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                BACKGROUND                                                        ;1
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BACKOROW r
               Meharashtra h a s ~ i t n ~ s s e d
                                               tremendous m o c i o - c u l t u r a l
u p h e a v a l s i n the form o f p o l i t i c a l a v a k e n i n g and s o c i a l
j n f o r n ~ a t i o n . M a h a r a s h t r a underwent a t o t a l c h a n g e t h r o u g h
the p r a g m a ~ i cs o c i a l t h o u g h t o f Mahatma P h u l e and L o k h i t v a d i
Gopal H a r i Desmrukh on o n e hand and n a t ~ m a 1 i . t awakening
o f Lokn~anya h l a k and V.i).Savarkar                         o n t h e o t h c r . I t is t r u e
t h a t s e v e r a l Oi t h e s o c i d l r e f o r m e r s i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y
t d o n g c d t o t h e u p p e r strata of the s o c i e t y . Y e t it s h o u l d
n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t sollie of t h e r e f o m r e r s denounced t h e
heganony a n u the h y p o c r i s y of t h a Llraluhins.                       Such c r i t i c 8
o f the u p p e r castes had to f a c e a l l s o r t s of s o c i a l and
economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s . I t w a s d i . f ~ c u l t o r mane s o c i a l
                                                                   f
r e f o r m e r s t o r e s i s t the p r e s s u r e . '       J u s t i c e Ranade p r e f e r r e d
t o have m a r r i a y e w i t h a g i r l c h o s e n b y h i s L a t h e r i n s t e a d
o f m a r r y i n g a wlndow.
                                                            .
                                      Gopal H a r i h h m u k h d i d n o t dare to
a t t e n d t h e wedding of a w i d O v b e c a u s e s u c h a n a c t i o n w u l d
h a v e led t o harassment o f him married d a u g h t e r by her
in-laws.       I t w a s t r u e t h a t t h c y were a c c u s e d of m e r e l y

r e g i s t e r i n g oral p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e e v i l customs and
4 n e q u i t i e s o f t h e s o c i a l sysi-am and no d r a s t i c a c t i o n
&as t a k e n by them when s i t u a t i o n s demanaed f o r the same.
I t i s g r a t i f y i n g t o n o t e t h a t a s e c t i o n o f t h e e l i t e started

r e a c h i n g t t h e o u c i a l evil..
                 o
               J o t i r a o P h u l e and Gopal Ganosh A g a r b r d i s p l a y e d

and i n d o m i t a b l e s p i r i t a n d r e f u s e d to be moulded b y the
t a c t i e s o f t h e i r f o r m i d a b l e opponents.           R.Q.Bhandarkar            and
~ . K . K a r v e were r e a d y t o w i t h a t a n d t h e b o y c o t t imposed by
t h e orthodox 8 e c t i o n s of t h e 8ociety.                    The s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n
movement i s n o t a n e a s y p r o c e s a .              It is mainly

based o n t h e s p r e a d o f e d u c a t i o n which c r e a t e d a n awareness
among the p e d p l e .           I t is n o t p o 8 s i b l e t o have t h e

s o u n u development of t h e s o c i e t y u n l e s s f u l l freedom i s
y i v e n t o t h e p e o p l e t o express t h e i r views.                  T h e r e should

n o t be a n y s o r t o f i n t e ~ f e r e n c efrom t h e government a8 f o r
as autonomous s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i u n s are c o n c e r n e d ,
lt   is p o s s i b l e t o d e v e l o p t h e p o t e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s o f
, h e atan i n t h e a u t e n o m o u s s t r u c t u r e .        Th    social thinklng
c a n o n l y be a t r e n g t h c n e d by having c o n s i s t e n t f a l t h i n
Che v a l u e s .   F r e e d a n o f s p e e c h a n d freodoln of e x p r e s a i . 0 ~
                                                                                 1
y r u ~ i J u ss o m d L a s e to t h e s o c i a l development.

               Thc s o c i a l r o f o r n ~movement          ill    N a h a r a s t ~ t r atnok
  lace    a f t e r 70 y e a r s , as compared t~ Benljal.                       I n Dengal,
t h e p i o n e e r i n g work Was d o n e by Raja Ram MOhan Roy, as
  a i a3 r e n a i s s a n c e i s concerned.            liaja R a m Mohan Roy h a s

r . 1 3 h t l y been d e s c r i b e d a3 t r e f a t h e r 02 I n d i a n r e n a i e s a n c e

    the
a11~l        p r o p h e t of l n d l a n n a t i o n a l i s u .      Behind a l l h i s
ideaa    of social and r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m s t h e r e l a y t h e
1a:eirt u r g e of b r i n ~ i n ga b o u t p o l i t i c a l r e g n e r a t i o n o f
h i s c o u n t y ~ i ~ e n . ~s g r e a t e e t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the l a n d
                           Hi

of h i s b i r t h i s t h a t he set t h e t o n e O f p u b l i c o p i n i o n

1.n t h e c o u n t r y and i n a u g u r a t e d a n e r a o f r e f o r m whioh

w a s corrtprt~hensivei n i t s s c o p e and cmbracod s o c i a l ,
~ o l i t i d a l,and r e l l g i o ~ sl i f e Of t h c c o u n t r y . Raja Ram Lohan
nay was a p i o n e e r i n r e z o v i n g t h e s o c i a l a n d r e l i g i o u s
e v i l s and c r e a t i n g p o l i t i c a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s among t,le

I n d ~ . a : ? s . d e e a u s e of h i s remarkable work h e h a s been
r.iy h t l y c a l l e d t h e ' P a t h e r O f I n d i a n R a t iunalimm. ,4

               fhe Western e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m had opened new v i o t a s
i n .'%ahar~shtra. Maharashtriari p o l i t i c a l , mocial, c u l t u r a l
panorama was stirred b e c a u s e of                      new e d u c a t i o n system
i.r?r roduccd i n I n d i a by t h o t ) r i t i s h c r s .    Bartbay was t h e
rluclco;;;     of a l l e d u c a t i o n a l , re1 i q l o u s and s : ) c i a l r e f o r m
Irtovc.,.ents t i l l 1870. T h i s movement was l a u n c h e d by S h r i
J a y a n n a t h S h a n k a r s e t , B a l s h a s t r i Jambhekar, Bhau Mahajan,
Uddoba Pandurang, Ram Yalkrishna, Dhau kij i, etc. 'The
8   . c i a 1 r c f o r ~ movement w a s undertai.en by t h e j o i n t
                          ~,
e f f o r t s of t h e Hindu, Muslim, P a r s i and C h r i s t i a n l c a d e r a .
Bvttr'uay h a s t h e unique a d v a n t a g e of i t s c o s m o p o l i t i a n
                                                                                                5
~ o ~ce t y h i c h b r o u g h t d i f f e r e n t r d i g i o n e or1 one p l a t f o r m ,
          w

                                                        s
Then yraclually t h e s o c i a l r e f o n n movi;..~ent y r i ~ e dto o t ! l e r
pdri.s or Maharashtra s p e c i a l l y t o Pune.
                         o
                With ~ h en:erc;encc of u a l Gangadhar T i l a k a s
1.a c.r oi- i i a h a r a s h t r a i n tile l a s t d e c a d e of t h e 1 v t h

century,        t h e q u e s t i o n of s o c i a l reforill was pushed t o
t h e b a c k q r o u r d . Ual L;anr;ac?har T i l a k was c o n e e r v a t ~ v e n
                                                                                 i
s o c i a l matters. H e g a v e i:rlportance t o t h e S w a r a j Movement.
To him S w a r a j w a s t h e key t o t h e problems.                     of India.
H e e l r o n g l y opposed t h e s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s t o s e e k h e l p

fro:.! t h e govr-!rnii~entf o r i n t r o d u c i n g s o c i a l r e f o r n t h r o u g h
1 e . i s l t i r . r i l a k had c o n c e n t r a t e d i n t h e s t r u g g l e :.>r
irr'e~tIo..:, w h i l c s , > c . i a l r e f o m e r s wanted t o c , . , n c e n t r a t e on

tl~e s o c i a l r t - f .)r,s.
                            i      Tilak a l s o f a i l e d to understand t h e
logst i m a ,   2   a s p i r a t i .Jns of t    IC   non-Brahmin        cas ~ e a .H e
opposed S a y a j i r a o Gaikwdd and Shahu N a h a r a j ( K o l h a p ~ l r )
on c e r t a i n d e l i c a t e i s s u e s .   The g a p between non-Brahmin
and i ' i l a k widened when t h e b r i t i s h goVcrNrlent announced
il.8   p o l i c y o f e n c o u r a g i n q i n c r e a s i n g a s s o c i a t i o n of
~ n d l a i i sw i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f ~ n a i a .I~ ..hould ha
                                                                         t

n o t e d t h a L tl~es u c i a l reSoriners from among t h e non-
Ijrahnlin c a s t e s were isolated from t h e main stream of
t?le   n a t i n a l rnovement l e d by T i l a k .            V i t h a l Ramj 1 S h i n d e ,
for i n s t a n c e was a l i n k between tclen~ t o rr~ake ' l ' i l a k and

111s   d l s c i p l e a r o a l l s e t h e g r a v i t y o f t h e problem o f

unt.odchab,l         ty.    V ~ t l ~ R a n j i S h i n d e was
                                      a l                             w e l l aware of
Llir   s o c i a l reiorrri rriovi?~nentarid           trii   d t o wlpe o u t had
                                             7
e v i l s ajid s u p e r s t i t i o n s .
                i'hc whole phenu i11cnon was t r a n s 6 0 m e d when d a n r l h i j i

      0,q.r t h c - 1, e d o r s h l p uf C o n g r e . - . s and
t ~ ~ o k                                                            :.e n a t i o n a l ~ s t

s l . r u ~ j g l e f u r independence.      Maha Llna Gandhi w a s r ~ , s p o n s i b l e

                                                                                e
t o e f f e c t d r a s t i c c h a n g e s i n t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t ~ Congresm.

Ha a l s o i n t g r a t c d s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m w i t h p o l l -
t    is1 a c t i v i t y .   Uy temperament Candsli w a s c o n s t r u c t i v e

a n d a c c o n o d a t i v e i n h i s p o l i c y a n c ~o u t l o o k . He was a g r e a t

teacher,        a p r a c t i t i o n e r uf t r u t h , e p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r a n d a
moral genius.8               Keshavrao J e d h e ,     a non-Brahmin l e a d u r b r o k e
away f r o l ~ ,t h e nos-Urahmin movement and j ~ i n c dt h o C o n g r e s s

in    i.   l thirties.
           e

                By t h a t t i n e Dr.tl.R.Ambedkar             hacl m e r y e d as a n

uncha1lengf:d l o a d e r o f t h e D e p r e s s e d C1assr.s i n M a h a r a s h t r a

a r ~ dwas aluu r cc o g n i s e d as l o a d e r o f t h e naLi.,nal s t a t u s

b y tire S c h e d u l e d C a s t e s i n a l l p a r t s o f I n d i a . H e made a

                    attem;)t     LO   u n i t e t h e untouchables f o r t h e i r

rights.        i n f . ~ c he p r o v e d t o -e t h e c o m p e t e n t leader d f
                           t

   clown-trodden
t,~u                          S c h e d u l e d C a s t e s . Dr.Ambodkar      veheinently

o p p o s e d Candh i j i f u r d e f e n d i n g t h c Cha t u r v a r n y a s y s t e i n

where by c o n f r o n t i n g to t h ... a ,e. Mahatma (;andhi was e q u a l l y

concern,-d t o improve t h e l o t of t h e H a r i j a r i s b e s i d e s h i s

a l l round e f f o r t s f o r t h e a t t a i t x m r l t of independence.
Dr.Nnuedkar           w a s n o t i n favour of p o l i L i r a l indepenuence,
h i 8 emphals Was on social                      reforms.          Ur.Ambedkar           had

f e a r e d t h a t the c o n d i t i o n s of u n t o u c h a b l e s would Se

worse a , ~r           independence.

                   l'hc l o n g and a r d u o u s b a t t l e for s o c i a l ref,..rn~ i s

st.11: b e i n g c o ~ t l n u e d . F o r t u n a t e l y , M a h a r a s h t r a a l w a y s

h a d a band of d e d i c a t e d s o c i a l reiornmrs who were w i l l i n g

t o j0i.n t h i s b a t t l e and sacrj . : i c e t h e i r c a r e e r s i n up-

hc11uT. i_l t h e c a u s e which t l r e y c h e r i s h e d            :iiost.    Dabs Amte

has a ~ ~ c c e s s f ~ l takwr up ttte c a u s e .*I^ s o c i a l
                           liy                                                       ,
                                                                                     -
rt:E i r n t s ,   who p e r e u d t h e Gancihlan way o r a p y r u a c h Lor t h e

c a n s r r u t i v e s o c i a l work i.e.           rehabilitation of l e p r o s y
patients,           g i v i r i g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o the h a r ~ d i c a p p e d , b l i n d ,

dui~i:: a:ld deaf c h i l d r e ! ;        ana by p r o v i d i r ~ gnew a v e n u e s f o r
t   I <   o u t c a s t s trilmls.         Baba Arritc. is a s t a u n c h f b l l o w e r of

14ah.1;.11iocjandhi, who a d v o c a t e d t n e c a u s e of s o c i a l recon-

s l . r u c t i o n rrlov m m t .

                   I t would be wort!lwhile t o d e a l w i t h t h e background

uE t h e s,.:ci.al r e f o n o ~~iovernentn L a i l a r a u h t r a ,
                                        i                                             how t h e

sf-roar,; O L s a c i a l r e f o r m a t i v e work was s t r e r l g t h e n e d b y

ded . c a t c . d wor..ers, who had e a c r i f i e e d t.!lsi.r livt!o                      for

o n e o r ut11g.r s o c i a l c a u s e .          Buc-lase o f t l w band of d e d i -

caL d w o r k e r s h h a r a s h t r a h a s p r w d n e . l t p l a c e in I n d i a .
h         f o l l o w . l n i , p a : y s p r o v i ~ i ea b r i e f s k e t c : ~ f t h e i r r l p o r t a n t
                                                                                 o

s . > c i a l r::Xvrr,;ers who n o t o n l y c o n t r i l u t d a g r c a t d:2al t o

t . 1 cduse o f s o c i a l r u f o r r r ~b u t a l s o r u p r t s e n t among thern
      ~

;!.I::    rrtajor t r e i ~ d a i n             t.1,:    social mov~..t!ienti n M a t m r a s h c r a .
'The fer i . 1 ~ l a n d s f N a h a r a s h t r a h a d produc(:d                        towering

; j e r s o n a l : r . i e s i n v a r i o i l s f i e l d s p e r t a i n i n g t o social

rmr?E
    ..r.!is.          I t would b e i n t e r e s t i n g              t o note t h a t Baba      Amte

                                                  nt
i:rherit,..d t h e a o c i a l i r ~ o v e ~ : . ei n t h e eecond h a l f o f t h e

t.wenti o t f i c e n t u r y .

                B a l s h a s t r i Jmbhrkar                (1812-1846) i s c o n s i d e r e d t o       XI

!he f i r s : . p r c r ; i i ~ l e n tY O C ; ~ r e f o r u k r o f 1 . l a h a r a s h t r a . l i e

bolonc;~,:'           1.0i l e
                        t            c c ~ r i yq f . ? n c r a . ~ i oo f ; s.:cial re ol:l:crs
                                                                        ~                            in

tile 1 9 t h c:.rktury.                   Jainbhe:.ar was borr; i n l b 1 2 a t P o ~ b h u r l e ,

a V~        l    l   d i~ i ~: . lri t . Rir
                         i                     i.nayiri d i s t r i      : uf   haharashtra.       tie w a s

ver         cl~,;;e
                  c.          ~t   S!u i .;cldnshiV              &shinnth       Chhatrcl, a M a r a t h i

writer. J a m b h t d k . i r                        I.-u B ~ I I t o , rcceivc h i & c d u c t ; t . c n
                                               ci~,~,?            ~

i n t h e L L p h i n s L o n ~ iN a t i v e i d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t i o n .          Because

G:       h i s e x t r a o r d i n a r y t a l e n t s h c a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t,.on

         t r ! e a u t h o r i k i s H wd.s a p p o i n t e d a s D e p u t y S e c r e t a r y
                                    . e
!a ',.he W a r d of i d u c c l t i o r r of t h e Ciovcrnrlei~to t bombay.

.:?IMI~     ht.      ~ L . S d many
                             L ~                  impor , a n t yost-s. I n 1836, hc. r e t u r n e d

.t.a Bsrnkay as A s s i s 1 a : : t                     P r o f e s s o r o f r",athe:natics   i n Elyhrn-

st.:ne          Ccll.      ' 2 .   U a d a b h a i Nnoroj i h a p p e n e d to be a s z u d c n t
o f D a l s i ? ~ s i r Ja bhekar.
                        i                              B a l s h a s t r i w a s w e l l ac-iuainted

w i t.1 nrariy l a n g \ l a ~ e 3 . H was on? of t h e early act~olarst o
                                      e
nave s t a r t d w r i t i n g t - x t - b o s k s               i n M a r a t h i and he a l s o

i n s i i r d Mardthi crc:.~tivew r i t i n g .

                                                  werrx a l s o a c t i v e d u r i n g
                Christian m i s u i . ~ n a r i c s

th .i period.
    :s                    B a l s h a s t r i Jambhekar t i u k c r c d i t i n e d i t i n g

a C o r t . n i . j h t 1y c a l l e d     '   ' P i    Bornbay Durpan.          "   Bombay Ijurpan

wss p u b l - s h e d a?-f:iult3neously i n Engl sh and Har ?:hi.
donbay. Durpan p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n                        focus sin^^        the

pt h l i c o p i n i o n !n
                          ;          v s r i . c ~ .p r o ! ~ l : . a sr e l a t e d t u ~ h . : r tp t r i o d .
                                                    s

                                                             to
.;.a.:.i:?a.o.ri Jmbh.%kar was nainl;. r e s ~ r l n s i c ~ l e make warry

SII   ,   c~               o
               :;,ti\,ris t t h e      ~ c v a r n a i e n ton d e w l o : > ~ i e n t a lm a t t e r s .

Cs;:: h.;il'<ar d a r e d :a cocilo,.n -he e i l c u s t o m s o f S a t i and

            soclal e v i l s . H e w s s a l s o s u p p o r t e d i n v a r i o u s
a 1 l .~t.r~er

rc,'.t.rI:.ls y
            t          S h r i J a g a n n a t h S h a n k a r s e t . ~~~~~~~~~ri Jambhekar

rr;is ai.so a 9 l y asslstcd by Stir;                           iihhhu h h a j a n i n p u b l i s h i n g

 'Lurpan '
            9
                   .
                'Inus t;ha t i r ~ social r e f o r n e r of rr!orlcr:.                       times i n
l~o,.,i:a!, was Lialskicrc.. . r i Ja.;.bhckar. dc rr.lo also t h e f i r s t

i i ~ ~ i i ~ i ,tu    e a,..po!.ntsc            a s ~ e j s F : i t a i l t P r c f e s c o r of E n g l i s h
1 i t e r a tur,.       ir,          c
                              ~ 1 pi h s i o n I n s t i L u i i o n . E l p h i n s t o r l S n t i t i t u t i o n
wtiu mall:ly r L s i , o n s l l l c t, e n t h u s e yuunc i.:en for soc.ial
                                      .

causc:.           These e n t o u s i a s L i c young ,,tun s t a r r c d a n ~ u ~ ~ i t i l y
                                                                                          10

p e r i o d i c a i f o r t h e i r purpose.              The young men were e n c o u r a g e d

i n t h o i r work b y t h e i r t e a c h e r s a n d e n l i g h t e n e d Hindu

leaders,        s u c h a e S i r Mangaldas Nathubaid.                     the lion.
Jnganna th Shankarset, Mr.                      Bhagwarrdas Puruahottan!das,

Dr.Bhau       Daji,       etc.           Jambhekar a n d J a g a n n a t h S h a n k e r s e t carried
on a corr~paign f o r t a k i n g back C h r i s t i a n c o n v e r t s i n t o Hindu
s o c ~ e t y . u r y a n ised e f f o r t s were made d u r i n g t h e f o r t i e e

t;o f i g i l t s o c i a l i n h a b i t a t i o n s ,    p a r t i c u l a r l y those associ-
                                                  A1
a t . . ~ Cw i t h t h e c a s t e syste:o.

           Oopal H a r l Deshmukh ( 1 ~ 2 3 - 1 8 9 2 ) a l i a s L o k h i t w a d i

w d s a r e l e n t l e e s c r i t i c of the o r t h o d o x U r a M n e , who
      u i ~ g l ya d v o c a t e d f u r r e l i g i o u s and s o c i a l reForms.            His

WJ:   t i n g s w e r e p o p u l a r l y k n b w ~as ' S h a i p a t r e '
                                                   ~                          .   He v e h e m e n t l y

c r i t i c i s e d t h e icjnorance and h y p o c k i s y o f t h e Urahmins.

Deshrrtukh was a Brahmin by b i r t h ,                       d u t h e alwa,,s a d v o c a t e d

f o r pragmatic thinkin$.                    Becuase of h i s s t r a i ; h t        fonwardness

h e w a s s t r o n g l y condemned by t!~e Urahmin l i k e V i a h n u s h a s t r i
                                                                                 12
::hiplunkar,        a rn l i t a r ~ t
                                     charnpian of c o n o e r v a t i v e ideas.

           Deshrnukh w a s b o r n i n POOM o n 1 8 t h E e b r u s r y 1823.

H i s f a t h e r had s e r v d t i l a s t Peahwa Uajirao 11. Oopal-
                                  e
r a o ' s f ~ t h e died w.len ht. w a s 1 3 y e a r s o l d .
                    r                                                           Gopalrao

c..,ntinued                                                    ~
                   h i s studies i n adverse financial c o n d tions.
Ijecause o f h i s h t i s 5 t a n e b r i l l i a n t career, he w a s a b l e
to s e c u r e a job of a t r a n s l a t o r i n 1844.                             a
                                                                         Later h e w s
a e l e c t e d as j u d g e i n which h. s e r v e d f o r a b o u t t h i r t y
years.      G o p a l r a o a l s o wdrked a s a m s n b e r o f t h e Bumbay
L e g i ~ l av e C o u n c i l d u r i n g 1880-1882.
              t~

          O o p a l r a o Deshmukh w a s keen i n e s L a b l i a h i n g
                            w
i n s t . : t ~ t . i ~ ! - l s i t h a s e n s e o t d e d i c a t i o n t h r o u g h whiah

he e d u c a t e d t h e masses. To him e d u c a t i o n was t h e b a a 0

t o c r e a t e a w a r e n e s s a n d s o c i a l consciousness among the
masses. H e i n l t i a t e d t h e l i b r a r y movement a n d set up
debati1.g f ~ r r u n stn e d u c a t e t h e p e o p l e o n a v a r i e t y o f
                                                                t
s u b j e c ~ s . H e waa one of t h e t h o s e who ciup,~ort@d h e p u b l i -
                                                            '
c a t i o n of newspapers l i k e ' ~ n y a n ~ r a k a a hof koona a n d
'Induprakaah'           of Borabay. H e a l s o r e g u l a r l y c o n t r i b u t e d
t o t h e n o t a b l e p e r ~ d d l c a l sa n d s e r v e r a l o t h e r books.
s o y a l r a o had a l s o e d i t a c l a lnagazlne t ] a t is 'Lokh I t w a d i '            .
de p l a y e d a h i s t o r l c r o l e i n o r y a n i e i n g v a r i o u s s o c l a l

actrv~ti in
       8                  ha ma dab ad,       when h e w a s t h e r e f o r t e n y e a r s
old.    H e f u l l y advoca-ed h i s v a l u a b l e t i m e i n e s t a b l i s h i n g

t , ~ 2 s p i i a l s ,m a t e r n i t y homes,    o r p h a n a g e s a n d such
                                              14
othcr aucial instituiions.

          a o p a l H a r i Desnmukh a t t r a c t e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f
h i s c o n t a m p o r a r i o s i n 1848 a n d s t a r t e d p u b l i s h i n g l e t t e r s
,I
 .,   P r a b h a k a r , a weekly e d i t d by Govind V l t h a l Kunthe
a l i a s Bhau Mahajan. H e a c t u a l l y wrote o n e hundred and
e i g h t 1etl.ers i n P r a b h a k a r and p u b l j s h e d t h e s e l e t i e r s
d , r i n g 1842-1850 u n d e r t h e pen-name                   of   '      Lokhitwadi     '.
l ' k ~ oc o l l c c t i o n of l e t t e r s   is well-known as ' S h a t p a t r e ' .
LOichltwadi w a s a g r e a t a d m i r c r o f t h e b r l t i s h r u l e r s .
lie    i   e l L o b l i c e d t o t h e B r i t l s h Government f o r g i v i n g
t , i e a d v a : ~m : . s
                  t           a n d bcnef its o f t m i r p a r l i a m e n t a r y symtern,
o - h e r i n s t j - t u t i o n s and l i k e r a l i d e a s t.u I n d i a n s . Lokhi t-

wddi r e p r e s e n t e d t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n o f s o c i a l r-ef;lrr:~ers
wile                                                      e
           w<:re i i l s p i r e d by t h c a c - ~ i e v e n i s oC X e s t c r n c i v i l i z -
d i.iui-A.                                         t
               i i c a d v o c d t e d t o c o ~ jinue    irle   a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h tile
B r i t . i s ! i a n d prefer-rt:!d t o l e a r n a t t h e i r rnaat           rs' f e e t f o r
q u r L a sumk.: t i m e . H was c o l i f i d e n t t h a t
                            e                                         !.lr    courao ot     tirile


i n d i a would emerge a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n w i t h a demo-
          form of g o v c r m m n t . He had n.., d o u b t a:jout, i n d e -
c r ~ i i c
p n d e n c e s t a t u s of I n d i a .        L o k h i t w a d i ' a vicws were ao
l r i a t u r e t h a t he .nade p r o p h e t i c     state,^.. n t o       on t h e conto3nprary
v , r l o eventa.            H e s u g y u s t c d to a n a l y s e t'ne p o l l t i c a l r e f o m
                                                                          15
i n t h e c o n t e x t o f s u c h rnomenLous e v e n t s .

              H e c r i t . i c i s e d t h e Bra;imins f o r t n c i r i g n o r a n c e ,

vanity,                                           a
                  f r o l l y and cowardice. lie w s f u l l y c o n v i n c e d t o
a t t a c k on Bratunit~s, a s t h e Brahmins b e l o n - o d to t h e e l i t e

A;,    t h e s o c i a l strur:turt:. He b a l i e v c d t h a t with t h e
a c c e p t a n c e of r e f o r r ~ i sby t h c Lirahmins,                       o
                                                                      the probla,~ f
h a v i n g r e f o r m s i n t h e Hineu would be s o l v e d c o n v e n i e n t l y .

Hr! wrote idany l e t - e r s d e a l i n g wiLr             the q u e s t i o n of w i d o w
reiriarriayc. H e b e l i e v d t h a t a s G o d had c r e a t e d men and

wlil:lea and sivc?n t l - e r n e u q a l r i g h t s .      Preventing thm t o

e
r - 1 t m r r r a y ~ amounts t o i n j u a t l c e . He was of t h c o p i n i o n
i   .-rat t h e grevai:ir;g         l a w s a n C customs s h o u l d be c .ansed

a c c o r t i ing t o t h e t i m e s .

           According t o him c a s -e d i s t i n c t i o n s had become

rnsai~in:;lless u n d e r B r i t i s h r u l e .      H e w a s of t h e o p i n i o n

t l - ~ ~ i to
          h      s t i l i t y between t h e castes weakeris t h e s o c i u t y

,l:icl   vanishes i t s s t r e n g t h and unity.              L t was h i s i n n e r

uc.jc? t h a t the s o c i e t y mus - be w e l l accustomed t o l e a r n

arid t h i n k anc a t i u n c i t s e l f t o t h e c h a n g i n c v a l u e s o f

;.le times.          I n h i s l e t t e - s h e l a m e n t e d on t a e growlng

u n e m p l ~ y ~ ~ ~ e r i t i n c r e a s i n g p o v e r t y i n tile s o c i e t y .
                     sad                                                                   tie

urged       . h a t t h e p e l j p l c s h o u l d make s t r e n u o u s e f f o r t s t o

a c q u i r e know led.^^. lie a d v o c a t e d t h a t everybody s h o u l d b e

truthful.           H e s t r o n g l y f a v ~ u r e dp r o h i u i t i o l . and also wanted

Lha.t t h e government a h o u l d n o t allow conaurnptiori of

l:.luors,          a s t h e pe ,pie would be d m o r a l i s e d .           He m e n t i o n e d

t . h a t the p e o p l c w e r t    t o be _espec:ed           as thc people
~ 1 L i n ~ a y Vot.:d any govcrnnlent t h * , y 1 ~ k e . lilc a s k e d h i s
          cl                                                 ~

                                                       n
avuntryrncn n o t t o buy goods ~ ~ m u f a c t u r ei d Loreign

coctntirt s even 'Lhoufjh t h e y w e r e better i n q u a l i t , .                       it i s
a e v i d e n t t h a t I n d i a n s wore aware o f t h e bad e f f u c s o f
t ' l e u s e of f o r e i g n g o o d s much b e f o r e S w a d e s h i became

o n c of t h e < l a i n p l a n k s of t h e n a t i o n a l i s t progranriie.

         He became more c r i t i c a l of a r i t i a h r u l e a n d parti.

cularly       0:
               :   i t s lmpact o n t h e i n d i a n economy. I n f a c t it
was as a r c a c t i o i , t o 1857, t h e Uovcrnment decided n o t
I.\,   htel   f e r a i n r e l i g i o u s matters. r&ny d r i t i s h o f f i c e r s
c u : ~ r ~ t : n u e d b,. s y u p a t h e t i c t o t h e c u a s e o f s o c i a l reiorms,
                    to

b u t the;. w e r e n o t p r e p a r e d to f a c e         ;le   ct,n.;erva:.ive

a , p p r o a c h o f c h e Inciian s o c i e t y . H e w a s w o ~ r i o dw i t h t h e
                                     a
dri Liuh a p l ~ r o a c hw h i c a w s no l o n g c r p r o g r e s s J . v e a f t e r

1:257.     1Ie wrot:.; r a l a r t i c l e s or, t h e c a u s e s u f p o v r - , r t y a n d
                        dry
p u o l . s h e d i n Prabhdkar.        H i s r e m a r k a b l e book o n ' G r a m -

ra&ana'        deals w i t h t h e p l i y h ~ :
                                              0           t . ~ e o o r i n the s o c i e t y .
                                                                p

          Lokhitwadi a d v o c a t e d f u r a v a r i e t y o f s o c i a l refunrls.

Even t h o u g h he b e h a v e d l i k e a n o n - r e l i y i o n i s - ,    ye^    h c was
v e r y ruuch i n i l u e n c e d b y A w a m i UayananB,           the .ounder of
I t r y a Samaj. However,          i t may      e confessed t h a t h i s i d e a s
c c u l c ! n e v r be translated i n t v practice.                  icut tizc;      influ-

ence~! Sri. s u c c e e d i n g g e n e r a t i o n s .   I t is t r d e t h d t h e l a c k -

t:d coaraqs t o p r a c t i c e what h e p r e a c h e u a n d Ofteri r , ( : ~ u c

compromises.          Uut h j s i n : e l l s c L u a l   exposition ,n         Lhe

,:ontenlporilr-,      concli. i o n of l i a h a r a s h t r a a n d t h e wages a r ~ d
rnt?.lrio hy w h i c h        . h e s o c i e t y c o u l u be r e f o r m e d are remark-

a    li;   whic:: formed a basis f o r ;he f u : - u r e social r e f o r ~ ~ ~ i e t .

rnov&~ents i n t h i s r e g i ,               .   i77U.q LOkhitwai:i is regarded &a

a ,gr.r.dt v i s i . ~ n a r , , i n t e l l e c t u a l g a l a n t a n d f o r e r u n n e       of

t          ?
      , r .~n a i s s a n c e i n modern Maharaehtra.

            J o t i r a o 3 o v i n d r a o P h u l e may i.:e c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e

c ~ n t ~ ~of: i s o c i a l r e f o r m m o v ~ e: n t i n the 19th c e n t u r y
            x .                                  .
X . a h x a s h t r a . The 0t:;er reformers of M a h a r a s h t r a r e s t r i c t -

eci t h c ! i r ac t i v i t i . . s w i t h i n t h e f r a m e r w o r k of t:te s u c i . a l

i ~ ; sttu t ! o n s    Of     family.         m a r r i a : ~ e i g h t s o f women e t c .
                                                                r

J o t i r a o P h u l e r b v o l ted against t n i : u n j u s t c a s t * s y s t e n ~

u n c e r whic.1 m i l l i o n s nad s u t f e r c d f o r c e l i t u r i e s . iie was

a m i l i t a n t a d v o c a k of t h e r i c 2 h t s oL ~ n t o u c h s i l l e k 5a n d t a l e

                      lp
e ~ u n ~ a i i c a i oy p r c s s o d c l a s s c s .       He waa c o n v j n c a d t h a t
such;         c , a n g e w a s p o s s i b l e o n l y , i f t h e s0ciet.j receives
a d d c a t i o n a.ld becdri,: aware o f t h e social s y s t e m . Most of

Lhe rcfor!ne,r;              wit,    advocated f o r .:ertair.             s o c i a l Changes

   no, E u l i f ,rwple t h e p r o b l e m s an,; d i d n o t h a v e t h e
~..d

l r a c k q r o u n 3 t o y o t o t . ~ e o o t s o f t h e s o c i a l i ~ s u e s . They
                                        r
r.uuche9 upo.:              p
                         t.1~        o r i f c r i a l i s a u - a which d i d n o t h a v e
    e l e v a n c e t o c.   le     m aj , ~ r i t yof   t h e society.       For u x a , : ~ ~ ~ l e

khc w i d o w r e - r n s r r i s g i > ,     i n a p l t e of i t s a o c i a l , p s y c h o l a -

, g i c a l and . . i d i o , i c a l     ai;niLican:e,           w a s n o t a l l omb.~..%cS.n,;
a;li.i l e f t o u t wore t h a n 95% o f t h e p o p u l s t i - A .
            MahaLna P h u l e a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e r e a l sociial

                   ,
r e f o r : ~ ~ e rwho f a c e d t h e c h a l l e n g i n g p r o b l e m s and iriot-

i v a t c c l t h e minds Of t h e m a s s e s f o r t h e p u r s u i t of t r u t h

and hunani ty.                In f a c t t h c S o c i a l r e f o r m e r h a s , t h e r e f o r e ,
a more s e r i u . : s ancl d 1 : ~ f i c u l t a s k b e f o r e him t h a n t h e

p o l L t i c a l reformer. Ther,: was a l s o a n o t ! l e r p o i n t t o bo

take11 i n t a c ~ n s i d e r a t i o n . I n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s I n d i a n s ,

              Of casLe,
i~:reSpi?ct..Ve                                c r e e d a ~ r dr e l i y i o n m i g h t g a t h e r

on a common p h t e 0 r 1 : l . I t was n o t t h a t much e a s y on t h e

ut.irer tranci, t o f i n d u n i f o r ; , . and c o l l e c t i v e 1.euyonse
 I:om a c r c i . 3 ~ - s e c t i o n o f t h e ~ o c i e t ~ . I n s o l i t i c a l
                                                                ' ~

nla     e r s :he                                                 indepencleiice
                          ir.~:.:cdiateg o a l of a ~ t a i n i n ~ j

b r o c y t i t L l ~ v t e g e t l l e r on a g i v e n p l a t f o r m .        Whercas i n

s o c i a l m a t t e r s t w r c f o r r n e r s were governed by a v ' i r i e t y

o     cdnsi.der;rti n . s u c h a s caste, creed, r e l i g i o n ,                           region

and a o a r : - s u l t t h e y could n e v e r a r r i v i : a t a conmon a n d
urmnimous d e c i s i o n . "                 I n view o f t . ~ e
                                                                 aLov;?, i t i s r v i d e n t

thaL t h * s o c i a l p r o b l e m s were n o t as y e t t a c k l e d i n t h e

nianner i n w h k h r e f i r m e r s l i k e J o t i r a o P h u l e tri.-d t o

co~::prche.?d tht-: i r : ues and p r o v i d e d constructive c h a n g e s

i n tho s o c i a l set up.
            J a t l r a o Piiule 0ccu::)i;o              a uniquc p o s i t i ~ na~ilong ole

; l i . , ~ j ar e ' u n l ; r ? r s
               l                       i:   t?e 1 9 t h cer,tury.        Tile   stor, o f i ~ i s
e::ori;ijr     l   i   i is a n i n s p i r i n g s3ga Of a c o n t i n u 0 : i s s t r u j t l e
                         ~
a g a i n s t the f o r c e s o f r e a c t i o n .           I t was r e m a r k a t d e t h a t

11    s t o o p a g a i n s t odds and acted always according to h i s

convictions.              Sar~eo f t h e contemporary i n t e l l e c t u a l s of

repute; s u c h a s Parmananda,                     Ranade,        etc, who have k e e n l y
w a t c h - d t h c reformist a c t i v 1 t i i . s o f J o t i r a o P h u l c a n d

expre;stxi            t h e i r a p p r c i c i a t i o n o r h i s work.       S p e i c a l ii~ent..on

may    ... e   made a b o u t N a h a r e h i Parmananda, who 6msrl;ed as a

p o w e r f u l w r i t r botil i n Y n g l i s h a n d M a r a t h i .              He edited

an i n g l l s    I    J o u r n a l e n t i t l e d ' N a t i v e Opinion'. 2 6

           J o t i r a o Y h u l ~waa b o r n i n 1~27. H i s a t h e r

i o v i n d r a o w a s a v c q e t a b l e merchant a t Poona.                      Jotirao's

m:other u x p l r 11 cdhe:~h s w a s                cirir;   y e d r u l J . J . , t i r a o wae
r m r r i e d wnr::~ n~;: ria5 13 y e a r s o l d . J o t l r d o ' ~i n t e l l i g e n c e

and h i s l o v e f o r l e a r n i n g , r e s u l t e d i n h i s f a t h e r a l l o w -

i n g him t o study A a Secondary Schoul a t Yoona.
                     n                                                                      Jyotirao

was a d m i t t e d i n che S c o t i s h M i s s i - j n ' s Hiqh Scho<;l a t Pouna.

i1c happerleu t o L e t h e c l o s e s t f r i e n d of SadashiV B a l l a l

(;ovinde, a urahmin who remained f r i c ; n d of J o t i r a o t h r o u g h

out his lif-             .   J o t i r a o was i m p r e s s . . d by i h o : . ~ a st J a i n a ' s

:Ldc~as, a n d         r ad h i s w x k e         w i t h g r e a t i n t t rest h i s famous

~:,ook ' R i y ' l Y o f :?an'.            J o : . i r d o was f i r m nbt t o a c c e p t a

~ p v e x n ~ e . jio b under the L)i'iilsh.
                    t
          J o t i r a o was i n s u l t . d b a d l y     aL   one of h i e f r i e n d s

mar ria^.     , ashe        b e l o , < n e d t o t h e Mali community, which t h e

Brahmins c o n s i d e r e d t u b e i n f e r i o r . ;his minor i n c i d e n ' ;

h u r t h i s f e e l i n y s a n d hc: d e v c l o p e d a v e r s i o n t o w a r d s c a a t e

sys:e:i; and t,.'ok up t h e c a u s e o f t h e S u d r a s and wanan who

wre d e p r i v e d o f their l e g i - h a t e r l y h t s f o r c e n t u r i e s . 2 7
Eudcation        0.':   knjincr; a n d t h e down-trodden was one o f h i s

 op p r i o r i t i e s .    Ha was h a r a s s e d by t h e ort!loclox opyonetl.ta.

J o t l r a o ' s f a t h e r was p r e s s u r l a s d t o c h e c k h i s s o n ' s mactl-

vitkes.       bne day h i s f a t h e r d r o v e him o u t o f h i s house.                    Auc
      was well c o n v i n c e d t a r u n a ac!l,.ml c o n v c m i e n r l y
~ot.rao

a t sor:Ie c ~ t q e rp l a c e . Soi;ic oL h i s :3r;du11in fricrnl:; i-kc
..;avanc'c a n d Vaivckar h e l p e d i n f i x l n g a new p l a c e t e t h e

school.       J o t i r a o a l s o s t a r t 6 : d two more sc!iools d u r i n g

1851-52.        J o t i r a o d e t e r m i n e d t o work i n       t:ie   f i e l d o f edu-

cation.       H i e a l s o es.ar;l istied t h e s c h o o l f o r t h e             lower
c l a s s e s . H e h i m s e l f c o n t i n u e d t z work as a i.cic;rer f o r

,,lor= that? tr::n y e a r s .          J v t i r a o emphatically advocated t h e

i i ; ~ p o;:~;icc. of 2 r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n and exer tj2a f o r i. ts p r o -
           r

,,ayatiori.      J o L i r a d s t i o n y l y a:.tach-:d t h c I~rstu.lln:,            who

idrevented u t . l . ~ r r r m l e a r n i n g . H e s y s t e r ; ~ a t i . c a l l yp r o -
A.tsri.u c h t i~ti:,uso f        !:
                                  ;I!     p e ~ ~ p i e .urn a,;ainsr
                                                    LC,                          !       1.y~-anrly

            J r a h m ~ n s . le made f r o n t a l a t t a c k or1 Brnhniinn and
                               i
                                                                                        20
L!ieir a j e o l d s u p e r s t i t i 4s u e l i e f a a n d p r a c ~ i c e s .

I-le made it his l i f            ' 8    m i s s i o n to b r i n g f o r t h sucial

emancipation amon.;               t h e down-trodden           a n d t h e weaker

classes.
               I n t c r - e s t i r r g l y J o t i r a o P h u l e had a g r e a t r e s p e c t f o r

c h r i s t i a n i t y d u e t i t s h u : : a n l t a r i a n , r a t i a n a l i s t i c atid
                               o
p r a q n l a t i c a p p r o a c n . J u s t a s Dnyan:shwar a n d 'i'ukararn r e v . ; l t -

ed a g a i n s t p r e v a i l i n g religious                         exccsses a n d h a u g h t y n c s s
of        t;ie Brahmin p r i e s t s .               H e 6e'-ied t h e o r t h o c o x J r a h h i n

a n d w a n t t o t h e e x t e n t o f f e c i n ~ h c seri . u s co,?scquences
                                                   t

,:;:ere        of.''        H e b u i l t a courmon f r 0 n . t of nun-Bratwins                          and

*.,f    h e r l i b e r a l minded Brahrniris.                        Then h c c : m l k d o u t a

.:ut.ure c o u r s e o f a c t i o n t h r o u g h h i s l L t e r . ? r y m r k s a n d

                                c
,an o r , j a r i i s . ~ t i o n a l l e d ' S a t y a s h o d h a k ' .        W h ;ie J o t i r a o

. p h u l e w a s n o t a g a i n s t t h e Hindu b e l i e f s arid p r i ; c t i c t s,

Fie      or:ly qu:st'.:..ncd t n o p r c v n ~ l i n g3 r a h . i a n i c c r l a >r o . ~ a n c e ,

w h o had c o m p l e t e l y drifted f r o - n p r i e s r ; i : i g p r - n c i , -es of

11      . ~ d u s i s , n .H e e x p r e s s e d h i s f u l l b e l i e f         i l l   God anc. t h e
                                                                              30
cmni.po          eilce      a ; , d e-nn i-pre.;once             o f God.

              liowever, J o t i r a o w a s n o t c a r r i e d away u y b l l n d f a l t h

a;;'!      supcrs--iuLious bellefa.                            H i s m a i n e m p h a s i s w a s o n rat..

 iv;,alis         .    .uw p r a y r t , a ~ . i ca c t i o n . 3 1     T h i s i s r e f l e c ~ i t di n h i s

SaLasnociirak O r c j a n i s a t i u n and                      01:    j o u r n a l e n t i t l e d 'Deen-

b a t . d h ~ ' . ~ ' He was supported b y K r i s h n a r a o P a n d u r a n g 3 h a l e k a r ,

U h a r t d i r a r ~1karnc;ev Ghola,                  Gyanoba K r i s h n a j l. Sasarlc, etc. 3 3

J o t i r a : , k'hule trad e x p r e s s e d h i s v i e w s t h r o u ~ , hl;:w                   uth..r

k~ :ks i.,-. Zrahii.;nac,ic.                       iksa;     , Shivajicha            I'ovaua,     St1et1.a-

r y a c h a iisud, S a % a a r I s r i a r a and S a r v a j a n l c S a t y a Dharnta
Yrakaeh. 3 4               Thus he aimed a t making r u r a l v i l l a g e a s t h e

b a s e o f I n d i a n s o c i e t y s p e c i a l 1y t h a t Of M a h a r a s h t r a .
A s a t a t - e d e a r l i e r h e i d e n t i f i e d wmen and t h e d2un-

t;rodderi a s t h e most v u l n c r a b l c a e c ~ i v n so f tie s o c i e t y

; ~ n dh i s o r i j a n i s a t i o r i worked t o r t h e i r u p l i f tment. 3 5

                                        t
J o t i r a o Phule b e l i e v L d i r ~ h e i n t e g r a t e d hu~ianvalues

I    J   e q u a l ty,
         ~                   f r a t k n i t , and l i b e r t y .

                 J L J t i r a os t r e s . , e d t h e u n i t y of   .,all   and a n v i s a y e d

a s o c i e t y b a s e d on l i b r e r t y ,           e.1uality and f r a t h r n ~ t y .

                                          r
H e was f u l l y c o n s c i o u s t k ~ t i g i d r c i i a i o u s p r s c t ~ c e a

a!)<!        xtrc3:?e n a t i u n a l i s t i c p o l ! c i e s a r e d c t r i ~ ~ ~ e n tt o l
                                                                                             a

tqe p r o g r e s s          07   rrlankind.       Under t h e a u s p i c i o . l s of S a t y a -

shodhak S a n a j h c e s t a b l l h r e d V i c t o r i a b r p h a n a q e whlch

l o o k e d a r t u r t h e u n f o r t u n a t e a n d t h e neglected c h i l d r e n .

J o t i r a o P h u l e was m a i n l y i n s t r u m e n t a l t o p o p u l d r i s e t h e

nori-Brahmin lnovcri~enti:l M a h a r a s h t r a which u l t i n ~ a m l y

l e d to t h e s o c i a l movement.                    J o t i r a o P h u l ~ ' sw r k waa

               w
c w t ~ n u e d i L h t h e sa..te tempo b y H a j a s h r i C h h a t r a , ~ ~ i t i

Shahu Mat~araj of Kolhapur and ur.Jabdsa                                       ic   J   Amhdkar.

                 r h u s P h u l e was a       . i o n e e r i n p e u p l e ' s rnovsnent*
wriic        1   was s u b s e q u e n t l y t a k e n o v e r by Mahat8na Gend:li,

wijo, d u r ng t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e movement r e a d h e d p o l i t i c a l



    t h e 190h con';~!rj. p r o v i d s d t h e l e a d e r s h i p f o r s a c i a l
          I n f a c t i n M a h a r a s h t r a one n o t i c e s d i f f e e n t
s t r e a m 8 i n t h e s o c i a l r e f o r m movements:            1) Religious

r e v i v a l i s t i.e.     Drahmo Samaj and P r a r t h a n a Samaj,

                   by J u s t i c e Ranade, D r .           R.Q.Uhandarkdr,
Modak,      Vlth    L   r a o S h i n d e , J u s t i c e d h a n d a V a r k a r 8 etc.

                                                               a
1;) I n t e l l e c t u a l R e f u r m i s t : t h i s grou? w s l e d b y
, j h r i Q.G.Agarkar.          i i i ) NG~-Brahmin move ~ a e n t , which was

uncier t h e l e a d e s h i p of J o t i r a o ~ h u l e . ~ ~ ' f ithese t h r e e
                                                                      us

c m p o n e n t s helped i n a c t i v i s i n g t h e social r e L o r m

mover lent.
          Thus J o t i r a o P h u l e f o u g h t f o r t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f

t h e down t r o d d e n p e o ? l e a n d       wai1e:i.     'Ke s t r u g g l e which h e

ldurlched a t a yuung a g e endcd o n l y w l e n he d i c d on 2 8 t h

Xove iber,       1890. J u t i r d o was a p i o n e e r i n many f i e l d s

      p a r t i c u l a r l y i n i i c l d of s o c i a l r e v o l u t i u n .   I i a had

c w m n e l i s e d thc n e y l <c t e d p e o p l e a n d made t h e i r v ~ i c e
c u i l s i d e r a b l e one.39    H e a d v o c a t ~ df o r t l e t r u t h a n d sac i f i -

c e d h i s e n t i r e l i f e i n t h e s e a r c h of t r u t h .         He w a s i > a i n l y

r e s p o n s b l e t o ira.:e      p e o p l e f r e e Lrom i n j u s t i c e which

c o n t ~ n u e dfrom t h c P-shwa p e r i o d . 40 Though he was of t e n

a c c u s e d o f f o n n e n t i n g hmdtred between t h e Brdhmin a n d
non-t3rdtu8tin8 b u t t h e l a t e r g e n e r d t i o n s a l s o t o o k c o n s i -

d e r a l e t i m e t o understanc' a n d a p p r e c i a t e t h e p r ,found
significance o f h i s h i m t r o i c w o r k i n the f u r t h u r e n c e

of humanity.           I n s h o r t J o t i r a o worked f o r :luianism anc'
s o c i a l equalit;.        He d e d i c a t e d h i s book called 'SAaverym
t o t h o s e who s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s f o r t h e liberation
o f Negro slaves. Hence J o t i b a c o n s i d e r e d t o be                 he

f l r s t r o v o l u t i m a r y leader t o l a u n c h h i s movement
                                                                   41
d   ainst traditional social institutions.

             Rantkrishna Gopal r a o Bhandarkar (1837-1925)                      was
b o r n a t l-lalvan i n R a t n a g i r i d i s t r i c t . H e had a b r i l l i a n t
career and wan s e v e r a l s c h o l a r s h i p s a n c awards f o r t h e
s u c c e ~ ~ s v a r i ~ u s xaminations.
            of               e                          I n 1894 h e was a p p o ~ n t e d
as   the      Vice-Chancellor          o f hoinbay Unive s i t y .          P o r more
t h a n s i x t y y e a r s Uhandarkar c o n t i n u o u s l y t o o k a c t i v e
p a r t In t h e s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s reiorm i n Maharashtra.
H w a s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d as a ncanber o f t ~ le r a m h a n s a
 e                                                        a
Sabha, a secret s o c i e t y o f s o c i a l r e f o r m e r s who d i d n o t
b e l i e v e i n t h e casLe system. Uadoba Pandurang, h i 6
                                           ~
y o u n i e r b r o t h e r A t m a r a ~ .Pandurang, Bhau Mahajan, who
edL t   r   cl t h e week1 y     '   Prdbhakar   ',    were f o u n d e r m a n b e - s df
t h ~ society.
             Ehandarkar a l s o joined t h e P r a r t h a n a Sdiilaj Along
with        pi8 o t h e r   colleagues i.e.           Atmaram Pandurang, U a l
; , a n ~ o s hWagale, Bhaskar H a r i Bhagwat, Naraycln Mahadev
p a m a n a n d , etc. H e w a s t h e g u i d i n g f o r c e t o t h e
p r a r t h a n a Samaj      .   I t was d e s c r i b e d by him t h a t t h e
r e l i g i o n a d v o c a t e d by t:w Y a r a t h a n a Samaj as lwformed
                  P. ~ r
~ i n d u i . s n ~ a r a ~t h a n a Sarnaj b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l hu.ian
b e i n g s a r e c h i l d r e n of God anir h e n c e Lhey r e f u s e d t o
o b s e r v e caste d i s t i n c t i o n . H e was o f t h e opinLon t h a t
L   l
    e   u n t . o u c h a b i l i t y s!lould be e r a d i c a t e d as a s h e e r
n e c e s s i t y and huiiian d e c a n c y and n o t o u t o f a s c n e e
of pity.
              I n t h i s c o n t e x t i t is w o r t h w h i l e r e v i e w i n g t h e
movement l a u n c h i d b y J u s t i c e Mahadev Govind Ranade and
hi.s fol.lowere. Iianade was a r L a l i s t and a p r a c t i c a l
reron~.c!r. H e b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l r e f o n n rnovc~:lent
d u r i n g Lh,. p r e v i o u s halL c e n t u r y had m a e l i t t l e head-
way     .;   u a a u s e o f ' c e r t a i n i n h e r e n t d e f u c t s i n t h e rcf ormer
thmslarea. I t was Ranade's g r e a t e s t s e r v i c e to t h e
rerdrrn mov<.i;lent: t h a t h e made it more n a t i o n a l t n a n t h e

sarnaj n o v e e n t .        The social r e f o n n was a n o b i i g a t o r y
d u t y a c c o r d i n g to Ranaue.           lhe   r e f o r m e r s h o u l d imbibe
i ~ h i m t h e l i g h t w h i c h c o u l d be done o n l y by p u r i f y -
    r

i n r and i ~ . i p r o v i n yh i m s e l f and h i s e u r r o u n d i n g a . H e
n ~ u s te x e r t h i e best tu rctmould h i e f a m i l y , v i l l a y c ,
                                43
y i b e end n a t i o n .

              IRanadc d i d n o t b e l i e v e i n extrerniern anc: he
a d v o c a t e d i n t h e n a t u r a l growth         Of   hu, 'an p e r s o n a l i t y .
du; h e was v e r y c l e a r on n a t i o n a l u n i t y . The secret                      Of
h i e c h a r a c t e r was h i s f i r m f a i t h i n God a n d h i e b e l i e f
i n t h e n o b i l i t y o f man. H e was a w r : n r i n e v e r y f i e l d
of p r o g r e s s .     H e had n o e x c e p t i o n s t o h i s l o v e o f p r o g r e s s ,

b u t h e had h i s prei e r e n c e s . Rsnade v a s a ataLss,:lan a n d
not: a mere p o l i t i c i a n .          I t was t h e u n i q u e f e a t u r e o f

~ a n a d e ' sp e r s o n a l i t ; .   t h a t f h e proceeded very c a u t i o u s l y
                                                                              44
and t.ric:d t o m a i n t a i n U n l t y among reformers.

            Ranade s e r v e d t h e Government i n v a r i v u a capacities
and a l s o p a r t i c i p a t e d i n o t h e r p ~ i b l i ca c t i v i t i e s . H e
r e n d e r e d v a l u a b l e s e r v i c , . t ) t h e c a u s e o f s o c i a l reform.
                                                 x

Ranade a l s o exl.endcd h e l a t o his t r i e n d ,                   Vishnu Parastlu-
rain t ' a n d i t i n e d i t i n g ' I n d u p r d k a s n ' ,   a l e s d i n l ~;.nylo,

Marathi. j o u r n a l       .   Both p a n d i t a n d Ranaile j u i n t l y Worked
t o oncouraije wi(;ow r e - m a r r i a e                i n 1865. liarlade t o o k t h e
lead      It-,                                           o
                 Swami U a y a ~ i a n c a ' e v i s i t t kuona a n d a t t e ~ i d e d
h i s c l i s c u u r s e : ~ . Thc o r t h o d o x i3r;liirnin    OE   Poona w e i e

                     a
f , ~ r i v d sbec u s e of Daysnanda's f r o n t a l a t t a c k on t:le
e v i l c!usL.oms f o l l o w e d b y t h e Hindus.                Hanade     WilS   v..!ry
o p e n l y condehmed by the o r t h o d o x B r a h d n s , b i c a u s t ! o f
h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w ; t h Swami Dayanand.

            Ranade wan a b l e t o p l a j - a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n t h e
political,           s o c i a l , economic and c u l ~ u r a ll i f e oL i n e
cuun,:ry. H e was One o f t h e f o u n d e r s u: t h e i n d i a n
                                                 :
National1 Congr.ss.             He a150 rnwed a p r o p o s a l t o m k e

                ;o~
i t a J i o r ~ f ~ r d i s c u s s i n g n o t only p o l i t i c a l bur a l s o

s o c i a l p r o b 1 e . r ' ~ . I n 1887. Rana.. e Lounded t h e I n d i a n

N , ~ t i o n a l S o c i a l C o n f e r e n c e , which m e t e v e r y y e a r a t

t h e time of t h e C o n g r e s s s e s s i o n . 4 5Ranade w a s a pragma-

t i c ec:onu;[li-Ot       who r e f u s e d t o a p p l y w e s t e r n s t a n d a r d s
t o th,. I n d i a n c o n d i t i o n s . H e a l s o r c a l i s e d t h o import-
ant     of I n d u s t r i l i z a c i o n i n a p o w c o u n t r y l i k e I n d i a .
H i . s q r e a t e o t a s s e t was i n t e l l e c h u a l i n t e g t i t y and h i s

w l b l e work w a s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by thr.: h i g h i n t . e l l e c u t a 1

q u a l i t i e s o: c l e a r a n d r a t i o n a l t h i n k i n g .   lie w a s t h e

i n s p i r i n g and dominatinc; mind a t t h e b a c k of rhost of

t h e p o l i t i c a l movements c a r r i e d i n I n d i a .          One f i n d s i n

;,ana<e a n amalgamation o f p o l i t i c a l ,                s o c i a l and reli-
                     46
g i u ~ ideas.
          A l l a n Oc..avian kiume and Gopal K r i s h n a Ookhale

r e g a r d e d Ranade a s t h e i r 'Guru'.             '2hus f o r f u l l t h i r t y

years,      Hanacie w a s i n t h e f o r e f r o n t of n a t i o r i d l ancl

social life.          H prov. d t o be t h e most z e d l o u s and
                       e

deVOLed p a t r i o t .       e
                             H l o v e d I n d i a w i t h a n i n t < . n s c and
passl.onate l o v e and ladoured a l l h i s l i f e f o r i t s

welfare.
           Gopal Ganesh A g a r k a r (1856-1895) was t h e most
r a t ; n a l i e t i c among a l l the s o c i a l r e f or me!.:^ of 14aha-
r a s h t r a i n t h e 1 9 t h c e n t u r y . He d i d n o t t a k e the
s u p p o r t of t h e r c l i g i o n while advocating f o r t h e
s o c i a l , r e f 0 r . m . A g a r k a r w a s h o l d enou;:h t o p u t f o r t h
tcle    clen?and Lor ~ i . 1 ~ - y o v e r m e n t . I n h i m b r i e f s p a n o f
social l i f e h e p r o v i d e d r a t i o n a b e t o t h c r e f o r m movo-
r u e r ~ tof h i s t i m c a .    Hs h i g h i n t e l l e c t u a l
                                    i                                    l e v e l , moral
f r r v o u r and h i s r e l i g i o u s s i n c e r i t y i n Lnplementing
what. he p r o f e s s e d mado him as o n e o f t h e c r e a t e s t

r c f u n . l e r z of h i s tims.

           Inspite       ...   f adverse family conditiono, Agarkir
.p.ee.ived h i s h i g h e r e d u c a t l c ,        a i ~ drose t o e m i n e n c e .
Ral !Anpad:>:lr T i l a k beco:ce h i s close f r i e n d , whcn he
w a s s . t u d y i n q f o r t h e M.A.       exminntion.            Ayarkar,         l'ilak
ial-d   V i s h n u S h a s t r i C h l p l u n . b r were r e s p o n s i b l e to u 2 e n
a New E n g l i s h S c h o o l I n J a n u a r y 1802. ' i h l s young
i d e a l i s t i c g r o u p was e q \ ~ a l l y n t e r e s t e r ! i n e d u c a t i n g
                                                 i
t    ; pevple.
        ~            I n View        Of   t h e sai:le t h e y s:artt:d         two
weekl, . . B a r a t t a and K e s a r L .         I n 18ti4, t h c Ueccan
E d u c a t i m Socict:           was e s t a t : l i s t ~ e da n d u n d e r i t s    uspiccs
t h e F e r g u s o n i o l l e p wzs s t a r t d i n 1 8 L 5 .            P r i n c z p a l V.S.
Ayte,        T i l a k , Agarkar, GK
                                   ..              G o k h a l e made t a i o v e n t u r e
succensful.           Lohuanya T i l a k and some o f nis c o l l e a g u e s

d i d )no- ayrr.r w i t h the v i e w s o f Agarkar,                       Agarkar, l a t e r

on d i : a a s s o c i a t e d froti, K a h a r a t t a anu Kesari newspapers

and s - t a r t c o a new weekly ' ~ u d h a r a k ' . H e declared h i s
                                                       ~~

i a i t h i n t h e fruedom o f a n i n d i v i d u a l and h i s d e t e r -

.riina:ion       to e x p r e s s the sh0rtcominc;s i n c o n t e m p o r a r y
s o c i a l structure.

           Agarkar ' s c o n c e p t of ref or,., *as q u i te c o n ~ p r e h e n s i v e .

1: c o t l s i s t c d o f a c o m p l e t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f I n d i a n

s o c i e t y b a s e d o n t h e i d e a l s of l i b e r t y , e q u a l i t y a r ~ d

f r ..erni ty.
      ~               lie   ias of the o p i n i o n t h a t i t was e a s i e r to
                  c
intrcjciuce s ~ i a 1 r e f o m i s d u r i n g B r i t i s h r u l e . Acjark-lr's

naiiti    is a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c a u s e of e m a n c i p a t i o n
0.: wotnen.       H e a d v o c a t e d f o r rxaklny p r i m a r y e d u c a t i o n comp-

u l s o r y t u worrien. A g a r k a r had dcnounced t h a t it w a s n o t

p o s s i b l e t o h a v e the sLronc2 b a s e of s o c i a l refor:r, ,;,eve-

men*. u n l e s s t h i r e l i g i o u s b a s < i s e i i ~ n i n a t t - d o ~ , i , , l e t . e f y .
                                                                             c

IIe     a
       w s p r a g m a t i c s o c i a l r e f o r m e r , who p r o v i d e d trle b a s e
of i n d i v i d u a l freedom and e q u a l i t , to t . ~ e o c i a 1 r e f o m
                                                            y

ciov~..~iant. e i s r e c k n c d t o be one o f
            H                                                          he p i o n c c r s o f
                                                                                           1
                                                                                          4j
                                              i
t h e r i o c l a l rcrfc;rLl,r i ; o v d ~ n t n modern M a h a r a s h t r a .

Hi.8     mail1   c o n l r i j u t i o n l i e s i n h i s u n c o n d i t i u n a i supt>ort
                                                         49
o f e v e r y c o n s t r u c t i v e movcrnent.
            I t w a s t r u e t h a t Lokmanya Tilalc               d i i ~   L.G.Agarkar

bar,    rude t h e i r impact on 1 9 t h c e n t u r y M a h a r a s h t r a by

p r o v k d i n y p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l l e a d e r s h i p .      T i l a k -had

c o n c e n t r a c e d h i s work i n t h e f i e l d of p o l i t i c s ,           whereas
                                                                                               50
Aqarlcar c o n t r i b u t e d g r e l t l y f o r t h c s o c i a l rekormmf


            L e t u s r e v i e w Uhondo Kesbhv Karve's c o n t r i b u t i o n

t o the s u c i a l reform moveinent. H e i s remembered i n I n d i a

f o r h i s s i n q l e n i n d e d u e v o t i o n t o t h e c a u s e o f wo1r.m'~

e d u c a t i o n . H e e s : . a b l i s h e d a widow's horse knc.wn a s linath
B a l i k a Ashram by t h , . end o f t h e 1 9 t h c i l n t u r y . I t was

dc:vcsloped i n t o a n i n & , - e n d a n t u n i v e r o i ~ yf o r I n d i a n

uo ien. Karvc was w e l l ac lua int-cd w i .h Gopal Garesh
~,ga.rlcard u r i n q h i s s t u . c n t . ' s l i f c .      Ile d e c i L e d n u t t o

j o i n .;raVernlliul:t sarvic.:,            H a r m r l i d ;,i t l r Hajaram S h a e t r i

3hagwdt a)-icl a - temarcls he was i n v i t e d t o t e a c h piathe-
r.:a:.ica a 2 !:iw Ferquson C o l l c ...: at Poona. A £ t , r h i s r e t i r e -
..lent i n 1914, he en:]a.,t d hirnsel'                    i r t h e prordotiun u f
                                                               ~

               e
f e , ~ ~ a . L rd u c a i - i o n .

            Karve c a n t : 11lt.o Locus w m r i he maL r i e d a widow,

t h e p u n cr- 8is.-er ot h i e c l o s e f r i c n ~ l , N.ti.Joshi.                         This

was t h . f i r s t wicow m a r r i a          jc:   which was c e l e b r a t e d i n

Poor~a. A f t e r h lu m a r r i a g e , Karve p l a y e d an irnpor t a n t

r l , l , e i n t h o e s c a b l i s h i m r r t of a n a s s o c i a t i o r l f ; x t h e
enccrutnqcrndnt             Of    wic'ow remarriaye. The iiindu w i d o w ' s
tiww was a s t r i c t l y e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n .               It had e

p r i o r ; t y t o widows aird c o u l d n o t a d m i t many wnarried

gir1.s. H e founded Mahila Vidyalaya f ; - r educal:.inq

umfiarried c;irls. H e t o o k keen i n t e r , s i n e s - a b l i s h i n g
                                                 :
t h - . hroraen's U ~ ~ i v o r s i tiy ini!ia,
                                      n                       as he had some l i t e r a t -
u r e ant3 i n f o r n a ; . i o n a b o u t t h e workinq o f Women's Univcr-

sit)' i n Japan.              K a r v e ' s p l a n was n o t w e l l r e c e i v e d b y

h i s c:loser- B r i e n d s , b u t even t : l e n he went ahead w i t h

         and i-uriuna -el y he r e c e i v e d a t t r a c t i v o d o n a t i o n
his plar~s

fru      I   S i r V i t h a l d a s ~ l h a c k a r s e y . As a r e s u l t t h e f i n a n c i a l

posi i i i o . was sound. 51


              I n 1935, : Q r V e       t.,oic i n t e r c s t .   i l l    opening school

i n . tl:le r u r a l art-as oi 1 . h h a r a s h t r a . H e alsb s t a r t e d a n

o r ~ , , a n i u a t i o r lknown a s ' S m a t a janyn           '       f o r pror,.ot i ng tne

                                         Karv, w d s o f the f s r n ~opiri ,vn
p r i r ~ c i , . j l e s oi a q u d ~t;..

t:iirt       God shouli! t j i v ~ : - 1 1 1 1 strenx:,-h          t o him        LA   w r k conti-

nuatis1 y f o r ti1              c a u s e of s o c i a l educa do11 ant; p a r t i c u l a r l y

rw S r ~ p o g a t e o , w n e s cCiucaLiorr i n ~ a h a r a s h t r a . Karv,
                    w                                                    ~~                           '8

iiir't.h cenLeirar;: was c c l e b r a . . e d            through o u t I n d i a and

L!le h ~ y h e u : award of              ' r j h a r a t R a t n a ' was c o n f e r r e d on

h i ) I i n 1950. I n s h o r t K a r v c ' s l o n g I. i.::,                 cenircci r o ~ l n d

t.   ,e s t r u y ~ ; l ef o r t h e causc of woraen's e d a c a c i o n .
              Bal Gangadhar T i l a k (1866-1920)                           is ever rermi~hred
f r :his o u t s t a n d i n g c o r ~ t r i b u d o nLowardu L h , freedom

s t r u g g l e and pro;r~oiinge d u c a t i n and c r e o l iltg awarness

a!nuni: t h e people through j o u r a n l t a i ; . Ile was t h e f i r s t

            to                        e
l e , ~ d c r use t h e word Swaraj. W possessed a l l t h c

q u a l . ties 0 : a yrc:at 1. a d e r . J a w a h a r l a l Nehru d e s c r i b e d

~ i l a kas 'father of I n d i a n l i c v o l u t ~ o n ' . ~ ~ w o ~ l dbe
                                                             It

a1:;o         iLnteresiiiq t o krww                 iw v a r i o u s s o c i a l shc~dcsof
r i l a. . I s p e r s o n a l . t,     .    T i l a i planned i n c o l l a crra\.lorl with

i.h     Dec.2an Pducation SocLe-y.                        HC a l s o s d r i e d LWO news-

pdpt:rl. m ~Llad ' : h t m r a t t a
             i                                       and L;. s a r i    '     to pcopogaLe h i a
                                                                            58
v i;>rrs Ln         1 - 1 i. i ,ma1
                          ~           airu ~ o c i a l r o ~ ~ l e ~ n s .
                                                     p                           has been
                                                                         ~'i';.lak

d e . ~ c r i ' u - . as dn u x t r ~ . . . , i s i n p o l i t i c s
                      ,                                                     i,   t   a   ::.oderaLc i n

rnstixr.:        a . s u c i d l r e f ...r..ii~.Le
                                                  i       W ~ S0::      L h e o p l n l u ~ lti.ldt

                          s                       ..
s o c c a 1 c ' , a n g ~ could uc-ltai- ua Lrouq:~ about by :,,"A , l i a -

i~i,:,: 2uLlic         qJi4li..,&1.         docause ire w s s c u n ~ i d r r . ttihat. educated

pc-'o,..l,:, a s e d i g l r          CAI                      s
                                             l e a d e r s . ~ i o c i e t y , s1.1-d c a r r y the

            of
iiles,s>h,-.<           due .ai rufcmri            LU   tha corlurton pu ,pie u y t81dir

exa,,,,,lc.         In !>is own p c r s ~ i ~ a il f e T i l a k c a r r i , ~ da l l t.le
                                              l

:     r        s!       had a u d o c a ~ d . Ile educa..ad h i s ilauy,it,!r arl~i

t         I         $ ~ a r r i e ia1 tcr t h c aye of 1C.
                                   i                                        lie f r c t : l y d m i t t e d

          of
rr~c..herri             th., cl:;>rc;scd           c l a s s e s i n h i s co.:ll.:any. Hc d e f i e d

rt:c r : l ; . g i o u s b l i e i b, unce - Lakiny sea voyac3r: whuri h a
went t o Lnqlmd.                H e a t t c n d c d widow r e - m a r r i a &     parties.

H e had a meal w i t h men o f a n y                  ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r           of r e l i q i o n .
                                                                                                        55

I ' i l a k haci support.ed v a r i k ~ u ss c ' c i a l r c f o r t ~ s . l i ewas a g a i n s t

l e g i s l a t i o n t o f o r c e t h e s o c i a l r c f o r : . ~anon s t i g n o r a n t

mas'..   .     H e b e l i e v e d t h a t thc- method woulc n o t work and

SLIC.I   l e g i s l a t i o n s woulii remain a d e a d l a k c u r .

           Conaiaerinq h i s c l o s e a s s o c i d t i u n with p r o j r e s s i v e

t h o ~ u ( ~, t h - u g h h~ w a s a c o n s e r v , a t i v e Hintiu,
              h                                                                  i: i n d i -
cates ;:ha:; he was n0.c a:                   a l l a champ.ion of urthodoxy.Thie
p r u v i c i e s an acicquate k n o w l e & ~ e t o t h e r e s e a r c : l e r s t h a t

hokmanya T i l d n waz e , . l u a l l y concerned a,.wut s o c i a l reforl.is.

           Gopal A r i s h n a iiokhale (1866-1915)                      was a tollower
_ f : Mahad: v dovind liana              ;.   p o p u l a r l y know,.   a:3   the Socratcs

ol: N a h a r a s h t r a .    Gokhale e f f i c i c n t l ; . seLv d the eciucati-.ri

a o c l e t y f o r 20 y e a r s i n v a r i u s c a p a c i t i e s .         t c a l s o e d t-
                                                                                i                 8




etl tlre q u a r t e r l y j o u r n a l of t h e ' P e o n s Y a r v a j a n i k S a u h a ' .

~ 0 k : h a l c ' srnaj o r c o n t r i b u t i o n to tile s o c i d r - l o r i . r:!ove-

 ,eci t l l e s i ~ .he c e t a b l i s ' m l e n t o f t h e Servarlt;; of l i i d i.a
                    :

                                                                       a l
s o c i e \ . y w i t h a view t u Lh, t r a i n i n g o f k t i ~ r ~ i.riaslon-

a i r . s f o r t h e s e r v i c e of ~ n d i a . ' ~The s e r v a n t o f              i:.dia

         t
Sr~c:*ietyr a i n e d d e d i c a t s a l e a d e r s l i k e V . S h r i c i v a s        Shaatri,

G.K.    ut vdhar,       N.M.            P ,
                                J O S ~ La n d i t H.N.       Kur:::ru     and all - i t h e r s .
l.liltlatua G a n d i c a l l e d c;okhale as ' p o l i t i c a l Guru               '   anri a l s o
w r o t - a book entit1c:d                              y
                                              "Gokhale M P o l i t i c a l Guru".

Lokmanya T i l a k described O o u h a l e ae t h e                                @   Uiam~nd

bf I n d i a ' .        G o k h a l e h a d a uni<;ue p c r t l o n a l i t y which coinbin-

e d r a n i l u a l iti(..s o m o d e r a t i o n a n u couracjc, o r i g i n a l i t y
                             L
arlo a d a p t a l i l i 1 . y . 57 He was elected 1:o the, Bombay Legls-

l a t . i v e C I , u n c i l a n d l a c e r t o the Imperial L e g i d l a t i - . r e

Council.             I n t h e C o u n c i l G o k h o l e made a mark as a n

cloqnent s p e a k e r .               H e a l w a y s a d v o c a t e d i n f a v o u r o f conunon

people and f o r t e i n c r e a s e of t h e I n d i a n ' s s h a r e i n

11 i q : ~ c rs e r v i c e s .

                V i t h a l i-ji         Shi.nc;e ( 1873-1944) w a s t h e o n l y
30c:ial rii:.arI:.. r iiho ii~aini.aineCl rd!jul.ar r a p ; , o r t L e t w e c n

 :L
LI ;     ::acid r e - ~ : r : : c r s Lm..i t             lc   n - ~ l i o r l a l i s . l,.:ader   .. S h i n d c
c~.isir.anLl..          ,   crsuaied          . : ! c Congi:e.;o t o pass r..-soli! i o n s
                                                                                  t

coilile.nnii:y untuuchdbi:iti;.                           3 h i r l B e was Lori) ;st J a . , k t > < l n d i

,arid    coi;lple:.c2         !>is c a r 1 7 e d u c a t i u n t11r:re             unl,    .   111    1893
Sh     lids      ca.:.e -.o P u ~ n aa z ~ l; t 8t , l d m i s s i o n i ~ t! w i,'sr,uson
                                                                            '

L'cll.ejc. . ' p r k a r c x ~ c ned                  .   ircr.;. f.inan: i a l s s - i s , . - a n c e

d..~:i.n(:: n i s           p r ! -6. S h i n d e w a s at.tracted b;,, the ref:.nnist
re:L        i o l i a ic!uLls of t h u 1, d c
                                        a                      3               i.!!~r.a janclj.
                                                                   of tm P r a ~
St3 : :
    kc            l a ' c r c-.:::.?lc+er? his LL.2.                        i
                                                                      f r ~ Boliha         .   lie was

                                   :or             ..;tud.les in t
;~:l,li;~locla s c ! ~ ~ , l s r s ~ i p his h l ~ ~ l l                                             h ~

b:i , ; r c :     Ur, ;vc:rni      .   . R.   ;.   jham a r k s r a n d S a y s j ikao tiaikwnd
have sh(;wn kcen i n t e r o s                     i n '.he acadamic p r o g r e s s ,J£

S h l n d c . A f t . ? r his r e t u r r : f r u r , ~London,           S h i n d e was a s s l g n -

G       h c     WOI);       02 e d i t i n g 'Subodh P a t r i k a ' , a        j w r n a l of

1        ,?rar.;rh.ma Sai,,aj and t o s u , > e r v i s e t h e work o f two
                                                                 58
s~!lc..:lsr u n             I   ,.jr t r c unLouchables.


               i n C c b ~ b e r , 1936, Shi ndc f0unda.d t h e ' I n d i a n

b e p r e s s e d Classes Mission' f o r uplifting t h e u n t o u c h a b l e s .

Hs worke'. a s t : G e n e r a l S e c r e i x r , ; o f t h i s o r g a n l s a t l . . ' n .
                   ~

rhz or;.itiisa t i o n j r e w r a p i d l y i n d i f f e r e n t > a r t s o f

Xa'iaras5tra.                   In fac. t    1e                  pr ~
                                                   ~ ! t i s s i o ~o v i d e d u n i t e   ,   plai-

    ;r:;i    ,;o L k u n t o 1 1 c : l 3 h l e sand v i l l s y j e r . 9 . The cnrnr1cnd.3hle
:.rar!;      G;       the? lilission a t t r a c i e i . t h e a t t e n i o n o f C h h a t r a -

,a;i         oL i:olhal>ur,           m a h a r a j a Saj.aj:ir-ao G a i k w a u of Baroda,

i i d : , a r c ,js     oL Nysore.       S h i n d e s u c c e e d e d i n csr.:lr 1 ishi n,: a

ricL        work of s c . ~ o o l s , h o s t c l s and l i b r a r i . . ~fior :he

unLouc i a b l r s .             Jhlvrarn J a n a b a Kamhle Wok keen i n t c . r ~ ? s t

i n t h i s r n i s s ~ o r i . j~ ~n d e t o o k upon hi*::self a s a l i f e
                                  ni

m i s l i o i i t o u p l i f t thz d e p r e s s e d classes.                His recarious

f i n , a n c i a l r . sour-ccs, h i s w i f e ' s const.an:.                 ill-h~xl.th

a . , d >::ier           a j s t a c l s d i d n o t u n n e r v e t o 0vi.r lo,.)k h i s

con.u.iiLLed m i s s i o n .           H i s i;is..er J a n a h a i       h ~ l p c dhit         in

s e r v i r . ; ~t h e u n t o u c h a b l e s .                    s
                                                     H i s colleaqut~          I t h ? Vaman
         a
~ad:ashiv hani,                      Sayycd Abdul Kadar,                Ur.Santuji              Gaikwad,
s e t h Dacodardds,                  N a r a g a n r a o C h a n d w a r k a r , N.B.Pandit,

D. i~.iPatvardl:'lr~, I;.S.UarVe,                        G v i n d P a t a d e had raised

:,1nd:3 f o r t h e K i s s i o n .
                                               60


              I h e I n d i a r l pol; tics t o o k d i f i e r e n t turn d u r i r g

131'7-192C i . e . a L t r ihe d e c l a r a t i o n Of Montagu-
Chc..~:;.orcl i k f o c f t s . M a h a r s i ~ iS h i n d e t h o u q n t i t n e c e s s a r y

t o ]?artii.:pate                i n p o l i t i c a l act: v i t i e s . H e was c o n r i d e n t
ti1a.t t h c S o n g r c s s movenlent would be p o p u l a r a n - o n q s t

t h c masses i:cr;~us o f i t s b r o a d m i n d e d n c s s an<; s e c u l a r

approach.             Added t o ttrat t h e r e was g r o w i n g a w a r e n e s s

a;iOl><j t:ic n ~ n - t ; r s h r i . i n c l a s s e i especial i y t h e Marat.has
w ' w corist..t u t . d t t i i : neaj -ri~ y . Sh i n d e w a s a g a i n s ! :

sepinr:.it'.st n,ovcrrief:L oil tnc bas.is of c a s L                               ,   as il. would
dt:su?cy tk,e s a x e o i i n t e y r i t y w:l i c h was e s s e n t i a l fur

t   ... s1xce;r           of t!.r f r e e d o m s t r u g g l e . A l h r - a t . u - ( s h a t r i y a

Sdn(].i w       IS    es;.:;>l       sireu tinder hi3 l e a d e r s h i p .               l h e art!anL-

9.i    . i o n sui;_nor ted ..he L ~ c i t n o uk'iicl o f k l i.~i~.'u-r&lsl1 , u n i t y ,
                                                                           i.


a t its I ; I C .Ling l l e l d on Nov~rilber 8, 1917.                              Inspiti?       0      che

cc-:a;i :;!~c;w.~ -,y S h i n d .                                                  was d .
                                              Lire iur , t n . . ~c r i ~ ~ ~ , ~ u n ~ t . y t v i d s d
                                                                 i

irl..o c:ru          ; r o ; i p S . i;ti.arcii:          i
                                                    t ~ o k r l i t i h ( . i v e i i r u s .a b l i s i ~ i n c j

a n u c .:-    n d g o r g a l - i i s a c i u ~ ~ l l e d t h e ',&I* n d i . ~Untou.:h-
                                               ca                     L

.i!.     iCy bdaijue' tu ~ c l i c ~ j u d r c ii1
       ;.I                                   t                    :                       ~
                                                                      i n t < ? r - c , SOE ~ i;.;r

un i.ouc rablcs.
               Sh-nde a l s o s L r o v e h a r d to g i v e n c i e n t i f i c o u t -

.l-c;k      b      3~c p r - b l e n , tie b e l i e v e d t h a t r e l i g i o n w d s i h e

      iilsp i r a L i o n t o rna~~. u t a t the same
r ~ a l                            B                                       ti111       he

2oreiated r e l l i i o n with science.                           He conal(.ercd roli.dion

as t      .C    l a - t p r i o r i t y Of h i s l i f e , b u t h i s c o n c e p t o f

r     I .   o r wcs n o t 1m i t e d t o t h e t r a d i t i u n a l cognlas.
tlc: .::onsidoreu h i s God i r k t h , ?                form Of h i g h i:lorality
                                                                   ti
a:~d t r - c t h . H b e 1 Lev :d t h a t s e r v i c e to trdt~arii
                    e

wo::ld 5 . ~ h e m a 1 servi.:c
            t                                        t o God. A n y Ona whc, w~in

a nfidenl.             ilh 11      L   h:s agerience,          was n o t ~ u p ; ) o s e dt o
                                                            62
fcjllo;; any t;y!)e of wc~rsl~<.p ina; ...a ~ d h d l l i l .
                               or

               Shindc: was a s s c c i a t e d w i t h Piahatxila Gant'ih.. I l e

hau ~ i i , ~ w n s d:-.e,, r e g a r d f u r Gancihi i n on,: of h i s
               hi

l e t t e r dater2 25-11-1924 am: consic'err!d Piailat: !a GanCihi

LU   bc         .he ddvi.ncly i n s p i r e d l(2adcr of 1ndj.a.In the sime

le;.t-cr Shlncie made a q u e r y w i t h Gam?hi a b o u t                         !   he

y r . ~ o l . e ~ ~ i untouchabil i t,
                of                                 .   Maha tila Ganrii~i r e ! ~ l i e di n

hLs leLter Lrom j a b a r m a t t i Ashram dat.ed 12-12-1324 and

st;a~-e:tl       i;ctl .;   r:ae K h a c i i ,   Il,.:jdu-14uslirn Jni t y a r d unt.ot;cha-

b ; 1 L. ; y a r e of: t i c                 o ser..uus mat.jn.i Lucic. 63 Mah.3 ma
Gan   ...i i    d e s i r o u t h . i t p c r s o ~ ~ i k e Otrind.! Ambcdkar
                                                    ls

a:lo,LL~: . , u r u s e s o c i a l pro..>lons l i k e u n t c ~ u c h a i > . l l : t g.3u he

t h c i d p t t h a t 1: was n o t p o s s i l l c , t. t a c i c l . a l l prot-llems
                                                      .
a-: c n e am: t h e same time.           I t w s o i ~ v i o u st h a t G a n d h i

co,~lii
      r:ot,     iiisi)Ftt     o f h i s s e r i u u s c o n c e r n Lor u n t o u c h -
al'i.1' ty.   pa.; th,   same     amount o : a:;, enti.;ii
                                          i                        a ; hc did
                                                                    :

J     LIWt t a i n ...o:l t
         a                    o f indcp,r. ence.
and n a t i o n a l i s t cordponents. H e was f u l l o f c o n v i n c e d
by G a n u h l ' s c o n s t . r u c t i v o p m y r a . . ~ wof the upl:ft.i!ent
                                                                                                 6.;
of tiw down- troi:c;e.~ a n d !.he e r a d i c a t i o n ot u n t o ~ c h a ! 1 .1 .
                                                                              ~ ty
t-laharaahi Shirlde a l s u a p p r e c i a t e d t h e Work              Of   Xrashna-
    B
~ J O halckar,          which w a s p u b l i s h e d i n t h e 'Tirni..s         Of    india'
d a t e d J u l y 24,    1908, f o r his v a l u a b l e servic-s t ~ <-he
                                                                      .

Uac:: a d C l a s s c r : and a l s ~ u p e r v i s i n ~ . , t h e Janoji. Jorad-
                                    s
                                                 69
inq   Li-sr                              n
              t k , c 2Iahar S t , ~ d a 2 .
                                          s


         R a j c s h r i Chhacrapa.t!. Shahu Maharaj (1874-1922)
c c n t r i ! ) u t r , d sutrst.ant i.ali y t o soc i a1 d e v e l o y ! ~ ~ of
                                                                          nt
                                                     .
non-Broluuir~ and t h e u n t u l . ~ c : ~ a b l e sH e def.srriin~:d t o
             c.-u :l o p y o r m n
pr . v i d , ~                        , . i s   s '-0tiae 5i1ckward Classes.

He s u o r t e d whule h .arC.
                             'dl                 y    u) o a t.1 1 . sh   rix: st uc   cnts
down-troddens             i n d i f f e r e n C o r g a n i s a t i o n s and p l a , e d

a n important r o l e i n n u r t u r i n g t h e l e a d e r s h i , . , i n



i n t h e l a t e r y e a r s . 111 s h o r t he c r e a t e d an atgtoshphere
                                                                                           7.
oi p d b l i c and r a d i c a l s u p p o r t f o r a n t i - c a s \ e r e f o r r ~ ~ i m1
Shahu Maharaj s u p p o r t e d a non-Drahrnin                        ta bocomo a
P r e s i d e n t o f the Kolhapur M u n i c i p a l i t , .              H e permitted

f r e e acccvs to t h e u n t o r ; c t ~ a b l e s b d l p u b l i c p l a c e s

such a s w e l l s and tanka.


          Shahu Maharaj a l s o { i w l a r e d a t t r a c t i v e d . m a t i o n s

t3   t h e e m i n e n t cducationa:.             i n s t i t u t i u n s s u c h a s Lianarae

H : ndu U l i i v e r s i Ly,    T.N.Nair                       ~
                                                 M e ~ l o r i aS c h ? l ; r s h i p ,   Deccan

~ d u i ta ,n S o c i e t y ,
         i                         Wilingdon C o l l e y e etc. f o r t h e
                                                          ,

                                              ~ i
E u r - h c r a n c e o f e i u c a ~ l o n .T h~s shows h i s b r o a d and

l l b e r a l thlnkin           i n t h o welfarc: o f t h e down-troddens.

lie i l l s p i r e d i < a r . . ~ a v i r
                                          Bhaurao P d t i l ,               Hire,
                                                                   Bhiiu~ahc~)

Pun j abriio Dashmukh, U r . h b a s a h e ~Ambedkar, ICclrmvir
Mamasdhe.          Jaydale,        d a b u r a o j i J a g tap, B a p u j i d a l u n k e ,

Dr.Jh:q     t   e, d a r r i a t e r a a l a s a h e     t-hardokar, Y r ~ n c i p a l

M.R.Desai,           Raosahe: V.'~'.Patil and a l l s u c h v o r k e r e .

h i t h t.his      L r : s p l r a t i o n t n c . 6 ~ .w o r k e r s c s t o b l :shed

v ~ r i o u s d u c a t i d n a l i n s t . L u t i o n s i n d i t i e l e n p a r -s
            e

of M a h a r a s h t r a .    They i n c l u d e l i a y a t S h i k s h a n S a n s t h a ,
Naha ..ma Candhi Vidya Mandir,                        Shri Shivaji Muca t i o n

Society,        L a r a r a n i Vid y a p e e t h ,    Vivt2kanand j h i k s h a n

S a n s t h a , Maratha Vidya P r a s a r a k Sama j                 e t c. 7 4 ~ h a h u so
                                                                                         a1
supported t o establ-st1 hospi-a1 f o r t h e l ~ p r o s y

p a t - e n t s with a l l facJ.litii:s               th1,ir in.


          R a j a r s h i Shahu M a h a i a j a 8 o a o n t r i b u t i o n w a s

outs an. ing            .   a r - i c u l x l y when viewed a g a i n s t t h e back-

C
J    ound o f t h e 1Lfe s t y l e o f tha p r . n c e l y f a m i l l e c

b e f o r e independence. He s , . a r t e d s o c i a l r e f ~ , r . nmove-

,,ier,t 1:: K - l h a p u r a f t c r 1070 a s J d L i b a P h u l e had a t a r t -
                        75
e d i n Poona.                                            g
                              Sha.iu c o n t r i b u t ~ d r e a t l y t a r t n ;
                                                                        o                  abcut

t i w change i n p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , r e l i g l ~ l u s , e d u c a t i ,>nal,
econr:,!:>icala n d c u l t u r a l l i f e of Maharashtra.'l6                     Rajarehi

S h a h and Dr. ;abasa                el.    Am,>eBkar were a t t r a c t e d towards
                                                                                            77
J o t i b a P h u l e b e c a m e of h i s r e V o l u t i - . n a r y a p p r o a c n .

Shahu a l s o d i s c u s s e d w i t          i   G.K.Ookhartr     on e d u c a t l u n a l
i s s u e s aiici   :
                    I
                    .
                    :        f u i l y supported V i h b a l H m j i Shirde i n

h ~ esf f o r t s .     HG      was    ir   good f r i e n d o f J u s ~ i c uHanade

d i d ~ . ~ . ~ ~ d r k c i r .h i s a s s o c i a t i o r i w i t i 1 a r o n d n e n t
                            T

p,:rsi.~-lal;.-,.iea i n N a h a r a s h t r a e n r i c h e d t.hu e n t i r e o u t -

loCc r f L11lraii;p               ~i shah^ 1,:aharaj .79 Dr.Ambedkar
admi tea the work of Shak.u Maharaj.                              H e was f a r ahead

of    :h r e s ! of
       :e                      t;id   cOuctL.y i n e f f a c t i n g a s o c i a l
                                              OC
t=anaformation i n India.
          Karmavir Bhaurao P a t i l (1667-1959) was a n o t h e r
iniporLant f & g u r e , whd e s l a b l ,shed t h e i:ayat d h i k s h in
S a n s t h a i n 1919 t o e d u c a t e t h c masses.            Uhaurao d i a n o t
I l k * . t i l o h o s x l s b a s e d on c a s t e system. H e was opposed
                       .
by t h o o r t h o d i ~ s e e t i o n s f r a d r : i t -iny Mdhar             R   tudente
111   t h e h o s t e l s . H a was i n f l u o n c e d b, Hahatma Gandni,
wticn it? a tended o n e o f Gandhi' e p u b l i c
               f                                                    met   t Lncj a ~

Bombay i n 1
           ~
           2
           0
           .'                   Bhaurao d e v o t e d hla l i f e f o r the




succeedt i d            h l s m i s s i o n a.td r c c a i v c d univer,a-            acslal;~~

f o r h - s work. Bhaurao was u e : e m i n e d                nut tc enter into
p o l ~ ' ; l c u , tie c , ~ r r c k t r a t c c i i n n h a p i a y s w i a i , ~ u l
                                    n                                                ,ural

                               elit a s t h e .na:;5 movi.rne::,t.
and e d u c a t i o n a l movc...                                                    ; t was

his      arric3::. u e v i r e Lhst some of t h e d e u i c a ~ e uworkers



inuLca6 a            g e t t i n g iiivolvi d i m t ~ o l i t i c s .
                                                    p                     ZIL       coneiuered
                                                                                    C'2
t c be tihe ' P . i e h i ' i n t h c f i c l d o:          educativn.
I4e   h e l i 8 v e d &hat God l i e s i n t h o wtirk i t s a l i . k e d e s i r e d
                                                                      i
e
c
.     es;bl                        hoo trls i!, v i l l a g . . a .
                   ish s c n o ~ l s                                    l'Ac        clraam
of Karmavir Uhaurao P ; t i l               would b: : u l f i l l e c l , when t h e
                                                   ,

teachers       arid     studdnts      W C ~ J   motivated      t3   w . r i ( f L , r th:s
n.. l e c a u s e .
           Bhimrao R a m j i Ambedkar (1891-1956) is
     DLr
e v e r remembered i n IndLo a s t h e Chief a r c h i t e c t of

t h e Indian a n s i t ~ t i o n
                               and t h e e m a n c i p a t i o n o f              he

~ c h e d u l c dc a s t e s .   Ambedkar was h e l p e d by S a y a j i r a o

Maharaj G a ~ k w a dof Darodo t o c o n t i n u e h i s s t u d i e s

i n t h e Colurbia Universi-y.                  He came back t o Arldia
a f r e r complet i n 9 h i s e d u c a t i o n and s e r v e d as M l i t a r y

S e c r e t a r y t o t h e Maharaja f u r some tlrnc.                 rhrm he

start1 d h i s carc3cr as a P r o f e s s o r i n thc Sydenharn

C o l l ege of Comrnerco an6 Econoniic?.                    Chha trap.1ti Shahu
of Kolhapur e n c o u r a g e c ~him t o s t a r t t h r            putiicdtion

of a f o r t n ~ y h t l ycaliea 'Mook hayak*.                   tie a l s o p a r t i -

c i p a - e d i n t h e c o n f e r e n c ~ sof thc u n L , u c h d b l e s h ~ l d

at &mgaun i n i h e Kolhapur State and Nagpur in 1 9 2 0 . 83

I n 1 9 2 4 hL founded the d a h i a h k r i t . H l t k a r m i SaLha.

H e had I a e y e r a t t        o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r he d i d n o t want t o

idant., i hi~;isol: w i t h l e a d e r s who t r i d t o work f .,r
         '

      u                       t
t . ~ o i . ' l i f t ; ~ e n of t h e down-trodderi on cornpaasi- n a t o

grounds.        Hc b e l i e v . i d t h a t t h e u n t ~ u c h n b l e ss h c r ~ l d
c l i a ~ ns o c i a l r:.-polit;      a s o matter of rLght.               He made

a , , app a 1 t c l a u n c h struq:le            f o r the self-r-spcct               and



           H e u n d u r t c ~ ka h i a L o r i c inarch a t Mahad,             a tom

i n Kula a         (Italgarh) c l l s , r i c t o t Haharashrru,              to t ' w

~ h o U d . i rTan:. to take water.             I\lLklx.dknr's marc? t~
Chowdar Tank c r e a t k - d a wddge between r e f o r m e r s and

reacti-.narks. Dr.AnUedkar also burnt Man smriti, a
co, e of law::,          w h i c l g o v e r n t h e l i f e o f \.he ~ i i n d u s . The

non-Drahmin 1 t a . e r s s u c h as K e s h a v r a o Jedhe a n d i ~ i n k a r r a o

J a w a l k a r aujport.eoi the c a u s e o f Ambedkar.                    Dr.Amedkar

~ ' e l tt h e urrJtmcy n f s o c i a l r e t o r s r a t h e r t h . m p o l i t i c a l
freedom. Apr i           :roi,i    h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r o e r . m b e d k a r found-

       ::he P e o p l e 's E d u c a t i c n Soc i e t y , which p r o v i d e d opgor-

t u n i t i e s t o thc a u p p r e s s o d c l a s s e a t o receive e d u c a t i a n .

         Dr.Liabasaheb            Arubedkar s t a r t a d t h e movement of
                                                                                             84
s o c i a l r::volu'iiori         b a s d on the p r i r ~ c i p l e sof e q u l a l t y .
 lem    w a s corlsidarod t o           'E? t h e   outni.an5ilng lea31-.rr who g - l c e

d i f f e r e n t dim n s i o n t o t h e m c i a l r e f .;rm mov rmnt i n

20ah c e n t u r ,   .   :it was Dr.Ambedkar              who m r k e d f o r t h e

s p r i . 2d oi e d i i c a t i o r l and s o a i a l e q u a l i t:; a r o n q s t
                       05
untouchables.

          i'hus Ur.?mL?bdkar's g r e a t s t c o n t r l b u t i o n wan

h i s r e g o r 3 u 3 a o c i . a l , e d u c a t i o n a l and r e v o l u t i o n a r y stand,

h i s d r :v,:    f : : r e p l a l i t y and r a t l o n d i t y ,    i n the c r e a t i o n

of a n orr;anis.ic.ion,              t h e U a h i s h k r i t A14.tkarini S a : ~ h a ,

W , ~ L C I I m u 1 3 carr, a n e d u c a t i o n f -.r s o c i a l r e f o r m a t

r,lass l e v c l .86 Hence thr: work of l e a d i n g s o c i a l r e f u n w r s

i n Mahar~si'~L-: a s been rcviewbd c h r o n o l o g i c a l l ; .
                h                                                                     imba

~ m t . : t o o k ever t l c o n e r o u s t a s k o f s o a i a l anC r e t o r m i s t

                 on tile l i n e s cf h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s .
              For n e a r l y a        c c n t u r y and a h a l f ,          social reformers

of 14aharashtra s t r o v e h a r d to r o u s e p u b l i c o p i n i o n a n d

or: a n i s a s o c i a l a c t i o n a:joi!;st                  t h e i n e ~ u k i e ao f       ;he sucial
s st.em. A p a r t from t h e a b o m mentioned s t a l w a r t s t h e r e

w e r e many othcr:; who a l s o c o n - r i b u t e d t o t h e growth of
s o c i a l r e f o r m mov:.rnent i n M a h a r a s h t r a .                   Vinayaic k m o d a r

S a v a r i a r nade strenuous e f f o r l s t o o r y a n i s e a s o c i a l

r f o r - . movment a g a i n s t t h e e v i l p r a c ~ i c cof u n t o u c h a b . l i t

Panduriing S a d a a n i v Sam: (S-rnc ~ u r u j i )had t o employ t h e

Gandh ;.a;; weapon Of a f a s , : m t o dailr.h f r # g : ' ~ . i ~ ~ g
                                                                    che

unt:.. clc,!ablcs a c c e s s tc) L w farnous temple a t iY',indurang.

S d v a r k a r arw Sanp G u r u j i               i l l a i ; ~ th;:l.r   unt   iri   n ~ j: f o r ts f o r
                                                                                           .f
Qhz m x i a ; r e f o r . : ,                    i
                                       I,IOVC~.I~II     r Maharashtra.
                                                          ~                            J u c l ~n o t a b l e

c o n t . r < b u t . i o n w e r c - a l s o made b y Cadye ihira.raj anc                          'hkdoji

1,iahar'rj wl~oef : : e c l l v e l y used K i r a n ,                       a i radi t i o n a l m e d i m

o l mas::            COI , + u l ~ i c i l t i o n , ilhajans,    Powadas,         atc. f r progo-
,:!a   L; I      a               st
              I ~ , j c i . i ~ ~3 0 i W   of t h e e v i l s , . - c i a 1 CusLonlu. Swami

~ ~ : n . r a . ~ ielc r t h and Lokr~ayat: t l a y u j . ~Allc a l s o
                T                                                                           i,ixir   valua,~l

con t ~ : i ~ ~ i t i c n ~..he s o c i a l strem of i.d!:arashtra.
                      i) ~a

              S o c i a l r::iormers          a n d worker3,               uhau Mahajan,

Vishri~bIiva Brahrnachari,                        Vishnu S h a v t r i f a n d ~ t ,I4aharshi

Yarnananda,                 dagannath Shankar Shet,

'JA.yhwa,la'.i1N a r d j d l l i&indalik,                   Silel:    UL11siid     .icllic!iil, Frdiilaji

Kavasj          L,    S i r Jamshetj            J i j i Uhai,         Dadabhai N a o r o j i
i~lount S t u w a r t E l p h i n s t o n c , J u s t i c c Chandewarkar,    Larwa-

J-   ,   k Kakda, V.R.I<uthari,         ijhaskarrao Jadhav,           Keshavrao

J dh , Zinkarrao J a w . ~ l k a r , iatthc, Ur.            Lhaht.i L)a-i L d ,

DL-.Wanles, A;?pasahcb Patwardhan, kchsi-aya k'.delkar,

                           a
Acl>.3rya Jawadeklr, Achar : dhagwat, Acharya Vinoba

shave,      'mnasa    E    Lahasrai-~udhe, Hanoharj i 0 :win,               Tarabi

riodak.     H a m i ? Ilalwai and a l i o t h e r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o



                            icn of c o n t c n ~ p r d r y s o c i a l rerL)rrrlers
                            iJhar:,.adhik,:ri, A n u t a i Ag!-I, +dawaribai

                            rao Pa t V .rdtian, 8 . . : . ~ 1 s a
                                                               h<.u 4nede.
c a n B h i m se n t r y i n t o l n d i a n p o l i t i :s c O n e t i t u t : . , s a new
p h a s e Ln the h i e t o r y o f freedom s ~ . r u ~ ~ l e .It was
                                                              "
b u t n a t u r a l i.hat t h e c v e n t s of p o l i t i c a l s i r u i , q l e have
a l s o r fleeted on s - c i a l , c u l . t u r a 1 f a c t o r s of N a h a r a s h t r a .
U,~ring1920-1945 t h e C o n g r e s s was l e d by G a n d h i j i. G a n d h i j i
prcgra~:ll:lecf a c t i ~ ; r m:: ' : o t a l l . d i f f ' r e n .. f rori t h e
                              ~

o n c s t h a t ham. bcxen            30     f a r adoptcd t y p o l i t i c i a n s i n t h e
c w m t r y . li.. c a r r i e u :.i-rm~ . ; a n s e a wi::t~ him. H e l i v e d i n

vl1ag;:s         d r e s s e d hi~icself l l k e an o r d i n a r y l a b o u r e r
                                                                                                 ;
                                                                                                 :5
ma?e 1 . t r. point to l i v e i n t h o un-ouc:iet.r.les a r e a s .                                 Mahatma
;a, d h i j   L 'r;   impact    Or;      ilohar;~&t;r;; was i11evi c a b l e ,                  as h i e

act.3 0r.s ?.r!d      1
                      (   - d o a p p e a r e d fa ti!._ n n e r c c n s c c r c e of
                                                        i
t n c mot;:;em.
        G a n d h i ,advoca -ed                    u s e of
                                           ~ ' , I L                two iitoral we'lpons

f -.r r e c o n s L r u ~ ~ L 1 1 1 -h c . Swdraj s t a t e .             The two weapons,

bas.!& o n t r u t : ~ n d n o n - v i o l e n c e a r e
                     a                                                   -   i) Sty-paha,
                                                  . t d
i i ) C c n s . . r u c t i v e ~ i o ~ r a m m eS a ~y~ y r a h d c o n u i s \:ad uf
                                                              p
r,dn-coopera . i a . ~ ,cj. i l c i i s u b e d i ncd, h r &d, ~ c k e r - n g
                           v

no t a x c a n p a : q11. e -c. 'The c o n e t r u c i ~ v c r o y r mr.;c; 1ike
                                                            2
setti.ig village             ~..N<L,s    tries, Kl:adi,                ii:.ni.s-i;u3!..ii.l un L ~ y ,

            of
r a ~ i l ~ ~ d lur; cu ~ c i ~ a i~ i and
                                    y l i                    0   ,her c o n s t r u c t i v e
prograanmc3 wer.             l o <;:.a     taicri       Li
                                                         p       -0   b u i l d Lnc Y w d r a j s t a t e . 92
UT         &;l..e's
       ia~j~l                wur.. wc,ulu              b e e v a l u a a d unii&:r c o l ~ s t r t ~ c t ~ v o

        ,
pru~qralu : e . Ganc'l~i l i s t e d soriie of t i l a c o n s t ~ u citv e
programmes which c o u l d b e taken up by t h e a t u d e n t a o r
youths d u r i n g t h e i r v a c a t i o n . i) t h e y may condact day
and n i g h t s c h o o l a f o r t h e i l l i t e r a t e masses, i i ) t h e y
can c e l a n the H a r i j a n q u a r t e r s .   iii) t h e y can r e a d t o
them t h e a t o r i e s from Ramayana and Mahabharata,
i v ) They can c l e a n t h e H a r i j a n boys and g i r l s and g i w
aimple l e s s o n s I n hygience, v) Such s e r v i c e a can a l s o
be r e n d e r e d   t o o t h e r weaker a e c t i o n s of t h e a o c i e t y .
Qandhiji waa n o t i n f a v o u r o f s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n
any p a r t y politic.,95           I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t Baha mte
undertook i n a l l e a r n e a t n e s s and a c h i e v e d auccesa i n a l l
such p r o g r a m s a s l a i d down by Oandhiji.

                      Oandhi i n aecond phase o f I n d i a n h a t i o n a l i m ,
provided t . Lay concepta of Swadeahi a e r v i c e of t h e
          h,

'Daridranarayana'.             H e a180 c o n s i d e r e d buiading of a

f o r c e of deddcated s o c i a l workers t h a t i a Lokaeva Sangh
aa a b a s i c p r e c o n d i t i o n f o r m a a w e l f a r e   oriented
development. 96

                      Q a n d h i j i ' s i d e a l a have been r e f l e c t e d i n t h e
communities he founded i n A f r i c a and I n d i a . I n h i e
ashram a t Ahmedabad and Wardha, h e t r a i n e d h i s follobmra
t o p r a c t i c e and p r e a c h Satyagraha. These community
                                                                                              97
experiments a r e p e r h a p s h i a moat s i g n i f i c a n t achievement..
ga Inen     and wsmen       in such communities became d&dicated
to   i3   ser1c.s of v-ews of a h i g h l y disciplined l i f e of

.ia~x~tlr          prayor.       si~rplicityand non-violence.                Ilk:


perfumed a l l domes i c c h o r e s without r s p e c t ot peruo.ia1
s t a t u s and t r l e d   LO   proc uce     . h e ~ r o w n food and a p l n
                                                      M

r.ne na,.eria:l        o r t h e i r c l o t h e s . Like wise a l i p r o j i c L s

of   [ia a hmtc a r e s i m i l a r t o t h e inerhods suggested i n

& I ~ I C larl Asl~rama. N o w      il   da,s t h e r e a r a many aet1rai.m
                                   t                              f
w r i i c h c l a i m thems, l v e ~ o be tile a d h e r e u t v O Girndh~an




                         '
          Mahatma Garrd.~i5 p a t h of non-viol<:nt r:.s i s t e n c e

1s g r e a t l y cunditionecl by t h e w r i t i n g s c ; T o l s t o y 2nd
             9L:
'phorcau.          Also h i s b e l i e f i n sirn,,lc l i v i l i y an.. ir ser.se

o i d e d i c a t i o n a r e t h e 3.doptations of w r i t d r s l i k e




                                                 100
ham:! o n e co 1J ije             Kdrmayoyi.           S i ~ i l a r ~ ,il, w e l l known


                        . 101
V i , yan o r i(i~r~llayolJ-.
     I1
'sevagrarna a L k r               1 9 3 . . H e announccu the norl-c..>pordt:on
n,ov : lent a ,d           : u i t icc:ia :..ov:. r!t fr
                                                  .e        Dornbay itself. 102
                                                               ..t



i:vr;dhi e n l i s t . d s l a r , , e 11u::ber o f deddcated w o r k e r : , froin
t~.ih.;rasirtrd, whc a c L i v c l y p a r ' . i c i p a t e d 1'1 ~ k h l l
                                                                           Dhart.;ya

;!~ai:.i.,;a         . anyh, Ak!rli oh art^ ya uriinodyog Sangti, ilar. jan

Sevcrlc S.mgh a i d sach i i h i x cGns t r u c t l v e arid s o c i a l itcti-

yi ..Pc:::.        i t was h c d u s e of A n d h i j i ' s o a r n e s t d e s i r e

t.,iat; a l l i n d i a Congress S e s s i o n was ar>;iniceB                d y -   Faijplir,
a 2 ,1                                            of
                      i n Jalyaol-d d i 6 t r . i ~ ~ Maha:;?sht..       ... tlitha:ns

.:.~,I:c:   ,   i a 1;r. c i a t ~ h~ e f f ur -a
                                 t i            ;   iluue    b y C:anardshtr ians

1x8 111dl..c.
            ;lit;        Vcllturr a     SUC,   e:.sful   Olic.'.
          Eminent l i t e r a r y fiqures s u c h as V . M . J a s h i ,

Marnauahel~ V a r c r k a r ,                V.S.Khandckar,           Sane Quruj
                                                                               i, V. V.

S h i r w a d k a r had shown kee:n i n t e r z s t i n C a n c ? h ? a ~l i r i l o g y .

Aenc,     ,    :.hey         p r part'd          t h e minds of     ,-,le :ras.i~:s !' .,r > - l i -
                                                                                          i

t i ' c a l , 30~1.31 aild c u l t . u r a l t r a n s f o r n -t on a s p e r c ~ ? i v a d
by Ma!ia t-,,n. Litr,r;!r.:                      f 'g:ir.?s l i k e :J.C.t.elk.!r,       ;;.    :
                                                                                               , .

X        ua         , ..
                      :'
                       -
                       I           Khadilkar,           Uutt,    8 . . I         .      na,    -1::   were
I-r.rpu?sf.,l,: t-r. :xpan:i li,.w special v ,l;ir~os
                                                    L;I t h e f i e l d
of 1it.:rC.t.ur               . V.S.Kllandekdr              had mcnti:,,,ed t h a t Mahatma

c;b~r;Gh! was arovoker? to launc.1 stru,l:t.'l(: a v n i n s t Gr! Lish
1        . .viler! 1.           was b a d l y t r e i a t e d b y     t t ~ ewhit-:: a u t l r o r i t l e s
                        ..
I    r        ..   3.   A-;     a pears tim t exinen+- p-cru.xld1 , ' L i e s wore
.i:<t,.&iled t u             Q ~ ~ ~ F I I P L X Ithe
                                                  ,     causc                                          r(
                                                                 a f l . e i c o . ; f r u ~ ~ ~ci ,r. ~ ~ ;a i n

t:>ucny aim             i n ~ s ro.~lc:
                                .                situations.        fur      xa~~ylc

            t
~ . l b e r Acnwi.et z e r unc.eri.ook h u r n a n a t . ~ r a nW r k                     :    t
                                                                                              a-
:              :    r          e    :    ,   L    :,       u tatue. Sii i 1 cr.1 y,           G&J

km o ' 0 !.:ti: ..           was st.krm?d w3. n hc. came acres:: Li le &., ,:!clful

1.k t ~ o s yp d ;er:t:r allc, impulci v t - l y 111aCr'ujl h: i; ..!id
                 ~

r         :or       t..,.;     r:ct..erment Of i m p e r a .
           B a a Amce was d i r e c t l y a8sociac.ed w i t h Mahalna
Jar.~.:l:,,                                 b
                 as ht: l , . ~ r ? r l i : ~o t h Aeveyrarn a n d t a u n a r Ashram.
A e was Lori-.uaa:oly
 l                                             c d l l w i a s s e e k e r o f f e a r l e s s n e s s by
i21ahatna c;and,li. i t w a s because o f t3e i n s p i r a t i o n f r o m
&lni::'i . a n d Vinoma, nil d e d i c a c i u his l i f e f .x t h e
         ;

cause of c Z r i n i : r u c t i v e programmes.                               I . . uek             r e s u l t of
;,,TU~HC~S            znder:.ake:l              b y U a h A n t .., a vet(.:ran s c h o l a r of

~ ; a , r : d h i a n u e a l o g ; , ids proved t h a t i n wtiai. v a :
                     i                                                                                        Ga~ldhian
r:c;. s ~ r u C t k v eapprodcil would k~e L r l ; t h f c L ,%A c;j.viilg

r.-:,jhl. s o l ~ c . . u ! ~ z o d i e p e v d i . ! ir:!;
                              t                                               i.z.!bL~rr!s. Pak3                 ?.IXG'S

~ ~ : a . l >id p e r ~ 0 n a i .ty c a n L)e r c v i c w r i t
            lii                   i                                                       .;;I    co::*pilri-sor. w i t h
c        . 1      r                  :         r              L    a d L . s t i , :a a3 t , u n a : , l e
                                                                                    ;     .

 I
L:      lh   knob c m . i n h e ~ . i ? ~ ) t
                                        cai,:icites as r . + v e i i b d i n                                     V a r i ..., u s

:,r.~j;:c;-;i.Ja&                    .u;it,?       1s cqudlly              a-L... i n .:h'~u{;bt a n d
                                                                               id

;lati     ,I].                                                                 hi!.: a s 'Man
                  ;iota. .l . w r i t c ? r s i h a v e h i g u y r-.~g:~r-i?,:r'

c ~ i : :'iccivn.         '   .   rlcnce, r e w a s r w t . la:.,
                                           l                     .-:                 :i                     3s f a r -18
                                                                                                 b ::,,I:.I>~

 c,'
a':      o ! ~:
             i,        c - i i t c iiert, a n i t h p p t i ~ u da : x 8 - . Li,;rl~i wzdi.
                                   ~                                     r:         .
                                                                                    *

13ei.1~ ,. h; ; l a u ~ i c ! ~ u c ~ l v i r u g : ~ i ca ~ j . l i n s ~t!!use
      r2mt  i:                    ll    8                                 .
v!lC     3r.3     tip-.         3:i : O T O L - S     ;
                                                     ;f       l!!r;lltdl   ~ B ~ L - I J E ~ .
                                                                                          .%ii            i-'ql?iLly
cjf   r,2cLcri i l i s a f f r , r ; . s            ;a             ..
                                                          pri,vLidi.       cun:ritcnrja.~l?; l e , ~ & r s t l ~ p

I    , ,e
     : r.,       L,:~~xIs:               %r :;.:a1 i > ~ d i , , l . ;..i
                                                                       .s          Ja L     :        i'h~le

,:~>ncei>
        i.:d          L   .ci     ,I-S 2       :.ur      1,   a.~a.La t       L
                                                                            !:.:
                                                                                                    . .
                                                                                           tr:icl.~:.*.    , - , ~i u c i a l
                                                                                                                 .i

,institu..io:-IS.
                J u s t as J u s t i c e Ranace,                           Baba Amte i s r e s p o n s i b l e

t o i n f u s e t.91: s p i r i t of work and also exerted h i ~ ~ ~ s e i f
I n rennoulding !>isf a m i l y . , v i l l a                                    3    and         e
                                                                                              c ~ soc:ety.

                         -
An rndwan-Somnath-Hen~alksa                                         pro j c c t u a r e t h e o u t c o m e o f
the u n t l r i . n g a n d z ~ : a l o u se t f o r t 3 o f Baha at:?.
                                                                      Hie
s0cLa:L commitrxent i s u n q u e . s t l . o r ? a ~ ~ l n1113 e n t i r e work
                                                           .

s;:.&r.:l            is..s a
                           :
                           :           t u hall-mar!< o f c o r ~ s t r u c i . i v esuc ~ a l

work i.n m o d . r n M a h a r s s h t r ~ i . He had s t r l c t s e c u l a r

,apprr8ach i n es tab1 i s h i . g tile pi o j c c ~ s ,a s tlwri: is                                                     II,>_


a sii%:l;1tr.lce -)f t e m p l e , a nlosilue                                          0. d
                                                                                        1-       c i ; u ~ c ? i . & ' h i s is

a now nx!. I                         pl d.     i<:ccl n$ B a . 3 . ~&ite              f o r th.:     s o c i a l ins1.i-
i:lrti      - ,:a        b un<;lecLair;                                                      ol-, the L l a B i s
                                                            t h , : : i i ac t i v i t ~ : - s                            q.   E

3i.cal.d::               L<?t.       q: 6 s cl:?i~irf?& j , u.G.Aga,
                                                       u                                    h r ant:.         43C~4?i7,+.l.C?.

M a h a r d ~ iKar'd ' 2 l 0 i . g l i f e c e n t r ~ darourirl i ~ i : : ~stru.?r;:.e

for- t i 1               c           ..         koi;.:2n1a         euuca:.iun.            .<;lures.$     Lid:,:: Anti;

ha;         le!.:            iii.5    uu:s           . ~ m i . i n ga e r v l - e a   t o L d s . ! wllo sutTt:rud

w.ith l a p , ony                      i.t.2        1.:   wor.ieu f o r tile r e ; ~ a : > i . l i : ~ a t,I!           di:

t:ie h           1   d   L,za1>;;:::.,          i3iilli!                         0rpiidi.
                                                               cil i l d ~ . ~ l ~ l ,           c11 1.dl~5 , d 1 , < 1
                                                                                                                   ~




t; i   ,    I    :    c i ..              r i , ,.LLs.       iolzria~?yol i i a i i ' s a y p r o a c k w a s

direc:-i:                    .r..f:   C    Z    :     ~ n
                                                       o     d a . d Amte '       8   p e l - s a n d tt:y,       as h e
opened ncw v l . s i . a s of e d , l c a t j . o n t o t h e c h l l d r m <'i

cclrcf! :.:,proo; &a-,,cnLs ar;d t r i L a l s to carrj. c h e n1es::age

iof        ~ r > al l-efiOX?h
                 c j
         Dr.   Bab.isaheb Ambedkar and uaba Amte c o u l d be compared

on i,;,a,iy grounds.         0 r . A i : b ~ d k a r h a s vehomentl y fouqh, f o r t h e

r e i , ~ o v a l i u n i o u c h a b i l i t y and c r e a t e d a s t r o n g s e n s e of
                o

e m a n c i p a t i o n amongs,. t h e s e who were outcas1.e fcrr c e n t u r i e s

toget-h.. r. a d h a h t c has answered the gueskiorl t h a t why

tic?   s,dr?-i.d h i - s working w i t h l e p r o s y p a t i e n t s f o r he

c u l r s i u e r e d them t o be aiore n e g l e c t e d t n a n t h e u n t ~ ; c ' . ~ a i . l s s .

r d e pruvicicd s e l f - r e l i a n c e    and s s l f - r e s p e c t .   LC t::..:sr:
I'hadke Y .D. ,%c ial net uyii~rr:. of ~dilhhr-a~h,t~,
                                                 ,
t?aha;.ashtra inkorma~iunLentrr?, N e w Delh : P. ix
 ( i n t r o d u c t i m a i ) , 1975.

Phadkule, Nirmalkunar ( E d . ) , r a b h o d h a n a t ~l Paul-Khuna,
rune, 1578, PP 2-3.




Phadlce. Y . D . ,   =C-k+,.,   PP- X - X I
$4,   K a l e , K.Narayan          ,
                                   (ed. ) Lokhitwaciichya V i c h a r a t i l
       I 4 a h a ~ v a c h c Car i var <ann, Nahar.uhtra Sa;a'li ~ a
                                                               t        arlshad,
       Yune, P I 27-32.



20.   Inatldar, 1u.A. (cd. 1,    w i t w a d i n c h i Shatpatrt,,
       nune, 1960, P.74.
21.   U r l yolkar,   A.K.,   Lokhltwadikrul bll+:jndh ~.3r,;1r-aha,
       i3omoay,   1967. P-167.
39, Sihinde, JR,
              ..          "Ekonisavya S h a t k a t i l Maharaehtra Ani
        ~   ~     t L J ~ iuKrantii~f;. Peburary/harch 1982, B 1 .
                      ;      ~ ~ .~
                              ~      ~                              .5
40. Bagal, B.M., Hunterkar Khanderao Gogalrao B B a &
        -
    Xjnche NIvdak Zmkh. K o l h p u r , 1974, PP 138-139.

41. Jushl T a r k a t i r t h Laxmanahastri,           Ow.Cit.,      P.406.




5 0 . Pradhan, G . P .       ( e d . ) , Agarkar Lekh Sansrah,
      11971, k.19.


52. B a n h a t t i , 3 S ( e d . ) ,
                       ..            Samal PrabMhan, Nagpur
    11966, pp. 3 0 1 - 3 0 5 .




57.     Sankhdher, @.,Modern India- A Review of Recent
        , t i i s t u r i c d l ~ t u d r e a , N e w D e l h i , 19b2, p 6 .
                                                                         .9
58. .Phadke, Y . Y . , & . C i t . ,     ~2.50-51.


6   .   Phad::e, 'Y.D.,      Oi,.Cit.,    P.51.
63.                                  .,
      .L8angudkar, i4.P., (ed) Dharma, J i v a n Va Tavadhvan
      Haharshi V i t h a l Ramjk Shlnde, Bombay 1979,pp.663-665.
                                                                      -
65. Mangurlkar, M.P. ( e d . )       ,   S h ~ n d aLekhd jancraha,
    Pune, 1963, p.266.

6 ~ Jashi,
    .              ..
                  TL,      Vol.1,   1982, pp.387-88.
67. Phadkulo, N ( e d . ) , Op.Cit,,
              .                                     p.107.
68.   u.,
        pp.llO-lll.



70. Onlved, G,
             .          O D . C L ~ , , p.123-29.

71. I b i d , ,   P.129.


73. Salunke,                               +.
                  B and a t h e r s (sd. ) *- Ha a r s n l S ~ S ~ I U
               I ..
      Gauravaranth, Bo ~bay, 1976, pp. U-82.
       hasbe, R . , u a l i t                                     1983,p.16.
                                       Chalwalichi Vatchal,Ba,~bay,
       IISid.,p.6.
       Pantawane,           G.,                               p. 16.
                                  Huknavek, Aurangabad, 1 9 7 ~ ~

       -
       Sa.;~aqraS a v a r k a r         Van~amaa
                                              :,
                                              .           .
                                                      V o l I L, Pune,   1964, p a . 1C3-64.
       s,~stri,K.A.N.and S h r i n i v a e c h a r i Q.G.,      U f e and
       -
       ~ C u l t u r co f t h e I n d i a n people-
       mnba,, 197.2, p.119.
                                                     H i s t o r i c a l Survey,




       .Fi.acher, L ,
                   .              -i f e
                                  The l         O f Mahatma Gandhi,      bndan.
       .1951, P 2 .
               .2
       P , l t i l , S.li.,Gqndhi         a n d S w a r a f , N e w Dclhi,19t3,p.C3.
       --
       i           d p.43.

       .----*r d
        Ib          P.57.
       Nanda, L.R. a.?d J o s h i , V.C., ( e d . ~ , S t u d i e s i n
       -
       1.lodern Lnd-an his to^, Bombay, 1972, p.129.

       Brown, J.       .., Modern e wn York, The O r ip.206. f
                                    I dia-            gin o
      ----
         Asian L1g:noar-        N             19ti4,

                       .
96. I*lorclen,
97. Sankhdar, ?I.,
     f -
                                  ..
                        I n d i a Today, New York, 1960,

    o . I n d i a , N e w D e l h ~ , 1982, p.75.
                                                             -68.
                            , Ganuhi, Gandtii srr, and the p a r t i e *

98.    I>ssh,an~:c, PL,
                     ..                 "Baba A m t e - Ek Vldnlanan Yogi",
       --
       Kirlo-,      Punc,               1960, pp. 75-76.

99. Joneh S t a n e l y , a h t Qandhi-. an 1 p t c ? m r e t a t i o n .
    Ix~ndon, 1948, pp. 2-73.            +'---
100.Na~g,K a l i d a s , GrcaLer I n d i a , C a l c u t t a ,      1963, p . 3 0 .
101 .Murti, K . b . , p e a d i n a s i n I n d i a n H i a r o r v , ~ o l i t i c a
     artci Ph lo.;or;h-, Nerr Uelh;, 1967, y. l 8 G .

				
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