A.   Drawings and general provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and
           Division 01 Specification Sections, apply to this Section.

1.2        SUMMARY

      A.   Section includes geomembrane liner for ponds and reservoirs.

      B.   Related Sections:

           1.    Division 03 Section "Cast-in-Place Concrete, Miscellaneous Cast-in-Place Concrete" for perimeter
           2.    Division 22 Section "Sump Pumps" for drainage of floating covers.
           3.    Division 31 Section "Earth Moving" for excavating, compacting, and grading the sub-grade; for
                 excavating and backfilling the anchor trench; for protecting the earthwork; for adding requirements for
                 the earth cover; and for the filter fabric and other Geotextile.
           4.    Division 31 Section "Dewatering" for removing ground water from sub-grade to the extent required by
                 liner manufacturer.
           5.    Division 33 Section "Sub-drainage" for drain piping for floating covers.

1.3        DEFINITIONS

      A.   Plastics Terminology: See ASTM D 1600 for definitions of abbreviated terms for plastics not otherwise
           defined in this Section.

      B.   TPO: Thermo Poly Olefin.

      C.   PP: Polypropylene.


      A.   Provide geomembrane liner that prevents the passage of water.

1.5        SUBMITTALS

      A.   Product Data: For each type of product indicated. Include the following:

           1.    Sheets for geomembrane liner.
           2.    Penetration assemblies.
           3.    Protection/slip layer.

      B.   Shop Drawings: Show fabrication and installation details for geomembrane liners. Show panel layout,
           seams, penetrations, perimeter anchorage, and methods of attachment and sealing to other construction.
           Differentiate between factory and field seams and joints.

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      C.   Samples: For the following products, in sizes indicated:

           1.    Geomembrane Panels: For each type, not less than one 300-mm seam length for factory-bonded
                 sheets and one 300-mm seam length for field-bonded sheets.

      D.   Qualification Data: For qualified Installer.

      E.   Product Certificates: For each type of geomembrane liner, from manufacturer.

      F.   Warranty: Special warranty specified in this Section.


      A.   Installer Qualifications: An employer of workers trained and approved by manufacturer.

      B.   Source Limitations: Obtain geomembrane liners and accessories from single source.

      C.   Pre-installation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site.

           1.    Inspect and discuss condition of substrate and other preparatory work performed by other trades.
           2.    Review structural load limitations.
           3.    Review limitations on equipment and Installer's personnel.
           4.    Review and finalize construction schedule and verify availability of materials, Installer's personnel,
                 equipment, and facilities needed to make progress and avoid delays.
           5.    Review required testing, inspecting, and certifying procedures.
           6.    Review existing and forecasted weather conditions and procedures for unfavorable conditions.


      A.   Weather Limitations: Proceed with installation only when existing and forecasted weather conditions permit
           placement and seaming of geomembrane liners to be performed according to manufacturers' written
           instructions and warranty requirements.

1.8        WARRANTY

      A.   Special Warranty: Specified form in which geomembrane manufacturer and geomembrane liner Installer
           agree to repair or replace geomembrane liner that fails in materials or workmanship or that deteriorates under
           conditions of normal weather within specified warranty period. Warranty does not include deterioration or
           failure of geomembrane liner due to exposure to harmful chemicals, gases or vapors, abnormal and severe
           weather phenomena, fire, earthquakes, floods, vandalism, or abuse by persons, animals, or equipment.

           1.    Failures include, but are not limited to, the following:

                 a.     Leaks in geomembrane liner.
                 b.     Defects in seams.

           2.    Warranty Period: 10 years from date of Substantial Completion.

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      A.   TPO Sheet: Formulated from Thermo Poly Olefin for use in hydraulic structures and formed into uniform,
           flexible sheets.

           1.    Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, provide products by the following
                 a.   BASF CC.; Masterpren THE

           2.    Reinforcing Scrim: One-ply fabric totally encapsulated between two sheets.

           3.    Nominal Thickness: 1.5mm as UNI EN 1849 - 2.
           4.    Elongation to break: > 550% as UNI EN ISO 527 - 3
           5.    Tear Resistance: > 45 N/mm as ISO 34 specimen fig 2.
           6.    Tensile Strength: > 10 N/mm² as UNI EN ISO 527 - 3.
           7.    Resistance to Static Punching (CBR): > 1000N as UN EN ISO 12236.
           8.    Hydrostatic Pressure Resistance (6 Hours at 5 Bar): Waterproof as UN EN 1928 met. B.
           9.    Cold Bending: < -35C as UNI EN 495 - 1.
           10.   Resistance to Impact Strength: > 700mm as DIN 16726 – 5.12.
           11.   Resistance to Oxidation Tensile Strength Variation: < 25% as UN EN 14575.
           12.   Resistance to Weathering (12000 h) Tensile Strength Variation: < 25% as UN EN 12224
           13.   Root Resistance: No penetration as DIN 4062.


      A.   PP Fabric: Formulated from virgin PP non-woven needle-punched geotextile.

           1.    Manufacturers: Subject to compliance with requirements, available manufacturers offering products
                 that may be incorporated into the Work include, but are not limited to, the following:

                 a.    BASF CC.; Geotextile SNW 30.

           2.    Nominal Thickness (under 2 kPa): 2.1mm (+ 0.42mm).
           3.    Tensile Strength: md 16.5 kN/m, cd 17.7 kN/m as EN 10319.
           4.    Static Puncture Resistance (CBR): Not less than 3.00 kN as EN 12236.


      A.   Penetration Assemblies:    Provide manufacturer's standard factory-fabricated assemblies for sealing
           penetrations. Include joint sealant recommended in writing by geomembrane liner manufacturer and
           compatible with geomembrane liner, containment conditions, and materials.

      B.   Battens: Long-length strips of material indicated, size as shown on Drawings. Fabricate battens with sharp
           projections removed and edges eased and then predrilled or punched for anchors. Provide anchors, or other
           type of attachment, of type and spacing recommended in writing by geomembrane liner manufacturer for
           attaching geomembrane liner system to substrate and as indicated.

           1.    Batten Material: Liner manufacturer's standard system.

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           2.    Batten Material: Aluminum; with stainless-steel anchors, complete with gasket and sealant compatible
                 with geomembrane liner, containment conditions, and materials.
           3.    Batten Material: Stainless steel; with stainless-steel anchors, complete with gasket and sealant
                 compatible with geomembrane liner, containment conditions, and materials.
           4.    Batten Material: Plastic compatible with geomembrane liner, cast in place or fastened with stainless-
                 steel anchors, designed to continuously seal geomembrane liner to batten.

      C.   Sand: ASTM C 33; fine aggregate, natural or manufactured sand.


3.1        EXAMINATION

      A.   Examine substrates, with Installer present, for compliance with requirements for soil compaction and grading;
           for sub-grade free from angular rocks, rubble, roots, vegetation, debris, voids, protrusions, and ground water;
           and for other conditions affecting performance of geomembrane liner.

      B.   Examine anchor trench excavation, where geomembrane liner will be secured, for substrate conditions
           indicated above and for correct location and configuration.

      C.   Proceed with installation only after unsatisfactory conditions have been corrected.

3.2        PREPARATION

      A.   Provide temporary ballast, until edges are permanently secured, that does not damage geomembrane liner or
           substrate, to prevent uplift of geomembrane liner in areas with prevailing winds.

      B.   Prepare surfaces of construction penetrating through geomembrane liner according to geomembrane liner
           manufacturer's written instructions.

      C.   Remove curing compounds and coatings from concrete surfaces to be sealed to geomembrane liner.


      A.   General: Place geomembrane liner over prepared surfaces to ensure minimum handling. Install according to
           Shop Drawings and in compliance with geomembrane liner manufacturer's written instructions. Begin placing
           geomembrane liner at Project's upwind direction and proceed downwind. Install geomembrane liner in a
           relaxed condition, free from stress and with minimum wrinkles, and in full contact with sub-grade. Do not
           bridge over voids or low areas in the sub-grade. Fit closely and seal around inlets, outlets, and other
           projections through geomembrane liner. Permanently secure edges.

      B.   Field Seams: Comply with geomembrane liner manufacturer's written instructions. Form seams by lapping
           edges of panels approximately 80 mm unless instructions require a larger overlap. Wipe contact surfaces
           clean and free of dirt, dust, moisture, and other foreign materials. Proceed with heat fusion seam welding at
           required temperatures for materials and ambient conditions. Continuously bond sheet to sheet to construct
           double seams of width recommended for method of seaming used. Seal or fuse free seam edges. Inspect
           seams and reseal voids.

      C.   Installation in Anchor Trench: Install geomembrane liner in trench according to manufacturer's written
           instructions. Backfill and compact to lock liner into trench.

      D.   Attachment to Concrete: Use manufacturer's standard system to suit Project conditions. Support adhesive
           and geomembrane on minimum 200-mm wide concrete substrate unless otherwise indicated.

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           1.    Install batten strips over geomembrane liner as shown on Drawings.

      E.   Liner Repairs: Repair tears, punctures, and other imperfections in geomembrane liner field and seams using
           patches of geomembrane liner material heat fusion welded to main membrane according to geomembrane
           liner manufacturer's written instructions.


      A.   TPO Liner: Inspect membrane for punctures indicated by the dark underside of the material showing through
           the light coloured signal layer. Air pressure test all of the membrane welded seams by pressurizing the
           channel between the double seam welds to 2 bar and checking the pressure drop after 300 seconds. If the
           pressure drop is less than 20% the weld is deemed to have achieved 100% integrity otherwise locate the
           defect weld area reinstate with a welded patch repair and re-test to the satisfaction of the Supervising

3.5        PROTECTION

      A.   Protect installed geomembrane liner according to manufacturer's written instructions. Repair or replace
           areas of geomembrane liner damaged by scuffing, punctures, traffic, rough sub-grade, or other unacceptable

      B.   Before initial filling of pond or placement of earth cover, inspect seams and patched areas to ensure tight,
           continuously bonded installation. Repair damaged geomembrane and seams and re-inspect repaired work.


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