Water Level Indicator With level Display by BhuwanChalise

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									         KATHMANDU UNIVERSITY

               PROJECT REPORT

 Water level indetector with its level display

 A first year project report submitted in partial fulfillment
            of the requirements for the degree of
                   Bachelor of Engineering

                  Bhuwan Chalise(12035)
                   Dinesh Khatri(12011)
                   Jitendra Shah(12020)
                   Suman Poudel(12045)

                       August 1, 2010

                              A PROJECT REPORT

                  Water level detector with its level display


                               Bhuwan Chalise(12035)

                                Dinesh Khatri(12011)

                                Jitendra Shah(12020)

                                Suman Poudel(12045)

Approved by:

1. Project Supervisor

___________________       ____________________________   __________
      (Signature)                     (Name)               (Date)

2. Head/In-Charge of the Department

___________________       ____________________________   __________
      (Signature)                     (Name)               (Date)

The purpose of this project is to design of the “The water level detector and level display with
controller” as the part of second semester project included in second semester course ENGG 102.
The aim of the project is to make us familiar with the electronics components and principles and
to make experimentations and construction.

Water level detector that we have designed consist a water level detector and indicator system
with level display which indicates the change of water level in the water to provide reservoir
through indicator lamps by means of the controller circuit built around IC. It also facilitates the
automatic on off of the machine when the tank is emptied and full. A water level detector and
indicator system includes a water level detector and a water level display controlled by the water
level detector to give a respective output signal when the level of water changes from one
position to another.

This system can help to take precaution so that water does not overflow. It help us to save water
and also from the possible accidents.

The project is teamwork and the participation of the group members is very vital. For the study
and research of this project, all the group members have sincerely devoted their time and stood
up to their responsibilities. Besides these we express our gratitude to those who have helped us
by providing their useful technical knowledge.

First of all we are thankful to our project supervisor Mr. Ansu Man Singh for continuous
support and encouragement throughout the project. We would like to express our cordial
thanks to Mr.Sunil Khanal, and Roshan Ranjit for providing us with all the necessary
assistance and some very valuable advice required for the project.

Abbreviation         Full Form

   •   K        Kilo-ohm
   •   R        Resistor
   •   V        Voltage
   •   IC       Integrated circuit
   •   LED      Light emitting diode
                                          CHAPTER 1


A water level detector and indicator system includes a water level detector and a water level
display controlled by the water level detector to give a respective output signal when the level of
water changes from one position to another. The water level detector can be a mechanical type
which uses a float to control a multi-step switch causing a series of indicator lamps to give light
respectively. The water level detector can be an electronic type which uses metal probes to detect
the change of water level, and a controller driven by the metal probes to control buzzers and
indicator lamps to work.

A device for detecting the presence of water in a fuel tank comprising a fitting mounted at the
lower most portion of said tank having a water sensing alloy on said fitting. The fitting positions
the water sensing alloy in the tank in the position where water will tend to collect. The fitting
also includes a socket for connecting an indicating device such as an ammeter to determine the
presence of water in the tank. The length by which the fitting extends into the tank can be used to
determine the depth of water in the tank and when the amount of water collected at the bottom or
sump of the tank exceeds a predetermined depth it will be detected by the indicator connected
externally to the water sensing alloy. A useful water sensing alloy is comprised of a composition
of lead, tin, and zinc.
1.1Background and Objectives

1.1.1 Background

A Water level detector and indicator with control system shows the water level of a water
reservoir step by step so that the users have sufficient time to take the necessary steps. It also
provides us with the automatic on and off of the motor fitted to the tank when the level of water
is emptied of full in the tank.

A water reservoir may be installed in a building for keeping water. When a water reservoir is
installed, it must be properly sealed to prevent contamination. Once a water reservoir is installed,
it is difficult to know the existing amount of water contained in the water reservoir. In order to
keep water continuously and automatically supplied, a switch is commonly installed to control
the water pump permitting it to pump water to the water reservoir when the level of water drops
below the predetermined range how ever, it the external water supply to the water reservoir is
stopped, the water pump will run in idle when the level of water drops below the predetermined
range, and the users can know the situation.
1.1.2 Objectives

Its main objective is to provide a water level detector and indicator system which indicates the
changes of water level in the reservoir through the indicator lamps by means of controller circuit
built around IC.
   •   The device also facilitates the automatic on and off of the machine when the level of
       water in the tank is emptied and full respectively.
   •   It is a precaution so that the water does not overflow.
   •   Save time, water ,money, energy and electricity

1.2 Overview of the report

To explain our project we have grouped the report into 5 different chapters. Chapter 1 includes
the introductory part of the water level detector and indicator system with its level display and its
objectives. Chapter 2 reveals the construction of water tank with different levels where our
experiment is performed. Chapter 3 describes the functioning of the system with an aid of block
diagrams. Chapter 4 concerns about the information of the components used in our project like
IC LM 7805, LM 324, resistors, relay, LED, transistors etc. Chapter 5 shows the conclusion part
of our report, which includes various problems that we faced during our project as well as their

Gantt chart in the report shows our progress in the project. Cost estimation table gives the total
cost required during our project. The appendix part includes the important data-sheets of ICs
used in our project.
1.3 Methodology

The device that we have designed will give the respective output signal in the indicated circuit
when the level of water changes from one point to another. At first when the tank is emptied the
LED which replaces the motor will glow indicating the empty tank. When the water is slowly
provided into it, as the level of water increases in the tank the water is detected by the metal rods.
Metal rod act as a sensor which gives signal to the controller which control on and off of the
water pump as needed. Controller is then connected to the level display which displays the level
of the water in the tank

First searched for a tank big enough to accommodate four levels of water level detector. Then a
tap was introduced into the tank as an outlet of water. Four level of water detector was screwed
in the tank along with the metal rods which sense the water. To prevent leakage of water, rubber
washer was fitted on the tank’s wall for each level. The designed the circuit in the bread board
which consisted of IC of LM7805, LM324, resistors of 4.7kohm, 47kohm and 1kohm, LED and
copper wire. In the same bread board also constructed the circuit for the controller which consist
relay, transistors, resistors. On testing with the help of multi-meter we discovered that 12V
supply was necessary for the proper functioning of the circuit. Then connected the water tank,
circuit in the bread board input of 12V to check whether the circuit was properly functioning.
After a hard try our test was successful when our LED to all four levels glows as the level of
water increased in the tank. After the successful testing of the circuit we copied the circuit of
breadboard into matrix board for final testing and give a fine finishing. On final testing of the
circuit the desired output was obtained.
The following figure shows the block diagram of water level detector and indicator system with


        WATER                       CONTROLLER                       LEVEL

                                     WATER PUMP

Fig 1: Block Diagram of water level detector and indicator system with controller
                                          CHAPTER 2



Transistor is a versatile electronic device and is very widely used in the field of electronics. It’s
important is in the ability to produce amplification or gain in a circuit. When a device such as a
transistor is used to create gain, we supply a small signal to it, referred to as the input; the large
current or voltage variation that then occur at another point in the device are referred to as the

The two most important types of transistors are:
1. Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJT)
2. Field Effect Transistors (FET)


The word bipolar is used because of the fact that the flow of the current in this transistor is both
to the p type and n type carriers. There are basically two types of BJT,
   1. NPN transistor
   2. PNP transistor

For both there are three basic configurations .i.e.
   1. Common base
   2. Common emitter
   3. Common collector
   The relation between base current, IB, collector current IC, emitter current IE in a transistor is,

                                  Fig 2 NPN and PNP transistors

4.2 Electromechanical Switches (Relays)

A relay is a simple electromechanical switch made up of an electromagnet and a set of contacts.
It consists of two separate and completely independent circuits. A switch is controlling power to
the electromagnet. When the switch is on, the electromagnet is on, and it attracts the armature.
The armature is acting as a switch in the second circuit.

                                          Fig 3.1 Relay
Relays are used:

   •   to control a high-voltage circuit with a low-voltage signal, as in some types of modems or
       audio amplifiers,
   •   to control a high-current circuit with a low-current signal, as in the starter solenoid of an
   •   to detect and isolate faults on transmission and distribution lines by opening and closing
       circuit breakers (protection relays),

                                Fig 3.2 Relay

4.3 IC

4.3.1 IC LM7805

The 7805 provides circuit designers with an easy way to regulate DC voltages to 5V. The 7805
datasheet and specifications are given below.

Encapsulated in a single/chip package(IC), the 7805 is a positive voltage DC regulator that has
only 3 terminals. They are input voltage, ground, output and voltage.

Although the 7805 were primarily designed for a fixed voltage output (5v), it is indeed possible
to use external components in order to obtained DC output. Voltage of 5V, 6V, 8V, 9V, 10V,
12V, 15V, 18V, 20V, 24V.

General Features
      Output current up to 1A.
      Output voltages of 5, 6, 8, 9, 10,12, 15, 18, 24V
      Thermal overload protection
       Short Circuit protection
       Output Transistor Safe Operating Area Protection

                                Fig 4 IC LM7805

4.3.2 IC LM324
The LM324 consists of four independent, high gain internally frequency compensated
operational amplifiers which are designed specifically to operated from a single power supply
over a wide voltage range. Operation from spilt power supplies is also possible. Application
areas include transducer amplifier, DC gain blocks and all the conventional OP amp circuits
which now can be easily implemented in a single power supply system.


   •   Internally frequency compensated for unity gain.
   •   Large DC voltage gain :100dB.
   •   Wide operating supply range (Vcc=3V~32V).
   •   Input common-mode voltage includes ground.
   •   Large output voltage swing: From 0V to Vcc-1.5V.
   •   Power drain suitable for battery operation.
4.4 Resistors
A resistor is a two-terminal electronic component that opposes an electric current by producing a
voltage drop between its terminals in proportion to the current, that is, in accordance with Ohm's
law: V = IR. The electrical resistance R is equal to the voltage drop V across the resistor divided
by the current I through the resistor. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and
electronic circuits.

The resistors we used in designing the circuit are 1kohm, 4.7kohm and 47kohm

                                        Fig 5 Resistors

Color 1st band 2nd band 3rd band (multiplier) 4th band (tolerance) Temp. Coefficient

Black   0         0         ×100

Brown 1           1         ×101                    ±1% (F)               100 ppm

Red     2         2         ×102                    ±2% (G)               50 ppm
Orange 3          3         ×103                                           15 ppm

Yellow 4          4         ×104                                           25 ppm

Green 5           5         ×105                    ±0.5% (D)

Blue     6        6         ×106                    ±0.25% (C)

Violet 7          7         ×107                    ±0.1% (B)

Gray     8        8         ×108                    ±0.05% (A)

White 9           9         ×109

Gold                        ×10-1                   ±5% (J)

Silver                      ×10-2                   ±10% (K)

None                                                ±20% (M)

4.5 LED (Light Emitting Diode)

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that emits light when an electrical current
is applied in the forward direction of the device, as in the simple LED circuit. The effect is a
form of electroluminescence where incoherent and narrow-spectrum light is emitted from the p-n

LEDs are widely used as indicator lights on electronic devices and increasingly in higher power
applications such as flashlights and area lighting. An LED is usually a small area (less than 1
mm2) light source, often with optics added to the chip to shape its radiation pattern and assist in
reflection. The color of the emitted light depends on the composition and condition of the
semiconducting material used, and can be infrared, visible, or ultraviolet. Besides lighting,
interesting applications include using UV-LEDs for sterilization of water and disinfection of
devices and as grow light to enhance photosynthesis in plants

                                 Fig 6 LED
                                          CHAPTER 4


The product that we have designed is a water level detector and indicator system with controller.
It consists of four levels. When the emptied tank is tested the LED of four levels will not glow
but that of machine will glow indicating that tank needs water supply and motor is on. When the
water is filled the water touches the metal rods which act as a sensor and the led of the
corresponding level will glow. When the tank is filled all the four LEDs of corresponding level
will glow indicating the tank is full.

This system helps to detect the level of water and save our time, money and energy. One does
not have to climb up in the tank to know the level of water and it is less risky.
                                       CHAPTER 5

                      DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

   5.1 Problems Encountered and solutions:

Every successful work encounters some or the other kind of problems. We came across more
mechanical problems than electrical. Major problems that we had to tackle on were

   •   Our tank had leakage from four levels that were introduced into the tank though we had
       screwed the four levels with the help of rubber washer.
   •   It was difficult to understand the circuit diagram and fix it on the bread board.

       To overcome the problems we consulted our seniors and teachers regarding the
   theoretical approach and the technical terms. We consulted various books in the library. We
   also gave a market survey for the different components that we hope to use in our project and
   for the rest components we have requested the electronics lab to provide with the

DATE                   March             April        May       June

WORKING                1             3            3         2
Proposal         and
Drilling    of   the
container        and
fixing      of   the
metal rod
Construction      of
circuit and level
Connection        of
and controller
Final testing of
the system

                           Table 4. Tentative Gantt Chart

Table 5. Actual Gantt Chart
DATE            March       April   May       June   July
WEEKS                 1     3       3     4          4
Proposal        and
Drilling of the
container       and
fixing     of   the
metal rod
Construction of
circuit and level
Connection       of
and controller
Final testing of
the system
Report Writing
5.3 Cost estimation:

   The total cost estimated for our project is:

Components          Specification           Quantity          Rate     Amount (in Rs)
 Resistors         1k, 4.7k, 47k,etc          15                            12
   LED                                         5                            10
   ICs                  LM7805                 1              35            65
                        LM324                  1              35            35
  Bucket                                       2              450          900
    Tap                                        1              50            50
   Relay                                       1              25            25
   Mceal                                       1              100          100
Metal washer                                  10               2            20
Rubber washer                                  10                 15       150
 Metal screw                                    5                  2        10
 Copper wire                                   5m                 10        50
    Total                                                                  1427

                                       Table 2: Cost estimation

   1. B.L THEREJA ,”AText Book of Electrical Technology”, S.Chand, 2002.

   2. THEODORE.F.BOGART. ”Electronic Devices and Circuits”, Universal Book Install,
   New Delhi, 2001

   3 .RAMAKANT A.GAYAKWAD,” Op-ams and Linear Integrated Circuits”, Prentice Hall
   of India, New Delhi, 2000.

   4. ROBERT L.BOYLESTED, LOUIS NASHELSKY,”Electronic Devices and           Circuit
   Theory”, PHI, 2003.



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