DOS Windows IP Commands by yaoyufang

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									DOS / Windows IP Commands

Below, you'll find a list of the most common IP commands for Windows and DOS. These
include ipconfig, trace route, netstat, arp, route, hostname, control netconnections, and
other popular DOS and Windows IP commands.

Display Connection Configuration: ipconfig /all

Display DNS Cache Info: ipconfig /displaydns

Clear DNS Cache: ipconfig /flushdns

Release All IP Address Connections: ipconfig /release

Renew All IP Address Connections: ipconfig /renew

Re-Register the DNS connections: ipconfig /registerdns

Change/Modify DHCP Class ID: ipconfig /setclassid

Network Connections: control netconnections

Network Setup Wizard: netsetup.cpl

Test Connectivity: ping whatismyip.com

Trace Route: tracert

Displays the TCP/IP protocol sessions: netstat

Display Local Route: route

Display Resolved MAC Addresses: arp

Display Name of Computer Currently on: hostname

Display DHCP Class Information: ipconfig /showclassid

NameServer Lookup: nslookup whatismyip.com

Read more: http://www.whatismyip.com/faq/dos-windows-ip-
commands.asp#ixzz1Kh6THatf
12 Expert Google Search Tips

  1. Explicit Phrase:
     Lets say you are looking for content about internet marketing. Instead of just
     typing internet marketing into the Google search box, you will likely be better off
     searching explicitly for the phrase. To do this, simply enclose the search phrase
     within double quotes.

     Example: "internet marketing"

  2. Exclude Words:
     Lets say you want to search for content about internet marketing, but you want to
     exclude any results that contain the term advertising. To do this, simply use the "-
     " sign in front of the word you want to exclude.

     Example Search: internet marketing -advertising

  3. Site Specific Search:
     Often, you want to search a specific website for content that matches a certain
     phrase. Even if the site doesn‘t support a built-in search feature, you can use
     Google to search the site for your term. Simply use the "site:somesite.com"
     modifier.

     Example: "internet marketing" site:www.smallbusinesshub.com

  4. Similar Words and Synonyms:
     Let‘s say you are want to include a word in your search, but want to include
     results that contain similar words or synonyms. To do this, use the "~" in front of
     the word.

     Example: "internet marketing" ~professional

  5. Specific Document Types:
     If you‘re looking to find results that are of a specific type, you can use the
     modifier "filetype:". For example, you might want to find only PowerPoint
     presentations related to internet marketing.

     Example: "internet marketing" filetype:ppt

  6. This OR That:
     By default, when you do a search, Google will include all the terms specified in
     the search. If you are looking for any one of one or more terms to match, then
     you can use the OR operator. (Note: The OR has to be capitalized).
       Example: internet marketing OR advertising

   7. Phone Listing:
      Let‘s say someone calls you on your mobile number and you don‘t know how it
      is. If all you have is a phone number, you can look it up on Google using the
      phonebook feature.

       Example: phonebook:617-555-1212 (note: the provided number does not work –
       you‘ll have to use a real number to get any results).

   8. Area Code Lookup:
      If all you need to do is to look-up the area code for a phone number, just enter the
      3-digit area code and Google will tell you where it‘s from.

       Example: 617

   9. Numeric Ranges:
      This is a rarely used, but highly useful tip. Let‘s say you want to find results that
      contain any of a range of numbers. You can do this by using the X..Y modifier
      (in case this is hard to read, what‘s between the X and Y are two periods. This
      type of search is useful for years (as shown below), prices or anywhere where you
      want to provide a series of numbers.

       Example: president 1940..1950

   10. Stock (Ticker Symbol):
       Just enter a valid ticker symbol as your search term and Google will give you the
       current financials and a quick thumb-nail chart for the stock.

       Example: GOOG

   11. Calculator:
       The next time you need to do a quick calculation, instead of bringing up the
       Calculator applet, you can just type your expression in to Google.

       Example: 48512 * 1.02

   12. Word Definitions:
       If you need to quickly look up the definition of a word or phrase, simply use the
       "define:" command.

       Example: define:plethora


Read more: http://blog.hubspot.com/blog/tabid/6307/bid/1264/12-Quick-Tips-To-Search-
Google-Like-An-Expert.aspx#ixzz1KhEnnEph
Google Search Tips (Ultimate Google
Guide)
The Ultimate Google Guide can help you to improve your search results and SERP
analysis with less-known search Tips

First Things First
In this Google guide I‘ll show you some less-known google operators and search tips.
Please note that since this advanced operators are sometimes used by spam-bot, black hat
seos and other people google does not loves, you may bump in 403-Access denied
screens like the one I showed to you in my Google hates Doughnuts (and Advanced
Search Strings) article.
Don‘t be scared if this happens, nothing is wrong with you / your pc / your search, is just
google that it‘s a little nervous ;)

Things to Know
       google is not case sensitive: searching for doughnut is the same as DoughNuT
       search operators are case sensitive: searching for doughnuts OR donuts uses OR
        as the google operator, while doughnuts or donuts does not.
       google default is to search for pages that include all of your search terms. Also the
        order of your search term is somehow relevant.
       google excludes common words (also called stop words) like ―I‖ , ―the‖ etc.
       some operators can be combined, while others must be used alone.

Basic Operators
+

forces words to be included in search results. Useful with stop words that otherwise will
be discarded

-

prevents a search term to show in results, for example searching for doughnut -cream can
help you to avoid creamy doughnuts
OR

returns documents with one of the given terms, like doughnut OR donut. You can also
use | instead of OR: doughnut | donut

”“

using quotes forces google to search for the exact phrase (including stop words), try
―doughnut at midnight‖ and doughnut at midnight (actually, using quotes is similar, but
not equals, to doughnut-at-midnight … it would be interesting to know what is the exact
difference in SERP)

~

allow to search also for synonyms of the given word. searching for doughnut ~tips finds
also pages with the word help or guide etc.

*

means every word. try ―doughnuts with *‖

..

Used to search in a range of numbers, ―2..20 doughnuts‖ will find pages containing ―I eat
3 doughnuts a day‖ and ―I‘ll never eat more than 15 doughnuts in a month‖

This operators can be combined to create advanced queries, for example ―I eat 1..100
doughnut OR doughnuts OR donut OR donuts each *‖

Advanced google operators
daterange:

Returns documents modified in the given time interval. Dates should be entered in julian
format (so geeky, but a bit unusable).
Using doughnuts daterange:2454091-2454101 you can find who talked about doughnuts
in the last ten days of 2006 :)

filetype:

returns links to documents with the given file type.
For example searching for doughnuts filetype:java will find portable and object-oriented
doughnuts.
Currently officially supported file types are pdf, ps, wk1, wk2, wk3, wk4, wk5, wki, wks,
wku, lwp, mw, xls, ppt, doc, wks, wps, wdb, wri, rtf, swf, ans, txt, but other are supported
as well, like xml, cpp, java etc.
site:

restricts the results to the given domain. site:mapelli.info will find all indexed page on
www.mapelli.info, while site:mapelli.info doughnuts will find all doughnuts-related
pages on www.mapelli.info .
update: you can use the site operator also to find your supplemental results using this
query: site:www.mapelli.info *** -sljktf. (taken from an intresting article about Google
Supplemental Index Results by Aaron Wall)

cache:

shows the cached version of given webpage. Other words in the query will be highlighted
in the returned page, try cache:www.mapelli.info doughnuts

link:

lists webpages that link to the given webpage. link:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doughnut
will list webpages with links pointing to wikipedia‘s voice for Doughnut

related:

returns pages that google somehow thiks are related to the given page. Not always
accurate.

info:

returns some informations about the given web page. Typically website and description.

define:

returns the definition of a given word. Try define:doughnuts (in case you are an alien and
you don‘t know what a Doughnut is 8) )

phonebook:

search in residential phone book. sample: phonebook:smith Los Angeles

stoks:

returns stock info: try stocks:goog

weather:

weather informations for the given city. weather:los angeles
movie:

returns all movies related to the search term given. Sample: movie:doughnuts
You can also find movies by locations: movie:nyc , movie 10015

flights

you can search for flights inside USA using the airport code (does not work for every
airport). sample: jfk lax

SEO-oriented Operators
allintitle:

Search for documents with the given words in their title. allintitle:doughnuts chocolate
will find all the documents with title containing ‗doughnuts‘ and ‗chocolate‘. This
operator cannot be combined with others.

intitle:

Search for documents with the first word after the intitle operator in their title.
intitle:doughnuts chocolate will find all the documents with title containing ‗doughnuts‘
and talking about chocolate. Note that the word ‗chocolate‘ is not necessarily in the title.

allintext:

Search for documents with the given words in their text. allintext:doughnuts chocolate
will find all the documents with text containing ‗doughnuts‘ and ‗chocolate‘.This
operator cannot be combined with others.

intext:

Search for documents with the first word after the intext operator in their text.
intext:doughnuts chocolate will find all the documents with text containing ‗doughnuts‘
and talking about chocolate. Note that the word ‗chocolate‘ is not necessarily in the text

allinurl:

Search for documents with the given words in their url. allinurl:doughnuts chocolate will
find all the documents with url containing ‗doughnuts‘ and ‗chocolate‘. This operator
cannot be combined with others.
inurl:

Search for documents with the first word after the inurl operator in their url.
inurl:doughnuts chocolate will find all the documents with url containing ‗doughnuts‘
and talking about chocolate. Note that the word ‗chocolate‘ is not necessarily in the text

allinanchor:

Search for documents with the given words in an anchor. allinurl:doughnuts chocolate
will find all the documents with anchor text containing ‗doughnuts‘ and ‗chocolate‘. This
operator cannot be combined with others.

inanchor:

Search for documents with the first word after the operator in an anchor.
inanchor:doughnuts chocolate will find all the documents with anchor containing
‗doughnuts‘ and talking about chocolate. Note that the word ‗chocolate‘ is not necessarily
in an anchor.

Google Calculator Guide
+–*/%^

you can use Google as a calculator, using standard symbols, for example
3+2 returns 5
4-1 returns 3
6*8 returns 48
15/5 returns 3
3^2 returns 9 (3 raised to power 2)
5%2 returns 1 (the remainder after division)

sqrt,nth root ofx

sqrt(49) returns 7, if you need non-square roots you can use for example 3th root of 27.

sin, cos, arctan, tan…

google calculator supports various trigonometic functions, expecting a radians value, that
can be expressed also using the pi constant: sin(pi/2), tan (2/3*pi)

ln

returns natural (base e) logarithm: ln(e^5)
log

returns base 10 logarithm: log(100)

!

returns n factorial: 3!

Numbers can be entered also in hexadecimal, octal and binary base, using 0x, 0o and 0b
prefixes, for example 5 +0xf+0b1001

Conversions

Google supports a lot of conversion tools, here is a small guide:

in degrees / in radians

you can convert radians to degrees: pi/2 in degrees or convert degrees into radians: 90
degrees in radians

in hex / in binary / in octal / in decimal

you can convert to each of the given bases: 16 in hex , 16 in octal, 16 in binary, 0×11 in
decimal
you can also use 2007 in roman numerals (in case you‘re building a temple and you need
to know how to write the year on it)

distance conversions

you can use 100miles in km , 1m in mm, but also 200000 km in light-second etc.

speed, time, temperature

just some samples:
100mph in kph
1 month in seconds
280 kelvin in celsius
50 fahrenheit in celsius

currency

3 € in $ or 3 euros in dollars
cooking

I love this…
3 teaspoons in oz
1 cup + 1 tablespoon in teaspoon

There are a lot of others possible conversions, just try! :)




filetype:doc inurl:resume business analyst

I got 987 results with the first result coming from a Morgan Stanely Software Business
Analyst! Now you can see what you need to be doing if you wanted to have any chance
of working there!

filetype:doc inurl:resume web designer

This search will get you 38,000+ resumes, which is way too many! And the reason why
is because the words ―web‖ and ―designer‖ is being searched separately and if it finds
either one anywhere in the Word doc, it‘ll show that as an option. I get exactly what you
want, put the word in quotes as shown:

filetype:doc inurl:resume “web designer”

And now you got about 1,300 resumes! You can keep putting more filters depending on
your exact role, such as ―web desinger II‖, which gives you only two resumes!!

You should also make sure you use filetype:pdf because there are lots of people who
have their resumes posted in PDF format.

But this is not only great for resumes, let‘s say you need to give a PowerPoint
presentation on secure wireless networks and you‘d like to see what others have done to
get an idea of how to structure yours, then you can do this query:

filetype:ppt inurl:secure wireless – about 80 results

OR

filetype:ppt secure wireless – about 80,000 results
Google Guide > Part I: Query Input > Search Operators
« Previous: Using Search Operators


Search Operators

The following table lists the search operators that work with each Google search service.
Click on an operator to jump to its description — or, to read about all of the operators,
simply scroll down and read all of this page.

   Search
                                             Search Operators
   Service
                allinanchor:, allintext:, allintitle:, allinurl:, cache:,
 Web Search     define:, filetype:, id:, inanchor:, info:, intext:, intitle:,
                inurl:, link:, phonebook:, related:, site:

Image Search allintitle:, allinurl:, filetype:, inurl:, intitle:, site:
                allintext:, allintitle:, author:, group:, insubject:, intext:,
   Groups       intitle:

                allintext:, allintitle:, allinurl:, ext:, filetype:, intext:,
  Directory
                intitle:, inurl:

                allintext:, allintitle:, allinurl:, intext:, intitle:, inurl:,
    News
                location:, source:

   Product
                allintext:, allintitle:
   Search

The following is an alphabetical list of the search operators. This list includes operators
that are not officially supported by Google and not listed in Google‘s online help.

Note: Google may change how undocumented operators work or may eliminate them
completely.

Each entry typically includes the syntax, the capabilities, and an example. Some of the
search operators won‘t work as intended if you put a space between the colon (:) and the
subsequent query word. If you don‘t care to check which search operators require no
space after the colon, always place the keyword immediately next to the colon. Many
search operators can appear anywhere in your query. In our examples, we place the
search operator as far to the right as possible. We do this because the Advanced Search
form writes queries in this way. Also, such a convention makes it clearer as to which
operators are associated with which terms.

allinanchor:

       If you start your query with allinanchor:, Google restricts results to pages
       containing all query terms you specify in the anchor text on links to the page. For
       example, [ allinanchor: best museums sydney ] will return only pages in which the
       anchor text on links to the pages contain the words ―best,‖ ―museums,‖ and
       ―sydney.‖

       Anchor text is the text on a page that is linked to another web page or a different
       place on the current page. When you click on anchor text, you will be taken to the
       page or place on the page to which it is linked. When using allinanchor: in
       your query, do not include any other search operators. The functionality of
       allinanchor: is also available through the Advanced Web Search page, under
       Occurrences.

allintext:

       If you start your query with allintext:, Google restricts results to those
       containing all the query terms you specify in the text of the page. For example,
       [ allintext: travel packing list ] will return only pages in which the words ―travel,‖
       ―packing,‖ and ―list‖ appear in the text of the page. This functionality can also be
       obtained through the Advanced Web Search page, under Occurrences.

allintitle:

       If you start your query with allintitle:, Google restricts results to those
       containing all the query terms you specify in the title. For example, [ allintitle:
       detect plagiarism ] will return only documents that contain the words ―detect‖ and
       ―plagiarism‖ in the title. This functionality can also be obtained through the
       Advanced Web Search page, under Occurrences.

       The title of a webpage is usually displayed at the top of the browser window and
       in the first line of Google‘s search results for a page. The author of a website
       specifies the title of a page with the HTML TITLE element. There‘s only one title
       in a webpage. When using allintitle: in your query, do not include any other
       search operators. The functionality of allintitle: is also available through the
       Advanced Web Search page, under Occurrences.

       In Image Search, the operator allintitle: will return images in files whose
       names contain the terms that you specify.

       In Google News, the operator allintitle: will return articles whose titles
       include the terms you specify.
allinurl:

         If you start your query with allinurl:, Google restricts results to those
         containing all the query terms you specify in the URL. For example, [ allinurl:
         google faq ] will return only documents that contain the words ―google‖ and ―faq‖
         in the URL, such as ―www.google.com/help/faq.html‖. This functionality can
         also be obtained through the Advanced Web Search page, under Occurrences.

         In URLs, words are often run together. They need not be run together when
         you‘re using allinurl:.

         In Google News, the operator allinurl: will return articles whose titles include
         the terms you specify.

         The Uniform Resource Locator, more commonly known as URL, is the address
         that specifies the location of a file on the Internet. When using allinurl: in your
         query, do not include any other search operators. The functionality of allinurl:
         is also available through the Advanced Web Search page, under Occurrences.

author:

         If you include author: in your query, Google will restrict your Google Groups
         results to include newsgroup articles by the author you specify. The author can be
         a full or partial name or email address. For example, [ children author:john
         author:doe ] or [ children author:doe@someaddress.com ] return articles that
         contain the word ―children‖ written by John Doe or doe@someaddress.com.

         Google will search for exactly what you specify. If your query contains
         [ author:‖John Doe‖ ] (with quotes), Google won‘t find articles where the author
         is specified as ―Doe, John.‖

cache:

         The query cache:url will display Google‘s cached version of a web page,
         instead of the current version of the page. For example, [ cache:www.eff.org ]
         will show Google‘s cached version of the Electronic Frontier Foundation home
         page.

         Note: Do not put a space between cache: and the URL (web address).

         On the cached version of a page, Google will highlight terms in your query that
         appear after the cache: search operator. For example,
         [ cache:www.pandemonia.com/flying/ fly diary ] will show Google‘s cached
         version of Flight Diary in which Hamish Reid‘s documents what‘s involved in
         learning how to fly with the terms ―fly‖ and ―diary‖ highlighted.

define:
         If you start your query with define:, Google shows definitions from pages on the
         web for the term that follows. This advanced search operator is useful for finding
         definitions of words, phrases, and acronyms. For example, [ define: blog ] will
         show definitions for ―Blog‖ (weB LOG).

ext:

         This is an undocumented alias for filetype:.

filetype:

         If you include filetype:suffix in your query, Google will restrict the results to
         pages whose names end in suffix. For example, [ web page evaluation checklist
         filetype:pdf ] will return Adobe Acrobat pdf files that match the terms ―web,‖
         ―page,‖ ―evaluation,‖ and ―checklist.‖ You can restrict the results to pages whose
         names end with pdf and doc by using the OR operator, e.g. [ email security
         filetype:pdf OR filetype:doc ].

         When you don‘t specify a File Format in the Advanced Search Form or the
         filetype: operator, Google searches a variety of file formats; see the table in
         File Type Conversion.

group:

         If you include group: in your query, Google will restrict your Google Groups
         results to newsgroup articles from certain groups or subareas. For example, [ sleep
         group:misc.kids.moderated ] will return articles in the group misc.kids.moderated
         that contain the word ―sleep‖ and [ sleep group:misc.kids ] will return articles in
         the subarea misc.kids that contain the word ―sleep.‖

id:

         This is an undocumented alias for info:.

inanchor:

         If you include inanchor: in your query, Google will restrict the results to pages
         containing the query terms you specify in the anchor text or links to the page. For
         example, [ restaurants inanchor:gourmet ] will return pages in which the anchor
         text on links to the pages contain the word ―gourmet‖ and the page contains the
         word ―restaurants.‖

info:

         The query info:URL will present some information about the corresponding web
         page. For instance, [ info:gothotel.com ] will show information about the national
         hotel directory GotHotel.com home page.
         Note: There must be no space between the info: and the web page URL.

         This functionality can also be obtained by typing the web page URL directly into
         a Google search box.

insubject:

         If you include insubject: in your query, Google will restrict articles in Google
         Groups to those that contain the terms you specify in the subject. For example,
         [ insubject:‖falling asleep‖ ] will return Google Group articles that contain the
         phrase ―falling asleep‖ in the subject.

         Equivalent to intitle:.

intext:

         The query intext:term restricts results to documents containing term in the text.
         For instance, [ Hamish Reid intext:pandemonia ] will return documents that
         mention the word ―pandemonia‖ in the text, and mention the names ―Hamish‖
         and ―Reid‖ anywhere in the document (text or not).

         Note: There must be no space between the intext: and the following word.

         Putting intext: in front of every word in your query is equivalent to putting
         allintext: at the front of your query, e.g., [ intext:handsome intext:poets ] is the
         same as [ allintext: handsome poets ].

intitle:

         The query intitle:term restricts results to documents containing term in the
         title. For instance, [ flu shot intitle:help ] will return documents that mention the
         word ―help‖ in their titles, and mention the words ―flu‖ and ―shot‖ anywhere in
         the document (title or not).

         Note: There must be no space between the intitle: and the following word.

         Putting intitle: in front of every word in your query is equivalent to putting
         allintitle: at the front of your query, e.g., [ intitle:google intitle:search ] is the
         same as [ allintitle: google search ].

inurl:

         If you include inurl: in your query, Google will restrict the results to documents
         containing that word in the URL. For instance,
         [ inurl:print site:www.googleguide.com ] searches for pages on Google Guide in
         which the URL contains the word ―print.‖ It finds pdf files that are in the
         directory or folder named ―print‖ on the Google Guide website. The query
        [ inurl:healthy eating ] will return documents that mention the words ―healthy‖ in
        their URL, and mention the word ―eating‖ anywhere in the document.

        Note: There must be no space between the inurl: and the following word.

        Putting inurl: in front of every word in your query is equivalent to putting
        allinurl: at the front of your query, e.g., [ inurl:healthy inurl:eating ] is the
        same as [ allinurl: healthy eating ].

        In URLs, words are often run together. They need not be run together when
        you‘re using inurl:.

link:

        The query link:URL shows pages that point to that URL. For example, to find
        pages that point to Google Guide‘s home page, enter:

        [ link:www.googleguide.com ]

        Note: According to Google‘s documentation, ―you cannot combine a link: search
        with a regular keyword search.‖

        Also note that when you combine link: with another advanced operator, Google
        may not return all the pages that match. The following queries should return lots
        of results, as you can see if you remove the -site: term in each of these queries.

        Find links to the Google home page not on Google‘s own site.

        [ link:www.google.com -site:google.com ]

        Find links to the UK Owners Direct home page not on its own site.

        [ link:www.www.ownersdirect.co.uk -site:ownersdirect.co.uk ]

location:

        If you include location: in your query on Google News, only articles from the
        location you specify will be returned. For example, [ queen location:canada ] will
        show articles that match the term ―queen‖ from sites in Canada. Many other
        country names work; try them and see.

        Two-letter US state abbreviations match individual US states, and two-letter
        Canadian province abbreviations (like NS for Nova Scotia) also work — although
        some provinces don‘t have many newspapers online, so you may not get many
        results. Some other two-letter abbreviations — such as UK for the United
        Kingdom — are also available.
movie:

         If you include movie: in your query, Google will find movie-related information.
         For examples, see Google‘s Blog.

phonebook:

         If you start your query with phonebook:, Google shows all public U.S. resudence
         telephone listings (name, address, phone number) for the person you specify. For
         example, [ phonebook: John Doe New York NY ] will show phonebook listings
         of everyone named John Doe in New York, NY.

related:

         The query related:URL will list web pages that are similar to the web page you
         specify. For instance, [ related:www.consumerreports.org ] will list web pages
         that are similar to the Consumer Reports home page.

         Note: Don‘t include a space between the related: and the web page url.

         You can also find similar pages from the ―Similar pages‖ link on Google‘s main
         results page, and from the similar selector in the Page-Specific Search area of the
         Advanced Search page. If you expect to search frequently for similar pages,
         consider installing a GoogleScout browser button, which scouts for similar pages.

site:

         If you include site: in your query, Google will restrict your search results to the
         site or domain you specify. For example, [ admissions site:www.lse.ac.uk ] will
         show admissions information from London School of Economics‘ site and [ peace
         site:gov ] will find pages about peace within the .gov domain. You can specify a
         domain with or without a period, e.g., either as .gov or gov.

         Note: Do not include a space between the ―site:‖ and the domain.

         You can use many of the search operators in conjunction with the basic search
         operators +, –, OR, and " ". For example, to find information on Windows
         security from all sites except microsoft.com, enter:

         [ windows security –site:microsoft.com ]

         You can also restrict your results to a site or domain through the domains selector
         on the Advanced Search page.

source:
       If you include source: in your query, Google News will restrict your search to
       articles from the news source with the ID you specify. For example, [ election
       source:new_york_times ] will return articles with the word ―election‖ that appear
       in the New York Times.

       To find a news source ID, enter a query that includes a term and the name of the
       publication you‘re seeking. You can also specify the publication name in the
       ―news source‖ field in the Advanced News Search form. You‘ll find the news
       source ID in the query box, following the source: search operator. For example,
       let‘s say you enter the publication name Ha‘aretz in the News Source box, then
       you click the Google Search button. The results page appears, and its search box
       contains [ peace source:ha_aretz__subscription_ ]. This means that the news
       source ID is ha_aretz__subscription_. This query will only return articles that
       include the word ―peace‖ from the Israeli newspaper Ha‘aretz.

weather

       If you enter a query with the word weather and a city or location name, if Google
       recognizes the location, the forecast will appear at the top of the results page.
       Otherwise, your results will usually include links to sites with the weather
       conditions and forecast for that location.

       Since weather is not an advanced operator, there is no need to include a colon
       after the word. For example, [ weather Sunnyvale CA ] will return the weather for
       Sunnyvale, California and [ weather 94041 ] will return the weather for the city
       containing the zip code (US postal code) 94041, which is Mountain View,
       California.

The Google Guide Advanced Operator Quick Reference
(www.googleguide.com/advanced_operators_reference.html) provides a nice
summary of the search operators grouped by type. It includes search operators not yet
documented by Google, e.g., allinanchor:, allintext:, author:, ext:, group:, id:,
insubject:, intext:, intitle:, location:, phonebook:, and source:.

Note: Google may change how undocumented operators work or eliminate them
completely. If you notice problems or changes in Google‘s undocumented operators,
please let us know.




(A printable PDF version is available.)
Basic Examples
This Search                                             Finds Pages Containing...
biking Italy                                            the words biking and Italy
                                                        information on recycling steel or
recycle steel OR iron
                                                        recycling iron
"I have a dream"                                        the exact phrase I have a dream
                                                        the word salsa but NOT the word
salsa –dance
                                                        dance
                                                        information about Louis the First
Louis +I France                                         (I), weeding out other kings of
                                                        France
                                                        glossaries about castles, as well as
castle ~glossary                                        dictonaries, lists of terms,
                                                        terminology, etc.
                                                        all forms of the term, whether
fortune-telling                                         spelled as a single word, a phrase,
                                                        or hyphenated
                                                        definitions of the word imbroglio
define:imbroglio
                                                        from the Web

Calculator
Operators                 Meaning            Type Into Search Box (& Results)
+–*/                      basic arithmetic   12 + 34 - 56 * 7 / 8
% of                      percentage of      45% of 39
^ or **                   raise to a power   2^5 or 2**5
old units in new units    convert units      300 Euros in USD, 130 lbs in kg, or 31 in hex

Restrict Search
Operator
           Meaning       Type Into Search Box (& Results)
s
city1      Book          sfo bos
city2      flights.      (Book flights from San Francisco (SFO) to Boston (BOS).)
           Search
           only one      Halloween site:www.census.gov
site:      website       (Search for information on Halloween gathered by the US Census
           or            Bureau.)
           domain.
           Search
                         Dave Barry pirate 2002..2006
           within a
[#]..[#]                 (Search for Dave Barry articles mentioning pirates written in these
           range of
                         years.)
           numbers.
           Find
filetype:                Form 1098-T IRS filetype:pdf
           documen
(or ext:)                (Find the US tax form 1098-T in PDF format.)
           ts of the
          specified
          type.
          Find
          linked
          pages,
          i.e., show link:warriorlibrarian.com
link:
          pages      (Find pages that link to Warrior Librarian's website.)
          that point
          to the
          URL.

Specialized Information Queries
Operators         Meaning                       Type Into Search Box (& Results)
                                                book Ender's Game
book
                   Search full-text of books.   (Show book-related information.
(or books)
                                                Note: No colon needed after book.)
                                                define monopsony, what is podcast
define, what is,   Show a definition for a      (Show a definition for the words
what are           word or phrase.              monopsony and podcast. Note: No colon
                                                after define, what is, or what are.)
                   Provide definitions for      define:kerning
define:            words, phrases, and          (Find definitions for kerning from the
                   acronyms from the Web.       Web.)
                                                phonebook: Disney CA
                   Show all phonebook
phonebook:                                      (Search for Disney's phone numbers in
                   listings.
                                                California - CA.)
                                                rphonebook: bill jones NY
                   Show residential
rphonebook:                                     (Search for the phone number of every
                   phonebook listings.
                                                Bill Jones in New York State - NY.)
                                                movie: traffic
                   Find reviews and
movie:                                          (Search for information about this movie,
                   showtimes.
                                                including reviews, showtimes, etc.)
                   Given ticker symbols,        stocks: goog
stocks:
                   show stock information       (Find Google's current stock price.)
                   Given a location (US zip     weather Seattle WA, weather 81612
weather            code or city), show the      (Show the current weather and forecast.
                   weather                      Note: No colon after weather.)

Alternative Query Types
Operato Meanin
                  Type Into Search Box (& Results)
rs        g
          Display cache:www.irs.gov
cache: Google (Show Google's cached version of the US Internal Revenue Service
          's      home page.)
         cached
         version
         of a
         web
         page.
         Find
info:    info       info:www.theonion.com
(or id:) about a    (Find information about The Onion website.)
         page.
         List
         web
         pages
         that are
                    related:www.healthfinder.gov
related: similar
                    (Find websites related to the Healthfinder website.)
         or
         related
         to the
         URL.

Restrict Search to Sites where Query Words Appear
Operators      Meaning                Type Into Search Box (& Results)
               All query words
                                      allinanchor:useful parenting sites
               must appear in
allinanchor:                          (Search for pages that are called useful parenting
               anchor text of links
                                      sites by others.)
               to the page.
               Terms must appear      restaurants Portland inanchor:kid-friendly
inanchor:      in anchor text of      (Search for pages on Portland restaurants for which
               links to the page.     links to the page say they are "kid friendly.")
               All query words
                                      allintext:ingredients cilantro chicken lime
allintext:     must appear in the
                                      (Search for recipes with these three ingredients.)
               text of the page.
                                      Dan Shugar intext:Powerlight
               The terms must         (Find pages mentioning Dan Shugar where his
intext:        appear in              company, Powerlight, is included in the text of the
               the text of the page. page, i.e., less likely to be from the corporate
                                      website.)
               All query words        allintitle: Google Advanced Operators
allintitle:    must appear in the     (Search for pages with titles containing "Google,"
               title of the page.     "Advanced,", and "Operators".)
                                      movies comedy intitle:top ten
               The terms must
                                      (Search for pages with the words movie and
intitle:       appear in the title of
                                      comedy that include top ten in the title of the
               the page.
                                      page.)
allinurl:      All query words        allinurl:pez faq
               must appear in the       (Search for pages containing the words pez & faq
               URL.                     in the URL.)
               The terms must           pharmaceutical inurl:investor
inurl:         appear in the URL of     (Search for pages in which the URL contains the
               the page.                word investor.)

Restrict Search to Google Groups
Operators Meaning                          Type Into Search Box (& Results)
                                           flying author:Hamish author:Reid
           Find Groups messages from the
author:                                    (Search for Hamish Reid's articles on
           specified author.
                                           flying.)
                                           ivan doig group:rec.arts.books
           Find Groups messages from the
group:                                     (Search for postings about Ivan Doig in
           specified newsgroup.
                                           the group rec.arts.books.)
                                           insubject:"crazy quilts"
           Find Groups messages containing
insubject:                                 (Find articles containing crazy quilts in
           crazy quilts in the subject.
                                           the subject line.)

Restrict Search to Google News
Operators Meaning                                     Type Into Search Box (& Results)
                                                      queen location:uk
            Find News articles from sources
location:                                             (Find British news articles on the
            located in the specified location.
                                                      Queen.)
                                                      peace source:ha_aretz
            Find News articles from specified
source:                                               (Show articles on peace from the
            sources.
                                                      Israeli newspaper Ha'aretz.)

Restrict Search to Froogle
                                                              Type Into Search Box (&
Operators Meaning
                                                              Results)
            Find Froogle products from the specified          jeans store:gap
store:
            store.                                            (Find Gap jeans.)



About This Cheat Sheet
                For more tips, tricks, & examples, visit www.GoogleGuide.com.
                By Nancy Blachman, Tasha Bergson-Michelson, & Jerry Peek who don't work for
                Google.
                Thank you Matt Vance for the idea of creating a Google Guide cheat sheet.
This page was last modified on Monday September 08, 2008
GOOGLE GUIDE


Quick Reference: Google Calculator (Cheat Sheet)
by Nancy Blachman – nancy at googleguide.com (replace at with @)
Solve mathematical problems with Google's built-in calculator function. Simply
enter the expression you'd like evaluated in Google's web search box and hit the
ENTER key or click the "Google Search" button. BASIC ARITHMETIC
OPERATOR MEANING TYPE INTO SEARCH BOX + or plus addition 12 +
34 or three plus four – or minus subtraction 3.4 - 5.6 or five minus two * or times
multiplication 56 * 7 or six times nine / or divided by division 7 / 8 or ten divided
by two % of or percent of percentage of 45% of 39 mod or % modulo (the
remainder after division) 15 mod 9 or 15 % 9 ^ or ** raise to a power 2^5 or
2**5 the nth root of nth root 4th root of 16, sqrt(16), cube root of 109 reciprocal
of multiplicative inverse reciprocal of 7 ADVANCED MATH The following table
lists some of the functions built into Google's calculator. OPERATOR FUNCTION
  TYPE INTO SEARCH BOX sin, cos, tan,
sec, csc, cot trig functions (arguments are assumed to be in radians) cos(pi/3)
cosine(pi/3) arcsin, arccos, arctan, arccsc, etc. inverse trigonometric functions
arccos(.5) sinh, cosh, tanh, csch, arsinh, arccsch, etc. hyperbolic functions cosh(6)
ln logarithm base e ln(16) log logarithm base 10 log(16) lg logarithm base 2
lg(16) exp exponential function exp(16) ! factorial 5! choose x choose y
calculates the number of ways of choosing a set of y elements from a set of x distinct
elements 5 choose 3 CONSTANT MEANING TYPE INTO SEARCH BOX e
base of the natural system of logarithms e pi the ratio of the circumference to the
diameter of a circle pi/6 i imaginary number, which represents one of the two
square roots of -1 i^2 gamma Euler's constant e^gamma TIPS (adapted from
Google's Online Calculator Help) Parentheses can be used whenever they'll serve
to make complicated expressions unambiguous, and also sets of parentheses can be
used within parentheses; don't use brackets for grouping. You can force the
calculator to try to evaluate an expression by putting an equals sign (=) after it. This
works only if the expression is arithmetically computable. For example, 1-800-555-
1234= will return a result, but 1/0= will not (because dividing a non-zero number by
zero is undefined and not computable). Parentheses can be used to enclose the parts
of your expression that you want evaluated first. For example, 6cos(2pi). Feel free to
experiment with the calculator as not all of its capabilities are listed here. UNITS
OF MEASURE AND CONVERSIONS Compute expressions involving different
units. By default, units are converted to and results expressed in meter-kilogram-
second (mks) units. Many units have both long and short names. Use whichever
name you prefer. TYPE OF UNITS UNIT CONVERSION EXAMPLES OF
UNITS old units in new units Currency (money) 23 USD in Euros US Dollars
(USD), Euros, Britain Pounds (GBP) Mass 130 lbs in kg kilogram or kg, grams or
g, grains, pounds or lbs, carats, stones, tons, tonnes Length 3 miles in km meters
or m, miles, feet, Angstroms, cubits, furlongs Volume three quarters of a cup in
teaspoons gallons, liters or l, bushels, teaspoons, pints Area 2 acres in sq km
square kilometers, acres, hectares Temperature 98.6 Fahrenheit in Celsius or 98.6 f
in c Celsius or c, Fahrenheit or f Time 1 year in seconds days, seconds or s,
centuries, sidereal years, fortnights Electricity 100 volts in picovolts volts or v,
picovolts, amps or a, ohms, henrys Energy 160 lbs * 4000 ft in Calories Calories,
British thermal units (BTU), joules, ergs, foot-pounds (Warning: When your query
includes "Calories" with a capital "C," Google returns kilocalories called "calories"
by nutritionists.) Power 1 hp in watts, 500 V * 3 A in KW watt or W, kilowatts or
KW, megawatts or MW, horsepower or HP Angle 90 degrees in radians
 degrees or radians Information 2 bytes in bits bits, bytes, kbytes Quantity 1
great gross in dozens dozen, baker's dozen, gross, great gross, score Numbering
Systems 1500 in hex
64 in binary
LVII in decimal decimal, hexadecimal or hex, octal, binary, roman numerals
(Prefix hexadecimal numbers with 0x, octal numbers with 0o and binary numbers
with 0b, e.g., 0x7f + 0b100101) PHYSICAL CONSTANTS The following table lists
just a few of the many commonly used physical constants known to the calculator
function. SHORTHAND NOTATION LONG NAME CLICK LINK FOR AN
APPROXIMATE VALUE au Astronomical Unit au or astronomical unit
Avogadro's number Avogadro's number k Boltzmann constant k or Boltzmann
constant Faraday constant Faraday constant G gravitational constant G or
gravitational constant magnetic flux quantum magnetic flux quantum mass of a
proton mass of a proton m_planet mass of planet m_Mars, m_Earth, m_Uranus,
m_sun molar gas constant molar gas constant permeability of free space
permeability of free space h Planck's constant h or Planck's constant r_planet
radius of planet r_Earth, r_Pluto, r_sun c speed of light in a vacuum c or speed
of light speed of sound in air at sea level speed of sound




Google Guide > Part I: Query Input > Anatomy of a Web Address
« Previous: Refining a Query
Next: Using Search Operators »


Anatomy of a Web Address

If you already know how to read a web address or URL (Universal Resource Locator,
pronounced ―you are ell‖), skip this section. Otherwise, consider the web address
http://www.googleguide.com/searchEngines/google/searchLeader.html. Here‘s
what it all means:

                 http   transfer protocol (type of information being transferred)
www.googleguide.com     website name, host name
             googleguide    second-level domain name
                     com    top-level domain name
        searchEngines       directory name (major category)
                  google    sub-directory name (sub-category)
         searchLeader       file name (a file within the directory)
                    html    file format

Here‘s a list of some common top-level domain names. Note that some sites don‘t follow
these conventions:

.edu   educational site (usually a university or college)
.com   commercial business site
.gov   U.S. government/non-military site
.mil   U.S. military sites or agencies
.net   networks, Internet service providers, organizations
.org   non-profit organizations and others

Because the Internet was created in the United States, ―US‖ was not originally assigned to
U.S. domain names; however, it‘s used to designate American state and local government
hosts, including many public schools, and commercial entities, e.g., well.sf.ca.us. The
domain .ca represents Canada, unless it‘s followed by .us, in which case it represents
California.

Domain Codes        State
   .ca.us         California
   .nv.us          Nevada
   .tx.us           Texas

Other countries have their own two letter codes as the top level of their domain names —
although many non-US sites use other top-level domains (such as .com):

Domain Codes         Country
       .ca           Canada
       .de           Germany
       .dk           Denmark
       .jp             Japan
       .il             Israel
       .uk        United Kingdom
     .za        South Africa

To limit results to a single site or domain, specify the site name (e.g.,
www.googleguide.com or googleguide.com) or a top-level domain name (e.g., .com or
.edu) in Google‘s domain selector.




  Search
                                        Search Operators
  Service
              allinanchor:, allintext:, allintitle:, allinurl:, cache:,
Web Search    define:, filetype:, id:, inanchor:, info:, intext:, intitle:,
              inurl:, link:, phonebook:, related:, site:

Image Search allintitle:, allinurl:, filetype:, inurl:, intitle:, site:
              allintext:, allintitle:, author:, group:, insubject:, intext:,
   Groups
              intitle:

              allintext:, allintitle:, allinurl:, ext:, filetype:, intext:,
  Directory
              intitle:, inurl:

              allintext:, allintitle:, allinurl:, intext:, intitle:, inurl:,
   News
              location:, source:

  Product
              allintext:, allintitle:
  Search

								
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