technique by wuyunyi


									III. Techniques to Enhance E-
 Learning: Synchronous and

   Curt Bonk, Indiana University

“…is motivation that arises from external contingencies.”
  (i.e., students who act to get high grades, win a trophy,
  comply with a deadline—means-to-an-end motivation)
See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner motivational
    resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
               Intrinsic Motivation
 “…innate propensity to engage one’s
  interests and exercise one’s capabilities,
  and, in doing so, to seek out and master
  optimal challenges
 (i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings, and
    personal curiosity for growth)

See: Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R.
M. (1985). Intrinsic
motivation and self-
determination in human
behavior. NY: Plenum
              Motivational Terms?
  See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others: Nurturing inner
   motivational resources. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)

1. Tone/Climate: Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
2. Feedback: Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
3. Engagement: Effort, Involvement, Excitement
4. Meaningfulness: Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
5. Choice: Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
6. Variety: Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
7. Curiosity: Fun, Fantasy, Control
8. Tension: Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
9. Interactive: Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
10. Goal Driven: Product-Based, Success, Ownership
               1. Tone/Climate:
                 Ice Breakers
a. Eight Nouns Activity:
1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
2. Explain why choose each noun
3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings

b. Coffee House Expectations
1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they
    might be met
(or make public commitments of how they will fit into
    busy schedules!)
            1. Tone/Climate:
            Like Ice Breakers
c. KNOWU Rooms:
  1. Create discussion forums or chat
     room topics for people with diff
     experiences (e.g., soccer parent,
     runner, pet lovers, like music,
     outdoor person). Find those with
     similar interests.
  2. Complete eval form where list people
     in class and interests. Most names
d. Chat Room Buds: Create a
  discussion prompt in one of “X’ number
  of chat rooms. Introduce yourself in the
  chat room that interests you.
       2. Feedback
A. Requiring Peer Feedback
1. Reading Reactions: Require minimum # of
  peer comments and give guidance (e.g.,
  they should do…)
2. Peer Feedback Through Templates—give
  templates to complete peer evaluations.
3. Have e-papers contest(s)
   2. Feedback (Instructor)
       B. Anonymous Suggestion Box
George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity
  and Electronics for Engineers:
1. Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
   forms or email)
2. Submission box is password protected
3. Instructor decides how to respond
4. Then provide response and most or all of suggestion
   in online forum
5. It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor views, and
   justified actions publicly.
6. Caution: If you are disturbed by criticism, perhaps do
   not use.
              2. Feedback:
  C. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing
Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro
  to Management of Info Systems
1. Students take objective quiz (no time limit and not
2. Submit answer for evaluation
3. Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz returns a
   compelling probing question, insight, or conflicting
   perspective (i.e., a counterpoint) to force students to
   reconsider original responses
4. Students must commit to a response but can use
   reference materials
5. Correct answer and explanation are presented
            4. Meaningfulness:
      A. Perspective Taking: Foreign

Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU
  and Jennifer Liu, East Asian
  Languages and Cultures at IU:
1. Have students receive e-newsletters from a foreign
   magazine as well as respond to related questions.
2. Students assume roles of those in literature from that
   culture and participate in real-time chats using assumed
3. Students use multimedia and Web for self-paced lessons
   to learn target language in authentic contexts.
      4. Meaningfulness:
   B. Expert Job Interviews
1. Field Definition Activity: Have
  student interview (via e-mail, if necessary)
  someone working in the field of study and share
  their results
• As a class, pool interview results and develop a
  group description of what it means to be a
  professional in the field
          5. Choice:
A. Discussion: Starter-Wrapper
          (Hara, Bonk, & Angeli, 2000)

1. Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and others
   participate and wrapper summarizes what was
2. Start-wrapper with roles--same as #1 but include roles for
   debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's advocate).

Alternative: Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
Instead of starting discussion, student acts as moderator or
    questioner to push student thinking and give feedback
       5. Choice:
B. Web Resource Reviews
                     6. Variety:
          A. Just-In-Time-Teaching
Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics
   Professor (teaches teamwork,
   collaboration, and effective
1. Lectures are built around student
   answers to short quizzes that have an
   electronic due date just hours before
2. Instructor reads and summarizes
   responses before class and weaves
   them into discussion and changes the
   lecture as appropriate.
 6. Variety: B. Virtual Classroom

Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data
  Warehousing and Decision Support
1. Voice annotated slides on Web; 7 course modules with a number
   of 15-30 minutes units
2. Biweekly Q&A chat sessions moderated by students
3. Bulletin Board class discussions
4. Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments
5. Exam Q’s posted to BB; answers sent via email
6. Team projects posted in a team project space
7. Add’l Web resources are structured for students (e.g., white
   papers, reports, project and product home pages)
8. Email is used to communicate with students
                      7. Curiosity:
                  A. Electronic Seance

• Students read books from famous dead people
• Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
• Present present day problem for them to solve
• Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
  read direct quotes from books or articles)
• Invite expert guests from other campuses
• Keep chat open for set time period
• Debrief
      7. Curiosity

B. Online Fun and Games
1. Puzzle games
2. Solve puzzle against
3. Learn concepts
4. Compete
5. Get points
I. eDrama (Front Desk Hiring)
                  8. Tension
A. Role Play Personalities
• List possible roles or personalities (e.g., coach, optimist,
  devil’s advocate, etc.)
• Sign up for different role every week (or 5-6 key roles)
• Reassign roles if someone drops class
• Perform within roles—refer to different personalities
B. Assume Persona of Scholar
   – Enroll famous people in your course
   – Students assume voice of that person for one or
     more sessions
   – Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic
   – Respond to rdg reflections of others or react to own
            9. Interactive:
  A. Critical/Constructive Friends,
      Email Pals, Web Buddies
1. Assign a critical friend (perhaps based on
2. Post weekly updates of projects, send
   reminders of due dates, help where needed.
3. Provide criticism to peer (I.e., what is strong
   and weak, what’s missing, what hits the mark)
   as well as suggestions for strengthening.
    In effect, critical friends do not slide over
      weaknesses, but confront them kindly and
4. Reflect on experience.
            9. Interactive:
B. Panels of Experts: Be an Expert/Ask an
  Expert: Have each learner choose an area in
  which to become expert and moderate a forum for
  the class. Require participation in a certain
  number of forums (choice)
C. Press Conference: Have a series of press
  conferences at the end of small group projects;
  one for each group)
                    9. Interactive:
 D. Online Co-Laborative Psych Experiments
    (University of Mississippi)
 Contains 30 free psych
 • Location independent
 • Convenient to instructors
 • Run experiments over
    large number of subjects
 • Can build on it over time
 • Cross-institutional

Ken McGraw, Syllabus,
November, 2001
            10. Goal Driven

A. Jigsaw Technique: each student
  becomes an expert on a topic and teaches
  that to his/her group.
e.g., Assign chapters within groups
(member #1 reads chapters 1 & 2; #2 reads 3
  & 4, etc.)
        Synchronous Activities
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Guest speaker moderated (or open) Q&A forum
3. Instructor meetings, private talk, admin help
4. Quick Polls/Quizzes, Voting Ranking
5. Surveys
6. Team activities or meetings or Peer Q&A
7. Collaborative writing
8. Brainstorming ideas, What-Ifs, Quick reflections
9. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
10. Online Mentoring or Language Learning
1. Webinar, Webcast
2. Discussion plus Chat (e.g., Starter-
Wrapper + Sync Guest Chat)
3. Instructor Meetings and Support
      5. Survey Student Opinions
(e.g., InfoPoll, SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
6. Peer Questions & Team Meeting
7. Collaborative Document Writing Online:
        Peer-to-Peer Collaboration
9. Graphic Organizers (e.g., Digital
    Motivational Top Ten
1. Tone/Climate: Ice Breakers, Peer Sharing
2. Feedback: Self-Tests, Reading Reactions
3. Engagement: Q’ing, Polling, Voting
4. Meaningfulness: Job/Field Reflections, Cases
5. Choice: Topical Discussions, Starter-Wrapper
6. Variety: Brainstorming, Roundrobins
7. Curiosity: Seances, Electronic Guests/Mentors
8. Tension: Role Play, Debates, Controversy
9. Interactive: E-Pals, Symposia, Expert Panels
10. Goal Driven: Group PS, Jigsaw, Gallery Tours

      Pick One…??? (circle one)
         Pick an Idea
• Definitely Will Use:

• May Try to Use:

• No Way:



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