Part II (1919-1937) The May Fourth Movement: The student movement, its background, and the allies they found among urban elites and workers are well discussed, again, in Tse-tsung Chow, The May Fourth Movement; and for Beijing University in particular, see again, Timothy B. Weston, The Power of Position. The essays in Benjamin I. Schwartz, ed., Reflections on the May Fourth Movement: A Symposium (Cambridge, MA: East Asian Research Center, Harvard University Press, 1972) remain of interest; but newer work is represented in Milena Dolezolová-Velingerová and Oldrich Král, eds., The Appropriation of Cultural Capital: China’s May Fourth Project (Cambridge, MA: HUAC, Harvard University Press, 2001). Getting out of Beijing, more specific works include Jeffrey Wasserstrom, Student Protests in Twentieth-Century China: The View from Shanghai (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999) and Joseph Chen, The May 4th Movement in Shanghai (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1971). Again, touching on May Fourth with important insights are Elizabeth Perry, Shanghai on Strike and Bryna Goodman, Native Place, City, and Nation. In addition to the above, intellectual dimensions are well discussed in Chang-tai Hung, Going to the People: Chinese Intellectuals and Folk Literature, 1918-1937 (Cambridge: CEAS, Harvard University Press, 1985); also again Jerome B. Grieder, Intellectuals and the State; and Vera Schwarcz, The Chinese Enlightenment. A number of strong intellectual biographies also illuminate the intellectual scene of the New Culture and May Fourth periods into the 1930s and beyond. For a leader of liberal intellectuals, see Jerome B. Grieder, Hu Shih and the Chinese Renaissance: Liberalism in the Chinese Revolution 1917-1937 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970); a conservative is discussed in Joey Bonner, Wang Kuo-wei: An Intellectual Biography (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Pres, 1986). Other interesting biographies are Wang Fansen, Fu Ssu-nien: A Life in Chinese History and Politics (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 2000); Don A. Pittman, Toward a Modern Chinese Buddhism: Taixu’s Reforms (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001); Roger Jeans, Democracy and Socialism in Republican China: The Politics of Zhang Junmai (Carsun Chang), 1906-1941 (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1997); and Susan Daruvala, Zhou Zouren and an Alternative Chinese Response to Modernity (Cambridge, MA: HUAC, Harvard University Press, 2000). More activist intellectuals are intelligently discussed in Guy S. Alitto, The Last Confucian: Liang Shuming and the Chinese Dilemma of Modernity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979); and Charles W. Hayford, To the People: Jimmy Yen and Village China (New York: Columbia University Press, 1990). (Also see the section on “early Communists” below). The “turn to the peasants”—or the intellectuals’ discovery of the peasantry—is discussed in numerous studies of the period; the most specific monograph is Xiaorong Han, Chinese Discourses on the Peasant, 19001949 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2005). On the literary side, Leo Ou-fan Lee, The Romantic Generation of Modern Chinese Writers (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1973); David Tod Roy, Kuo Mo-jo: The Early Years (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971); and the essays in Ellen Widmer and David Derwei Wang, eds., From May Fourth to June Fourth: Fiction and Film in Twentieth-Century China (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993). David Der-wei Wang provides a thoughtful and thought-provoking analysis in The Monster That Is History: History, Violence, and Fictional Writing in Twentieth-Century China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004). There are extensive studies (as well as translations) of Lu Xun—the most recent overview being David E. Pollard, The True Story of Lu Xun (Hong Kong: Chinese University Press, 2002); see also Leo Oufan Lee, Voices from the Iron House: A Study of Lu Xun (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987); James Reeve Pusey, Lu Xun and Evolution (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1998); Jon Eugene von Kowallis, The Lyrical Lu Xun: A Study of His Classical-Style Verse (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 1996); and the essays in Leo Ou-fan Lee, ed., Lu Xun and His Legacy (Berkeley: University of California Press.
Broader cultural trends are brilliantly illuminated through the life of a popular artist who encompassed many of the contradictory trends of the period (modernity/tradition; tradition/Westernization; aestheticism/utilitarianism): see Geremie Barmé’s An Artist Exile: A Life of Feng Zikai (1898-1978) (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002). Also, for Shanghai as the cauldron of Chinese modernity, see: Leo Ou-Fan Lee, Shanghai Modern: The Flowering of New Urban Culture in China, 1930-1945 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999); Hanchao Lu, Beyond the Neon Lights: Everyday Shanghai in the Early Twentieth Century (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999); Nicholas Rowland Clifford, Spoilt Children of Empire: Westerners in Shanghai and the Chinese Revolution of the 1920s (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England 1991); Andrew F. Jones, Yellow Music: Media Culture and Colonial Modernity in The Chinese Jazz Age (Durham: Duke University Press, 2001); and the essays in Frederic Wakeman, Jr. and Wen-hsin Yeh, eds., Shanghai Sojourners (Berkeley: Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California Press, 1992). Political developments and background: Extraordinarily stimulating is John Fitzgerald, Awakening China: Politics, Culture, and Class in the Nationalist Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1996). Generally useful for the politics of this period is, again, Marie-Claire Bergère, Sun Yat-sen. Parks M. Coble, The Shanghai Capitalists and the Nationalist Government, 1927-1937 (Cambridge, MA: CEAS, Harvard University Press, 1980) also contains much information on the politics of the Nanjing regime. And again, “Shanghai studies” do much to illuminate national politics; see Frederic Wakeman Jr., Policing Shanghai, 1927-1937 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), and Frederic Wakeman Jr., The Shanghai Badlands: Wartime Terrorism and Urban Crime, 1937-1941 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996; Christian Henriot, Shanghai, 1927-1937: Municipal Power, Locality, and Modernization (trans. Noel Castelino), (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993); and Brian Martin, The Shanghai Green Gang: Politics and Organized Crime, 1919-1937 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996)—and on criminality also see Edward R. Slack, Opium, Sate, and Society: China’s NarcoEconomy and the Guomindang, 1924-1937 (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2001). On opium itself, several recent studies present its use by Chinese in a more international context while highlighting the complexity of Chinese attitudes toward this drug (and other drugs). See Timothy Brook and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi, eds., Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000); Carl A. Trocki, Opium, Empire, and the Global Political Economy: A Study of the Asian Opium Trade 1750-1950 (New York: Routledge, 1999); and Frank Dikötter, Lars Laamann, and Zhou Xun, Narcotic Culture: A History of Drugs in China (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004). The Nanjing decade (1928-1937) is well discussed in Lloyd Eastman, The Abortive Revolution: China under Nationalist Rule, 1927-1937 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974); a more sympathetic portrait of the Nationalists as genuine, if failed, state-builders, is presented by the authors in Terry Bodenhorn, ed., Defining Modernity: Guomindang Rhetorics of a New China, 1920-1970 (Ann Arbor, Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan, 2002). See also Frederic Wakeman, Jr., Spymaster: Dai Li and the Chinese Secret Service (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003); Diana Lary, Region and Nation: The Kwangsi Clique in Chinese Politics 1925-1937 (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 1975); and Parks M. Coble, Facing Japan: Chinese Politics and Japanese Imperialism, 1931-1937 (Cambridge, MA: CEAS, Harvard University Press, 1991). Hung-mao Tien, Government and Politics in Kuomintang China, 19271937 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1972); and Arthur Young, China’s Nation-Building Effort, 1927-1937: The Financial and Economic Record (Stanford: Hoover Institution Press/Stanford University Press, 1971) remain useful. Particular government bureaucracies, some of which appear stronger than Eastman would credit, are convincingly analyzed in Julia Strauss, Strong Institutions in Weak Polities: State Building in Republican China, 1927-1940 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998). There is no truly first-rate biography of Chiang Kai-shek, though Jonathan
Fenby, Generalissimo Chiang-Kai-shek and the China He Lost (London, Free Press, 2003—also published as Chiang Kai Shek: China’s Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost)—is sensible and useful: sympathetic but not uncritical. Early Communists: The best brief overview remains Lucien Bianco, Origins of the Chinese Revolution, 1915-1949 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1973); also the articles in Tony Saich and Hans van de Ven, eds., New Perspectives on the Chinese Communist Revolution (Armonk: M.E. Sharpe, 1995). An extremely insightful examination of how a few intellectuals decided to become committed Communists is Arif Dirlik, The Origins of Chinese Communism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989); also useful is Hans van de Ven, From Friend to Comrade: The Founding of the Chinese Communist Party, 1920-1927 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991). An extremely important early study remains the 1938 work of Harold R. Isaacs, The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961), a meticulous if partisan account of the bloody breakup of the GMD and the CCP in 1927. On founders of the CCP, see the still-excellent Maurice Meisner, Li Ta-chao and the Origins of Chinese Marxism (New York: Atheneum, 1974); Vera Schwarcz’s remarkable (Time for Telling Truth is Running Out: Conversations with Zhang Shenfu (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), which deals with much of the post-1949 period as well; and Lee Feigon Chen Duxiu: Founder of the Chinese Communist Party (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983). Light is thrown on the radical milieu affecting both the GMD and the CCP in Janice R. MacKinnon and Stephen R. MacKinnon, Agnes Smedley: The Life and Times of An American Radical (Berkeley: University of California, 1988). The provinces were an important source of communists, as two excellent studies show: Wen-hsin Yeh, Provincial Passages: Culture, Space, and the Origins of Chinese Communism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996); and R. Keith Schoppa, Blood Road: The Mystery of Shen Dingyi in Revolutionary China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995). Not all the action took place in China itself: see Marilyn A. Levine, The Found Generation: Chinese Communism in Europe during the Twenties (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1993). Early CCP efforts to organize peasants are illuminated in: Roy Hofheinz, The Broken Wave: The Chinese Communist Peasant Movement, 1922-1928 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977); Fernando Galbiati, P’eng P’ai and the Hai-lu-feng Soviet (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985); Robert Marks, Rural Revolution in South China: Peasants and the Making of History in Haifeng County, 1570-1930 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1984); Kamal Sheel, Peasant Society and Marxist Intellectuals in China: Fang Zhimin and the Origin of a Revolutionary Movement in the Xinjiang Region (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989); and essays in Kathleen Hartford and Steven M. Goldstein, eds., Single Sparks: China’s Rural Revolutions (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1989). And again see Lucien Bianco, Peasants Without the Party. (Communists are also discussed in many of the works on “social change” listed below, especially in regard to workers; books on Mao Zedong are introduced below under “Part III”.) Social change: A shift in the status of women is one of twentieth-century’s China most fundamental features. Overviews include Elisabeth Croll, Feminism and Socialism in China (New York: Schocken Books, 1978); Ono Kazuko, Chinese Women in a Century of Revolution, 18501950 (trans. Joshua A. Fogel), (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1989); and interesting articles in Marilyn B. Young, ed., Women in China: Studies in Social Change and Feminism (Ann Arbor: Center for Chinese Studies, University of Michigan Press, 1973). Excellent monographs include Christina Gilmartin, Engendering the Chinese Revolution: Radical Women, Communist Politics, and Mass Movements in the 1920s (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995); Gail Hershatter, Dangerous Pleasures: Prostitution and Modernity in Twentieth-Century Shanghai (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1997); and Wang Zheng, Women in the Chinese Enlightenment (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999). Introducing medical views toward gender issues is Frank Dikötter, Sex, Culture and Modernity in China: Medical Science and the Construction of Sexual Identities in the Early Republic Period (London: Hurst & Company, 1992).
And again, women workers are usefully discussed in Emily Honig, Sisters and Strangers; and Gail Hershatter, The Workers of Tianjin. The rise of the “small family” ideal is traced in Susan L. Glosser, Chinese Visions of Family and State, 1915-1953 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003). Social elites were also changing. A stimulating work on elite students is Wen-hsin Yeh, Alienated Academy: Culture and Politics in Republican China, 1919-1937 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990); see also John Israel, Student Nationalism in China, 1927-1937 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1966). Students are also discussed in many May Fourth studies (see above). Urban professionals and academics are well discussed in Yung-chen Chiang, Social Engineering and the Social Sciences in China, 1919-1949 (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 2001); and Xiaoqun Xu, Chinese Professionals and the Republican State: The Rise of Professional Associations in Shanghai, 1912-1937 (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 2001). The political expression of liberals and democrats is well discussed Edmund Fung, In Search of Chinese Democracy: Civil Opposition in Nationalist China, 1929-1949 (Cambridge, Eng.: Cambridge University Press, 2000), On workers and communists, excellent recent studies are Daniel Y.K. Kwan, Marxist Intellectuals and the Chinese Labor Movement: A Study of Deng Zhongxia (1884-1933) (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1997); and Patricia Stranahan, Underground: The Shanghai Communist Party and the Politics of Survival, 1927-1937 (Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998). More focused on workers themselves is, again, Gail Hershatter, The Workers of Tianjin, 1900-1949; and Elizabeth Perry, Shanghai on Strike. Still useful is Jean Chesneaux, The Chinese Labor Movement, 1919-1927, though today’s scholars consider it a bit romanticized. On women workers in this period, an insightful study is, again, Emily Honig, Sisters and Strangers. The general state of the peasantry is discussed by the economic historians Thomas G. Rawski, China’s Republican Economy: An Introduction (Toronto: University of Toronto-York University Joint Centre on Modern East Asia, 1978), and Economic Growth in Prewar China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989); Ramon Myers, The Chinese Peasant Economy: Agricultural Development in Hopei and Shantung, 1890-1949 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1970); and Loren Brandt, Commercialization and Agricultural Development in Central and Eastern China: 1870-1937 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989). More convincing to my mind— or at least more textured—is an anthropologist’s local studies: David Faure, Rural Economy of PreLiberation China: Trade Expansion and Peasant Livelihood in Jiangsu and Guangdong, 1870 to 1937 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). Indispensable is the Malinowski-trained HsiaoTung Fei’s contemporary account, Peasant Life in China (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1980 ). A long-term perspective is attempted in Philip C.C. Huang, The Peasant Economy and Social Change in North China (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1985), and The Peasant Family and Rural Development in the Yangzi Delta, 1350-1988 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1990).