Stereotype • Definitions: • a simple idea that has special meaning about a group of people (not an archetype which is model or ideal from which duplicates are made) • Labels—what’s in a name? • Beliefs that group members possess some characteristic (not an attitude which has a positive or negative evaluation) • Can be positive or negative • Living organisms, subject to laws of cultural evolution Typical Female Stereotypes • Common everyday stereotypes about females—list—Pretty? Drawing exercise results • Cultural female stereotypical examples found in television, films, ads—examples? • Fact vs. fiction—real women from created women • Generational changes in stereotypes? Typical Male Stereotypes • Common everyday stereotypes about males—Bully? • Cultural stereotypical representations of males • Fact vs. fiction • Generational change Implicit stereotypes and attitudes • Implicit stereotype is a stereotype that is powerful enough to operate without conscious control • Implicit attitude is an attitude that can rub off on associated objects—powerful attitudes sometimes hidden from public view and conscious awareness • Results of www.implicit.harvard.edu--work of social psychologists Greenwald, Banaji et al. Stereotype Threat • Definitions--Stereotypes lead to social stigmas which targeted groups internalize and affects group member performance; a situational phenomenon that occurs when targets of stereotypes alleging intellectual inferiority are reminded of the possibility of confirming these stereotypes (Aronson et al 1999) Female Example • Example “When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability” (Spencer 1999) • Why Females Are Susceptible to Experiencing Problem-Solving Deficits in the Presence of Males (Inzlicht & Ben-Zeev 2000) Male Example • Example “When White Men Can’t Do Math” (Aronson et al 2002): 1). stereotype threat requires neither a history of stigmatization nor internalized feelings of intellectual inferiority but can arise and become disruptive from situational pressures; 2). Stereotype threat is mediated by domain identification and most likely to undermine performance of individuals identified with domain Beliefs, attitudes, behavior • Sociology defines prejudice as an attitude that predisposes an individual to prejudge entire categories of people unfairly. • Sociology defines discrimination as the unfair and harmful treatment of people based on their group membership • Distinguishing beliefs from behaviors— cycle? Sex Discrimination • Defined as the unequal and harmful treatment of people because of their sex Sex Discrimination Typology • Blatant sex discrimination refers to unequal and harmful treatment of a person based on their sex that is intentional, visible, and can be easily documented (examples: sex harassment, physical violence, unequal treatment on job) • Subtle sex discrimination as unequal and harmful treatment that is typically less visible and obvious than blatant • Covert sex discrimination is unequal and harmful treatment that is hidden, purposeful, maliciously motivated—manipulation and sabotage (Benokraitus 1997) Subtle Sexism • Can be intentional or unintentional • Is visible but goes unnoticed because it is built into social norms, values and ideas • Is communicated verbally, behaviorally • Usually informal rather than formal • Most visible on individual rather than organizational level (Benokraitis and Feagin 1995) Social outcomes of stereotypes • Consider social outcomes of use of stereotypes • How do stereotypes lead to sexism? • Is sexism always bad? Eye of beholder problem? (Benokraitus, Subtle Sexism, p. 11) References • Kristi Lemm and Mahzarin R. Banaji (1999) “Unconscious Attitudes and Beliefs About Women and Men.” in U. Pasero and F. Braun eds., Wahrnehmung und Herstellung von Geschlecht (Perceiving and Performing Gender) Opladen: Westdutscher Verlag. • Brian A. Nosek, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Anthony G. Greenwald (2002) “Math=Male, Me=Female, Therefore Math / Me” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1: 44-59. • Steven J. Spencer, Claude M. Steele, Diane M. Quinn. (1999) “Stereotype Threat and Women’s Math Performance,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 1: 4-28. • Michael Inzlicht and Talia Ben-Zeev (2000) “A Threatening Intellectual Environment: Why Females are Susceptible to Experiencing Problem-Solving Deficits in the Presence of Males,” Psychological Science 11, 5: 365-371. • Joshua Aronson, Michael J Lustina, Catherine Good, Kelli Keough, Claude M. Steele, and Joseph Brown, (1999) “When White Men Can’t Do Math: Necessary and Sufficient Factors in Stereotype Threat, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 35, 1: 29-46. • Nijole V. Benokraitis, (1997) Subtle Sexism. Thousand Oaks: Sage. • Elizabeth H. Gorman (2005) “Gender Stereotypes, Same-Gender Preferences, and Organizational Variation in the Hiring of Women: Evidence from Law Firms,” American Sociological Review, 70: 702-728.
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