers who learn computer by doing and those who learn computer
through training were observed at the level of significance of (0.05). Those who learned
computer through training view the lack of computers, the lack of time, poor communications
infrastructure (network) necessary for the use of computers, lack of interest of some officials in
computers, and computer literacy are the factors that hinder the use of computers more than
those who learned computer by doing. Even those who learned the computer by doing, view
these obstacles impeding the use of the computers. Their desire and enthusiasm for the use of the
computer did not prove help in mitigating the obstacles, preventing them to use the computer in
their office work. It is clear from Table (4) that those who did not have a computer realized the
obstacles to the use of computers at a greater intensity than those who had computers.


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Table - 3 : T- test of the differences between the means of workers on the obstacles of the
use of computers according to their method of learning

                       Obstacles                                Mean scores of using the computer
                                                    Method of      mean            Std      T value    level of
                                                     learning                                             P
   Lack of computers                                By doing        00.2         .07.5       5001      *.0..0
                                                     training       00.9         .09.1
   Lack of administrative incentives                By doing        0071         .01.0      50.02       .051
                                                     training       000.         .00.1
   Lack of financial incentives                     By doing        00..         .0..1       50.0       .000
                                                     training       0095         .0010
   Weak financial support in the use of the         By doing        00.0         .071.       5001       .07.
   computer                                          training       0071         .007.
   Lack of time                                     By doing        5000         .071.       5070      *.0.50
                                                     training       50.1         .0950
   Poor communications infrastructure (network)     By doing        00.0         .0.50      .09.1       *.0.2
   necessary for the use of computers                training       0001         .0910
   Lack of interest of some officials, in this      By doing        5010         .0.50       500.       *...5
   technology                                        training       50.5         .0951
   Computer Literacy                                By doing        5000         .00.5       5050      *.0.01
                                                     training       0070         .09..
   Lack of interest of workers in Computer          By doing        5020         .0.50       507.       *.0..
                                                     training       5007         .0902
   Poor English language                            By doing        0071         .01.0       5000       .01.0
                                                     training       0090         .0.05
   Lack of training courses on the use of the       By doing        0077         .0.0.      50109       .02.0
   computer                                          training       00..         .0951
   Lack of trainers of workers in computers         By doing        0070         .0..1       5001       .012
                                                     training       00.5         .0.10
   Farness of training places form job places       By doing        50.2         .0.02      502.0       .012
                                                     training       5012         .0010
   Farness of training places from my house.        By doing        5000         .0.50       501.       .001
                                                     training       50.5         .07..
   The establishment of training at inappropriate   By doing        5010         .0002       5021       .0.07
   times                                             training       500.         .0715
   Poor content of training programs                By doing        5010         .0705       5020      .0...5
                                                     training       500.         .0950
   Low level of trainers                            By doing        5020         .0951       5001       .0.95
                                                    training        50.1        .0...
        * Significance at 0.05


While studying the differences between the mean scores of workers on the obstacles of using
computers on the basis of educational level of respondents, it is clear from the Table -5 that there
were significant differences between those who finished university (B.Sc) and those who
obtained a diploma in a number of obstacles to the use of computers, at the significance level of
(0.05). The respondents holding B.Sc reported that each factor like: the lack of computers,
computer literacy, lack of interest in computer automation, and the lack of trainers, impeded the
use of computers more than those who obtained a diploma. This may be due to that, those who
having university diploma take leadership work, and did not have time use of computers.



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Table 4: T- test of the differences between the mean scores of workers on the obstacles of the use of
computers depending on the availability of computers in the work

                                                                              Mean scores of using the computer
                      Obstacles                             Availability of     Mean         Std       T value      Level of P
                                                            computer
                    Lack of computers                             Yes              5.51      6.315       5.18        *6.665
                                                                  NO               5.18      6.555
            Lack of administrative incentives                     Yes              5.58      6.345       5.81         6.85
                                                                  NO               5.15      6.481
               Lack of financial incentives                       Yes              5.11      6.485       5.48         6.18
                                                                  NO               5.48      6.555
    Weak financial support in the use of the computer             Yes              5.11      6.315       5.65         6.11
                                                                  NO               5.11       515
                       Lack of time                               Yes              5.14       114        6.45        *6.611
                                                                  NO               5.11       585
     Poor communications infrastructure (network)                 Yes              5.11       438        5.65         6.555
            necessary for the use of computers                    NO               5.41       515
   Lack of interest of some officials, in this technology         Yes              5.55      6.335       6.44         6.515
                                                                  NO               5.81       6.43
                   Computer Literacy                              Yes              5.51       6.44       5.51        *6.6551
                                                                  NO               5.11       6.33
        Lack of interest of workers in Computer                   Yes              5.85      6.355       5.11        *6.615
                                                                  NO               5.15       558.
                  Poor English language                           Yes              5.55       451.       5.88         6.551
                                                                  NO               5.11       555.
   Lack of training courses on the use of the computer            Yes              5.51      6.451       5.11         6.855
                                                                  NO               5.11      6.335
              Lack of trainers in computers                       Yes              5.85      6.435       5.51        *6.651
                                                                  NO               5.14      6.585
           Farness of training places form job                    Yes              5.81      6.585      5.655         6.581
                                                                  NO               5.11      6.543
        Farness of training places from my house                  Yes              5.11      6.455      6.545         6.13
                                                                  NO               5.85      6.534
   The establishment of training at inappropriate times           Yes              5.81      6.555       6.33         6.51
                                                                  NO               5.13      6.551

            Poor content of training programs                     Yes              5.51      6.315       6.54         6.51
                                                                  NO               5.11       6.55
                   Low level of trainers                          Yes              5.15      6.315       5.16         6.56
                                                                  NO               5.15      6.415
    Significance at level of 0.05




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Table -5 T- test of the differences between the means of workers on the obstacles of the use
of computers according to the level of education

                                                                        mean scores of using the computer
                      Obstacles                              level of       mean         Std     T value      level of P
                                                            education
                    Lack of computers                          B.Sc          5.35      6.315       5.58        *6.661
                                                             Diploma         5.88      6.565
            Lack of administrative incentives                  B.Sc          5.51      6.145       5.55         6.85
                                                             Diploma         5.15      6.181
               Lack of financial incentives                    B.Sc          5.35      6.455       5.85         6.11
                                                             Diploma         5.46      6.515
    Weak financial support in the use of the computer          B.Sc          5.11      6.355       5.15         6.84
                                                             Diploma         5.81       51.
                       Lack of time                            B.Sc          5.54       148        6.55        *6.651
                                                             Diploma         5.11       51.
     Poor communications infrastructure (network)              B.Sc          5.51       438        5.55         6.558
            necessary for the use of computers               Diploma         5.45       515
   Lack of interest of some officials, in this technology      B.Sc          5.58       6.35       6.34         6.51
                                                             Diploma         5.11       6.34
                   Computer Literacy                           B.Sc          5.51       6.44       5.51        *6.6511
                                                             Diploma         5.11       6.33
        Lack of interest of workers in Computer                B.Sc          5.55      6.355       5.11        *6.655
                                                             Diploma         5.36       558.
                  Poor English language                        B.Sc          5.11       451.       5.14         6.551
                                                             Diploma         5.11       555.
   Lack of training courses on the use of the computer         B.Sc          5.11      6.458       5.15         6.855
                                                             Diploma         5.14      6.353
              Lack of trainers in computers                    B.Sc          5.55       6.45       5.15        *6.661
                                                             Diploma         5.54       6.56
           Farness of training places form job                 B.Sc          5.51      6.556      5.155         6.816
                                                             Diploma         5.55       6.55
        Farness of training places from my house               B.Sc          5.55       6.45       6.55         6.35
                                                             Diploma         5.81       6.55
   The establishment of training at inappropriate times        B.Sc          5.16      6.155       6.44         6.15
                                                             Diploma         5.15      6.351
            Poor content of training programs                  B.Sc          5.56       6.36       6.18         6.55
                                                             Diploma         5.13       6.45
                   Low level of trainers                       B.Sc          5.15      6.315       5.18         6.58
                                                             Diploma         5.81       6.14
      Significance level at 0.05

Table - 6 is a one-way analysis of variance (F) to indicate the differences between the mean
scores of workers on the use of computer by age. The data in the table indicate that significant
differences between respondents in a number of obstacles at the significance level of (0.05) were
found. They were: lack of computers, lack of interest of some officials in computers, lack of
knowledge of computers and lack of interest of workers in computers.




                                                                                                          12 | P a g e
Table 6: One way analysis of variance (F) for differences between the mean scores of
workers according to age


                                                                         F value   level of P
                                  Obstacles
 Lack of computers                                                       5.555     *6.665

 Lack of administrative incentives                                       5.155     6.556

 Lack of financial incentives                                            5.341     6.551
 Weak financial support in the use of the computer                       6.155     6.511

 Lack of time                                                            6.456     6.581

 Poor communications infrastructure (network) necessary for the use of   5.115     6.658
 computers
 Lack of interest of some officials, in this technology                  6.155     *6.655

 Computer Literacy                                                       5.655     *6.651

 Lack of interest of workers in Computer                                 6.111     *6.618

 Poor English language                                                   6.551     6.515

 Lack of training courses on the use of the computer                     6.815     6.151

 Lack of trainers in computers                                           5.511     6.185

 Farness of training places form job places                              6.515     6.654

 Farness of training places from the location of my stay                 5.558     6.631

 The establishment of training at inappropriate time                     5.515     6.645

 Poor content of training programs                                       6.515     6.415

 Low level of trainers                                                   6.511     6.654

                  Significance level at 0.05

The results of Scheffe test for the location of differences between the mean scores of workers
according to the age are presented in Table -7. The results also indicated that the location of
essential difference was between the older workers and young workers. Older workers realized
that these obstacles impeded the use of the computers more than the young workers. This may be
due to that the older age groups found it difficult to cope with rapid technological change in
computers and other modern technologies.




                                                                                            13 | P a g e
Table 7: Scheffe test indicating the location of differences between the mean scores of
workers according to age.

     Obstacles                           Age       Mean      Std    F value   Level of    Location of
                                                                                 P        differences
 Lack of computers      Less than 30 Years          5.16     6.81
                        From 30to less than 40Y     5.51     6.15                              - 53
                                                                     5.163     6.651
                        From 40 to 50Y              5.45     6.35                              8-5
                        More than 50Y               5.81     6.14
  Lack of interest of   Less than 30 Y              5.51     6.35
                                                                                               - 53
   some officials, in   From 30to less than 40Y     5.11     6.45    5.558     6.661
                                                                                               8-5
    this technology     From 40 to 50Y              5.15     6.11
                        More than 50Y               5.31     6.85
 Computer Literacy      Less than 30 Y              5.55     6.11
                                                                                               - 53
                        From 30to less than 40Y     5.58     6.35    5.111      6.61
                                                                                               8-5
                        From 40 to 50Y              5.16     6.55
                        More than 50T               5.11     6.54
  Lack of interest of   Less than 30 Y              5.55     6.81
     workers in         From 30to less than 40Y     5.58     6.15
      Computer
                                                                                               - 53
                        From 40 to 50Y              5.81     6.35    5.651     6.611
                                                                                               8-5
                        More than 50Y               5.14     6.41




Significance level 0.05

One-way analysis of variance (F) indicating for the differences between the mean scores of
workers on the use of computers according to the job of the respondents has been presented in
Table -8. The data indicated that there were significant differences between the mean scores of
workers on the obstacles of the use of computer at a significant level of (0.05). Similarly on lack
of interest of some officials in computer technology has been reported in Table - 9. The table
also presents the results of Scheffe test, indicating the location of the differences between the
mean scores of workers, according to the job. The location of the fundamental difference was
between the agricultural technicians and the agricultural engineers, and agricultural researchers.
Agricultural technicians believe that the lack of interest in computers from some of the officials
impeded the use of computer, more than the engineers and researchers. This may be because the
technicians deal with the computers more than the engineers and researchers, and the technicians
suffer from this obstacle more than engineers and researchers.




                                                                                         14 | P a g e
Table -8 One-way analysis of variance (F) for the differences between the mean scores of
workers according to job

                                                                                       F value     level of P
  Obstacles
  Lack of computers                                                                     5.641        6.181

  Lack of administrative incentives                                                     6.145        6.148

  Lack of financial incentives                                                          6.158        6.188
  Weak financial support in the use of the computer                                     6.855        6.165

  Lack of time                                                                          6.535        6.313
  Poor communications infrastructure (network) necessary for the use of computers       5.554        6.553

  Lack of interest of some officials, in this technology                                1.653       *6.665
  Computer Literacy                                                                     5.588        6.641
  Lack of interest of workers in Computer                                               6.555        6.534

  Poor English language                                                                 5.535        6.556
  Lack of training courses on the use of the computer                                   5.481        6.515
  Lack of trainers in computers                                                         6.111        6.151

  Farness of training places form job places                                            6.315        6.115
  Farness of training places from the location of my stay                               6.416        6.111
  The establishment of training at inappropriate time                                   5.615        6.863

  Poor content of training programs                                                     5.551        6.165
  Low level of trainers                                                                 6.316        6.145

Significance level at 0.05


Table -9 Scheffe test for the location of differences between the mean scores of workers
according to job

      Obstacles                       Job                  Mean    Std    F value   Level of P    Location of
                                                                                                  differences
   Lack of interest       Agricultural engineers            5.11   6.65
   of some officials
        in this           Agricultural researchers.         5.18   6.45     5.558
                                                                                      6.65       1 and 2 with 3
      technology
                          Agricultural technicians          5.11   6.55



         Significance level at 0.05

One-way analysis of variance (F) indicating the differences between the mean scores of workers
on the obstacles of the use of computers based on the experience of respondents is presented in

                                                                                                    15 | P a g e
Table -10. The data presented in the table on lack of interest of some officials in computer,
computer literacy, and lack of interest of workers in computers highlights the significant
differences among respondents at the 0.05 level of significance.

Table - 10 One way analysis of variance (F) indicating the differences between the mean
scores of workers according to experience

                                                                            F value     level of P
    Obstacles
    Lack of computers                                                            5.51     .050

    Lack of administrative incentives                                            5.55     6.11

    Lack of financial incentives                                                 5.14     6.15
    Weak financial support in the use of the computer                            6.31     6.14

    Lack of time                                                                 6.56     6.85

    Poor communications infrastructure (network) necessary for the use of        5.51     6.45
    computers
    Lack of interest of some officials, in this technology                       6.45    *6.655

    Computer Literacy                                                           5.651    *6.685

    Lack of interest of workers in Computer                                     6.115    *6.658

    Poor English language                                                       6.146     6.155

    Lack of training courses on the use of the computer                         6.435     6.151

    Lack of trainers in computers                                               5.115     6.581

    Farness of training places form job places                                  6.115     6.645

    Farness of training places from the location of my stay                     5.855     6.651

    The establishment of training at inappropriate time                         5.556     6.631

    Poor content of training programs                                           6.148     6.548

    Low level of trainers                                                       6.118     6.438


       Significance level at 0.05

The location of the differences between the mean scores of workers, according to their
experience (in the number of years) was determined by using Scheffe test as shown in the table -
11. The results indicated that the fundamental difference was located between the workers with
experience of less than ten years and the workers with experience of more than ten years. The
workers with less experience had to face these obstacles impeding the use of computers more
than those with experience of more than ten years. This may be due to the fact that the less
experienced workers deal with the computer at a greater extent and they suffer more from this
obstacle.



                                                                                          16 | P a g e
Table - 11 Scheffe test indicating the location of differences between the mean scores of
workers according to experience

        Obstacles                      Age              Mean   Std      F     level of   Location of
                                                                      value      P       differences
   Lack of interest of      Less than10 Years           5.16   6.13
   some officials in this   From 10 to less than 20 Y
   technology                                           5.11   6.48
                                                                      5.36    6.658      1 with 2 and 3
                            More than 200 Y             5.55
                                                               6.15

   Computer Literacy        Less than10 Years
                                                        5.51   6.45
                            From 10to less than 20 Y    5.85          5.85    6.668      1 with 2 and 3
                                                               6.11
                            More than 200 Y             5.15   6.55
   Lack of interest of      Less than 10 Years
   workers in                                           5.55   6.45
   computers                                                          5.111   6.65       1with 2 and 3
                            From 10 to less than 20 Y   5.31   6.18
                            More than 200 Years         5.81   6.51

        Significance level at 0.05

Conclusions and Recommendations

The above discussion reveals that some of the agricultural extension workers faced obstacles to
the use of computers. The obstacles could be stemmed from the lack of financial resources and
attitudes of the management towards IT and computers applications. The administrations were
not according due importance to the computers training programs whereas the workers were very
much interested in improving their skills and enhancing their competences. The biggest obstacles
to the use of computers could be the failure to create an atmosphere and the potential
opportunities to use of computers. Lack of training, the lack of interest in learning computers and
the lack of expertise proved to be the biggest obstacles to be the use of computers.

In the light of these findings, it is recommended to introduce an educational program for the
agricultural extension workers, supervisors and managers to enable them to understand the
importance of the role of computers in extension work; which in turn will help them realizing the
potential but beneficial role of computers in extension work. Initiatives like building a good
computers infrastructure, developing an IT embracing culture, and creating a strong network
would possibly improve the quality, and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of agricultural
extension service and performance. Good quality extension staff is prerequisite and basic
ingredient in delivering good quality extension and applications of computers can help achieving
both.




                                                                                           17 | P a g e
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