What is VSAT Outdoor Unit (ODU)

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					Ku Band VSAT                                                                            Page 1 of 8

VSAT technology is a secure and reliable medium to connect geographically dispersed
locations and represents a cost effective solution for users seeking an independent
communication network connecting to the global network. In a situation where other
connectivity options are not feasible, Ku Band VSAT offer value added satellite based services
capable of supporting- Broadband internet access, VOIP, video conferencing, IP multicast,
 Local Area Network, voice, Fax and can also provide powerful dependable private
communication solutions.
       The Ku band ("kay-yoo" K-under band) is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in
the microwave range of frequencies from 11 to 18 GHz.
BSNL’s Ku band service works on
   11.637 GHz downlink frequency
   14.437 GHz uplink frequency
      Presently Ku Band Hub (Gateway) uses INSAT-3B satellite to provide broadband
packet-switched communications to a large number of user terminals.
What is VSAT?
       VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal. VSAT is a device (also known as an
“earth station”) that is used to send and receive wireless transmissions by satellite. Millions of
VSATs are in use around the world, allowing people to send and receive two-way data, voice
or video transmissions by bouncing signals off of satellites in orbit. The "very small" component
of the VSAT acronym refers to the size of the VSAT “antenna” or “dish” - typically about 2 to
5feet (0.55-1.8 meters) in diameter for Ku-band systems - that is mounted on a roof, attached
to a wall or placed on the ground and is capable of both receiving and sending satellite signals.
VSAT systems can be designed to serve both broadcast and interactive applications whether
data, voice or video, which are now being served by terrestrial lines.
VSAT Equipment is mainly consist of-
            •   ODU ( Outdoor Unit )
            •   IDU ( Indoor Unit )

Outdoor Unit (ODU):
      The outdoor unit system is specifically optimized for use with the Indoor Unit and consists
        Antenna (0.75m - 1.8m)
        Block Upconverter (BUC) (1W-2W)
        Low Noise Block-Downconverter (LNB)
        Feed Assembly (Co-pol or X-pol)                                             5/21/2011
Ku Band VSAT                                                                        Page 2 of 8


                                            LAN Link     IDU (IPX-5100)
      LNB                                   Ethernet

               Feed horn                        Sync


                                     Fig. ODU & IDU
   BUC : Block Up Converter; Up converts and amplifies modem information for transmission
   to the satellite. A BUC (Block Up-Converter) takes an L-band input and transmits it
   upstream to the satellite on Ka, Ku, or C band.(1W,2W,4W BUC)
   LNB : Low Noise Block Down Converter; Down converts and amplifies signals received
   from the satellite to the modem or receiver. In addition to amplifying the signal, the LNB
   also converts the signal to a frequency usable by the In-Door-Unit.
IDU ( Indoor Unit ) :
         The indoor unit may be a small desktop box, or it may be (as in this case) a network
   module integrated with a router providing VSAT network connectivity just as any other
   network module and provide flexible Interfaces like Ethernet 10/100 BaseT (RJ45), USB ,
    T1/E1 interface .
       The IDU contains receiver and transmitter electronics and an interface to communicate
   with the user's other networking equipment - LANs, servers, PCs, TVs, etc. The indoor unit
   is connected to the outdoor unit with a pair of coaxial cables (one to send data and another
   to receive it).
      VSAT networks can be arranged in point to point, star, mesh, star/mesh, and broadcast
   configurations. The preferred arrangement depends on the kind of information flow the
   network will service. VSAT networks come in various shapes and sizes ranging from star
   data system users with one site connected to an operator's shared hub to many thousands
   based on a dedicated facility located at their own site. Mesh systems have traditionally                                        5/21/2011
Ku Band VSAT                                                                           Page 3 of 8

       been somewhat smaller in size than star systems - 5 to 30 sites used to be a good rule
   of thumb - but the average size of orders has risen as prices have come down and some
   rural telephony networks now comprise as many as several hundred or even thousands of
          A point to point network allows two-way communications between two VSAT sites.
          A star network allows any number of VSAT sites to have two-way communication
   with a central hub.
          A mesh network allows two-way communications between any VSAT sites in a
   network. A central hub is not necessary. Each site communicates to another site with a
   single satellite hop.
      VSAT networks designed in a hub-and-spoke fashion, with customer locations
   connecting directly over the air to a central “hub” facility. The equipment at a customer site
   is a VSAT receiver/router (similar to a DSL or cable modem), attached to a small dish
   mounted on top of or outside the building. At the central hub facility, a large dish and
   sophisticated hub RF components receive and transmit to the remote sites, and route
   information to and from the Internet or private networks via leased line .

       There are three basic VSAT transmission types: TDMA, time-division multiple accesses;
DAMA, demand-assigned multiple access; and SPCP/MCPC, single/multiple channels per
carrier. Interactive VSAT systems come in two main network topologies - star and mesh. The
former tends to be based either on a shared access scheme (TDM/TDMA), which is designed
to support transactional processing applications, or on a dedicated link (the satellite equivalent
to a leased line). The latter usually uses links which are set-up and torn-down on request to
establish a direct link between two sites on a demand assigned basis.                                           5/21/2011
Ku Band VSAT                                                                       Page 4 of 8


                                Fig. VSAT ARCHITECTURE
BSNL’s Ku Band HUB (Earth Station) at BANGALORE consists of :
Satellite antenna of 8.1 m – Cassegrain feed type.
Ku Band RF equipment and its control systems.
GATEWAY Networking Equipment with interfaces to Terrestrial Networks like MLLN, MPLS
and NIB.

Benefits and value over Terrestrial Services of VSAT networking:
       VSAT is generally a very cost-effective medium for narrowband or broadband data
communications, and has particularly strong advantages in ubiquity (VSAT is available at any
location) and multicast support (sending the same data to tens or thousands of locations at
once). VSAT connections experience about a half-second of latency in a round trip (from the
time to reach the satellite and return), although this does not adversely affect most
applications.One key advantage of VSAT connections is that service availability is not limited
by the reach of terrestrial telephone or cable infrastructure. A VSAT earth station can be
placed anywhere - as long as it has an unobstructed view of the satellite. VSATs are capable
of sending and receiving all sorts of video, data and audio content at the same high speed
regardless of their distance from terrestrial switching offices and infrastructure. This also
serves to make VSAT an ideal choice for WAN backup and disaster recovery. Because VSAT                                       5/21/2011
Ku Band VSAT                                                                           Page 5 of 8

       completely avoids the local area wireline infrastructure, it is effectively able to avoid
even large-scale local outages or disasters
       VSAT offers highly reliable, flexible support of integrated multimedia communications
compared to alternative technologies. When it comes to cost it is not quite fair to make general
comparison between VSAT services and its terrestrial counterparts. Normally charges for
terrestrial Services are nearly distance dependent, while connections cost the same whether
customer’s sites are 1 or 1000 Km. apart and with most VSAT services the cost per customer
comes down considerably when a customer adds users. However, Bharat Sanchar Nigam
Limited and other service provider have considerably reduced their charges.
      A satellite network can be installed and made operational within a week since miles of
cable need not be installed. And VSATs are available in remote locations since it dose not
need the infrastructure of a telephone exchange to be present.
      “Suppose a bank needs to expand its business by deploying 100 new ATMs within a
week, can you imagine the time it will take to wait for leased lines? In such case, VSAT
connectivity is the best Option.”
        BSNL is the one of the leading service providers in India. The network allows secure,
reliable and cost effective data, voice and video transmission.
      BSNL’s sleek and stylish Satellite Terminal, provides high performance two-way
connectivity for Internet access as well as a wide array of content delivery and other interactive
applications using the advanced BSNL’s Satellite Technology. The BSNL Satellite Terminal
can be operated in either single or multi-user environment. In single-user mode it would
interface directly to the customer's PC. BSNL's Satellite Terminals enables an organization to
deploy nationwide different services over IP using the shortest time span.
- Full-time data/voice services
-On-demand services for WAN backup/disaster recovery
-Instant and mobile communications
-Video Conferencing
- Financial Management
- Data processing
- Reservation System
- Telemetry & Data Collection
- News Wire Services
- Private-Line Voice
- Virtual Private Networks                                           5/21/2011
Ku Band VSAT                                                                                 Page 6 of 8

- Distance Education
- High Speed Internet Access
- Telemedicine
-Voice over IP Telephony
-Broadcast and Multicast Applications
   A sample architecture for High speed Broadband Internet
Satellite Terminals provides robust Broadband/Internet network of BSNL by providing high speed
Internet directly to the users with a nationwide coverage. It delivers bandwidth on demand allowing
efficient use of bandwidth making it ideal for broadband access rollout to Small and Medium
Enterprises (SMEs), public Internet users (such as Internet Cafes / Browsing Centres), Apartments and
individual users. It provides similar broadband and high speed Internet capabilities available on BSNL
terrestrial lines anywhere in India.

A sample architecture for Video Conferencing
       BSNL provides the best of video conferencing by offering the simplest, richest featured,
most intuitive, interoperable, scalable and affordable way to meet over IP-based networks. By
delivering these attributes BSNL's video conferencing solution is unmatched. Video
conferencing solution can be used for corporate meetings, technical support functions,
distance learning, telemedicine, job recruiting interviews, direct-sales, legal work,
telecommuting, and manufacturing.                                                 5/21/2011
Ku Band VSAT                                                                        Page 7 of 8

     Supports Client/Server based video conferencing with MPEG-4 protocol.
     Flexible data speeds ranging from 64, 128, 256, 384 kbps and above
     Broadcast and Multicast features - Supports both Point-to-Point and Point-to-Multipoint
     Ideal for mass corporate training, internal corporate TV Broadcasting and e-learning
     using Broadcast and Multicast features


Maximum Trans / Receive Data upto 2 Mbps with 10/100 Mbps Base-T
Leased Lines through VSAT on IP platform: 4Kbps onwards
High speed Broadband Internet
VPN Networking
VoIP Telephony
IP multicasting, Video Conferencing, Video Streaming

A sample architecture of Broadcast and Multicast Applications                                        5/21/2011
Ku Band VSAT                                                                       Page 8 of 8

        VSAT technology has come a long way over the years. VSAT is a cost effective
solution for those who want an independent communications network to connect a large
number of geographically dispersed sites where any other connectivity options are not possible
to implement. VSAT networks offer value added satellite based services. The dominance of IP
and new bi-directional services make VSAT services more appealing to a wider audience, and
increase in uptime with service level agreement.
       BSNL offers competitive and affordable Tariff .The Tariff is offered based on customer
applications.                                       5/21/2011

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