Stereotype by yaoyufang

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									                   Stereotype
• Definitions:
• a simple idea that has special meaning about a
  group of people (not an archetype which is model
  or ideal from which duplicates are made)
• Labels—what’s in a name?
• Beliefs that group members possess some
  characteristic (not an attitude which has a positive
  or negative evaluation)
• Can be positive or negative
• Living organisms, subject to laws of cultural
  evolution
   Typical Female Stereotypes
• Common everyday stereotypes about
  females—list—Pretty? Drawing exercise
  results
• Cultural female stereotypical examples
  found in television, films, ads—examples?
• Fact vs. fiction—real women from created
  women
• Generational changes in stereotypes?
     Typical Male Stereotypes
• Common everyday stereotypes about
  males—Bully?
• Cultural stereotypical representations of
  males
• Fact vs. fiction
• Generational change
Implicit stereotypes and attitudes
• Implicit stereotype is a stereotype that is powerful
  enough to operate without conscious control
• Implicit attitude is an attitude that can rub off on
  associated objects—powerful attitudes sometimes
  hidden from public view and conscious awareness
• Results of www.implicit.harvard.edu--work of
  social psychologists Greenwald, Banaji et al.
           Stereotype Threat
• Definitions--Stereotypes lead to social
  stigmas which targeted groups internalize
  and affects group member performance; a
  situational phenomenon that occurs when
  targets of stereotypes alleging intellectual
  inferiority are reminded of the possibility of
  confirming these stereotypes (Aronson et al
  1999)
           Female Example
• Example “When women perform math,
  unlike men, they risk being judged by the
  negative stereotype that women have
  weaker math ability” (Spencer 1999)
• Why Females Are Susceptible to
  Experiencing Problem-Solving Deficits in
  the Presence of Males (Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev
  2000)
                Male Example
• Example “When White Men Can’t Do Math”
  (Aronson et al 2002): 1). stereotype threat
  requires neither a history of stigmatization nor
  internalized feelings of intellectual inferiority but
  can arise and become disruptive from situational
  pressures; 2). Stereotype threat is mediated by
  domain identification and most likely to
  undermine performance of individuals identified
  with domain
    Beliefs, attitudes, behavior
• Sociology defines prejudice as an attitude
  that predisposes an individual to prejudge
  entire categories of people unfairly.
• Sociology defines discrimination as the
  unfair and harmful treatment of people
  based on their group membership
• Distinguishing beliefs from behaviors—
  cycle?
          Sex Discrimination
• Defined as the unequal and harmful
  treatment of people because of their sex
   Sex Discrimination Typology
• Blatant sex discrimination refers to unequal and
  harmful treatment of a person based on their sex
  that is intentional, visible, and can be easily
  documented (examples: sex harassment, physical
  violence, unequal treatment on job)
• Subtle sex discrimination as unequal and harmful
  treatment that is typically less visible and obvious
  than blatant
• Covert sex discrimination is unequal and harmful
  treatment that is hidden, purposeful, maliciously
  motivated—manipulation and sabotage
  (Benokraitus 1997)
             Subtle Sexism
• Can be intentional or unintentional
• Is visible but goes unnoticed because it is
  built into social norms, values and ideas
• Is communicated verbally, behaviorally
• Usually informal rather than formal
• Most visible on individual rather than
  organizational level (Benokraitis and Feagin
  1995)
 Social outcomes of stereotypes
• Consider social outcomes of use of
  stereotypes
• How do stereotypes lead to sexism?
• Is sexism always bad? Eye of beholder
  problem? (Benokraitus, Subtle Sexism, p.
  11)
                                  References

•   Kristi Lemm and Mahzarin R. Banaji (1999) “Unconscious Attitudes and Beliefs About
    Women and Men.” in U. Pasero and F. Braun eds., Wahrnehmung und Herstellung von
    Geschlecht (Perceiving and Performing Gender) Opladen: Westdutscher Verlag.
•   Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Anthony G. Greenwald (2002) “Math=Male,
    Me=Female, Therefore Math / Me” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1:
    44-59.
•   Steven J. Spencer, Claude M. Steele, Diane M. Quinn. (1999) “Stereotype Threat and
    Women’s Math Performance,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 1: 4-28.
•   Michael Inzlicht and Talia Ben-Zeev (2000) “A Threatening Intellectual Environment:
    Why Females are Susceptible to Experiencing Problem-Solving Deficits in the Presence
    of Males,” Psychological Science 11, 5: 365-371.
•   Joshua Aronson, Michael J Lustina, Catherine Good, Kelli Keough, Claude M. Steele,
    and Joseph Brown, (1999) “When White Men Can’t Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient
    Factors in Stereotype Threat, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 35, 1: 29-46.
•   Nijole V. Benokraitis, (1997) Subtle Sexism. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
•   Elizabeth H. Gorman (2005) “Gender Stereotypes, Same-Gender Preferences, and
    Organizational Variation in the Hiring of Women: Evidence from Law Firms,”
    American Sociological Review, 70: 702-728.

								
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