From Monochronic to Polychronic (PowerPoint) by yaoyufang


									Intercultural Communication Skills
            for Teaching
          Within Diversity
                         Kathryn Brillinger,
                         Faculty Advisor

                         Adult Education
                         April 9, 2011

                         Conestoga College

                         Note: A version of this presentation
                         is available with voice-over on
             Bottom Line
• Everything we do to support one student
  should help everyone INCLUDING THE
Kathryn Brillinger,
Unionville, ON, Circa 1970

“Each new generation is responsible to ensure the survival
  of the seventh generation.” (Canadian Aboriginal Belief)
     Your Contribution Today
• The 3-minute buzz. When you see a
  slide with a

 Turn to a person (a new person each
 time) and discuss the task for 3 minutes.
 Then we will share just 2 full group
     Your Contribution Today
• The 3-minute buzz. When you see a
  slide with a

 Turn to a person (a new person each
 time) and discuss the task for 3 minutes.
 Then we will share just 3 full group
       Your Intercultural Life
• If someone were filming a movie of an
  intercultural encounter when you were
  internally disapproving or anxious, how
  would it look?
• Would it be a comedy, satire, tragedy,
• What facial expressions and subtle
  posture cues would the viewer see?
• Tell a story about a time where someone
  behaved unexpectedly according to your
  culture. How did you feel and react?
• Use tons of gestures and animated head
  nodding to punctuate your story.
• You have exactly 3 minutes.
Internationalization in Canada has not
     kept pace with Globalization
• Globalization is the
  economic, political, and
  societal forces pulling us
  towards international
• Internationalization is the
  upgrading of international
  perspectives, skills and
  resources via inter-cultural
  training and enhanced
  language support.
  (Altbach & Knight, 2007)
Discuss the cultural differences affecting:

•   Touch
•   Eye contact
•   Facial expressions
•   Personal space
•   Willingness to share personal information
    – self-disclosure
What is culture and how does it
      impact interactions?
 Culture = Shared Meaning
“Shared meaning” informs values, beliefs,
 standards, language, thinking patterns,
 behavioral norms, communications styles, etc.

 Culture guides the verbal and non-verbal
 behaviors that individuals use in social

 One culture’s communication competence
 can be another’s incompetence!
Negotiables and Non-Negotiables
(the study of touching behaviour)
Seven types of touch:
*positive affect (support,
appreciation, inclusion)
*control (compliance,
attention wanted,
response needed)
*ritual (greeting/leave-
*hybrid (mix some of
above as in a hug good-
Jones and Yarbrough (1985)
What are 5 haptics “rules”
  for these students?
(the study of distance in interaction)
•   Public
•   Social
                                  Forms of
•   Personal
•   Intimate
           (the study of eye contact)
•   attentive focus/challenging stare
•   shifty-eyed/respectful looking away
•   flirtatious up-look/“adultery of the eyes”
•   lustful glance/complimentary notice
•   attempt to access vocabulary/lack of attentiveness or ability
• Minute, readable, fleeting facial expressions
• NOT easy to read across cultures
• Can you tell a a "Duchenne smile" from a "Pan
  American smile“? The duchenne involves all
  muscles and the pan american just the mouth

• Share an example with a new partner of
  being surprised by a non-verbal difference
•   The triangle
•   The wrist
•   The hand to heart
•   The 3 per utterance

    Check out the Center
        for Non Verbal
      Studies‟ Dictionary
      at http://center-for-
Intercultural Concerns
With Sharing Personal Information
•pushing/not pushing to make a connection
•too many/too few of items                   “People from
in answer to a prompt                       _______ never
                                           give up. And they
•pushiness vs lack of self-promotion        never go away”
•giving of compliments
•challenging information given
•not obeying „wrap-up‟ cues        “People from
        “People from                    _______don‟t
      _______act like                      make a
     they are your best                  connection.
           friend.”                     Seem too stiff.”
In terms of self-disclosing, there are
tremendous cultural differences in the:

* breadth
* depth
* valence
* timing
* targets
         Traditional Western
          Social Concepts
• individual self-        • order by consensus
  sufficiency - central   • everybody wins
• intra-generational        bargaining and
  relationships             negotiations
• kindness,               • only you can bring
  friendliness, social      you down
  responsibility, and     • direct but non-
  leadership                confrontational
• individual meals          communication
                          • shared movie
                            watching and game
             Traditional Eastern
              Social Concepts
•   Family ties and support - central
•   Intergenerational relationships
•   Respect, modesty, trust, conservatism
•   Courtesy, hospitality, gift-giving
•   Communal eating
•   Patriarchal order, strong leadership
•   Win-lose bargaining/negotiations
•   Honor, shame, and revenge
•   Indirect communication
•   Story-telling and oral poetry
Cultivating the Space in Between:
        Sharing Meaning
Intercultural communication
          is not easy
     but it is rewarding!
           Best Practices
• What can we do to support our diverse
  classrooms and abilities?
1. Clearly outline your expectations.
   Make the best week-by-week ever!
2. Control classroom interactions and
   group work episodes.
3. List the key terms/concepts for each
   class on the side of the board. Tell
   students that through listening and
   participating in class, through
   readings and research, they are
   responsible for these items.
4. Model the type of questions that you
   would like to see asked. Hand out 10
   questions midway through an early
   lecture and ask students to ask them.
5. You can show through your validation* of
   the questions that you value the
   interaction and that the give and take
   enriches the class. The next week, half
   way through, pairs of students can write
   a question they have down and then a
   few can be called on to ask their
   questions.                               31
6. Create lower apprehension about
   speaking English through sheltered,
   course-related discussion workshops
   early in the term.
7. Offer seminars/web casts on roles and
   expectations for academic relationships
   and work.
8. Know each name! Ask the student what
   he/she wants to be called. If the
   pronunciation is challenging, ask for an
   English word with the same sound as a
   cue. “Sounds like …”
• I wish you a happy, interesting, and
  rewarding journey teaching and living
  within diversity.

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