Teaching Phonics and Phonemic Awareness Steven A. Stahl University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement What do we want readers to be able to do? • Enjoy and Appreciate Reading Literature and Non-fiction • Comprehend and Learn from Text • Recognize Words Automatically These 3 goals are related... • If children do not recognize words automatically, they cannot comprehend text effectively. • If children do not comprehend text effectively, they will not want to read. Children need to be able to decode in order to recognize words automatically. • Reading instruction is like an arch. If any stone is missing, the arch will fall. • For many children, phonics instruction is needed for them to be effective readers. National Reading Panel: Phonics Findings • Overall, phonics • Most (2/3) of the instruction had a effect sizes involved significant effect on measures of reading decoding or word achievement. recognition • Effects were significant, but smaller, on measures of comprehension and oral reading National Reading Panel: Phonics Findings • The effects of • This suggests that different types of there is no one right phonics programs method of teaching (synthetic phonics, phonics, but that programs which many methods of emphasized teaching children to phonograms, decode are effective. miscellaneous) did not differ from each other. National Reading Panel: Phonics Findings • Phonics • Phonics instruction is instruction meets more effective in a developmental kindergarten and need. first grade than in grades 2-6. National Reading Panel: Phonics Findings • Phonics • Phonics instruction can instruction did not be effective for significantly effect children with the reading of reading older children with problems, but it reading problems, is most effective who may not have in the early needed this grades. instruction. National Reading Panel: Phonics Findings • Phonological • Phonological awareness awareness instruction is instruction is effective in especially kindergarten and effective when first grade. combined with letter training and as part of a total literacy program What the report does not say • It does not support any particular phonics program. • It does not talk about “decodable text.” • It does not support intensive phonics instruction. • It does not talk about the content of a phonics program. It does not talk about the role of phonics in a total reading program. • mercenary • quotidian • perspicacious • minatory How do we recognize these words? • By sight? • Rules? • Sounding out? • By chunks? • By analogies? Why do we teach phonics? • Phonics instruction leads to better achievement, at least when integrated into a total reading program. • Children need a strategy to figure out unknown words • Children need to recognize words quickly and automatically. We do not teach phonics so children can sound words out. We teach phonics so children can recognize words automatically. If they cannot recognize words, they also need a strategy. Four Insights • Awareness of Consonants -- the basic phonological insight • Awareness of short vowels -- the alphabetic principle • Awareness of long vowels -- the orthographic insight • Awareness of the coding of syntactic markers -- the morphological insight Four insights • These insights are not all phonological, but often the phonological insights growth with experience with written language. • In early growth in phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge can lead to phonological insights. Development of Word Recognition • Visual Cueing • Child uses a visual cue, such as the two “eyes” in look or the “tail” in monkey. • Child uses salient • Partial letter, usually Alphabetic beginning, Cueing sometimes last. Development of Word Recognition • Full Alphabetic • Child uses all letters, including vowels, to Coding “sound out” words • Child recognizes • Automaticity words automatically, using chunks or analogies Emergent Spelling • What Students • What Students Do Correctly Use but Confuse – Write on page – Drawing, scribbling, – Hold the writing letter-like forms implement – Directionality – Horizontal movement across the page Early Letter-Name - Alphabetic Spelling • Represent most • S, SHP for ship salient sounds, • B, BD for bed especially beginning consonants • Y for when • Most letters of the • L, LP for lump alphabet • U for you • Directionality • FL for float • Partial spelling of consonant blends and digraphs Middle Letter-Name - Alphabetic Spelling • What Students • BAD for bed Correctly Do • SEP or SHP for – Most beginning and ship ending consonants – Clear letter-sound • FOT for float correspondences • LOP for lump – Frequently occurring short vowel sounds Middle Letter-Name - Alphabetic Spelling • What Students • Lump spelled do Correctly correctly – Regular short vowel patterns • FLOT for float – Most consonant • BAKR for baker blends and digraphs – Preconsonantal • PLAS for place nasals • BRIT for bright – Some common long vowel words, name, time Early Within Word Spelling • What Students • FLOTE for float do Correctly • PLAIS for place – Good accuracy on r- influenced single • BRIET for bright syllable short vowel • TABL for table words, fur, bird – Some infrequently used short vowels and frequently used long vowel words Middle Within Word Spelling • Slightly more than half • SPOLE for spoil of long vowel words in single syllable words • DRIEV for drive • Consistently uses long vowel markers, SNAIK for snake. • Substitutions in frequent, unstressed syllable patterns, TECHAUR for teacher • ed and other common inflections, MARCHT, BATID Developing the Phonological Insight • This is the insight that spoken words can be thought of as collections of sounds. • It is usually acquired first with consonants. Good phonics instruction should develop phonological awareness • Phonological awareness instruction should stress children’s awareness of sounds in spoken words. • Phonological awareness instruction usually includes both blending and segmentation. • Phonological awareness instruction works best when combined with decoding and spelling. Phonological awareness refers to awareness of all of these aspects of spoken words. Phoneme awareness only refers to phonemes. Some concepts….. • Phoneme: smallest unit of speech,not always able to be pronounced in isolation • Syllable: cluster around a vowel • Onset: part of syllable before the vowel • Rime: rest of the syllable Onsets and rimes • Stand • Rope • straw • and How do we teach syllables and Onsets and Rimes? • Reading and memorizing rhymes • Clapping out rhymes • How many beats? • Pointing out the rhymes • Can you guess the word? (d-uck, c-at) • Alliteration Begin with children’s names • They are most personal. • Label cubbyholes. • Use name cards. • Children should learn their own names and the names of everyone else in the class. Phonological Awareness Activities • Sound to word • The Troll matching • Which word begins with the same sound as _______? • Which one does not belong? • Sound sorting • Word to Word matching To Market, To Market • To market, to market to but a fat pig; • Home again, home again, jiggety jig. • To market, to market to but a fat hog; • Home again, home again, jiggety jog. Widdy-widdy-wurkey • Widdy-widdy-wurkey is the name of my turkey. • There-and-back-again is the name of my hen. • Wiggle-tail-loose is the name of my goose. • Widdy-widdy-wurkey is the name of my turkey. Widdy-widdy-wurkey • Widdy-widdy-wurkey is the name of my turkey. • Quackery-quack is the name of my duck. • Grummelty-grig is the name of my pig. • Widdy-widdy-wurkey is the name of my turkey. Phonological Awareness works best with letters • Letters add a concrete referent to the abstract phoneme • Letters make phonemes easier to remember • Alphabet Books • Invented Spelling • Adding letters to activities such as sound sorting Phonological Awareness • Play with sounds in words underlies children’s learning about letters and sounds • Part of preschool education as long as there have been nursery rhymes • Important to include letters in activities, including alphabet books and invented spelling National Reading Panel: Phonological Awareness Findings • Phonological awareness instruction is effective in kindergarten and first grade. • Phonological awareness instruction is especially effective when combined with letter training and as part of a total literacy program Phonological Awareness Activities • Reciting or making • Rhyming rhymes • Word-to-word • Which word does not belong? matching – Man, move, pit, monkey • What is the first sound in • Initial sounds fish? • Segmentation • Breaking a word into sounds, – May use boxes • What word is /f/ /i/ /sh/? • Blending • Say “make” without /m/? • Deletion Alphabet books • L is for Lion • At this stage, instruction should look a lot like whole language, with a great deal of exposure to books. • It also should contain direct teaching of letters and phonological awareness instruction. Developing the Alphabetic Insight • This is the insight that words contain vowels. How do we teach phonics? Good Phonics Instruction Should Develop The Alphabetic Principle. Teach Blend Manipulate Practice Teach • Develop phonological awareness • Tell (simply) what they are going to learn. – Let the children know that they will learn to read words with the letter o, consonant, and silent e, which makes the vowel sound /O/. Introduce the o-e letter card and the sound /O/. Teach ay ai Blend w ay w ai t Blend • lay • train • clay • rail • play • sail • say • paid • pay 4Do you know the way to the park? I will wait for you there. Practice ay ai pl m d st n gr Word Building f m l d p ay n w r ai d pl br • Good phonics instruction should not teach rules, need not use worksheets, should not dominate instruction, and does not have to be boring. Phonics Rules bead does • When two vowels go walking… 45% bone love • Silent “e” rule…. 63% cat scold • When a vowel is in the middle of a one-syllable word, it is short…. 60% 60 Developing the orthographic insight • This is the insight that words are spelled one particular way. • For example, there is no reason that “boat” is not spelled “bote”. • Children have to learn particular spellings. • This usually comes when learning long vowels which are more variable. Manipulate • Segmenting – “Making and Breaking” (Reading Recovery) – “Making Words” (Pat Cunningham) • Word Sorts • Letter Strips • Word Building • Spelling Making words • Choose a group of letters • Have children make increasingly complex words. • Final word should be long word. • Put each word in a pocket chart • Do a word sort with chart words. aaacghnoott aaacghnoott • to • than • an • hang • ant • hoot • too • cat/act • can’t • nag • toga • chat • chant • tang • achoo • thong acefgiimnt • it • mice • in • fact • cat / act • gift • man • main • ace • agent • tin • infant • fit • inmate • mint • imagine • cent • figment Compare/contrast • Direct teaching of the process of comparing new words to known words. • First, teach set of “wall words”. The next slide has a list of 37 phonograms that can be used to generate about 500 primary grade words. • Then teach children the process of comparing new words to known words. Common phonograms -ack -ain -ake -ale -all -ame -an -ank -ap -ash -at -ate -aw -ay -eat -ell -est -ice -ick -ide -ight -ill -in -ine -ing -ink -ip -it -ock -oke -op -ot -ore -uck -ug -ump -unk From Wylie and Durrell, 1970 Compare/contrast Word Sorts • Closed Sorts • Open Sorts – Give students lists of – Give students lists of words which have words which have multiple common multiple common features features – You provide the – Students make up category categories – Students classify – Must justify categories words into groups – Works well in groups wail pay pad fail ray laid lap fad stain play hand said Say Sad With shin thin thick that wash rash ship sham pith path math What do you teach? • Kindergarten – Basic Phonological Awareness – Consonant sounds – Consonant blends (introduce) – Short vowels (introduce) What do you teach? • First grade – Short Vowels – Consonant Digraphs (sh, th, ch) – Consonant blends – Vowel digraphs (ai, oa, ay, etc.) – Silent e – Diphthongs – r- controlled vowels – Variant vowels What do you teach? • Second grade – Variant vowels – Inflectional endings – Begin prefixes and suffixes Practice • The most important practice we do involves applying phonics in connected text. What kinds of text? • Instructional level text • Authentic text • Predictable text • Decodable text Instructional level text • Should be text that child can read with some support • Needed to practice integration of all reading skills • Needed to develop comprehension abilities Authentic Text • Needed to develop higher level concepts and vocabulary • Needed to develop children’s interest in reading • Should be relatively difficult • Might be read aloud to class or read with support by students Predictable Text • Used to develop print concept and “booksuccess”. • Used to develop fingerpointing and print-speech match. • Might be read using Shared Reading model. • Should be phased out by middle of first grade. Decodable Text • Should contain a reasonable percentage of words with a taught pattern • Used for practice of decoding in context • The best texts tell a story that is comprehensible; the worst texts make little or no sense • Should be practiced by children, possibly with repeated reading. Practice words in texts • Fish Dish • “I wish, wish, wish • For a dish,” said the fish, • “With a yam, yam, yam, • And a little bit of jam, • And I want thin ham • With that yam!” said the fish. Instruction at Different Stages • Visual Cueing • Expose children to books • Teach the alphabet, including alphabet books • Begin instruction in phonological awareness Instruction at Different Stages • Partial • Use books with Alphabetic increasingly less Coding predictability • Fingerpointing • Begin letter-by- letter phonics instruction • At this point some synthetic phonics instruction is probably useful. This involves direct letter sound instruction, practice in blending, and reading of decodable texts. • A variety of texts should be used in addition, including instructional level texts and authentic texts (which may be read to children). Instruction at Different Stages • Full alphabetic • Read a variety of texts, including coding decodable texts • Letter-by-letter decoding instruction • Begin constructivist instruction (Making Words) and analogy instruction. Instruction at Different Stages • Automaticity • Progress depends on reading both a large volume of texts and more challenging texts. • Might use repeated reading, especially for struggling readers. Different Grades, Different Instruction • Kindergarten • Literature-based instruction, designed to provide children with print concept • Some instruction in phonological awareness, letter names, and letter sounds Different Grades, Different Instruction • Direct instruction of • First grade phonics • Use of variety of texts including instructional level, authentic, expository, and decodable • Scaffolding during reading, so that child applies decoding to connected text. Different Grades, Different Instruction • Second and third • More reading of longer and more grade complex connected text • Continued scaffolding, so that children bring in decoding knowledge to connected text. • Fluency-oriented instruction Good phonics instruction should form a bridge between the phonics instruction and reading text. Scaffolding for Word Recognition • Teachers coach to provide instruction in word recognition by asking questions such as, "What can you do to figure out that word?" – “Do you see a chunk (or phonogram) you recognize?” – “Does it look like any other words you know?” – “Can you sound it out?” – “What does the first letter say? What does the next letter say? Etc. Now blend the sounds together.” – “Does that word look right for what is on the page?” – “Does it make sense in the story?” Scaffolding for Word Recognition • Other strategies to figure out words or ask them to explain what they did to figure out a word. – “I like how you corrected that.” – “Good checking!” – “How did you know it couldn't be...?” – “What did you do to figure that word out?” • Word recognition coaching prompts are hints or questions • that get children to engage in self-monitoring strategies as well as a variety of word recognition strategies to use with words not known instantly. • From Barbara Taylor, P. David Pearson, et al. (1999) Good Phonics Instruction is a part of reading instruction. It is an important part, but just a part.
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