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					EEB 2008 ANNUAL
September 26, 2008

Turning the Tide: Sustainable Consumption
and Production in Europe

                     Ministry of Housing,
                     Spatial Planning and the

The European Environmental Bureau (EEB) is a federation of over 150 environ-
mental citizens’ organisations based in most EU Member States, most candidate
and potential candidate countries as well as in a few neighbouring countries. These
organisations range from local and national, to European and international.

EEB’s aim is to protect and improve the environment by influencing EU policy,
promoting sustainable development objectives and ensuring that Europe’s citizens
can play a part in achieving these goals. EEB stands for environmental justice and
participatory democracy. Our office in Brussels was established in 1974 to provide
a focal point for our members to monitor and respond to the EU’s emerging envi-
ronmental policy.

Editor responsible: John Hontelez

Edited by Vanessa Bulkacz

European Environmental Bureau (aisbl)

Publication Date: December 2008

Federation of Environmental Citizens Organisations
Boulevard de Waterloo 34 | B-1000 Brussels | Belgium
Tel.: +32 (0)2 289 1090 |Fax: +32 (0)2 289 1099

EEB gratefully acknowledges financial support from the Ministry for Ecology, Energy,
Sustainable Development and Spatial Planning (France), the Federal Ministry of Agriculture,
Forestry, Environment and Water Management (Austria), the Ministry for Housing, Spatial
Planning and Environment (Netherlands) and the European Commission.

The sole responsibility for the content of this document lies with EEB. This publication reflects
the authors’ views and does not commit the donors.

Printed on 100% recycled chlorine-free paper using soy based inks.
September 26, 2008

Turning the Tide: Sustainable Consumption
and Production in Europe
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                                   3


INTRODUCTION BY EEB SECRETARY GENERAL JOHN HONTELEZ .....................................................4

CONFERENCE PROGRAMME...............................................................................................................5

REPORT OF THE CONFERENCE ...........................................................................................................6
    First Morning Session ......................................................................................................................6
            Keynote Speech: Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg
            Responses from participants
    Second Morning Session..................................................................................................................8
            Presentation of SCP Action Plan by EU Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas
            Panel discussion
            Responses from participants
    Afternoon Session..........................................................................................................................14
            Presentation on the use of MBIs by EU Taxation Commissioner, László Kovács
            Panel discussion
            Responses from participants
            Closing speech on a new sustainability agenda by EEB President Mikael Karlsson

SUSTAINABLE INDUSTRIAL POLICY ACTION PLAN ..........................................................................20

ANNEX 1: Power point presentation by Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg ........................................25
“Sustainable Consumption and the Decent Life”

ANNEX 2: Power point presentation by Doreen Fedrigo ....................................................................41
“European Sustainable Consumption and Production”

ANNEX 3: Conference participants .....................................................................................................45

EEB considers changing production and consumption pat-                At its Annual Conference, EEB concentrated on the consump-
terns in rich industrialised countries as essential for sustainable   tion side, which is considerably less developed than produc-
development. Such changes are necessary in order to ensure            tion side activities. Consumption, or “demand”, can also drive
that Europe and the world as a whole stop living beyond the           further changes on the production side if consumers receive
carrying capacity of the planet. Climate change and biodiver-         as well as send the right signals. This applies not only to indi-
sity decline are the most dramatic features of this deterioration,    viduals, but certainly also to public authorities and companies.
but we see a more general depletion of the natural resources          Making prices tell the ecological truth is an important ele-
our societies have become so dependent upon.                          ment to tackle, particularly as we see more and more clear
                                                                      examples of the problems caused by false prices, so economic
At the Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development                 instruments are important. However, consumers should not be
in 2002, governments of the world re-affirmed their com-               given the entire burden of driving eco-innovation; therefore,
mitment to changing unsustainable consumption and pro-                better-defined product policy (with sustainability parameters
duction patterns. The EU subsequently committed itself to             and criteria linked to implementation mechanisms such as the
producing an Action Plan on Sustainable Consumption and               Ecodesign for Energy-Using Products Directive), shifting from
Production (SCP), which was published on 16th July 2008.              products to services and mechanisms addressing advertising
EEB has been very much involved in discussions leading up to          and education are also essential.
this Action Plan, particularly as a continuation of its work in
waste, product policy and natural resources. EEB regards the          The Conference had two panels, with a European Commis-
Action Plan as presented as insufficient and is looking for a          sioner opening each of them, discussing progress at the EU level
clear vision with ambitious targets and effective instruments,        with Ministers, NGO representatives and others. One session
using a combination of sustainability criteria, product policy,       focused on the SCP Action Plan, the other one in particular on
market instruments and general informational tools (beyond            market instruments in the EU. The conference started with a
consumer labels). A paper presenting EEB’s position on the            keynote speaker, Joachim Spangenberg, to describe the chal-
SCP Action Plan can be found at the end of these conference           lenges we need to face and possible responses.
notes before Annex 1.
                                                                      At the end of the Conference, EEB presented its plans for a
At the time of the conference, discussions on the Action              major debate on a sustainability agenda for the next decade.
Plan were starting to identify the ability of the mechanisms
in it to achieve SCP, so it was the right moment to discuss
what needed to be the next steps. EEB hoped that the French                                   John Hontelez, EEB Secretary General
Presidency would bring this debate to a high and ambitious
level, building on ongoing delivery of its national sustainable
development programme as developed in the “Grenelle for
the Environment”. In 2009, we expect the Presidencies of
the Czech Republic and Sweden to continue working on SCP,
aiming to provide clear directions to the new Commission.
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                      5

                                    CONFERENCE PROGRAMME
                                                 Turning the Tide
                                            EEB 2008 Annual Conference
                                                  26 SEPTEMBER

9.00       Registration

9.15       Opening

9.30       Key note speech on current consumption and production patterns and the way(s) out (followed by questions)
           Prof. Joachim Spangenberg, Vice-President, Sustainable Europe Research Institute

10.30      Coffee break

11.00      The EU Sustainable Consumption and Production Action Plan
           Introduction by EU Environment Commissioner, Stavros Dimas
           Responses by Government representatives, including:
           Minister John Gormley (Ireland)
           Vice-Minister Elisabeth Falemo (Sweden)
           Vice-Minister Rut Bizkova (Czech Republic)
           Michèle Pappalardo, General Commissioner for Sustainable Development and Inter-Ministerial Coordinator on
           Sustainable Development (France)
           Saskia Borgers, Environment Ministry (Netherlands)

           Responses from NGOs:
           Doreen Fedrigo, EU Policy Unit Coordinator, EEB
           Claire Roumet, Vice-President, Social Platform
           Willemien Bax, Deputy Director General, European Consumers’ Organisation (BEUC)

           Panel debate and questions from the audience.

13.00      Lunch

14.30      EU trends in the use of Market-Based Instruments for environmental purposes, and actions to take.
           Introduction by EU Taxation Commissioner, László Kovács

           Responses from:
           John Hontelez, Secretary General, EEB
           Anselme Goerres, Green Budget Germany
           Professor Paul Ekins (UK)
           Minister John Gormley (Ireland)
           Vice-Minister Elisabeth Falemo (Sweden)
           Vice-Minister Rut Bizkova (Czech Republic).
           Michèle Pappalardo (France)

           Followed by panel debate and questions from the audience.

16.00      Towards a Stockholm agenda for the Next Decade.
           Mikael Karlsson, President EEB.

First Morning Session
MORNING CHAIR: John Hontelez, EEB Secretary General

This year EEB’s Annual Conference “Turning the Tide” wel-          The IPCC says global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions must
comed more than 150 participants from across Europe. EEB           be reduced 60% by 2050. The Millennium Ecosystem Assess-
Secretary General John Hontelez explained that “turning the        ment says biodiversity loss must also be stopped within ten
tide” refers to how, despite all the attention climate change is   years or ecosystem services essential for human survival will
getting, we are still increasing environmental degradation and     be massively damaged. Decisions and actions in the next
the atmosphere is not the only thing suffering – forests, soils    decade could determine the possibility for future generations
and other non-renewable resources are being over-exploited         to live a decent life.
as well. At the Rio summit the biggest problem identified was
unsustainable consumption and production patterns in the           The first thing we must do is reduce resource consumption.
developed world, which was repeated at the Johannesburg            From a resource efficiency point of view, private cars are the
summit, but still no real progress has been made. Today we         silliest thing humans ever invented. To increase resource use
will discuss Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP)          efficiency we must include a multiplier for satisfaction effi-
and the Commission’s SCP Action Plan.                              ciency and also include supply, production and resource pro-
                                                                   vision efficiency. For example, if you take a bicycle versus a
                                                                   Mercedes to go 5km you have the same service but personal
Keynote Speech                                                     satisfaction differs dependent on your value system. So these
                                                                   issues must be factored in. Resources must also be recognised
This year’s keynote speaker, Prof. Joachim Spangenberg,
                                                                   as an economic, environmental and social problem. We are
Vice President of the Sustainable Europe Research Institute
                                                                   running into resource poverty in the bottom quarter of the
in Germany, member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Cli-
mate Change (IPCC) and the IUCN Commission on Ecosystem
Management, outlined the challenges caused by over-con-
                                                                   The next big thing is to overcome oil dependency and fossil
sumption and the possible ways out. (See Annex 1 for power
                                                                   based transport systems. We need to get rid of agricultural,
point presentation.) Most projections for world economies are
                                                                   housing and infrastructure systems that are based on oil.
based on undisturbed resources supply at moderate prices,
which is wrong and unrealistic. A sustainable economy must         To get there, we need behavioural changes. Today too many
be able to deal with biodiversity loss, climate change, peak oil   people use money they don’t have to buy things they don’t
and interlinked financial markets.                                  need to impress people they don’t like. Factors that contribute
                                                                   to quality of life are satisfaction, resource consumption and
We know people who think our climate changing will just lead
                                                                   resource use. Standard assessments of quality of life are
to better wines from the UK and Germany. But they also mean
                                                                   usually based on wealth. But we can’t put the burden on the
a loss of vital resources and sudden catastrophic weather
                                                                   shoulders of consumers without changing the framework they
events. Non-linear effects are also problems, such as drought,
                                                                   are living within.
now a regular problem in the Netherlands and Belgium as well
as further south. Southern Europe is becoming more like an         Priority fields for action by households, i.e., those areas where
extension of the Sahara desert. But it’s not only climate. Func-   personal choices can make a significant difference, include
tioning ecosystems are buffers against local climate change.       food, construction, housing and mobility, which also includes
A sustainable economy must be able to deal with biodiversity       size of car and travelling for holidays. Lower priorities, i.e.
loss, climate change, peak oil, financial markets.                  things individuals should not focus on in their efforts to affect
                                                                   a major change in consumption patterns, include clothing,
We will have to answer to future generations who will ask
                                                                   hygiene, cleaning and recreation, (though buying organic
why we didn’t do anything to stop it. After a 2 degree change,
                                                                   cotton for new clothes is still important.)
which we have now, problems get unmanageable and irre-
versible. The new equilibrium is far from what is habitable by     Education and training, health care and social services, policy
humans.                                                            and the military are public priorities, representing the areas
                                                                   of most environmental relevance in which public institutions
                                                                   should invest to affect a difference in consumption patterns.
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                 7

Conditions for change include:                                      Government initiatives so far have not dealt with consumer
                                                                    preferences. Need to extend task list to include social, eco-
  Knowledge and motivation. The individual’s willingness to
                                                                    nomic and institutional dimensions. Humans are social beings
  change and personal affordability.
                                                                    as voters and consumers. Today in the age of affluence sustain-
  Acceptance. There needs to be even better desirability of         able consumption means not making use of all consumption
  changed consumption patterns in the eyes of relevant peer         opportunities available. In the future age of scarcity – already
  groups- social affordability. Might depend on readiness of        happening among Europe’s poor – sustainable consumption
  social group to accept the change.                                will mean how to make a good life with the resources avail-
  Economic affordability. Access to sustainable alternatives,       able. Trade unions and religious groups are discussing this now,
  transaction cost, without disproportionate excess effort,         it’s not just limited to the environmental movement. Environ-
  such as the costs of bio food going down. Labelling plays a       mental and social problems must be solved together.
  role but doesn’t solve problem of the chain.
                                                                    Link for presentation:
Tools must be used in combination: economic, legal and              http://eeb/events/Spangenberg-withdisclaimer.pdf
informational. Then they can address affordability, social,
personal and economic sectors’ behaviours. Some people use
consumption to compensate for suffering in their professional
                                                                    John Hontelez opened the floor for discussion, agreeing that
careers. But restricting these possibilities doesn’t make the
                                                                    individual consumption is not just individual, it’s also about
government popular, especially if some can still afford to do it.
                                                                    social patterns. Any solution must address social as well as
This rather intangible group, i.e., the “rich and beautiful” who
                                                                    technological processes. He noted that the presentation
over-consume, act as role models and they must be reminded
                                                                    focused on relationships between consumers and public
of their responsibility.
                                                                    authorities but didn’t speak about businesses. SCP action plan
                                                                    expects a lot from industry. Was this omission on purpose?
The approach to economic affordability so far, access to
suitable alternatives to overconsumption without dispropor-
                                                                    Prof. Joachim Spangenberg replied that he spoke a bit about
tionate excess effort, has been stimulating supply via demand.
                                                                    the influence consumption has on production. The Ecodesign
Public procurement has been on the agenda for 25 years with
                                                                    Directive is an example, but it’s 10 years behind. His expe-
no results so far. We need enforcement measures and role
                                                                    rience with voluntary agreements and measures is that they
models, starting with government representatives doing their
                                                                    don’t deliver.
part. EU institutions must set an example by compensating
for their CO2 emissions by funding environmentally beneficial        Prof. Paul Ekins commented that Mr Spangenberg brought
programmes.                                                         in justice at the end of his talk. Recently there has been an
                                                                    increase in both global and local inequality. Taxation of the
Conclusions and insights.                                           rich has been dropping. Nothing suggests that the rich are
                                                                    prepared to be more highly taxed and the rest of society is not
Insight 1. Total neglect of legal measures in support of sus-
                                                                    ready to make them be.
tainable consumption and half hearted use of economic ones
(incentives but not punishment) have contributed to limited         Joachim Spangenberg replied that in most countries except
success so far.                                                     the USA, but where the tide might be turning, most people
                                                                    think the current system of distribution is unjust. Most of the
Insight 2. Consumer information and labelling have led to
                                                                    public in Europe agrees. But government has no willingness to
changes but only over 10 years. Legislation can do it in 10
                                                                    pick up this issue. On the other hand, recently the economic
days. We are running out of time to act. Market instruments
                                                                    crisis proves that markets do not self-regulate. The failure
cannot work alone.
                                                                    should be an opportunity for discussing what a better system
                                                                    could be. We need reversal of the distribution patterns of the
Insight 3. No instruments effectively address social afford-
                                                                    last 20 years because the European model is at stake.
ability, norms and standards of peer groups. Leitbild changes
are indispensable for mainstreaming sustainable consumption.
                                                                    Doreen Fedrigo noted that social innovation is totally absent
Need a paradigm shift with a new model for sustainable devel-
                                                                    from political discussions at EU level. On the sustainable con-
opment. Levels of prosperity should not be directly correlated
                                                                    sumption side, new ideas are popping up around community
to over-consumption.
                                                                    based issues, like transition towns and economies, things
                                                                    that won’t translate into European directives. Is there scope
                                                                    for national and regional governments to support bottom up
                                                                    activities rather than top down?

Joachim Spangenberg welcomes these initiatives but doesn’t          Joachim Spangenberg replied that conveying simple messages
believe they will ever become the European standard. But            that can be understood is not a bad thing - like break even day
they spark discussion. It’s the art of right behaviour within the   for resources. But alarm bells only work for those not yet aware
wrong structure – enabling structures could make them more          of the issue. The needed change in consumption patterns is
valid.                                                              not a gradual change to be adapted to but serious, critical and
                                                                    timely business. On other hand, when you ask what priorities
Willy de Backer said that Mr Spangenberg seemed to question         are, aggregate indicators like ecological footprinting have no
the power of information to change consumer behaviour. But          common unit and don’t help set priorities.
carbon footprints have been taken on by business and gotten
into common consciousness. There are 30 very large corpora-         The “yellow press” publications targeted to housewives now
tions involved in this initiative and now they are talking about    all have environmental pages saying what to buy and when.
limits to growth. Media pressure on businesses has changed          But it’s more information than anyone can use and sometimes
their way of thinking and they now discuss ecological limits        contradictory. Many of them get information overload and
when 10 years ago they did not. Carbon and ecological foot-         think, if I can’t follow all of them I should just forget about
printing could work if adopted by governments. This criticism       it. This is the risk of too much information being targeted to
of information campaigns is a bit strong.                           consumers. We need a limited amount of clear, reliable and
                                                                    concise information, if possible externally validated.

Second Morning Session

John Hontelez introduced the panel for the second morning           vote and even 10 years ago the idea of smoking being banned
discussion about the Commission’s Sustainable Consump-              in bars was unthinkable.
tion and Production Action Plan. The panel was composed
of Michele Pappalardo, General Commissioner for Sustain-            The SCP Action Plan will expand the Ecodesign Directive,
able Development (France); Environment Minister John                which uses a life cycle approach for setting production and
Gormley, (Ireland); Vice Environment Minister Elisabeth             use standards, by including, in addition to energy using prod-
Falemo (Sweden); Vice Environment Minister Rut Bizkova              ucts (EuPs), energy relevant products (e.g., windows) and at
(Czech Republic); and Saskia Borgers, Director General of the       a later stage, all products with environmental impacts. One
Dutch Environment Ministry. NGO responses were provided             third of product categories are covered now and it will expand
by Doreen Fedrigo, EEB EU Policy Unit Coordinator; Claire           to address 1/3 more. 1/3 still remain. Products that don’t meet
Roumet, Social Platform Vice President; and Willemien Bax,          the requirements will not be allowed on the European market
BEUC Deputy Director General.                                       with dynamic standards that will be reviewed.

Environment Commissioner Stavros Dimas introduced the               Another key element of the plan is labelling. The plan includes
SCP Action Plan. Since 1970 20% of the earth’s biodiversity         actions to help make the European Ecolabel more visible, which
has been lost. Human activity is eliminating 1% of species per      will push consumers to change their behaviour. The Commis-
year. Over 60% of our natural ecosystem services are now            sion will develop educational and information tools to pro-
seriously degraded or over exploited. Sustainable consumption       tect consumers from greenwash. We must be confident that
must respect and protect the most fragile ecosystems of the         environmental advertisements are justified. Everything will be
planet. We need to firmly oppose any activities that threaten        complemented by monitoring tools across the economy.
the arctic environment.
                                                                    The plan also proposes a target of 50% green public procure-
One of the underlying causes of current environmental prob-         ment, which represents 16% of EU GDP.
lems is consumption patterns beyond the carrying capacity of
the planet. We are currently consuming 2.5 times the capacity       The roles of consumers and producers have been the focus
of the planet. There is growing awareness and increasing            so far. But if we are moving towards a sustainable future, the
demand for action but also strong opposition. The EU needs          Commission can do very little without civil society. EEB plays a
to develop a policy framework for smarter consumption and           vital role in helping us move forward with constructive criticism
leaner production and set an example for the rest of the world.     and mobilising public opinion. The Commissioner is counting
Trying to change the way people think and behave is a political     on the full cooperation of NGOs. The Commission proposal
issue- we need to influence the way they think rather than           is considered to be going too far by some Member States by
enforce it. SCP Action plan should be viewed in this context.       including mandatory procurement and fiscal incentives. The
100 years ago child labour was common, women couldn’t               Commissioner urged EEB to mobilise resources to assure scep-
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                     9

tics. He realises that NGOs question the SCP Action Plan’s             The second area of focus is anything that supports eco design,
level of ambition. But as a politician in the real world he has to     technology, engineering, lifecycle analysis- these are all impor-
propose things that Member States will agree upon.                     tant because they deal with consumption of energy.

These are curious times because of financial, economic and              The third point is state responsibility to buy smart, sustainable
energy crises. People are trying to put environmental issues           products and draft tenders accordingly. We would also like to
aside. All these crises may come for a day or month and then           promote less intensive energy using businesses to help them
they go away, but the climate crisis is here and will remain for       better label their products and promote them. We would like a
many years if we don’t act now. EU leadership needs to pass            toolkit of economic and fiscal measure to encourage less energy
the energy and climate package. You need to continue to be             consuming products, giving a bonus on case by case basis. We
helpful and active. Tell your governmental representatives not         have really been able to promote cars that consume less petrol.
to undermine our efforts. If we don’t have a credible package          But other measures like tax relief are on the table. So we had
adopted by the end of this year, our negotiating possibilities         a great deal of interest in the Commission SCP package, which
will be decreased and an objective of a plan that is good for          definitely showed that policies must have consistency and syn-
our economy, people and Member States will not be achieved.            ergy between tools, of which I’ve only mentioned a few. I’m
The moment we see other international partners moving in               sure everybody is in favour of that. Improving the quality of
the direction of global agreement it’s not possible for EU to          products is a positive point. Public procurement is not as easy
be seen as hesitating. For the next 2-3 months let’s intensify         but there is some margin to manoeuvre.
our efforts. Press and media have been playing important sup-
porting roles. Let’s try to show that we mean what we have             This is a preliminary stage. Proposals made so far show we
declared. We cannot back out of these measures.                        need to go further on several issues but we have to be real-
                                                                       istic. We should not forget all the other issues related to that.
John Hontelez thanked the Commissioner for confirming that              Little by little we have to develop consistent instruments to
in our analysis of the situation we don’t differ and for the           go beyond purely energy consumption criteria. In addition to
overview of what is politically possible in the Commission and         products we want to address lifestyle, social behaviour and
role of civil society. We start with what we think is necessary        consumption patterns. After some studies we should be able
and your endpoint is what you think is politically possible. Will      to push the matter further. We hope the SCP Action Plan will
Member States and Council be able to go further, or as you             be adopted on 20th October so we can work together for its
hinted, will there be problems?                                        implementation in future.

[Discussion was turned over to the panel.]                             Minister John Gormley found Mr Spangenberg’s point
                                                                       regarding information campaigns and politics interesting.
Michele Papparlardo said that problems other than climate,             We already have strong information campaigns called adver-
like biodiversity, are now on the back burner. The Commission          tising. Advertising hardwires children to be consumers with
is aware of the fact that we won’t be able to move if we can’t         over 100,000 ads viewed in the developed world before they
drag along society. Society is made up of consumers that can           reach adulthood. So he saw value in information campaigns.
apply some of our ideas. So we have several areas where we             One was launched one in Ireland and it has changed people’s
are trying to impact society directly.                                 mindset. But they are dealing with consumers, not just an
At the French level, Grenelle has mainstreamed an environ-
mental approach that has invaded all sectors. The first area we         Back to the point about needing more stick now and less
are trying to impact is consumer information. It has been said         carrot, he agreed in some ways. But politics is the art of the
that information needs to be clear and concise but it must be          possible. If you punish people too much they will punish you
given first. Idea of giving more systematic information about           at the ballot box.
CO2 effects in terms of consumption has been done before
but now trying to get transport invoices to mention the CO2            Fuel taxes have been successful in Ireland. People have trans-
consumption linked to that mode. It will also impact housing           formed the way they deal with cars based on CO2 emissions.
and experimental products to see companies labelling like this.        Taxing plastic bags is also working, sending the money straight
But it’s difficult to draft clear rules. People will always twist the   into a fund for the environment. If you explain that taxes are
law. We have encouraged self control but would like to have            going toward environmental protection they won’t resent it as
people checking all these environmental claims being made by           much. It’s now 22 cents for every plastic bag and he wants to
companies.                                                             increase it.

We want to make energy efficient light bulbs mandatory. We          Labelling has been in Nordic countries for many years – the
could give them away for two years to make it less painful. But    Nordic Swan. It’s well known among the public. It has just
Europe has the requirements of an internal market to worry         been evaluated and there is a need to coordinate between the
about. If we go ahead with this measure another Member             swan and the EU Flower Ecolabel, which must be taken into
State could object to it. Progressive measures in Member           account in the upcoming negotiations on the Ecolabel revi-
States should be allowed to move forward, but manufacturers        sion. We must look at the experiences of established labelling
are afraid of the domino effect if larger countries follow suit.   in different countries. From the consumer’s point of view it’s
                                                                   better to have fewer labelling systems. We must create reliable
The amount of progress required is quite daunting for the          labelling that is consistent. We also want to give consumers
period of time we have left. The window of opportunity to          information about climate change in labels but it’s hard.
address climate change has shrunk to 7 years. The attitude
is “make me pure but not yet Lord.” Ministers all agree with       The transport sector in Sweden is the most fossil based of all.
the architecture of the package but… everyone has a “but.”         We have many measures like tax exemption for renewable
In Ireland it’s agriculture, which makes up almost 30% of          fuels, tax relief for particle filters and motor vehicle taxes with
national emissions. If China and India want our western life-      environmental factors. We also have a green car rebate that
style in the future, that has enormous consequences, and even      has been costly but very successful. Now 1/3 of cars being
now they are already consuming more animal protein. For            purchased in Sweden are classified as “environmental cars.”
Ireland it makes sense to expand the national herd, which is an    Within the government sector, 85% must be green cars. All
environmental problem in terms of methane. We must face up         these instruments must be coordinated.
to these difficulties.
                                                                   Vice Minister Rut Bizkova said they are using Sweden as their
Vice Minister Elisabeth Falemo noted that we need to reach         model in the Czech Republic now. All countries have some
sustainable growth. Sweden has a long tradition of working         kind of labelling and other instruments, but the Czechs used
with NGOs. Sustainable lifestyles are an area where we need        the Nordic Swan when preparing their initial labelling pro-
support of NGOs. Changing consumption patterns is difficult         gramme.
because consumption is based on social identity, habits, cul-
ture, etc. and different groups have different needs. NGOs can     SCP is the right tool for real implementation of sustainable
really help create awareness and a sense of participation.         development and has been a focus in the Czech Republic for
                                                                   quite some time. In June 2005 the Czech Republic adopted a
Sweden worked on the SCP action plan. It’s good to form a          framework for Sustainable Consumption and Production with
framework for tools at European level. We like the approach        an action plan and measures for implementation.
and focus areas but want more detail and levels of ambition.
But we know the action plan is not enough to spur sustainable      We do not find the Commission’s SCP action plan ambitious
consumption and production. We need more on the part of            enough. We agree with Commissioner Dimas that you must
business.                                                          be realistic and must not just have ideas- must be able to
                                                                   realise them. But maybe in some areas the SCP action plan
Information and education are not enough - must be supple-         can be more ambitious. It focuses on improvement of environ-
mented by physical planning and other measures. More than          mental and energy performance of products. The main area
half the world’s population now lives in cities. In Sweden we      of focus should be changing the behaviour of consumers and
have sustainable cities which still have lots of consumption,      producers. Increases in consumption and production often
pollution, transport, waste etc. but they make it possible to      outpace gains made in improving products. Household con-
form effective structures with transport, waste recycling and      sumption will double by 2030 in Czech Republic.
efficient energy use. The world economy and cities are growing.
Now we have a sustainable model for Sweden to form the             There are several examples from Czech Republic where we
debate and make a model for other cities. “Symbiocity” pro-        want to make changes where they are possible and necessary.
motes export of environmentally friendly technology, which is      In 2005, energy consumption in Czech in households was 21%
important. Public procurement is also important.                   of total and was mostly for heating and cooking appliances.
                                                                   Labelling helps consumers make choices in this area.
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                11

Education helps raise awareness. It is necessary to ensure that     Doreen Fedrigo commented that earlier in the week it was
all individuals have access to information on sustainable devel-    “ecological overshoot day”, the first time this has happened
opment and sustainable consumption and Production and               in September. With that she led into an NGO critique of the
realise the consequences of their behaviour. We must work           Sustainable Consumption and Production Action Plan. (See
with the local population to give education and information         Annex 2 for power point presentation).
on dangers and better choices.
                                                                    There are some positives in the SCP Action Plan. It was delayed
The public sector should lead by example on sustainable con-        many times due to ongoing Commission discussions, so we
sumption. The Czech government started monitoring energy            were pleased that it was finally published. It’s good to link
consumption in public buildings. Our Environmental Ministerial      EuP and Ecolabel and strengthen public procurement, creating
building has been reconstructed and decreased energy con-           synergies between them all. Need to move away from the idea
sumption by 50%. It has solar panels and received EU green          of “eco-design” as a niche type of design. All good design
building certification. Now we’re involved with EMAS, which          should be sustainable. The third positive point is the inclusion
is a good example. One fourth of government institutions will       of a retailer element in the Plan, since they are one of the
be replaced over the next 10 years. New cars are being chosen       important actors in influencing consumption patterns.
with respect to their CO2 emissions. We are having a con-
ference in Prague at the end of October with Commissioner           Criticisms include the plan being short on vision, clarity and
Dimas where we will also discuss SCP and other directives.          ambition, long on process. Decision making processes on each
Czech Republic wants to do its best during its presidency to        of the products take 2-3 years, which won’t get us anywhere.
work hard on SCP. Think globally, act locally is still true.        Also, where has the concept of One Planet living gone within
                                                                    the Action Plan and how do we get there? Where is our
Saskia Borgers said the Dutch government strongly welcomes          vision? Too much focus on products. Energy and climate are
the SCP action plan as crucial to improving the environment         not our only ecological challenges. How and where do studies
while creating opportunities. Challenges for climate, ecosys-       happen that give us information and vision for next steps?
tems and natural resources must not constrain economic possi-       Sustainable consumption is not about providing information
bilities. Best performing products today will form a framework      to consumers. It can’t just be about labelling. It’s an outdated
for standards tomorrow. Current extension of the Ecodesign          idea that people will change their behaviour just because you
directive to EuPs is a good first step but all products are not      give them information.
covered. A review in 2012 will allow for extending the direc-
tive to all relevant products and look at impacts to ecosystem      How to incorporate food, drink, housing and transportation
services, which needs stronger protection.                          – 80% of households’ environmental impacts? Where is it
                                                                    within SCP Action Plan? If it’s not there, how is it linked to
Information campaigns alone will not change consumer                those areas of policy? Also need a “systems-based” approach
behaviour. One needs economic incentives and an ambitious           that looks at behaviour within an infrastructure, for example,
approach to setting environmental objectives. Light bulbs are a     tackling mobility instead of cars. You speak of taxation of cars
start for energy friendly appliances. Embedding environmental       but don’t talk about a paradigm or mobility shift, except in the
performance should be mandatory so we don’t see the point           case of discussing sustainable cities.
in revising EMAS.
                                                                    Sustainable Consumption and Production activities are meant
National goal is to apply 100% of green criteria to all of the      to bring about an accelerated shift in consumption patterns.
central government by 2010, while local governments have            The Plan talks about promoting and supporting integration.
more time. We call upon the Commission and Member States
to set the same goal which will also give them first hand expe-      Regarding mobility issues, biofuels are under discussion in the
rience on green procurement. Need to draft a programme              Climate Energy Package. Parliament has urged more caution
instead of more or less randomly picking product groups.            and integration of indirect land use changes into the Renew-
                                                                    able Energy directive. Would like to hear what Commissioner
We want the Commission and Member States to learn from              thinks about that.
their experiences so far. It’s important to involve industry
NGOs and other stakeholders. The Commission should provide          Please don’t make SCP an IPP 2.0. Integrated Product Policy
a good legal analysis of what is possible and lead by example.      had communication without implementation. We need
Ministries are judged by what type of car the ministers are         measures to keep up the momentum on implementation that
driving. We want lifecycle thinking, cradle to cradle initiatives   includes monitoring and assessment. Do we need to take SCP
in the Netherlands.                                                 to a higher political level in DG ENV because it’s too focused
                                                                    within the waste and products team? What about agriculture,
                                                                    transport, land use planning?

Council makes conclusions on 20th October. The SCP Action         75% of EU consumers are willing to spend more money on
plan is going through Environment Council and Competive-          environmentally friendly products but only 17% had bought
ness Council in a parallel process. So we have just under a       green products in the last month. 48% don’t recognise eco-
month to make improvements. We want to see full extension         friendly labelling and there are 800 labels on market.
of eco-design for the EuP directive, which means according
to the lifecycle rather than the use phase of products. Please    The burden can’t just be on consumers. Governments have to
revisit the stated preference for a voluntary approach. Con-      play a role. Information alone on labels is insufficient to pro-
tinue focusing on harmonising fiscal incentive levels. .           vide a shift to more sustainability. We must make more use of
                                                                  social marketing. We need a policy framework that sets ambi-
Claire Roumet (Social Platform) asserted that the market is       tious targets. We need environmental and sustainable con-
just one way of ensuring that SCP happens. First we need to       sumption issues integrated into all other legislation especially
steer the market because it’s very inefficient. In the housing     consumer legislation. Consumer guarantee legislation is being
sector, we could today build better houses. Why do we only        floated now so people can use products for longer, which is
have low energy houses? Why not passive or positive? Because      more sustainable. Labelling requirements should include a ban
things on the market are not the most efficient. The best cost     on greenwash.
effective solutions are not on market and public policy needs
to steer this change. The solar panels on the market today        The scope of the EuP Directive should be extended to both
are not the best or the cheapest, only the ones made by the       energy and non-energy using products like clothes, furniture
biggest industry.                                                 and cleaning products. It should cover more environmental
                                                                  impacts besides Energy. We need better links between the
We have seen the flow of information about green behaviour         various initiatives.
making people feel lost. There is a need for a new kind of
public services- free or affordable and independent advice.       BEUC is worried about the Ecolabel review. Independent
We can’t rely on energy companies to provide guidance on          certification by 3rd parties needs to be included. The label
Energy efficiency in the house. You also need legislation, even    also needs better marketing - people don’t know it exists.
though it can be a burden in the social housing sector where      Consumer and environmental NGOs only get, together, one
I work. But you can’t just use a stick for the vulnerable and a   member of staff on Ecolabel review- please make more money
carrot for the rich and that’s what will always happen if you     available for that.
don’t make sure legislation doesn’t have bad social impacts.
Best energy efficient solution is putting a meter in homes with    Final point regards choice editing. People should be encour-
a certain amount of energy and when it’s gone you have no         aged to take the most unsustainable products off the shelves.
more energy; however, this can have social impacts and leave      There needs to be a range of sustainable products at a range of
people without heat in the winter.                                prices. A retail forum, as proposed by the Commission, could
                                                                  be good if applied to supermarkets. Our food is responsible for
Fuel poverty is increasing because of Energy prices, amounting    31% of individuals’ impacts on climate change. 75% of food
to15-20% of household income in Eastern Europe, more than         consumption takes place in supermarkets. The retail forum is
10% in western Europe. The Commission cannot come in              currently voluntary. Being in the press, naming and shaming,
with sticks in this euro sceptic climate, they must be able to    these are important to making companies act.
explain how it will be financed – could be budgetary or fiscal
investments over long term. Investments now should not only       Commissioner Dimas responded by saying that indirect land
be borne by today’s generation, they must be borne by many        use changes are being discussed relative to biofuels. We have
future generations. We need financial mechanisms to ensure         the same views on this. With the promises from ministers
that. A social protection system was invented after WWII. We      we can take the package to the next level. During French
now need to invent an environmental protection system to          presidency we expect to do a lot on both SCP and climate
share collective risk and give individual protection.             change. We have an ambitious presidency and government. I
                                                                  always say environmental and social issues come together. You
Willemien Bax (BEUC) said that comparative market tests are       cannot address environmental issues without keeping justice
important for consumer organisations when they are choosing       principles in mind.
their new appliances, looking at best performance, best price,
least chemicals. So consumer organisations have a big role to
play in making sure people choose products with the least
environmental impacts.
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                 13

[floor was opened for questions]                                     Michele Pappalardo said advertising and publicity are areas
                                                                    where the French brought up the topic and achieved something
Joachim Spangenberg asked if a legal minimum basis could            by adopting a voluntary approach. If you look systematically
be set by the levels achieved under voluntary schemes now?          at adverts you can come up with clear rules for acceptability. If
As in the field of waste management in the Netherlands, once         it’s misleading, encouraging consumers in ways that are good
there is 2/3 agreement on voluntary measures they could be          or is it disputable? We can only be successful if everyone takes
made mandatory.                                                     part, but you can’t expect too much. Advertising is meant to
                                                                    encourage consumption. We can’t encourage less consump-
Frank Corcoran suggested that some barriers may be iden-            tion through advertising. We can only make sure ads are more
tified for 100% targets. Could you identify them and then            responsible. Consuming more or less is matter of policies.
NGOs could assist you in getting rid of those barriers? If you’re
successful by 2010 it would be a great model.                       John Hontelez concluded the morning session by agreeing
                                                                    with Minister Gormley, who rightfully pointed out that the
Saskia Borgers replied that barriers are related to a level         average child is seeing 100,000 ads before adulthood. But in
playing field. Some producers have said no, they don’t like the      Sweden ads are not allowed to be targeted to children, which
use of criteria.                                                    is an example to follow.

Minister Gormley noted that built-in obsolescence (ie., prod-       He noted that nobody said the SCP Action Plan is too ambi-
ucts being designed to have a limited lifespan) needs to be         tious except for the Netherlands not wanting the EMAS review.
addressed as well as product fashions like flat screen TVs. If       Ministers Gormley and Bizkova said the Sustainable Consump-
an industry makes products that last, where do they get their       tion and Production Action Plan was not ambitious enough.
profits? The idea of repair is one to look at- they can make         Others said we must be careful of social impacts. There was
money from repairing things if consumers can return them.           a lot of attention on public procurement because it creates a
                                                                    market and sets an example. The Netherlands are challenging
Paul Ekins noticed that Minister Gormley was the only one           their colleagues to go for 100% green public procurement and
to mention advertising, with the underlying message that you        use the work being done in other Member States. There is no
can fulfil your highest aspirations through consumption. How         lack of information - quality of information is the issue. People
can you have an SCP Action plan that doesn’t address adver-         get confused. Retailers need a focus. “Top runner”, a dynamic
tising? Any improvement in the quality of products has been         system with constantly updated standards, must be applied
overwhelmed by sheer volume.                                        systematically. Social context must be changed before people
                                                                    can be expected to make right choices.
Minister Gormley rebutted that there are also fashions in eco-
nomics. The idea of taxing wealthy people has gone out of           Industry must be sure it will work and not put sub-standard
fashion. We need to develop new quality of life indicators. We      products on market. Collective responsibility and sustainable
know that consuming more does not make people happy. We             cities are big goals. The social context must be changed before
need to start a new discussion with redefining growth.               people can be expected to make the right choices. There is no
                                                                    excuse for the Commission not to come up with the next steps
                                                                    very quickly.

Afternoon Session
AFTERNOON CHAIR: EEB President Mikael Karlsson

Mikael Karlsson introduced the afternoon discussion panel,         Anselm Gorres (GBE) thanked Commissioner Kovacs for
which included Anselm Gorres of Green Budget Europe, John          making the EU a major innovator in MBIs. Last year’s confer-
Hontelez, Professor Paul Ekins (UK), Vice Minister Falemo,         ence on MBIs with Commissioner Kovacs led to the founding
Vice Minister Bizkova and Ms Pappalardo.                           of GBE.

Taxation Commissioner Laszlo Kovacs began the discussion           People are asking the wrong questions. How can we protect
on EU trends in the use of Market Based Instruments (MBIs)         poor people from high energy prices? This attitude assumes
for environmental purposes by saying it was good to see            that high energy prices are like a tsunami that came without
several Member States represented on the panel have used           warning and is a big tragedy of which we are all victims.
or are using MBIs for environmental purposes. The Commis-          This wrong question leads to wrong answers. Austrian social
sion’s concept for using MBIs for environmental purposes and       democrats proposed reducing VAT from 10% to 5% on food,
promoting a low carbon economy is based on the results of a        although it was defeated in Parliament yesterday. All over
public consultation last year. Aim is to make the revised Energy   Europe you get these wrong easy answers from populist poli-
Taxation Directive compatible with the 20/20/20 goals of the       ticians ostensibly to protect poor citizens. The Saudis will con-
Energy and Climate package. Goal was to table the amended          tinue raising prices if they hear of us reducing taxes on energy
Energy Taxation Directive and a proposal to reduce VAT rates       because they know European tax payers will pay for it.
on services promoting energy efficiency, energy saving house-
hold appliances and environmentally friendly materials in the      The more environmentally conservative national governments
framework of a Green Tax Package before the end of the year.       will have more subsidies and fewer taxes and leave the nasty
Another proposal in Council already would change the struc-        things to Brussels. But we need balance of benefits and bur-
ture of car taxation to include CO2. The fiscal elements of the     dens on each government in each party at every level.
Green Tax Package would complement the Emission Trading
Scheme (ETS) would replace free allocated CO2 permits with         Look at high energy prices as part of the solution not the
mostly auctioned permits. These fiscal instruments would also       problem. The current financial crisis was the result of weak
promote the attainment of individual CO2 emission targets for      regulation and cheap money. The climate problem is the
Member States in sectors outside the Emission Trading System       same - due to weak regulation and cheap energy. High energy
and the effort sharing regulation as well as specific targets for   prices are a signal that we need to get moving on energy sav-
the use of renewables.                                             ings. . There is no need to protect everybody - the rich don’t
                                                                   need to be protected from high energy prices. But it would be
The number one objective of the review of the Energy Taxation      wrong to protect the poor by making energy cheaper for them
Directive is to strike a proper balance between higher energy      because everybody needs incentives to reduce consumption.
efficiency and lower Co2 emissions. To promote energy sav-          Give them income aid, reduce the taxation burder in other
ings, taxes should be based on the energy content of each          areas, give them for free the first 1000 KWh and then pay the
product but it should also reflect CO2 levels to be in line with    rest at market price. Then you can use the receipts from high
EU and Kyoto climate goals. So the concept of reviewing the        energy prices to help the poor.
Energy tax directive is to include both elements: content and
output. To avoid duplication of burden, either ETS or CO2          We are advocates of MBIs but it’s not representative of the
taxation shall be applied.                                         political situation in Europe. We want high energy taxes,
                                                                   which means higher prices. More ETS means higher prices. If
ETS excludes small installations because the burden for            you cut perverse subsidies for energy, you will also get higher
measuring would be more costly – we leave that to Member           prices. But higher prices are honest prices. The only way to
States. In line with climate change strategy biofuels would be     get to a more honest pricing system is with more honest
excluded from CO2 taxes. Application of reduced VAT rates          politics. People need the truth about a pricing system with
is being reviewed. Part of this review would extend to energy      ecologically honest prices. One thing politicians can expect
savings services, materials and household appliances. Reduced      from us besides just sitting behind our desks and writing nice
VAT on environmentally harmful activities like pesticides and      papers is that we promise them our support. It’s our duty as
fertilisers may be abolished, which would cause some friction      NGOs and academics to convey that using a painful solution is
with agricultural interests.                                       sometimes necessary. Sometimes the most painful medicine is
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                   15

the most powerful one. With all the money we raise through           With regard to the Energy Tax Directive, splitting energy taxes
higher taxes and emissions trading, the government will have         into two components (energy and carbon) is very important
more revenue to compensate the people who are suffering              – it could drive energy efficiency and carbon reduction at the
from energy prices. In this way you can have the best of both        same time. It will allow us to exempt EU ETS sectors from the
worlds, moving forward environmentally and making progress           carbon element of the tax while ensuring they pay the energy
economically. It’s very hard to communicate this message,            element of the tax and improve their energy efficiency. Energy
however, and this is our duty.                                       prices are much to low. The ability of the Commission to set
                                                                     taxes is very limited because of unanimity requirements. An
Paul Ekins said that the statement that the Earth is finite and       annual increase in rate of taxation across the board in both
the environment is scarce is scary for an economist. Some-           energy and carbon would make some prospects for the Energy
thing that is scarce has to and will be rationed. Now we have        Tax Directive representing this relationship.
support from the top that we must ration carbon emissions
into the atmosphere and the space occupied by humans. We             Mikael Karlsson asked if the environmental movement was
must tackle food and energy and space, including preserving          being too soft on these issues.
biodiversity on land and sea.
                                                                     Paul Ekins replied that politicians and ordinary people are far
Rationing happens in two ways: quantity and price. If you            from understanding the gravity of the situation. Climate sci-
ration by quantity then the market produces the price. If you        entists don’t believe what they see happening in the world’s
ration by price the system adjusts to produce the quantity.          ecosystems. We must inform people and politicians without
EU is now rationing carbon by quantity now through the ETS.          paralysing them with fear, convincing them there is everything
In the early 1990s they tried to do it by price but failed. But      to play for with technology and policies but that we have
can use price rationing with carbon taxes. The oil market is         to move now. We can still reach the 2 degree limit if we act
already starting to ration by price. But there is a big difference   immediately. If we do move now there is no need for any kind
between rationing carbon and oil by price - carbon is govern-        of collapse or major disruption in our economy, though we will
ment rationing, oil is market rationed. But the difference is that   have to make changes in our lifestyles and consumption pat-
government keeps the revenue from rationing carbon by price.         terns. If we put this off for another 20 years this will certainly
If had a carbon tax equivalent to 140 dollars a barrel, we could     not be the case.
have benefitted our European economy instead of having
an enormous outflow to oil-producing nations. Rationing oil           Vice Minister Elisabeth Falemo commented that based on the
by price leads to investments in other things including other        Swedish experience it is possible to combine efficient green
carbon-based fuels. Will high oil prices lead to reduced carbon      taxes with economic growth. We have done both in a stable
emissions in the long run? What about moving on carbon-              environment in Sweden under different governments. Now we
intensive tar sands? This will result in more carbon emissions       have a four party coalition that has consistently raised taxes on
So there is a world of difference between carbon prices intro-       polluting industries while reducing labour taxes. We are sure
duced by governments and an enlightened EU than an open              that MBIs are the most cost effective way to reduce Green-
market oil price.                                                    house gases. We need to put a price on carbon emissions. ETS
                                                                     is one way to do that.
We know about the urgency of the situation and the need for
ambition. Commissioner Dimas was clear about the limits of           We started taxing energy in the 1950s in Sweden. In 1991
ambition at the European level, which is limited by Member           Sweden was one of first countries to introduce a carbon tax.
States and the public. That means that we here today collec-         Now it’s about 100 Euros/tonne CO2. Carbon taxing is an
tively have more influence on public opinion than either the          effective way of reducing emissions without serious impact
politicians who nobody believes or the European people who           on economic and social development. Emissions of CO2
are far from public opinion. We interact with people all the         decreased 9% while the economy grew by 44% between
time and need ambition to set EU ETS targets for 2020 that           1990 and 2006. CO2 emissions would have been 20% higher
are far more ambitious than people are now talking about.            during that same time period without carbon taxes. Residential
We should be discussing 0 allocation for the power sector by         heating is almost fossil free today because of strong incentives
2020 in the knowledge that that will drive innovation faster in      to build heating systems with renewables.
the energy sector.

We had major tax increases on fossil fuels for heating, motors      environment through the State environmental fund. We have
and also on CO2. There are two levels of taxation for heating       prepared a new strategy because many of these charges have
fuels including higher for households and services and lowered      limited life spans. Now we need changes at European level. We
rates for industries, agriculture and combined heating power        must make complicated EU legislation clearer. We need simple
plants with global competitors. Carbon leakage is something         and clearer solutions. Now we have a system of waste charges
to balance. We need to make sure industry and agriculture           in Czech Republic that is very simple and easy for everyone to
don’t shut down.                                                    understand. EU ETS was also discussed. The main goal of both
                                                                    of these instruments is GHG reduction and improvement of air
Another MBI that has been effective is NOx charge that              quality, which is still quite bad for us.
has been in place at combustion plants since 1992 and has
drastically reduced NOx. The charged amount is returned to          Assessment of effectiveness and further improvements are
participating plants proportionate to how much useful energy        necessary for proper implementation at national level. Air pol-
they produced which encouraged them to reduce their NOx             lution charges have been used in Czech Republic for a long
emssions to the lowest possible level. More than 99% of the         time. The Ministry of the Environment is preparing draft of
charge amount is returned, which also means the system has          new air protection law. Our aim is to make the system simpler
low administrative costs.                                           and more environmentally effective. We think the same idea
                                                                    should be taken when revising EU ETS and Energy Tax Direc-
Sulfur tax is the third MBI we’ve used, which contributed           tive. It’s too complicated with large exemptions for major pol-
to approximately 30% of sulfur dioxide reduction between            luters. This is not the right was forward. The Czech Republic
1989 and 1995. Nox and Sulfur taxes happened because of             wants to know very soon what will be accepted at EU level to
ecological problems with acid rain in Sweden. Another MBI is        help them prepare revised national laws. These two directives
certificates for renewable electricity. Industries can trade these   are vital for attaining 2020 goals. Auctioning CO2 is a MBI
certificates. All electricity users must buy these for a certain     that can be very successful but we must use the right methods
percentage of electricity use. It’s efficient and cost effective.    for creating market conditions for its use because it influences
The system would be more efficient if other countries in the         markets globally as well as within Europe.
common market had similar approaches. I’m not arguing for a
harmonised EU system. But commitments in the Climate and            Michele Pappalardo countered that MBIs have not been
Energy package would be more easily met if more Member              popular in France for addressing environmental issues but she
States used MBIs. The Energy and Tax Directive would make           wants the situation reversed. We have introduced a system of
this possible. Tell your governments and people that it’s not       energy certificates that puts the obligation/burden of financing
hazardous- it’s good for technological development and              energy savings on the producers if they don’t reach the goals.
preparation to meet environmental challenges. Green taxes           We do not really make much use of green certificates. We use
are effective for us all.                                           fixed purchase prices for renewables.

During Sweden’s presidency next year, we are thinking of            The system in place now is one of environmental taxation
focusing on a low carbon resource efficient economy while            that would work, historically speaking, but it is in conflict with
remaining a competitive Europe. We will have informal council       OECD activities in this field. OECD determined that French
in Sweden at end of July next year and will have background         performance was not very good. In the context of Grenelle,
reports on this issue. We encourage EEB to take part in these       we must use taxation as an instrument to build more energy
discussions which we hope will be followed by formal Council        saving housing and buildings and giving bonuses for energy
conclusions later regarding eco-efficient economies.                 saving cars or ones with the lowest emissions.

Vice Minister Rut Bizkova said that the Czech Republic sup-         For the 2009 budget, we will increase taxation on aircraft
ports the use of economic instruments for environmental pur-        noise, waste disposal centres and other polluting activities.
poses. The Green Paper on MBIs in 2007 was widely discussed         Even in agriculture we are trying to have similar instruments
at national level. We are a small country but have really dif-      like doubling tax credits for green practices and heavier taxa-
fering opinions at political and academic levels.                   tion on pesticides. It’s being discussed right now in the French
                                                                    council of ministers. This is a period of rapid evolution deep-
National system for environmental protection includes a             ening green taxation instruments with equal total taxation
relatively broad scope of MBIs mostly based on charges rather       burden and using other instruments at same time. France is a
than taxes. We were very polluted in the early 90s so charges       leading country in using the bonus/malus system for car pur-
were economic instruments for change. Air, groundwater,             chasing: energy efficient cars get a financial advantage, paid
wastewater, forest land destruction were all subject to charges.    for by a penalty on gas guzzlers.
Much of the revenue from these charges went back into the
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                17

As far as the Commission’s position, we are in favour of the       EEB supports a 10% shift in taxes on labour to resource use
way they are dealing with it and want to better coordinate         and environmentally harmful activities over the next 10 years,
best practice sharing. We have expressed our wish to see a         an “escalator” on energy taxation. This is the level of ambi-
European reflection of lowered VAT for energy efficient prod-        tion we want to see. The most important advantage of a price
ucts. We must integrate other types of environmental impacts       escalator is that consumers and industry know exactly how
into these measures like biodiversity, though it can be hard to    much energy will cost in 5 years so they know when invest-
measure.                                                           ment makes the most sense.

The measures we want to put in place should not be too com-        Mis Bizkova mentioned getting rid of exemptions which we
plex. The ability of energy prices to go up and down the way       support. Water prices must reflect their ecological value. Any
they do is an issue for investors. What sorts of instruments can   exemption on biofuels should be ONLY for biofuels with the
we use to make sure the impact of the intermediate reduction       highest ecological standards which includes lifecycle assess-
in prices in the trend toward increased prices doesn’t affect      ment including indirect land use effects. Biofuels shouldn’t be
consumer choices? MBIs are complex but essential. But we           blanket sponsored with tax reductions.
should also encourage reducing consumption and introducing
measures to protect the poor. The idea is also to include ele-     Biggest problem is unanimity on tax issues in EU. The pre-
ments in prices that are not always present in prices today        vious energy tax directive took six years and we only had
using adaptive measures. The idea of these additional taxation     15 Member States. Now it may take an even longer time or
measures is not to bring additional revenue, which is why the      create a law with even more exemptions. We must respect
debate can be difficult. We are also seeing changes in eco-         the single market but if this halts progress we may need to
nomic trends. The latest trend is how we protect European          find more creative solutions. EP supported the idea of open
competitiveness. MBIs are appropriate but need to be used          method coordination, which actually takes away power from
properly. We will support and help the Commission as much          Parliament, so maybe inside the directive there maybe room
as we can in this effort.                                          for flexibility so the lowest common denominator does not
                                                                   dictate the outcome.
John Hontelez said that we are looking forward to the green
tax package later this year. We are lacking a road map on          Commissioner Kovacs is in favour of continuing to raise excise
dismantling subsidies, which is an important element of the        duties, the “escalator principle”, but they need to consistently
environmental fiscal reform we are looking for. You mentioned       follow inflation. We recently presented a proposal on taxa-
one element of taxation which was reducing tax breaks on           tion of commercial diesel. There is a minimum excise duty on
pesticides, which we welcome very much. We must look at            it now. But some countries have derogations for diesel taxes,
how lower taxation is sponsoring environmentally problematic       and not just new Member States, which results in fuel tourism.
activities, such as airplane tickets which still have no VAT. A    Truck drivers will drive out of their way, driving extra mileage
study in Hungary has shown massive abuse of tax advan-             and subsequently more CO2. There is also the problem of
tages for company cars, which is damaging not only because         distorting the internal market. I soon realised that the envi-
of the tax losses for the state but also because they miss the     ronmental aspect is more important than a level playing field
pricing signals from higher oil prices and have no incentive for   issue. When I discussed it with Parliament I realised they were
reducing consumption.                                              much more open to the environmental aspect than the internal
                                                                   market aspect. EP has approved it and now it’s on the table
Energy and environment separation are supported but be             at Council. We may put commercial diesel in this green tax
careful of saying anyone under ETS shouldn’t be taxed. The         package because the longer the list is the better chance it has
best option for energy use is not to use it. Need incentives to    for going through.
produce and use less even under ETS. It only works if you have
full auctioning. Otherwise sectors that are not being auctioned    Regarding Biofuels, just yesterday when we discussed the
and do not have an energy tax will have a competitive advan-       review of the energy tax directive, we agreed that all tax
tage over others that might be more environmentally efficient.      advantages should be given to second generation biofuels. If
Finally, even if we have CO2 in the ETS sector really being paid   we support first generation biofuels it will result in higher food
for, the environmental damage is not just related to CO2. For      prices.
example, coal production creates mining, transport, waste and
emissions issues. Energy taxation should be translated into an     Regarding unanimity, 40 fields in the Lisbon treaty have had
import tax on electricity from outside the EU from countries       unanimity abandoned, though not taxation. It’s not easy to
that are not under ETS.                                            reach unanimity but it’s not impossible. But we hope we can
                                                                   reach agreement on tax reform. Ministers of finance have con-

cerns but they should understand that revenue for the budget       pockets of oil producing countries. “Eco-driving” can save 1/3
is important but human survival is more important. In the car      on fuel. The Commission was against any kind of derogation
taxation proposal on the table, one element was to abolish         or solution to high fuel prices by reducing taxes. Raising public
registration tax, to change the structure and integrate the rev-   awareness is a very important issue, such as using standby
enue into a new circulation tax. For the finance ministers it’s     on household electronic appliances which saves an enormous
not the same to receive a tax in a lump sum as compared to         amount of energy. We must start our teaching with children.
over time but this way we can add a CO2 element. This made
ministers feel encouraged to introduce a CO2 element into          Mikael Karlsson moved on to the last agenda item, his speech
their car tax base. .                                              on turning the tide and towards a sustainability agenda for
                                                                   the next decade.
On the whole taxation is a very delicate issue but also one of
the most effective instruments that affects everyone in the        For the last three days we have been living on non-sustainable,
economy – it impacts the behaviour of producers, retailers,        finite resources which we are borrowing from future genera-
transporters and consumers.                                        tions. Earth overshoot day is occurring earlier each four years.
                                                                   Atmospheric concentration of CO2 is up to 35% higher glo-
[floor opened to questions]                                         bally than 2 years ago. We now have more erosion of natural
                                                                   resources and biodiversity, continuous food insecurity and
Giorgos Kalliabetsos said that given that the EU is not uni-       human rights abuses. In the last 50 years more humans have
versal government and the planet’s capacity for pollution is       walked the planet than rest of time combined. Even though
finite. How are we to stop other countries in other parts of the    industrial output has increased five times over 50 years ago,
world benefitting from our taxation, especially if they make        1/3 of people still live in poverty and 1/6 is chronically under-
products that then circulate around the globe?                     nourished. It’s necessary to manage our power to affect the
                                                                   environment, which is greater than natural forces, the sun
Samuel Martin- Sosa said he didn’t have a really clear pic-        and evolution. This signals a lack of wisdom in managing our
ture on how MBIs or this action plan will deliver reductions in    powers. About 60% of ecosystem services globally have been
consumption rates. We have some instruments that will make         or will be totally destroyed. Business and consumption as usual
products more eco-friendly but these kinds of policies will not    are not OK; it’s time to turn the tide.
be enough.
                                                                   The climate crisis will result in huge losses in GDP and human
Andras Lukacs asked if the Commission plans any wider com-         welfare. Global warming should be kept much below 2 degrees
munication and awareness-raising about environmental tax           if we follow what scientists are saying now. If all humans have
reform? Hasn’t seen much since last year’s event.                  equal rights we should have equal emissions. So Europe should
                                                                   reduce emissions by 90% not 60% as proposed. EU has played
Commissioner Kovacs replied that if the EU cannot involve          a critical role so far but EU emissions are not going down fast
other polluters like India, China, Russia and USA our efforts      enough. If the EU wants to uphold its global leadership on
are doomed. We must have bilateral negotiations and stra-          this issue, present emission trends must be broken. We need
tegic cooperation. EU has summits with all major players and       higher efficiency, market incentives for rapid development of
climate change and energy security are more and more on the        renewables, cutting climate unfriendly subsidies, taxes and
agenda and a common concern for everyone. I regularly visit        other pricing tools. We must have strict interim targets and
China because of the counterfeiting problem. I understand          full auctioning in ETS and stop spending on nuclear. Limits on
the Chinese mentality and we cannot speak to them with a           fuel consumption in cars need to take place now. Historically
schoolmaster attitude. We can bring the Chinese common             this has been seen as anti-growth or anti-development but
interest and partnership and they do understand that climate       OECD writes that there is no evidence that green taxes and
change and slowing global warming is a common interest.            MBIs have a bad effect on the economy. The Stern report says
USA is now more positive and we hope will get more so after        only a small number of companies would relocate because
the elections. On MBIs, they influence consumption through          environmental issues are only one of many location factors for
prices so it’s a cost effective instrument. Professor Ekins men-   companies. Future competitiveness will be based on energy
tioned that the first reaction of different countries, including    and resource efficiency. What is technologically and economi-
EU Member States, to skyrocketing fuel prices was to reduce        cally feasible now is also morally right.
taxes, but this was not a solution. If we reduce taxes on fuels
EU loses a lot of money and consumers have no incentive to         So what are the prospects for turning the tide when we know
reduce consumption. All the money would have gone into the         so much about why problems are still accelerating?
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                19

Nature was regarded as an instrument for increasing wealth          EEB is now developing Sustainability Agenda for Next Decade
without being given its own value. We need to question some         with the following objectives in collaboration with Social Plat-
but not all of the ideas of society related to knowledge, risk,     form and other stakeholders. We will elaborate an agenda for
democracy and distribution and their effect on sustainable          the new Commission, Parliament and Council with the fol-
development. Need to install processes that carefully distin-       lowing objectives
guish between good and bad applications of science and tech-
nology. Our society needs to be based on the precautionary          1.   Develop and promote a sustainability agenda for next
principle. Need to ID limits on consumption of many resources.           decade with priority actions for the next five years.
Science and technology have caused a lot of problems but            2.   Shape the new objectives of the next Commission
the greater problem is moral blindness and lack of solidarity.
First there is active wrongdoing, people who assault man and        3.   Work with Swedish presidency to support their efforts on
nature as in Darfur and mangrove forests. But there is also              an environmentally driven economy
passive, hidden wrongdoing- all those who know a lot or do          4.   Inform newly elected members of European Parliament
nothing. The CAP illustrates this concept clearly. This policy           on the required changes on different levels- especially
has probably caused more victims globally than many wars.                climate, resources and biodiversity.

But more and more people are saying no to solving conflicts          5.   We should give guidance for EU on policies regarding Sus-
with arms. More people are interested in environment, devel-             tainable Consumption and Production, climate change,
opment and health issues than ever before. Some extremely                EU adaptation and integration and biodiversity.
urgent problems like ozone depletion have been managed very         6.   Guide revision of Lisbon strategy, which should have
well. We are now connected globally so there are no more                 strong social and environmental dimensions and guide
dark corners on planet for abuses and environmental crimes.              investment and Measure and monitor social and green
Civil society continues to develop worldwide. Environmental              economic growth, development and progress.
issues are prominent in political forums.
                                                                    7.   Guide revision of EU programmes on agriculture, cohe-
But so far actions have been scratching the surface or even              sion, research, competiveness and development and their
demonstrating negative trends. Air pollutants cause 270,000              respective budgets.
premature deaths in the EU every year. In spite of this fact that
stricter policies would save lives and benefit the economy, the      All this is necessary to make full use of other initiatives on
air quality legislation that was agreed was incredibly weak.        eco innovation and an environmentally driven economy. We
Urgency has not been translated into appropriate action.            will deliberate throughout civil society to include trade unions
Biased response focuses on production not consumption.              and businesses. We are already identifying and contacting
                                                                    partners. We plan to kick this agenda off at a conference in
We have massive environmentally harmful subsidies focusing          January 2009, with Working Groups. By next summer, the
on the wrong things. EU must decide whether to go for Sus-          work will be concluded and merged into a single document to
tainable Development in its real meaning. If so, turning the        be presented to Council during the Swedish presidency if pos-
tide requires a fundamental change in thinking in many areas.       sible. After summer we will have a high level event to promote
It’s possible to change. 2009 is a key year for change – there      this agenda at the European summit before implementation
will be a new Commission, new European Parliament, the              starts. I invite everyone to take part in this process.
Copenhagen summit. Sweden’s presidency in 2009 will put
climate and an environment-driven economy high on the               The challenges are enormous but we can achieve a lot. During
agenda. Sweden’s good record in environmental management            its first 50 years the EU project strongly encouraged peace
will be evident. The Commission will develop a new 5 year           and prosperity. As we broke down the physical and mental
strategy, to which we have seen it sticks quite well. It’s going    walls dividing Europe, we can break down environmental bar-
to include climate change, sustainable development and other        riers. There are no good reasons for not taking stronger action
environmental issues. 2009 is a year of opportunity to turn         on Sustainable Development. We have the knowledge and
the tide.                                                           means to achieve it. Continued research and development is
                                                                    important, but the key bottleneck is limited solidarity between
                                                                    humans and nature. This is something we can change. What
                                                                    makes us human is our sense of responsibility, being ashamed
                                                                    of something we cannot control, being proud of the achieve-
                                                                    ments our friends and realising that when we place our stone
                                                                    we are helping build a wall. Let a true and ambitious sustain-
                                                                    able agenda for the next decade be our next stone.

                                                                    [end of conference]

                   POLICY ACTION PLAN
EEB is Europe’s largest federation of environmental citizens’       are key if the Forum is not to end up becoming a “talking
organisations. We represent over 150 members in 31 coun-            shop”, and so the end result should be at least sectoral imple-
tries, with over 15 million supporters and members. Our             mentation of ambitious objectives addressing a range of key
work on Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) is an          sustainability issues. The Forum provides a small first step
extension of our historical involvement in natural resources,       towards addressing consumption more directly through EU
products and waste policy. Given our active involvement in          policy activities. Of course, we expect to see more ambitious
some elements of the SCP/Sustainable Industrial Policy (SIP)        steps from the Commission in future.
Action Plan (Action Plan), we have produced separate posi-
tion papers on the proposal for the revision of the Ecodesign
of Energy-using Products Directive, the European Ecolabel           Too little too late
Regulation and the European Management and Audit Scheme
                                                                    Despite these positive aspects of the Action Plan, overall
                                                                    EEB considers it to lack vision, clarity and ambition. It is not
                                                                    clear what the policy objectives of the sustainable consump-
EEB welcomes the publication of the Action Plan, particularly
                                                                    tion and production nor the sustainable industrial policy are,
as its arrival was long delayed and followed much resistance
                                                                    apart from the vague aim of an “energy and resource efficient
from various Directorate Generals. We also welcome the
                                                                    economy”. As such, the Action Plan does not aim to address
integrated approach proposed between the various existing
                                                                    the numerous ecological crises being faced right now (apart
product-focused mechanisms, making steps towards a more
                                                                    from climate change), despite their increasing “threat” to
harmonised and coherent policy framework. The integration
                                                                    current consumption and production patterns in Europe. One
of the mechanisms, along with their regular review, create a
                                                                    such example is of the use of non-renewable natural resources
potentially forward-moving agenda, giving industry a clearer
                                                                    relative to supply. According to the UNEP Resource Panel, it is
signal on the continuous improvement required in product
                                                                    likely that we will reach global limits in the next decade or
design and performance. These characteristics and the inte-
                                                                    two on some every-day resources such as copper, zinc, silver
gration of the mechanisms help to work to encourage a ‘critical
                                                                    and the platinum group of metals; on some resources which
mass’ of more ecologically performing products on the market
                                                                    are not substitutable, such as indium; and on some resources
than is currently the case.
                                                                    that are energy-intensive in primary production, such as alu-
The Action Plan’s inclusion of a Communication on Public            minium and titanium. Closely linked to such resource issues
Procurement for a better environment is a positive step for-        is the loss of biodiversity. 60% of ecosystem services that
ward. The Communication develops ongoing work in greening           have been examined have been degraded in the past 50 years.
public procurement by providing a target (albeit voluntary)         Such services, once lost, cannot be recovered again. Despite
of 50% “green” tendering procedures by 2010, common                 the Commission’s rhetoric on resource demand growing in an
“core” green public procurement criteria and minimum levels         increasingly resource-constrained world, the Action Plan in no
of products’ environmental performance below which public           way faces up to the challenge.
authorities could not procure an identified list of products or
                                                                    Despite products being a central focus of the Action Plan,
services. These guiding principles will help create clearer deci-
                                                                    the proposals generally represent a watering down of the
sion-making tools for public authorities, with more likelihood
                                                                    Integrated Product Policy (IPP) Communication from the
of harmonisation across the EU, thereby potentially pulling
                                                                    Commission in 20032 and work done since then. IPP was
more ecologically performing products and services onto the
                                                                    first discussed at EU level 10 years ago, in 1998, but since the
                                                                    Commission’s Communication, little effective development
EEB is also supportive of the inclusion of a mechanism              has occurred. The Action Plan, with its focus on products, and
addressing a key corporate sector greatly influencing produc-        therefore a presumed follow-up to IPP, does not live up to
tion and particularly consumption patterns: the retail sector.      the 2003 Communication’s statement that IPP would establish
The stated objective of the Retail Forum is “that individual        “the framework conditions for the continuous environmental
large retailers commit to a series of ambitious and concrete        improvement of all products throughout the production, use
actions with clear objectives, timelines, deliverables, and         and disposal phases of their life-cycle; and developing a focus
monitoring indicators”, to be set with stakeholders including       on products with the greatest potential for environmental
consumer and environmental organisations. Such obligations          improvement”. The proposed extension of the Ecodesign of

                                                                    2 COM(2003) 302 final available at :
1 These can be found on the EEB website at               environment/ipp/ippcommunication.htm
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                     21

Energy Using Products Directive (EuP) in the Action Plan does          fully considered and communicated carefully. In particular, the
not meet these prerequisites for these framework conditions            Ecolabel, as a supposed mark of “environmental excellence”
(see more below). Furthermore, the Commission stated that              is already getting greatly increased interest from companies
it would identify which products have the greatest potential           in the past 12 months due to growing company awareness of
for environmental improvement, and that once this had been             public concerns on environmental issues. GPP core criteria set
done (which it has – see next paragraph), “the Commission              at a level below the Ecolabel will send confusing messages and
will seek to address some of the products with the greatest            seriously threaten the attractiveness of that label to companies
potential for environmental improvement at least socio-                wishing to use it as the mark of environmental excellence for
economic cost individually”.                                           more easily winning public authority contracts.

The Commission has produced studies to identify products               The Action Plan continues to take as a default the voluntary
having greatest potential for environmental improvement 3,             approach, and indeed even the 50% GPP target for public
and these are in housing, transport and food. Unfortunately,           authorities is a voluntary measure. Such an approach is in clear
the Action Plan does not make reference at all to these key            contradiction to the highlights of the results of the Commis-
impact areas, and where it does address them, it is mostly in          sion’s consultation on the Action Plan, where “lack of long-
indirect, unclear ways (e.g. the proposal to extend the scope          term policy and regulatory direction” was seen as the key bar-
of the European Ecolabel to include food). In this way, the            rier to innovation, and where 67% of respondents and 52% of
Action Plan does not take forward the work begun on product-           stakeholders called for mandatory instruments over voluntary
focused IPP.                                                           approaches. A voluntary approach does not give clear market
                                                                       signals on the development of the policy framework which is
The extension of the Ecodesign of Energy Using Products                so clearly called for, even by industry. In this way, investment
Directive to “energy related” products only is insufficient             and other business decisions are not made easier, and industry
to face the challenge of encouraging the reduction of envi-            is given the signal that it can make sustainability improve-
ronmental impacts of products and creating an energy- and              ments if it likes, unless a company’s product falls within the
resource-efficient economy as the Commission pretends to do             EuP Directive with its minimum standards. This predominantly
with this Action Plan. EEB is of the opinion that the Directive        voluntary approach serves to worsen the already incoherent
should be extended to cover all products, backed up by a               nature of the relationships between the different Action Plan
study to identify non-energy using products for prioritisation         mechanisms (see below).
(such studies are already part of the implementation procedure
of the EUP Directive). In any case, the Commission has already
produced its work plan for implementation of the Directive             Serious gaps
which runs until 2011. Although a new study might slightly
                                                                       Admittedly, sustainable consumption is a difficult area for
alter the current work plan, in reality the Commission will not
                                                                       governments in consumer societies where consumer “sover-
totally revise it according to the non-energy-using products to
                                                                       eignty” has historically been seen as a human right and con-
be added. In any case, to run co-decision procedures on the
                                                                       sumer choice a key objective. Countries have been addressing
partial and then the full extension of the Directive does not
                                                                       sustainable consumption to varying degrees over the years,
reflect better regulation: the Commission’s proposal should
                                                                       yet despite these activities, governments still struggle to com-
clearly establish the Directive’s full extension (and not a review
                                                                       municate sustainable consumption messages to significant or
on this) from 2012.
                                                                       long-lasting positive effect. At EU level, activities in this area
As stated early on in this paper, the proposals for minimum            are even more limited than at national level, and this was made
levels of environmental performance for products and serv-             obvious in the Action Plan’s proposals in this area. Indeed, the
ices in green public procurement (GPP) are a very good means           Commission does not appear to consider consumption beyond
of providing clarity to procurers who do not necessarily have          providing information as a means of changing behaviour, pro-
the time or resources to research environmental issues during          posing incentives to make sustainable products more financially
tendering processes and in order to create a certain minimum           attractive, and Retail Forum aims to provide more ecologically
level playing field. However, the ambition levels of these “core”       performing products on shop shelves. Although we welcome
criteria need to be carefully set so as not to create confusion        the Retail Forum initiative, such an “information as a means of
in relation to the EuP Directive environmental benchmarks or           behavioural change” approach has been proven not to work
the European Ecolabel. As product-related policy mechanisms            in the longer term, at least not on its own. There is a wealth
start to multiply, the setting of ambition levels must be care-        of sustainable consumption research available, and the Action
                                                                       Plan does not make reference to this, nor does it propose any
3 The Commission commissioned two studies, one to identify             future studies on how EU-level activities could effectively
  the products with greatest environmental impacts (EIPRO) and         help to achieve sustainable consumption. Since many of the
  the second to explore the activities for making environmental        activities and messages are better delivered at national and
  improvements to these key products (IMPRO). More details on
                                                                       sub-national level, the Commission’s role here naturally leads
  IPP activities and copies of the studies are available at: http://                         to acting as facilitator between the Member States and as the

creator of better understanding of issues through research           mental product information4 identified various measures to
and studies. Such recognition of this key facilitating role is not   ensure better product information availability on the market.
evident in the Action Plan. The further development of a sus-        The Action Plan barely gives a nod to this work in proposing
tainable consumption policy area represents a serious gap in         the use of harmonised standards, when possible, but does not
the Action Plan.                                                     go further than this.

The Action Plan does not propose measures aiming at a                Historically, governments’ and the EU’s role in consumer-
systems approach, taking a purely case-by-case approach              related policy areas have focused mostly (if not solely) on
(product by product) using the lifecycle perspective. A systems      consumer protection. Therefore, the policy area of sustainable
approach would, for example, address mobility rather than            consumption is potentially a large departure from past activi-
specific forms of transport. This is not to say that the lifecycle    ties for authorities at all levels. EEB is therefore surprised not
approach is incorrect, rather that the case-by-case approach         to see any proposals for further studies on potential policy
is inappropriate (too slow, too narrow) to achieve the changes       mechanisms addressing sustainable consumption more
in patterns needed to avoid further or deeper ecological crises.     effectively than simply providing information and labelling.
Complementary mechanisms are needed which link up to
reinforce each other within a coherent policy framework. On          Finally, another significant issue missing from the Action Plan
their own, the mechanisms in the Action Plan do not provide          is that of advertising. It is difficult to argue that advertising
such a framework, despite the Action Plan including sustain-         does not have an influence on consumption, yet it does not
able industrial policy. SIP, along with the SCP agenda, should       feature at all in the Action Plan. This is a missed opportunity
necessarily lead to sustainable product policy (which it could       for activities aiming to kerb advertising levels and messages of
be argued was what Integrated Product Policy was meant to            unsustainable behaviour practices (e.g. encouraging a throw-
be). In the Action Plan consultation phase, SIP was mostly           away society). This is another example of the failure to take up
restricted to an energy and climate focus, and on maintaining        the work delivered within IPP. The IPP working group on envi-
or strengthening market lead for European companies in eco-          ronmental product information also identified the potential to
innovation. Eco-innovation, just as for eco-design, needs to         use the (then) Misleading Advertising Directive (now replaced
become the mainstream, ‘normal’ type of business activity            by the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive) as the legal
and not remain a niche activity or market. The reality is that       framework for setting a minimum standard of quality across
ecological pressures and the wider recognition that we have          all forms of environmental product information placed on the
gone far beyond carrying capacity in our consumption and             market. In addition to taking forward the recommendations of
production patterns means that any future developments in            this working group, EEB proposes that a study be undertaken
industrial processes will need to integrate sustainability into      to identify potential activities which could be undertaken at EU
the heart of their decisions. The Action Plan does not estab-        and Member State levels. These could include an Advertising
lish a framework for either product policy or sustainable            Forum, similar to that of the Retail Forum, and understanding
industrial policy.                                                   taxation in relation to advertising as much of it appears to be
                                                                     tax-deductible. Removal of such tax deductions, and indeed
In order to create such policy frameworks, the Commission            the creation of advertising taxes (obviously not yet possible at
needs to come forward with sustainability objectives on              EU level) could be obvious, immediate steps easily encouraged
industrial policy and on eco-innovation, with product sus-           to be taken at Member State level.
tainability criteria and ecodesign guidelines, so that producers
can more easily identify what priority improvements they can
make to existing products, and can be guided to design more          Recommendations:
ecological products. Similarly, importers and retailers could
                                                                       Sustainable consumption and production needs to politi-
use these same framework conditions and guidelines when
                                                                       cally rise above the product policy level, to have a political
choosing which products to provide to European citizens.
                                                                       placement between sustainable development and indi-
                                                                       vidual policies such as agriculture, waste, products, biodi-
Another gap that continues to exist despite indirect mention
                                                                       versity, etc. SCP policy is a means of delivering sustainable
in the Action Plan is that of the provision of product informa-
                                                                       development objectives, rather than being a separate policy
tion. The Action Plan mentions consistent data and methods
                                                                       area on its own or restricted to products. It therefore needs
on products, to assess the overall environmental performance
                                                                       the political “height” to more easily address or influence key
of products and to monitor these improvements. The focus
                                                                       policy areas such as agriculture, industrial policy, etc.
remains on the sharing of information between the different
tools that exist. This is another example of how the Action
Plan has failed to build upon work already undertaken within         4 See the Commission webpages on Integrated Product Policy at
                                                              See the recommendations
IPP. The final report of the IPP working group on environ-              in this document for proposals on how to strengthen the provision
                                                                       and use of product information in delivering better environmental
                                                                       performance of products. This working group was created as part
                                                                       of the IPP implementation process with no official status beyond
                                                                       providing expert opinion on development of IPP.
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                            23

  Despite the Action Plan’s stronger focus on climate and         deliver its roadmap for the elimination of environmentally
  energy, it does not directly address issues of consumption      hazardous subsidies, promised in 2008; and to ensure that
  or production except through product design and produc-         the reviewed Energy Tax Directive substantially increases
  tion. Business models, supply chains, distribution systems,     the minimum rates of taxation for energy and dramati-
  etc. need to be addressed, not just efficiency.                  cally reduces existing exemptions. Harmonisation of levels
                                                                  of product performance for “bonus-malus” schemes need
  Clear overarching objectives for both sustainable con-
                                                                  to be strengthened through support for differentiated VAT
  sumption and production and sustainable industrial policy
                                                                  according to production and use of energy and natural
  are needed. These should include sustainability objectives
  on industrial policy and on eco-innovation, with product
  sustainability criteria and ecodesign guidelines, to help set   Studies on sustainable consumption need to be undertaken
  out the path towards One Planet Living. At the moment,          to help identify effective activities for different players to
  the narrow product mechanisms and the strong focus on           deliver, particularly to give the Commission a clearer idea
  climate and energy fall far too short of “sustainability” and   of its role and to help Member States in delivering good
  do not provide industry even an spotty path towards sus-        practice. Sustainable consumption policy is a departure
  tainability. If a manufacturer’s product does not fall within   from historical consumer policy which has focused purely
  the scope of EuP, the Ecolabel or the GPP key products, the     on consumer safety and protection. Sustainable consump-
  Action Plan does not provide any pressure to improve or         tion activities are more effective at levels closer to the
  give indications of priority areas for improvement.             public, therefore at sub-national and national levels. The
                                                                  Commission’s role in this area is not necessarily automati-
  Product information requirements need to be devel-
                                                                  cally that of proposing legislation but rather as facilitator.
  oped beyond “consistent data and methods on prod-
                                                                  Studies are therefore needed to identify good practice on
  ucts”, to include minimum data to be provided to the
                                                                  sustainable consumption activities (beyond communication,
  Joint Research Council’s Product Data Centre. The
                                                                  and including regulatory and fiscal mechanisms), in order
  working group on Environmental Product Informa-
                                                                  for the Commission to take up an active role as facilitator in
  tion identified a strong case for an EU-level policy on
                                                                  developing EU sustainable consumption policy.
  this topic. According to the working group, product
  information can be used in powerful combination with            Natural resources issues need to rise up the political
  other tools to deliver environmental improvement.               agenda, to create the political will to develop forward-
  This would enable and stimulate the market to operate           looking, progressive and ambitious natural resources
  efficiently and competitively to deliver SCP goals. On           policy. Since the publication of the Thematic Strategy on
  its own, the market is unlikely to deliver such quality         the Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in 2005, policy
  information, so leadership and action are required at           developments have advanced at a snail’s pace. The Com-
  both Member State and EU levels. Such a product                 mission has focused most efforts on the creation of the
  information mechanism is an important element of the            UNEP Resource Panel, overlooking political developments
  broader objectives for SCP/SIP mentioned in the third           at EU level (e.g., the EU High Level Forum mentioned in
  bullet point in this list of recommendations.                   the Thematic Strategy has not materialised yet). The Action
                                                                  Plan mentions tools to “monitor, benchmark and promote
  The relationship between SCP/SIP and other areas of policy
                                                                  resource efficiency” rather than actual targets themselves.
  where key impacts are made – agriculture, housing and
                                                                  Parliament and Council have called for efficiency targets
  transport – needs to be strengthened, as SCP/SIP should
                                                                  since 2006, to no avail. The Commission needs to devote
  act as a link between the individual policy areas and sus-
                                                                  resources to natural resources policy to be able to deliver
  tainable development. The Action Plan mostly ignores these
                                                                  resource efficiency targets by 2010, within a coherent and
  major environmental impact areas because policy measures
                                                                  integrated framework linking to biodiversity, product, water,
  addressing them exist already, rather than incorporating
                                                                  recycling and waste prevention policies at a minimum.
  these policies into the SCP agenda. Product policy studies
  – most notably, EIPRO and IMPRO - have identified the            Advertising needs to be more directly addressed in the
  key environmental impacts of these three areas of activity,     SCP agenda. A strong factor in influencing consumption,
  and suggested policy actions for making effective improve-      advertising needs to be considered for its effective and
  ments. Such studies should not be ignored.                      appropriate inclusion in SCP work. The aim of course is not
                                                                  to restrict freedom of speech, but rather to bring about
  Economic and fiscal policies and mechanisms need to be
                                                                  changes in advertising practices that promote unsustainable
  studied further by the Commission within the context of
                                                                  consumption behaviour and a throw-away society. We have
  SCP/SIP, and Member States need to discuss the system-
                                                                  proposed the creation of an Advertising Forum, such as the
  atic use of informal harmonisation in these areas via the
                                                                  one created for the retail sector, although the aim is not
  Open Method of Coordination. The Action Plan is weak on
                                                                  to pre-suppose purely voluntary activity. The Unfair Com-
  proposals for better internalising currently external costs,
                                                                  mercial Practices Directive and advertising bans can also be
  to facilitate SCP/SIP. First steps for the Commission are to
                                                                  considered within the context of SCP.

 The Ecodesign for Energy-using Products Directive needs         EMAS needs to become a system of excellence based on
 to be fully extended now to be able to address all prod-        substantive performance requirements and meaningful
 ucts, a review is needed of the “lifecycle” methodology         sector-specific indicators. Although environmental man-
 it uses for preparing product-specific measures improving        agement systems (EMSs) are not generally given great
 key environmental impacts, and environmental benchmark          importance by environmental organisations, EMAS has
 levels should automatically become legally binding unless       more credibility than ISO14001 amongst these groups due
 they can be improved through review. The partial extension      to the need to have independent verification and annual
 to “energy-related” products proposed by the Commission         reporting. For EMSs to be truly useful, they should create
 continues to ignore key environmental issues which could        easier performance comparisons and benchmarking. The
 easily start to be addressed now before more details on,        Commission’s proposal appears to leave it to organisations
 for example, natural resources policies are developed. For      (companies, authorities, etc) to determine performance
 instance, measures relating to the phasing out of hazardous     levels, and even heavy polluters may qualify for registration
 substances, more efficient use or avoidance of some raw          under the Scheme. It therefore remains doubtful whether
 materials (including water and endangered species) and the      EMAS compliance can be taken as proof of better than
 need to use recycled materials in production, could already     average environmental performance.
 be included. Also, the Commission’s proposal to set voluntary
                                                                 The Retail Forum should not be a “talking shop” and
 forward benchmarks as part of a product’s implementing
                                                                 should result in the setting of clear objectives, agreed
 measures should automatically become legally binding after
                                                                 with stakeholders, to be monitored and publicly reported
 a set period of time, to give industry longer-term regulatory
                                                                 on annually. Stakeholders such as consumer and environ-
                                                                 mental groups have not been included in the development
 More focus needs to be given to the harmonisation of the        of objectives or the activities to be delivered by retailers, so it
 separate policy mechanisms (notably EuP, the Ecolabel and       appears that stakeholder involvement is welcome once these
 GPP) to ensure effective environmental improvements and         parameters have been clearly set by the retail sector and the
 to safeguard each mechanism’s role and objectives. The          Commission. Such exclusion does not create empowerment,
 Action Plan assumes solid integration of these mechanisms       ownership or trust. The Retail Forum needs to result in more
 which have separate objectives, lead Directorate-Generals,      sustainable behaviour by retail companies internally, in iden-
 timelines and decision-making processes. It is not clear how    tification of more sustainable products (where clearer policy
 these mechanisms will be integrated, apart from through         objectives by the Commission are indispensable), and for
 timing decision-making processes more strategically. The        sustainable consumption to not only be made easier but also
 importance of maintaining the Ecolabel as a mark of “envi-      to become the mainstream type of public behaviour.
 ronmental excellence” and ensuring market attractiveness
 needs to be considered carefully when setting GPP criteria
                                                                 For more information, please contact:
 levels, and in relation to EuP environmental benchmarks.
                                                                 Doreen Fedrigo
                                                                 December 2008
Prof. Dr. Joaquim H. Spangenberg, SERI Vice-President
EEB Annual Conference Keynote Speech
Power Point Presentation

“Sustainable Consumption and the Decent Life”
26 September 2008
             26                             TURN ING THE TIDE : SUS TAINABLE CON SUMP TION AND PRODUC TION IN EUROPE

Sustainable Consumption                                                    Sustainable Consumption

       • Photos and graphs used in the presentation                          Sustainable Consumption
         may be subject to copyright, so their
         availability on the web does not imply that
                                                                               and the Decent Life
         they are free to use. On the contrary, the files                                   Presentation at the European Environment Bureau
                                                                                                           “Turning the Tide”
         must only be used for private purposes and not                                             2008 Annual Conference, Brussels
                                                                                                          September 26th, 2008
         be exploited professionally or commercially.

                                                                                Prof. Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg
                                                                                SERI Vice President
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008              Page 1              EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008             Page 2

Sustainable Consumption                                                   Sustainable Consumption

      1. My Fear                                                                                                                 “Before we
                                                                                                                                 come to a
       The first quarter of the 21st              a                                                                              hasty
        century could go downown         till w of
                                      I s do                                                                                     decision, in
        in history as the point                     it y
                                        win ortun                                                                                particular
        in time, when                     op p                                                                                   the growth
        humankind sacrificed   ed                                                                                                impact of
        the possibility                                                                                                          such
        for a decent life of                                                                                                     policies has
        future generations                                                                                                       to be
        to life a decent life. Climate trend projection                                                                          assessed.”
       We have to ACT NOW!
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008              Page 3             EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008             Page 4
         EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                   27

Sustainable Consumption                                                 Sustainable Consumption


                                                                                                                    Floods (wave 7-8 m high,
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008           Page 5              EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008   Missisippi,
                                                                                                                    Missisippi, USA, …
                                                                                                                                    Page 6

  Sustainable Consumption                                               Sustainable Consumption

                                                                        Today’               tomorrow’
                                                                        Today’s catastrophe, tomorrow’s normality

 EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008           Page 7             EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                   Page 8
             28                                TURN ING THE TIDE : SUS TAINABLE CON SUMP TION AND PRODUC TION IN EUROPE

   Sustainable Consumption                                                   Sustainable Consumption

   Non-linear effects are most often neglected
   Non-                                                                                    In all continents
   in impact assessments, from drought to

   EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                Page 9           EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008            Page 10

Sustainable Consumption                                                      Sustainable Consumption

                     It is not only the climate                                                   The Biological Challenge
                                                                                    Ecosytems affected by a 3°C rise in average global temperature
    • Functioning ecosystems are buffers against local
      climate change impacts, damaged ecosystems
    • Ecosystems worldwide are overused and
      collapse threatens, see the MEA.
    • These include freshwater, soil and marine shore
      preservation, adaptability and pest resistance in
      the genes of undomesticated plants, and their
      use for breeding.
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                 Page 11            EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008            Page 12
         EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                           29

Sustainable Consumption                                       Sustainable Consumption

         The Ressource Challenge: is                                       A sustainable economy must be
       „Peak Everything“ante portas ?                                       capable to deal with all these
• Peak Oil is 2006 – 2010 – 2025; Peak Gas is 2020 –
  2035 – 2050, that are the estimates. Going for Peak                                challenges
  Coal 2100 would mean accepting the climate                       Climate change                                      Biodiversity loss
• Substitutes do not exist, the price elasticity of
  demand is extremely small.                                                                               Resilient
• Minerals and rare earths are getting scarce as
• Hoping that with oil at 100 US$/bl the worst is                 Peak oil, gas, minerals,
  over is like what economists did after AIB, Fannie              everything                                       Financial markets
  Mae and Fredy Mac were rescued.
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008           Page 13   EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                    Page 14

Sustainable Consumption                                       Sustainable Consumption

                                                                       We have a decade to manage the
                                                                       turn around
                                                                  IPCC ar4 2007:

                                            When?                 •GHG emissions must be reduced by 60% from
                                                                  today to 2050, and further to 2100.
                                                                  •We must manage to turn the tide within ten years.

                                                                  •Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
                                                                  •Biodiversity loss must also be stopped within ten
                                                                  years (that should be the meaning of “2010 and
                                                                  beyond”) if not ecosystem services essential for
                                                                  human survival are to be massively damaged.
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008           Page 15   EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                    Page 16
             30                              TURN ING THE TIDE : SUS TAINABLE CON SUMP TION AND PRODUC TION IN EUROPE

Sustainable Consumption                                                    Sustainable Consumption

                                                                                                                       and if not?
                                                                                  Drinking water scarcity for more than 2 billion
                                                                                people, in particular in Asia and Latin America;
                                                                                      Reducing by half agricultural yields in Africa;
                                                                                  Reaching the “tipping points”: thawing of Siberia
                                                                                and Canada, collapse of the Amazon, melting of the
                                                                                Himalayan and Greenland ice:
                                                                                From these points on, there is no way back.
                                                                                The Earth would be shifted to another equilibrium,
                                                                                pretty far off the one which is habitable to humans.
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008               Page 17            EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                 Page 18

Sustainable Consumption                                                    Sustainable Consumption

                                                                                    Reduce Resource Consumption


EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008               Page 19            EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                 Page 20
         EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                               31

Sustainable Consumption                                            Sustainable Consumption

      Increase resource use efficiency
           Consumer satisfaction X Services consumed           X
           Services consumed       Services generated

         Services generated X Physical input               =
         Physical input       Resources activated

         Satisfaction efficiency x supply efficiency x
         production efficiency x provision efficiency

EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008        Page 21                 Life cycle wide material flow analysis plus the industrial metabolism
                                                                   EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                 Page 22

Sustainable Consumption                                            Sustainable Consumption

                   Defossilise: Overcome oil                                            Oil dependency includes
                                                                            • Fossil based transport systems
                                                                            • Energy demanding buildings
                                                                            • Energy dependent agriculture
                                                                            • Extensive infrastructure to be
                                                                            • Export orientation of development
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008        Page 23           EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                Page 24
         32                                 TURN ING THE TIDE : SUS TAINABLE CON SUMP TION AND PRODUC TION IN EUROPE

Ressources are not only an economic or
Sustainable Consumption                                                       Sustainable Consumption

environmental but also a social problem                                       The current patterns of production…
In Germany, 2007-2008
the inflation for the lowest
10% of the population
was 18-20%.                                           Business income
                                                            Top quarter
                                                       employee income
                                                                              …and consumption
                              Bottom quarter
                                                                              are clearly unsustainable.
                            employee income
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008               Page 25               EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008             Page 26

Sustainable Consumption                                                   Sustainable Consumption

It’s more than the environment:


EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008               Page 27           EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008              Page 28
         EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                               33

  Sustainable Consumption                                                          Sustainable Consumption

                    Priority fields for action                                         What needs to be addressed?
                                                                                       For household consumption, it is
  Consumption                                   Influence of      Environmental
  clusters                                   private households     relevance          - construction and housing,
  Clothing                                        X                                    - food and nutrition, and
  Education/ training                                                        X
  Food                                            X                          X         - mobility (including tourism).
  Health care                                                                X
  Construction/housing                            X                          X
  Hygiene                                         X                                    For state consumption, it is
  Cleaning                                        X
  Recreation                                      X                                    education, health care and public life
  Social life                                                                X
  Transport                                       X                          X         (including security).
  Blue: household priorities. Black: public priorities. Grey: no priorities
 EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                         Page 29         EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008   Page 30

Sustainable Consumption                                                           Sustainable Consumption

 Fashion (carpets dominate textiles)
 Deep frozen food/convenience food
                                                                                       Today, too many people use money
                                                                                       they don’t have to buy things they don’t
 Leisure, except for the mobility involved
                                                                                       need to impress people they don’t like.
 Cotton if not grown in organic agriculture
 Short holidays                                                                        This leads to a vicious circle of hunting
 Single family houses
                                                                                       for status products, not necessarily
                                                                                       increasing the quality of life.
 Bigger & faster cars
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                         Page 31         EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008    Page 32
             34                               TURN ING THE TIDE : SUS TAINABLE CON SUMP TION AND PRODUC TION IN EUROPE

Sustainable Consumption                                                      Sustainable Consumption

                                                                                                                  Agents involved
                                                Cradle to cradle

                                                                                                                          Private households
                                                                             e.g. the „Actors‘

                                                                                                                                                                                                              Service providers
                                                                                                                                                                  Local authorities
                                                                                                                                               Leisure mobility
                                                                             Matrix“ mobility

                                                                             Shopping/recreation transport distances         +                    +                  +                   +           o           +                  o

                                                                             Transport for vocational purposes               +                     o                 +                   +           o           +                 +

                                                                             Transport for shopping/recreation purpose    ++                      +                  +                   +           o           +                  o

                                                                             Number of passenger cars                        +                     o                 +                   +          +            +                  o

                                                                             Average energy consumption                      +                     o                  o                  +          +            +                  o

EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                Page 33
                                                                             Holiday flights 26 September 2008
                                                                             EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels,
                                                                                                                          ++                      +                   o                  +
                                                                                                                                                                                      Page 34
                                                                                                                                                                                                     o            o                 o

   Sustainable Consumption                                                    Sustainable Consumption

                           Conditions of Change                               The toolbox
   •           Knowledge and motivation: the individual
               willingness to change: personal affordability                       Task: stimulate and coordinate agency -
   •           Acceptance, even better desirability of                             remember the actor matrix
               changed consumption patterns in the eyes of
               relevant peer groups: social affordability
                                                                                   Tools available
   •           Access to suitable alternatives, without
               disproportional excess effort: economic
                                                                                   legal §, economic €, informational I
                                                                                    Tools used: i, i, i, i. €, i, i, €, i, i, i, …
  EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                Page 35            EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                                                                Page 36
         EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                   35

Sustainable Consumption                                                                Sustainable Consumption

     What tool for which purpose?                                                           What tool for which purpose?
                                                                                           • To a certain degree, middle class consumers are
                                                                                             imitating the “rich and beautiful”. Inhibiting
                                                                                             this with economic instruments, while the rich
                                                                                             can still afford unsustainable consumption, will
                                                                                             cause social unrest.
                                                                                           • Others use consumption to compensate for
                                                                                             suffering in their professional career. Restricting
                                                                                             these possibilities doesn’t make a government
                                                                                             popular, in particular if some can still afford it.
                                                                                           • We need targeted policies to
                                                                                              influence the rich & beautiful.
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                       Page 37               EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008    Page 38

   Sustainable Consumption                                                            Sustainable Consumption

   The approach to economic affordability so
   far: stimulating supply via demand                                                                   Public procurement
                                                    Demand                            • Public procurement is since 25 years on the
                                                                                        agenda, and with no result so far. To credibly
                                                                            private     promise it once again, enforcement measures
                                                                                        must be made explicit.
      Business                              Production   Consumption
                                                                                      • We need role models setting examples, and
                                                                            public      government representatives must do their part
                                                                                        (including EU officials).
                                                                                      • Are all EU institutions compensating their CO2
                                                    Demand                              emissions already?
  EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                       Page 39             EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008    Page 40
             36                                    TURN ING THE TIDE : SUS TAINABLE CON SUMP TION AND PRODUC TION IN EUROPE

Sustainable Consumption                                                          Sustainable Consumption

                                                Insight 1                                                                         Insight 2
                                                                                 • Consumer information and labelling lead
The total neglect of legal measures in
                                                                                   to changes – after 10 years and more.
 support of sustainable consumption,                                               Legislation could do that in 10 days.
 and the half-hearted use of economic
                                                                                 • How much time do we have to act?
 ones (incentives, but not punishment)
                                                                                 • Market instruments have an important role
 have contributed to the limited
                                                                                   to play in the concert, but they cannot play
 success achieved so far.                                                          a solo, they are no silver bullet.

EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                     Page 41            EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                    Page 42

    Sustainable Consumption                                                           Sustainable Consumption

                                                Insight 3                             Sustainable consumption needs…
    • None of the instruments employed
      effectively addresses the social
      affordability, norms and standards of
      peer groups.
    • Leitbild changes are indispensible for
      mainstreaming sustainable
      consumption, however.
    EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                    Page 43              EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                   Page 44
       EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                              37

Sustainable Consumption                                          Sustainable Consumption

                                                                                                                     It’s about
   …a paradim shift, a new                                                                                           changing
   leitbild of progress and prosperity                                                                               social
                                                                                                                     of society.

EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008             Page 45    EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008               Page 46

 Sustainable Consumption                                            Sustainable Consumption

                                             Résume                                                             Résume
                                                                    • What is furthermore missing is the
 • Government initiatives are so far rather
                                                                      extension of the task list to include social,
   punctual and exemplary than broad and                              economic and institutional sustainability
   consistent.                                                        criteria, set clear targets and define
 • They are characterised by the unwillingness                        timelines.
   to interfere with consumer preferences, and                      • Indicators should report distance to target
   thus neglect legal provisions and economic                         on a regular basis (see the EEA SCP indi-
                                                                      cators), integrated with EUSDS
                                                                      and the structural indicators.
 EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008             Page 47      EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008               Page 48
             38                                  TURN ING THE TIDE : SUS TAINABLE CON SUMP TION AND PRODUC TION IN EUROPE

   Sustainable Consumption                                                      Sustainable Consumption

                                               Résume                                                                       Résume
   • Humans are social beings, as voters and as                                 • Today, in the age of affluence, sustainable
     consumers. Their social consumption                                          consumption means not making use of all
     decisions must be a key concern for politics,                                consumption opportunities available.
     with political leaders setting examples,
     precedents.                                                                • In the future age of scarcity (already
                                                                                  tangible amongst Europe’s poor)
   • As long as the role of institutions and the                                  sustainable consumption will mean how to
     co-evolution of the social, economic and                                     make a good life with the resources
     institutional dimensions is not taken into                                   available.
     account, programs are bound to fail.
   EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                        Page 49     EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008            Page 50

Sustainable Consumption                                                         Sustainable Consumption

              Sagfeguard purchasing power:
             GDP growth in the last
             two economic cycles
                                    Growth is not enough
                                                                                     When I stop
                                                                                     growing one
                                                                                     day, will you
                                                                                                                                     Are we
                                                   Private consumption (real)        dump me, too?
                                                                                                                                     for a life
Cycle 1:
2nd quarter 1998 to 1st quarter 2001
Cycle 2:
4th quarter 2004 to 3rd quarter 2007

EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008                        Page 51        EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008            Page 52
         EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                        39

Sustainable Consumption                                        Sustainable Consumption

The environmental question is now a                                       Thank you for your attention.
                                                                                   For further information and
 social one.                                                               to download presentations and publications
Both must be solved together,                                                     you are invited to visit the
                                                                           Sustainable Europe Research Institute at:
 or both won’t be solved:
The European model is at stake.                                                              
                                                                   Dr. Joachim H. Spangenberg
This is a challenge, but also an                                                        Chair,
                                                                   SERI Germany Vice Chair, Cologne, Germany
                                                                   UFZ Helmholtz Centre for Environment Research, Germany
 opportunity!                                                                         Université
                                                                   Professeur invite, Université Versailles St. Quentin, France
EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008            Page 53   EEB 2008 AGM, Brussels, 26 September 2008              Page 54
Doreen Fedrigo, EEB Policy Unit Coordinator
EEB Annual Conference
Power Point Presentation

“European Sustainable Consumption and Production”
26 September 2008

                                                                                             The challenge

     European Sustainable Consumption
                        and Production

                                               Doreen Fedrigo
                                     EU Policy Unit Coordinator

                                                                         European Environmental Bureau
                                                                         Bureau Européen de l’Environnement

              SCP / SIP Action Plan                                               SCP / SIP Action Plan
•     Welcome the long-awaited Action Plan –                         •    Long on process short on vision, clarity and ambition – where are we going?
      delayed many times                                                  How do we get to One Planet Living?
•     Very good to link different mechanisms to                      •    Strong energy/climate focus is misguided – this is not the only ecological
                                                                          challenge we are facing
      create or strengthen synergies and to help
      build more of a ‘critical mass’                                •    The Action Plan is a small first step towards sustainable consumption and
                                                                          production, but it makes more contribution to sustainable products than
•     Very good to include in sectoral activities one                     anything else
      of the key actors in shaping consumption                       •    Sustainable consumption (EU does consumer protection) – where are the
      patterns: retailers                                                 studies? Not just about information, very active research agenda
                                                                     •    How do we incorporate transportation, food and drink and housing (75-80%
                                                                          of households’ environmental impacts) into SCP? Systems approach needed
                                                                     •    SCP is meant to bring about accelerated shifts towards SCP – the action
                                                                          plan is ‘the strategy of the Commission to support an integrated approach in
                                                                          the EU, and internationally, to further sustainable consumption and
                                                                          production and promote its sustainable industrial policy’
                                                                     •    Implementation mechanisms – don’t let SCP become IPP 2.0
                                                                     •    Take SCP to a higher political level within DG ENV?

     European Environmental Bureau                                       European Environmental Bureau
     Bureau Européen de l’Environnement                                  Bureau Européen de l’Environnement
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                   43

                             What next?           Thank you for your attention
  •    Increase ambition level
  •    Full extension of the Ecodesign for
       Energy-using Products Directive –            Contact details:
       products, lifecycle, impacts
  •    Revisit stated preference for voluntary
       approach                                     Doreen Fedrigo
  •    Continue focus on harmonising fiscal         EU Policy Unit Coordinator
       incentive levels as first steps
  •    Advertising
  •    Develop broader eco-product policy           Email:
  •    Ecodesign policy – agreed EU                 Tel: +32 2 289 13 04
       ‘principles’ addressing supply chain too
  •    Studies on sustainable consumption
  •    Natural resources and green chemistry
  •    Efficiency to sufficiency (rebounds)
  •    Systems approach – ‘slow things first’

      European Environmental Bureau
      Bureau Européen de l’Environnement

      ANNEX 3
      Conference Participants

EEB ANNUAL CONFERENCE - 26 September 2008 - List of participants
ABRAHAMSEN       Uno          NFMS - Norsk forening mot stoy - Norwegian Association Against Noise   Norway
ALARIK           Oscar        Naturskyddsföreningen- Swedish Society for Nature Conservation         Sweden
ALBRIZIO         Mauro        LEGAMBIENTE (Italy)                                                    Belgium
ARAPIS           Gerassimos   ELLINIKI ETAIRIA                                                       Greece
ASTRÖM           Christell    NATUR OCH MILJO - The Finnish Society for Nature and Environment       Finland
ATAC             Deniz        TEMA FOUNDATION                                                        Turkey
BACKER           Frits        SNM - Stichting Natuur en Milieu                                       Netherlands
BALCERS          Ojars        Zemes draugi - FoE Latvia                                              Latvia
BASSI            Samuela      IEEP - Brussels                                                        Belgium
BAVEYE           Jacques      SPF Finances                                                           Belgium
BAX              Willemien    BEUC - Bureau européen de l’Union des Consommateurs                    Belgium
BELKHIRIA        Sami         DOW CORNING SA                                                         Belgium
BIZKOVA          Rut          MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                            Czech Republic
BLOMQUIST        Gunilla      MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                            Sweden
BOBO REMIJN      Anna         EESC - European Economic and Social Committee                          Belgium
BOCK             Sabine       WECF - Women in Europe for a Common Future                             Netherlands
BORGERS          Saskia       MINISTRY OF HOUSING, PLANNING & THE ENVIRONMENT (VROM)                 Netherlands
BORGO            Esmeralda    BBL - Bond Beter Leefmilieu Vlaanderen                                 Belgium
BOURDEL          Christian    4D - Dossiers et Débats pour le Développement durable                  France
BRAUN            Galras       MINISTRY OF FINANCE                                                    Hungary
BRÜCKNER         Lars         NEC Europe Ltd. Brussels Office                                         Belgium
BULKACZ          Vanessa      EEB - BEE                                                              Belgium
CASSINARI        Davide       CECODHAS - European Liaison Committee for Social Housing               Belgium
CICALE           Stefano      MINISTERO DELLO SVILUPPO ECONOMICO                                     Italy
CINGAL           Georges      SEPANSO-FNE                                                            France
CLIQUOT          Nathalie     EEB - BEE                                                              Belgium
CORCORAN         Frank        AN TAISCE                                                              Ireland
DAVELAAR         Henriette    MINISTRY OF HOUSING, PLANNING & THE ENVIRONMENT (VROM)                 Netherlands
DAVID            Hubert       MiNa-Raad van Vlaanderen (Flemish Advisory Council)                    Belgium
de BACKER        Willy        Global Footprint Network                                               Belgium
DE BRABANDERE    Kristof      BBL - Bond Beter Leefmilieu Vlaanderen                                 Belgium
DE POUS          Pieter       EEB - BEE                                                              Belgium
DE SADELEER      Nicolas      FACTULTES UNIVERSITAIRES SAINT-LOUIS                                   Belgium
DE SMEDT         Jan          FRDO-CFDD - Conseil fédéral du Développement durable                   Belgium
DE VLAMINCK      Anne         IEW - Inter Environnement Wallonie                                     Belgium
DE WEL           Bert         MiNa-Raad van Vlaanderen (Flemish Advisory Council)                    Belgium
DEGALLAIX        Laura        BEUC - Bureau européen de l’Union des Consommateurs                    Belgium
DIMAS            Stavros      EUROPEAN COMMISSION - Cabinet of Mr. Dimas                             Belgium
DUCHEMIN         Anne-Marie   CREPAN                                                                 France
DURIE            Fiona        EUROPEN aisbl                                                          Belgium
DVORAK           Vàclav       Permanent Representation of the Czech Republic to the EU               Belgium
DYCK-MADSEN      Soeren       DOR - Det Oekologiske Raad - The Ecological Council                    Denmark
E’SILVA          Rosalie      IFAW - International Fund for Animal Welfare                           Belgium
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                      47

EGER                    Akos             MTVSZ - National Society of Conservationists                                    Hungary
EKINS                   Paul             KING’S COLLEGE                                                                  UK
FALEMO                  Elisabeth        MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                                     Sweden
FEDRIGO                 Doreen           EEB - BEE                                                                       Belgium
FREYTAG                 Elisabeth        FEDERAL MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, YOUTH AND FAMILY AFFAIRS                       Austria
GABIZON                 Sascha           WECF - Women in Europe for a Common Future                                      Netherlands
GEERKEN                 Theo             Flemish Institute for Technological Research                                    Belgium
GIL DE SAN VICENTE      Edurne           VOICE of Irish Concern for the Environment                                      Ireland
GORMLEY                 John             Dept. for the Environment and Local Government                                  Ireland
GÖRRES                  Anselm           FÖS - Förderverein Ökologische Steuerreform e.V.                                Germany
HAARMANN                Kerstin          GREEN PARTY NORDRHINE-WESTFALIA                                                 Germany
HAJDU                   Klara            CEEWEB FOR BIODIVERSITY                                                         Hungary
HEINO                   Erja             Finnish Association for Nature Conservation                                     Finland
HENRIKSSON              Jens             SWEDISH CONSUMERS’ ASSOCIATION                                                  Sweden
HOFMANS                 Erol             ANPED - Northern Alliance for Sustainability                                    Netherlands
HONTELEZ                John             EEB - BEE                                                                       Belgium
JANARIZ-RODRIGO         Ariadna          Waste and Resources Action Program                                              UK
JANSON                  Johanna          MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                                     Sweden
JÄRÄ                    Taina            Ecosocial Forum Europe                                                          Austria
JENDROSKA               Jerzy            CPE - Centrum Prawa Ekologicznego - Environmental Law Center                    Poland
JEVIC                   Dusan            REC Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe                Hungary
JOANAZ DE MELO          Joao Miguel      GEOTA - Grupo de Estudos de Ordenamento do Territorio e Ambiente                Portugal
KALLIABETSOS            Giorgos          PAN-HELLENIC NETWORK OF ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATIONS                                Greece
KALUSCH                 Oliver           BBU - Bundesverband Bürgerinitiative Umweltschutz                               Germany
KANELLIS                George           PAN-HELLENIC NETWORK OF ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATIONS                                Greece
KARLSSON                Mikael           Naturskyddsföreningen- Swedish Society for Nature Conservation                  Sweden
KISS                    Károly           CAAG - Clean Air Action Group - Levegö Munkacsoport                             Hungary
KODEROVA                Alena            MINISTRY OF FINANCE                                                             Czech Republic
KOHL                    Andrea           WWF - EUROPEAN POLICY OFFICE                                                    Belgium
KORZINEK                Annika           EESC - European Economic and Social Committee                                   Belgium
KOVACS                  Laszlo           EUROPEAN COMMISSION                                                             Belgium
KRAAV                   Eva              Ministry of the Environment                                                     Estonia
KROUTILOVA              Marcela          Permanent Representation of the Czech Republic to the EU                        Belgium
KUMAR                   Sanjeev          WWF - EUROPEAN POLICY OFFICE                                                    Belgium
LA COUR                 Jens             DN - Danmarks Naturfredningsforening - Danish Society for Nature Conservation   Denmark
LAFFITE                                  WWF - EUROPEAN POLICY OFFICE                                                    Belgium
LAGE TEIXEIRA           Carlos Manuel G. LPN - Liga Para a Proteccao Da Natureza                                         Portugal
LITTLECOTT              Chris            GREEN ALLIANCE                                                                  UK
LOEWE                   Christian        UMWELTBUNDESAMT - Federal Environmental Agency                                  Germany
LOPES DA SILVA          Paula            QUERCUS - Associação Nacional de Conservação da Natureza                        Portugal
LORZ                    Bettina          EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                            Belgium
LOTTES                  Ralf             ECOS - European Environmental Citizens’ Organisation for Standardisation        Belgium
LUDEWIG                 Damian           FÖS - Förderverein Ökologische Steuerreform e.V.                                Germany
LUKACS                  Andras           CAAG - Clean Air Action Group - Levegö Munkacsoport                             Hungary
LYMBERIDI               Elena M.         EEB - BEE                                                                       Belgium
LYNHAM                  Barry                                                                                            Belgium
MAILLET                 Colette          FRAPEL                                                                          France
MAKELA                  Timo Tapani      EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                            Belgium
MANNON                  Théodore         NATURA                                                                          Luxembourg

MARIN                 Ines         UK NATURE & LANDSCAPE OFFICE                                                 Belgium
MARO                  Pendo        EEB - BEE                                                                    Belgium
MARQUEZ URIARTE       Tatiana      EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                         Belgium
MARTIN-SOSA RODRIGUEZ Samuel       ECOLOGISTAS EN ACCION                                                        Spain
MAURER                Sylvia       BEUC - Bureau européen de l’Union des Consommateurs                          Belgium
MAYR                  Claus        NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland                                           Germany
MESIK                 Juraj        STUZ/SR - Society for Sustainable Living - Slovak Republic                   Slovakia
MIEGE                 Robin        EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                         Belgium
MIKOSA                Zaneta       MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                                  Latvia
MOISI                 Petruta      CCEG - Centrul de Consultanta Ecologica Galati                               Romania
MONGODIN              Frédérique   RREUSE                                                                       Belgium
MORALES               Blanca       EEB - BEE                                                                    Belgium
MOYZESOVA             Katarina     PERMANENT REPRESENTATION OF SLOVAKIA TO THE EU                               Belgium
MUGDAL                Shailendra   BIO Intelligence Services                                                    France
MULEVICIUTE           Rasa         Office of the Prime Minister                                                  Lithuania
MULLIGAN              Philip       ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION UK                                                  UK
NIESTROY              Ingeborg     EEAC- European Environmental and Sustainable Development Advisory Councils   Belgium
NOSAL                 Anna         MINISTRY OF ECONOMY                                                          Poland
NOTENBOOM             Jos          Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - RIVM                           Netherlands
NUVELSTIJN            Patrick      NATUURMONUMENTEN - Nature Monuments                                          Netherlands
OWEN                  Charlotte    EUROPEAN ENVIRONMENT AND PACKAGING LAW                                       Belgium
PALEOKRASSAS          Yannis       ELLINIKI ETAIRIA                                                             Greece
PARENTI               Alberto      EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                         Belgium
PASA                  Iulia        Romair Consulting                                                            Romania
PETRLIK               Jindrich     ARNIKA ASSOCIATION                                                           Czech Republic
PIENKOWSKI            Jerzy        EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                         Belgium
PIRINGER              Markus       ÖKO-BÜRO - Coordination Bureau of Austrian Environmental NGOs                Austria
PRIMAROLO             Mike         EFCF - European Federation of City Farms                                     UK
PROSCHEK-HAUPTMANN    Michael      UMWELTDACHVERBAND                                                            Austria
PUZULE                GuNta        Ministry of Finance                                                          Latvia
RADEMAKER             Jan          ANPED - Northern Alliance for Sustainability                                 Netherlands
RADZIEJEWSKI          Grzegorz     PERMANENT REPRESENTATION OF POLAND TO THE EU                                 Belgium
RAEVA                 Dragomira    EEB - BEE                                                                    Belgium
RAWSKA-OLEJNICZAK     Jolanta      MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                                  Poland
RIEGLER               Klemens      Ecosocial Forum Europe                                                       Austria
ROSENSTOCK            Manfred      EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                         Belgium
ROUMET                Claire       CECODHAS - European Liaison Committee for Social Housing                     Belgium
RULLMANN              Christoph    SDW - SCHUTZGEM. DEUTSCHER WALD                                              Germany
RUT                   Ondrej       Green Circle - Zeleny kruh                                                   Czech Republic
SAETHER               Bent Arne    Ministry of the Environment                                                  Norway
SARTORI               Amalia       EP - European Parliament                                                     Belgium
SCHAIBLE              Christian    EEB - BEE                                                                    Belgium
SCHILLING             Johannes     EEA - European Environmental Agency                                          Belgium
SCHLEGELMILCH         Kai          FÖS - Förderverein Ökologische Steuerreform e.V.                             Germany
SCHMIDT               Sebastian    FÖS - Förderverein Ökologische Steuerreform e.V.                             Germany
SCHNEIDER             Regina       EEB - BEE                                                                    Belgium
SEJOURNE              Valérie      A.I.S.E. - Intern. Assoc. for Soaps, Detergents, and Maintenance Products    Belgium
SHERIDAN              Kathryn                                                                                   Belgium
SILINA                Mara         EEB - BEE                                                                    Belgium
EEB 2008 ANNUAL CONFERENCE REPORT                                                                                                      49

SIVITOS                 Stamatis     ECOS - European Environmental Citizens’ Organisation for Standardisation           Belgium
SLABE                   Anamarija    ITR - INSTITUT ZA TRAJNOSTNI RAZVOJ - Institute for Sustainable Development        Slovenia
SPANGENBERG             Joachim      INES                                                                               Germany
SZLEZAK                 Jozsef       REC Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe                   Hungary
TAMANDL                 Cristoph     Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries in the EU                           Belgium
TELGMAA                 Juhan        ESNC - Estonian Society for Nature Conservation                                    Estonia
TEN BRINK               Patrick      IEEP - Brussels                                                                    Belgium
THEODOROU               Christos     FEEO - Federation of Environmental & Ecological Organisations of Cyprus            Cyprus
TORKLER                 Peter        WWF Deutschland - Berlin Office                                                     Germany
TORREGROSSA             Marco        EPE European Partners for the Environment                                          Belgium
TOULOUSE                Edouard      ECOS - European Environmental Citizens’ Organisation for Standardisation           Belgium
VAN DER LINDEN          Inge         Federal Public Service for Public Health, Food Safety and Environment              Belgium
VAN ENGELAND            Tineke       Netwerk Bewust Verbruiken                                                          Belgium
VAN GEMERT              Nicole       WECF - Women in Europe for a Common Future                                         Netherlands
VAN ZOMEREN             Frederique   PERMANENT REPRESENTATION OF THE NETHERLANDS TO THE EU                              Belgium
VANDERMOSTEN            Gert         VODO vzw - Vlaams Overleg Duurzame Ontwikkeling                                    Belgium
VANHUE                  Laura        Centre Urbain                                                                      Belgium
VERHEIJ                 Herman       WADDENVERENIGING                                                                   Nether-lands
VERSLUYS                Helen        OVAM - Openbare Afvalstoffenmaatschappij voor het Vlaamse Gewest                   Belgium
VIDOVA                  Maria        MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                                        Slovakia
VON MOLTKE              Anja         UNEP Regional Office for Europe                                                     Switzerland
VUERICH                 Michela      ANEC - Eur. Association for the Co-ord. of Consumer Represen. in Standardisation   Belgium
WEJCHERT                Jakub        EUROPEAN COMMISSION - DG Environment                                               Belgium
WOLCZUK                 Beata        PERMANENT REPRESENTATION OF POLAND TO THE EU                                       Belgium
XHONNEUX                Valérie      IEW - Inter Environnement Wallonie                                                 Belgium
ZILLI                   Rosita       EURO-COOP - Communauté Européenne des Coopératives de Consommateurs                Belgium
ZILLNER                 Christof     FEAD - Féd. europ. des activités du déchet et de l’environnement                   Belgium
ZIMMERMANNOVA           Jarmiila     MINISTRY OF THE ENVIRONMENT                                                        Czech Republic
ZYGOMALAS               Cristina     Comunicazione advertising                                                          Germany
Federation of Environmental Citizens Organisations
Fédération d’Organisations environnementale de Citoyens

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