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The POWERFUL Properties of PVD Coatings The POWERFUL by yaoyufang

VIEWS: 115 PAGES: 48

The Basics of
Company Profile:

        The POWERFUL Properties
                    of PVD Coatings
Q&A with Dave Pumphrey /

  TOOTH TIPS from The Gear Works
  Bill Bradley’s
                 AGMA TECH
CLARKE GEAR COMPANY The QUIET company with more Gear
technology per square foot than you’ll find anywhere. #1 in Service.
  • CNC Gear Grinding           • Hob Sharpening                 • Serrations        • Face Gears
    (AGMA CL.15)                  & Inspection                   • Sprockets         • Internal & External
  • CNC Gear Cutting            • CMM Inspection Service         • Spur                to 12” Diameter
  • CNC Machining               • Crown Gears                    • Helical           • AS 9100
  • CNC Gear Analysis           • Splines                        • Worms             • ISO 9000

                    Clarke                 ENGINEERING, INC.                     Since 1954
                    PH: 323-877-7590 • 818-768-0690 • FAX: 818-767-5577
                    8 0 5 8 L A N K E R S H I M B L V D . • N . H O L LY W O O D , C A 9 1 6 0 5
                                                                                                   of    GEARS
                    EMAIL: • WWW.CLARKEGEAR.COM
                                                                                                   Gear Up with Clarke
                    TOLL FREE:
                                 888-277-GEAR                                     (888-277-4327)
                              JANUARY 2004                                                                        A MEDIA SOLUTIONS PUBLICATION


                                              6 industryNEWS                                        9 billBradley – AGMA Tech
                                                 New products, trends and developments in the             As vice president of AGMA’s technical division,
                                                 gear-manufacturing industry                              Bradley reports on the latest activities of the
                                                                                                          gear industry’s flagship organization.
                                             10 terryMcDonald – Safety Matters
                                                 Gear-machine manufacturers would do well to       11 donaldr.McVITTIE P.E. – Tooth Tips
                                                 emphasize their equipment’s safety features              A new standing feature, with simple, helpful
                                                 as selling points.                                       suggestions from The Gear Works of Seattle.

                                                     12 Company Profile – Nachi Machining Technology Co.
                                                                By Russ Willcutt
                                                                A special visit with Butch Wisner, president of Nachi Machining Technology,
                                                                who discusses the past, present, and future of his company.

                                                     16 The Basics of Rebuilding Machine Tools
                                                                By Kenneth Flowers
                              pg. 16                            An outline, and checklist, for anyone who’s interested in having their gear-cutting
                                                                machines rebuilt—or doing it themselves!

                                                   24 PVD Coatings Improve Gear Production
                                                                By Dennis T. Quinto, Ph.D., Olle Wanstrand, Ph.D., and Kimberly Kortash
                                                                Not only do PVD coatings extend the life of machine tools, they
                                                                actually impart beneficial properties to the gears they produce.

                                                   28 Direct Gear Design Drives Performance
                              pg. 24                            By Alexander L. Kapelevich, Ph.D.
                                                                An application-driven gear development process, Direct Gear Design emphasizes
                                                                performance maximization and cost efficiency.

                                                    30 Staying Aloft as an Aerospace Supplier
                                                                By Lee Mason
                                                                In an ever-changing industry—and during challenging economic times—here are the
                                                                trends to watch for, and how to prepare for them.

                              pg. 30               44 Q&A — Dave Pumphrey
                                                                A conversation with the president of Pumphrey Marketing

                                         special advertising sections
                                         37 MACHINES                   40 MARKETPLACE                       43 INDEX OF ADVERTISERS
                                                                   •     JANUARY 2004      •    GEAR SOLUTIONS       3
From the Publisher

     H  Hello, and welcome to the January 2004 issue of Gear Solutions magazine.
        This will be our second year of production, and we’re really excited about
        all the fascinating and informative subjects we have lined up for you in the
        coming year. If you’re interested in learning more, go to our Web site at
        [] and download our media kit, which
        includes our editorial calendar and other important information. While we                   Published by
                                                                                               Media Solutions, Inc.
        already have many authors lined up to cover the story subjects listed there,
                                                                                                  P.O. Box 383185
        we’re always interested in hearing from anyone who’s interested in con-
                                                                                               Birmingham, AL 35238
        tributing to future issues of the magazine.                                               1-800-366-2185
              In this issue, we’re pleased to feature a number of pertinent topics, and
        some really great writing from our contributors. Kenneth Flowers, of Machine
        Tool Builders, Inc., has penned a handy “how to” on rebuilding your machines,              David C. Cooper
        thus extending their service life and protecting your investment. Dennis T.
        Quinto, Ph.D., Olle Wanstrand, Ph.D., and Kimberly Kortash of Balzers, have                 Chad Morrison
        teamed up to present an excellent article on how PVD coatings extend the life             VICE PRESIDENT
        of your gear-cutting tools, while at the same time imparting beneficial proper-
        ties to the gears they’re producing. Lee Mason, of Clarke Engineering, shares her
                                                                                                       Teresa Hall
        thoughts on the trends faced by aerospace suppliers and effective strategies for             OPERATIONS/
        meeting the challenges of this ever-changing landscape, and Alexander L.                     CIRCULATION
        Kapelevich, Ph.D.—owner of the consulting firm AKGears LLC—describes his
                                                                                                      Michele Hall
        Direct Gear Design methodology and software.
              Our profile for this issue is the Nachi Machining Technology Co., and                 ASSISTANT
        we’d like to thank President and COO F.J. “Butch” Wisner and General
        Sales Manager Nick Carene for their hospitality during our recent visit to                  PRODUCTION
        their facilities in Macomb, Michigan. We think you’ll enjoy learning more
                                                                                                       Andy Spain
        about this innovative and successful company. We’re also pleased to intro-
                                                                                                    ART DIRECTOR
        duce a new column by Bill Bradley, vice president of AGMA’s technical divi-
        sion, on the organization’s standards development activities. Yet another
        new offering is “Tooth Tips” by Donald McVittie, president of Gear                             EDITORIAL
        Engineers and boardmember of The Gear Works-Seattle. Terry McDonald                           Russ Willcutt
        is also onboard, with his long-standing column on safe practices in the                 MANAGING EDITOR
        gear-manufacturing industry.
                                                                                            CONTRIBUTING WRITERS:
              So read, enjoy, and contact me at the number or e-mail address listed
                                                                                               Bill Bradley, Kenneth Flowers,
        below if you have any comments or suggestions. Also please feel free to contact       Alexander L. Kapelevich, Ph.D.,
        Chad Morrison, vice president, at, or               Kimberly Kortash, Lee Mason,
        Russ Willcutt, our managing editor, at if you                  Terry McDonald,
        have any story ideas or press releases.                                                   Donald R. McVittie, P.E.,
              And thanks, as always, for reading Gear Solutions magazine!                        Dennis T. Quinto, Ph.D.,
                                                                                                   Olle Wanstrand, Ph.D.

                                                                                               The views expressed by those not
                                                                                                    on the staff of Gear Solutions
                                                                 David C. Cooper            magazine, or who are not specifically
                                                                      Publisher             employed by Media Solutions, Inc.,
                                                                                             are purely their own. All “industry
                                                       Gear Solutions magazine                   news” material has either been
                                                    submitted by the subject company
                                                               (800) 366-2185               or pulled directly from their corporate
                                                                                               Web site, which is assumed to be
                                                                                                  cleared for release. Comments
                                                                                                 and submissions are welcome,
                                                                                                        and can be submitted to
4   GEAR SOLUTIONS   •     JANUARY 2004      •          
• (150) 10-4/10-2 Fellows Shapers
• (2) 50-8 Hydrostrokes
• (5) 20-8 Hydrostrokes
• (2) Tilt Table 10-2/10-4
• (2) Swing Away Center Supports
• (1) FS630-125 Hydrostroke
• (2) FS400-90 Hydrostrokes
• (3) FS180’s Swing Away
  Center Supports
• (10) 36” Shaperss 2”, 4”, 8”,
  12” Risers
• Fellows 10-4/10-2, All Parts
• (6) 20-4 Fellows Shaper
• (1) 48-8Z Fellows Shaper
• (3) 36’ Shapers 14” Throated
  Risers 53” of Swing

        P.O. Box 1120 • 343 John Downey Dr. • New Britain, CT 06051
 Phone: 860-223-7778 • Fax: 860-223-7776 • Email:
                New Products, Trends and Developments in the Gear-Manufacturing Industry

SME Offers Two Education Events for the Gear Industry                     Clarke Gear Celebrates its 50th Anniversary
The Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME) is pleased to announce       Since 1954, the Clarke Gear Company (Clarke Engineering, Inc.) has
two multi-speaker educational clinics presenting the latest trends,       been a leader in the production of gears for aerospace and commer-
developments, and cutting edge innovations, as well as basic funda-       cial applications—including performance products and industrial and
mentals information for the heat treating and gears industries.           medical devices—and has even landed the “Outstanding Supplier
  Heat Treating and Hardening Gears (March 16, 2004) and Basic            Service” award from one of its major aerospace manufacturing cus-
Gear Design and Manufacturing                                             tomers. Its continued goal is to provide the highest-quality product and
(March 17-18) include a host of                                           service to its valued customers, utilizing its many years of experience
well-known industry leaders present-                                      and state-of-the-art equipment to provide solutions in a cost-effective
ing on a variety of topics from the                                       and timely manner.
                                                                             Clarke Gear is a world-class leader in the machining, assembly,
basic concepts of heat treatment
                                                                          and testing of aerospace and commercial gears. To maintain this
and gear design to alternative methods and future trends. Both
                                                                          status, the company pledges itself to the following:
programs will be held at the Holiday Inn City Centre in Chicago.
                                                                            • Customer Commitment: To continuously improve products
    • Heat Treating and Hardening of Gears features presenta-                 and services beyond customer’s expectations, and to provide
      tions from seven industry leaders, including Daniel H.                  cost-effective solutions to their applications and needs.
      Herring, president of The Herring Group—also known as “The            • Employee Commitment: Clarke Gear is committed to the
      Heat Treat Doctor”—and Daniel J. Williams, director of Heat             empowerment and ongoing development of its employees,
      Treat Services for Inductoheat. Topics include: Gear                    recognizing that every employee plays a vital role in the com-
      Materials, Heat Treatment and Failure Mechanisms; Induction             pany’s continued success and prosperity.
      Heat Treat for Gear Strength and Fatigue Life Improvement;            • Process Integrity: To maintain, develop, and improve manufac-
                                                                              turing systems that consistently add value and produce defect-
      Controlling Nitriding for Gear Application; Controlling
                                                                              free products through the application of Total Quality
      Dimensional Variation in Gears by Proper Heat Treatment; An
                                                                              Management and Statistical Process Control.
      Overview of Advanced Carburizing Technologies; Austempered            • Supplier Relationships: To develop mutually beneficial partner-
      Materials and Their Application to Gear Design; FineCarb: A             ships with suppliers, and to see each of them as an extension
      New Approach to Gear Carburizing, Quality and Cost                      of Clarke Gear.
      Improvement; Reducing the Number of Manufacturing Steps
      to Make Heat Treated Gears; and, The Influence of Materials            To mark this important milestone, Clarke Gear extends an open
      and Geometry on the Heat Treatment of Gears. Cost of the            invitation to its current and potential customers to visit its produc-
      program is $695 ($495 for current SME members or those              tion facility in North Hollywood, California. For more information
      joining before registration).                                       call (888) 277-GEAR, or send e-mail to
                                                                          Visit the company’s Web site at [].
    • Basic Gear Design and Manufacturing features an
      overview of the basic concepts of gear design from 11 differ-
      ent industry leaders, including a special in-depth presentation      For information on these two programs and/or exhibiting at the
      on Gear Cutting by the Shaping Process from John Lange,            tabletop reception, contact Lynn Walsh at (313) 425-3098, or send
      product manager for the Gleason Corporation. The program           e-mail to To register for the program, contact the
      also features a free tour of the Bodine Electric Company,          SME Resource Center at (800) 733-4763.
      which has developed a particular expertise in the area of
      skiving fine and medium pitched gears and achieved signifi-
      cant productivity and quality improvements through its innova-     Balzers Announces New President
      tive in-house carbide hobbing program. A tabletop exhibit          In a recent press release dated November 18, 2003, Balzers, Inc.—the
      reception will also be offered. Cost for the two-day program       global leader in PVD coating technology—announced that Kent Connell
      is $995 ($795 for current SME members or those joining             has been appointed president of the company effective January 1, 2004.
      before registration). Those who register before February 20           Coming from ESEC, a sister company within the Unaxis Corporation,
      also receive a free video produced by SME on Gears & Gear          Connell joins Balzers with a background in marketing and sales, as well
      Manufacturing.                                                     as finance. He has a bachelor of science degree in business marketing

6       GEAR SOLUTIONS     •     JANUARY 2004      •
from Brigham Young University and is a certi-      an additional nitriding pit furnace. The new          carburizing, nitriding, and induction heat-treat-
fied public accountant with qualifications         6,000-lb. capacity furnace is due to be opera-        ing services along with complete metallurgic
through Western International University.          tional in the first quarter                                                lab services and inspec-
   During his 17 years with ESEC, Connell          of 2004. It will comple-                                                   tion. UGA is one of only a
acted as vice president and general manager        ment the existing wide                                                     few companies that is QS
from 1995 to 2003, as director/vice president      range of heat-treating                                                     9000 certified for high-vol-
of Finance & Administration from 1989 to 1995,     services that UGA pro-                                                     ume heat treating services
and as operations manager from 1986 to 1989.       vides to its OEM                                                           in the upper Midwest.
   Around the world, customers in the metal        customers and the Minneapolis-St. Paul com-              UGA manufactures high-quality gears,
and plastics processing industries take            mercial heat-treating market. UGA provides            shafts, and assemblies with ISO 9002/QS
advantage of the global market leader’s
know-how. Balzers has developed the PVD
coatings marketed as BALINIT® and current-
ly operates 50 coating centers at key indus-
trial sites in Europe, North and South
America, and Asia. All centers are equipped
with the latest-generation systems to guar-
antee the reproducibility of the company’s
high quality standards worldwide.
   For more information contact Torsten
Doering at (716) 564-8557 ext. 1110, or send
e-mail to Visit
the company’s Web site at [].

Fairfield Names New President
Fairfield Manufacturing Company, Inc.,
announces the appointment of Gary J.
Lehman as President and CEO, effective
immediately. Lehman joins Fairfield
Manufacturing after serving as managing
director and cofounder of the Cannelton
Group, a consulting firm specializing in strate-
gic and operational assistance to manufactur-
ing companies. Prior to that position, Lehman
served as president of Philips Lighting
Electronics-North America. He has held sen-
ior positions with Federal Mogul, TRW, Deere
and Company, and Allen Bradley. Altogether
he has more than 20 years of management
experience. He holds an MBA from Case
Western University and a bachelor of science
degree from Purdue University.
   Fairfield Manufacturing Company, Inc., is
the world’s largest independent designer
and manufacturer of custom gears, custom
gear sets, power transmission assemblies,
and the world-renowned line of Torque-Hub®
planetary drives.
                                                                                                Transmissions •
                                                         Application EXAMPLES: Auto &&ApplianceEquipment • Gear Pumps
                                                                               Copier Medical
   For more information, visit the company’s                                   FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:
Web site at [].                      USA              DuPont™ Vespel® Parts and Shapes                            1-800-972-7252
                                                         Europe           DuPont™ Vespel® Parts and Shapes                              32 15 441527
                                                         (DuPont™ is the exclusive distributor of AURUM® resin in USA and Europe)
United Gear & Assembly                                   ASIA             Mitsui Chemicals, Inc.                           +81-3-6253-3501 (Japan)
Increases Nitriding Capacity                             (Mitsui Chemicals, Inc.; AURUM® Manufacturer)           
with New Furnace
To meet increased volume requirements,
United Gear & Assembly (UGA) has purchased

                                                             •      JANUARY 2004         •     GEAR SOLUTIONS          7
9000 certification. The company provides a
vertically integrated supply source, including
                                                   mG miniGears Facilities Awarded                       “This represents a significant accom-
                                                                                                      plishment towards our strategic corporate
engineering, machining, heat treating, assem-      ISO/TS 16949:2000 Certification                    initiative in the automotive sector,” accord-
bly, and quality assurance. Based in Hudson,       In a press release dated November 24, 2003,        ing to Alexander Bossard, CEO of mG
Wisconsin, UGA is part of a family of compa-       mG miniGears S.p.A. (Padova, Italy) and its        miniGears. “The fact that we were success-
nies under parent company United Stars, Inc.       subsidiary in the United States, mG miniGears      ful with our TS audits at a relatively early
   For more information contact Markus             North America (Virginia Beach, Virginia),          stage demonstrates our enduring commit-
Bieber at (715) 386-5867, or via e-mail at         announced that, after undergoing ISO/TS            ment not only to our automotive customers, The company’s Web               16949:2000 Quality System audits in October,       but also to all of our customers.
site is [].                           both facilities have been awarded certification.      “Our customers can be sure that the
                                                                                                      gears and assemblies they receive from
                                                                                                      our company, either from the States or in
                                                                                                      Europe, have been designed, developed,
    MODEL 641 (AND/OR 645) GLEASON “G-PLETE” SPIRAL BEVEL GEAR GENERATORS                             and manufactured based on a truly world-
    REBUILT/RETROFITTED W/SIEMENS 840-D “CNC” IN 4-AXIS EXECUTION                                     class system.”
                                                                                                         ISO/TS 16949 is an international quality
                                                                                                      system standard specifically formulated for
                                                                                                      the global automotive industry. It was devel-
                                                                                                      oped by the International Automotive Task
                                                                                                      Force (IATF) and specifies the quality sys-
                                                                                                      tem requirements for the design, develop-
                                                                                                      ment and production of automotive-related
                                                                                                      products. The standard successfully harmo-
                                                                                                      nizes the supplier quality system require-
                                                                                                      ments of automakers from the U.S.,
                                                                                                      Germany, Italy, France, Japan, and Korea,
                                                                                                      with the purpose of having a single stan-
                                                                                                      dard/registration scheme that works for the
                                                                                                      American, European, and Asian automotive
                                                                                                      industries. The standard emphasizes an
                                                                                                      “integrative multidisciplinary systems
                                                                                                      approach” within an entire organization,
                                                                                                      focusing not only on product quality but
                                                                                                      overall company objectives and continuous
                                                                                                      improvement. In the U.S., DaimlerChrysler,
     GERMAN ENGINEERED REBUILT AND CNC RETROFITTED                                                    Ford, and GM have announced that they will
                                                                                                      be expecting their suppliers to be fully reg-
         GEAR MANUFACTURING EQUIPMENT FROM                                                            istered by December 2004.
                                                                                                         In meeting one of its primary objectives for
                                                                                                      2003, TS certification puts miniGears in an
                                                                                                      elite category of just a handful of companies
                                                                                                      worldwide who are already certified. Many in
                                                                                                      the industry believe that thousands of compa-
                                                                                                      nies will rush to get certified in 2004 to meet
                                                                                                      the deadline imposed by the “Big Three”
                                                                                                      automakers in the U.S. Meanwhile, mG
                                                                                                      miniGears will continue optimizing and fine-
                                                                                                      tuning its processes and systems that make
                                                                                                      it a very proactive, world-class, and truly glob-
                                                                                                      al gear manufacturer dedicated to technology,
                                                                                                      quality, and service. ISO/TS 16949:2000
                                                                                                      complements mG miniGears’ already certified
             USA Sales Office                     RICHARD WELTER Maschinen                            ISO-9001:2000 systems.
                Laurens Trading Corp.                & Zahnradfabrik GmbH                                mG miniGears is a leading designer and
            “Gear Machinery Specialists”                                                              manufacturer of custom-engineered gears
    10601 Glendale Road • Cincinnati, OH 45215    Karl-Kammer-Str. 7 • 77933 Lahr, Germany
        phone (Mohawk office) 513 771-1952
                                                                                                      and gearboxes supplying a broad and
                                                 phone +49 7821 923-0 • fax +49 7821 923129
        fax 513 771-5120 • cell 513 646-2987             email
                                                                                                      diverse group of automotive, industrial,
          email         visit our website @             lawn and garden, and power hand tool
                                                                                                                           continued on page 42 >>

8       GEAR SOLUTIONS      •     JANUARY 2004       •
               Vice President, AGMA Technical Division

Aimed at providing a common language for the evaluation of gear products,
                                                                                                performance in related applications, where-
                                                                                                as some others are based on theoretical
                                                                                                and laboratory research data.
learn more about the “now and why” of standards development.                                       Standards that reached publication stage
                                                                                                during the last quarter of 2003 include:

       ear products are among the most-          Another “milestone” was achieved in               • Design Manual for Bevel Gears—this
       reliable mechanical systems used in    1993, when AGMA—through ANSI—was                       revision improves formulas for design of
       our economy today. This has been       approved as the Secretariat of Technical               bevel and hypoid gears;
achieved through progressive changes in       Committee 60 (TC 60), Gears, by the                  • Specification for High Speed Helical
gear manufacturing technology, gear design    International Standards Organization (ISO) in          Gear Units—this revision updates
methods, and the continual development        Geneva, Switzerland. AGMA is responsible               design, manufacturing, and application
and refinement of gearing standards.          for the administration of gear-related stan-           requirements;
                                              dards development worldwide.                         • Tolerance Specification for Gear Hobs—
The Role of Standards                                                                                new classification and tolerance require-
Gear standards are common language            Standards in the Making                                ments for cutting tools; and
through which manufacturers and users         The development and balloting of both ISO            • Standard for Design and Specification of
can evaluate products. In business rela-      and AGMA standards is a consensus                      Gearboxes for Wind Turbines—the lat-
tionships, prudent steps should be taken      process. However, individual positions may             est, most-comprehensive enclosed drive
to establish consistent engineering specifi-  be expressed                                                                      standard, with
cations for equitable bidding. Then a buyer   that can enhance “Gear standards are common language component and
cannot only assess cost effectiveness of      the contents.                                                                     lubrication
various bids, but also technical and manu-    Members of             through which manufacturers and requirements
facturing expertise of suppliers. Standards   AGMA and other         users can evaluate products, and                           included.
serve this role. They are also used as        interested per-
                                                                     they are also used as trade and
trade and marketing tools by manufactur-      sons develop                                                                         These are only
ers, either in penetrating new markets or     new—and con-           marketing tools by manufacturers, a few of the
protecting established markets.               tinue to revise—       either in penetrating new markets                          active standards
                                              over 60 stan-                                                                     development proj-
AGMA History                                  dards and infor-
                                                                     or protecting established markets.” ects in AGMA
Development of AGMA Standards has been        mation sheets.                                                                    committees.
market driven, ever since the first rating    They contain rating, design, manufacturing,          Manufacturers can produce gears to any
standard appeared in 1919 and the first       and inspection of gears, gear drives, and         standard, including hybrids of standards
gear-quality standard was established in the  related components.                               plus their own experience. It is important
late 1930s. Recently the AGMA Board of           Source data used to develop AGMA stan-         to understand the specifics of applicable
Directors, acknowledging a global market-     dards differs markedly from other well-           standards so that you can benefit from
place, has reaffirmed the commitment to       known gearing standards, some of which            their strengths.
promote national and international stan-      are international. With AGMA standards               Detailed information on all of the subjects dis-
dards development.                            development, heavy reliance is placed on          cussed is provided on the AGMA Web site at
   In the 1980s, the American National        the actual experience of gear system              []. Send e-mail to
Standards Institute (ANSI) approved AGMA
as the accredited national developer for gear
standards, and as Technical Advisory Group
                                                ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
                                                Bill Bradley is vice president of AGMA’s Technical Division. He can be reached at (703)
Administrator for establishing the national
                                                684-0211, or via e-mail at
position on international gear standards.

                                                           •      JANUARY 2004       •    GEAR SOLUTIONS        9
               Member of the ANSI Subcommittee on Gear Safety

SAFETY MATTERS                                                                                       as well-enclosed, and the grit from the grinding
                                                                                                     operation flies around and can be a hazard to
Gear-machine manufacturers should place more emphasis on their equipment’s the eyes. And these are just a couple of the
safety features as selling points, according to our monthly columnist.                               possible hazards.
                                                                                                        I am not suggesting that it be a require-

       id you attend Gear Expo 2003 in beauti-        Last month we started to discuss some          ment to have a dedicated operator for your
       ful downtown Columbus last October? It      safety aspects of hob sharpening, and now I’d     sharpening equipment, but I do recommend
       certainly was a show worth attending.       like to continue that discussion. I visit a great that you put as much emphasis on training
The booths I visited were all well-manned, and     number of gear shops around the country, and      the personnel on all the machines they use
well-designed to attract attention. The stories I  most of those who sharpen their own hobs          as possible, as opposed to just the “produc-
heard from the exhibitors were that, while the     and shaper cutters do not have a dedicated        tive” machines. I think the sharpening opera-
number of attendees was down, the people           operator. It seems to be the norm that each       tion typically gets less attention simply
that attended were the right ones, from a sell-    hobbing machine or shaper machine operator        because it is not a revenue generator, and
ing standpoint. I, of course, was an exception     is expected to sharpen their cutting tools when   while this thinking is understandable, it can
to that. My real purpose in attending the show     they are dull. This practice seems to me to be    add unforeseen costs to our bottom line if
was to search out new and better safety fea-       a very dangerous                                                                   just one of our
tures that are being incorporated in the indus-    situation. The         “Incorporating the latest safety features                   people is injured.
try. What I found was both good and bad.           operators are typi-                                                                   The spotlight
   The “bad,” from my point of view, was that      cally trained on
                                                                           during rebuild typically adds very little                  in Gear Solutions
there was little or no promotion of the safety     the proper opera-       to the cost of the project, while                          magazine this
aspects of the machines being shown. I             tion of the hob-                                                                   month is on
                                                                           contributing a great deal to the bottom
understand that, from the manufacturer’s           bing or shaping                                                                    “Retrofitting and
viewpoint, the purpose of participating in a       equipment, and          line by protecting our fellow workers.”                    Rebuilding.” I
show such as this is to promote and sell           only given rudi-                                                                   would like for
their machines, and that the big selling fea-      mentary training on cutter sharpening. Metal      you all to consider safety when contracting to
tures are production and ease of use. That         cutting and metal grinding are two different      have any of your equipment retrofitted or
said, I would still recommend that at least a      animals and present different hazards to the      rebuilt. We normally look at these procedures
sign showing their safety features could and       operator. Even simple things like changing a      from a standpoint of increased productivity,
would be an additional selling point.              wheel can be hazardous if the personnel is not    ease of use, or wear. The time when we are
   Anyway, I talked to all of the machine mak-     trained to determine if the wheel may be          having this work done is the ideal time to
ers at the show and asked that they send me        cracked, or on the proper tightening procedure    incorporate the latest safety features, which
any information they could on the safety fea-      for the clamp nuts. There is a larger hazard      typically add very little to the cost of the proj-
tures of their machines. I will share this infor-  with the coolant than is typically seen in metal  ect, while contributing a great deal to the bot-
mation with you as it is received. I did find that cutting. In many cases, the machines are not      tom line by protecting our fellow workers.
the Bourn & Koch machines that were being
shown had a new door lock feature that struck
me as a big improvement. The doors on their          ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
machines have an interlock that physically pre-      With more than 30 years of experience in the gear industry, Terry McDonald is a manager
vents the door from being opened during cycle.       with Repair Parts, Inc., a partner with Re-New Machine & Maintenance, Inc., and a current
                                                     member and past-chairman of the American National Standards Institute B11.11
In the past, the interlocks were just switches
                                                     Subcommittee on Safety Requirements for Construction, Care, and Use of Gear Cutting
that shut the machine down when the door
                                                     Equipment. McDonald writes this monthly column specifically for Gear Solutions magazine.
was opened. This new design is not only safer,
                                                     He can be contacted through the magazine at Responses and
but it could prevent damage to tools and
                                                     reactions to his column are also welcome.
blanks if the door was opened by mistake.

10       GEAR SOLUTIONS      •     JANUARY 2004        •
               donaldr.McVITTIE P.E.
               President of Gear Engineers, Inc.

Information you can use to prevent problems and prolong gear life.

      ere’s a checklist for “walking around”       little, or too much, can both cause                 misalignment, or something in the motor
      inspections of operating gear drives.        high temperature. Keep the outside                  or drive machine. It’s not likely to go
      It’s intended to help you keep track of      clean. Check the pump and heat                      away by itself, though.
the health of your drives and to avoid sur-        exchanger operation if they’re used on
prise shutdowns. No tools are required             the shift. (Rules of thumb—rough                  Even if you can’t shut down or spend
except your eyes, ears, nose, and a sense          guide to temperature by feel: hot tap          time to solve the problem right away, make
of touch. The idea is to pause long enough         water = 120°F; you can touch for five          enough notes to remember that something
each time you pass an operating unit to be         seconds = 140°F; diesel engine block           has to be done at the next opportunity. Try
aware of its operations.                           running = 180°F; spit sizzles = 220°F.)        to record the severity of the noise or tem-
   For some people, it works better to                                                            perature problem so that you can repeat
schedule a regular time for these “tire          • Anything over 150°F should be investi-         the inspection in a shift or the next day
kicking” inspections. Once a week, or              gated. It may be acceptable, but spe-          under the same operating conditions. If the
once a month, is usually adequate, but for         cial oils could be required for ade-           symptoms are worse then, you’ll know that
some critical applications, an inspection          quate gear life.                               you don’t have much time to act. Things
like this every shift makes sense. More                                                           like knocking noises and high temperatures
frequent inspections should be made if           • Vibration: find the cause and fix it. It       need to be corrected right away. Trust your
the drive is acting up.                            could be gear teeth, couplings, bearings,      senses to avoid unplanned shutdowns.

1) Look at the unit while it’s operating
                                                 “For some people, It works better to schedule a regular
   and ask yourself:
  • Are there oil leaks? Check the level now,      time for these ‘tire-kicking’ inspections. Once a week,
    and fix leaks soon.
  • Is dirt or your product piling up on the
                                                   or once a month...Even if you can’t shut down or spend
    outside of the drive? The outside of           time to solve the problem right away, make enough
    the box needs to be clean to allow
    heat to escape.
                                                   notes to remember that something has to be done at
  • Is the unit shaking? Look for misalign-        the next opportunity.”
    ment, bent shafts, loose anchor bolts,
    or broken teeth.

2) Listen to the unit:
  • Is there noise? Don’t let anyone tell you
    that “singing gears are happy gears.”
                                                ABOUT THE AUTHOR:
    Howls, whines, and thumps should be         Donald R. McVittie P.E. is the president of Gear Engineers, Inc., and longtime board member
    investigated at the next shutdown.          of The Gear Works-Seattle, Inc. The Gear Works-Seattle, Inc. is a full-service gear manufacturing
                                                facility providing precision gear products and power transmission services. For more
3) Touch the drive housing:                     information on “Tooth Tips”, contact Donald R. McVittie at 206-783-3919, or send email to
  • High temperature—every 18°F        or Roland Ramberg at 206-762-3333, or send email to rramberg@
    increase in temperature shortens oil
                                       Visit online at []
    life by half. Check the oil level: too

                                                       •      JANUARY 2004       •    GEAR SOLUTIONS         11

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                      FACED WITH A FALTERING ECONOMY,
                         CHANGING PRODUCT DESIGNS,
                          AND NEW CHALLENGES FROM
                        DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, NACHI
                        REGROUPS TO REMAIN A LEADER
                          IN THE GEAR-MAKING GAME.
                                PRESS START!
                                  CREDIT 1

                                         BY RUSS WILLCUTT

12   GEAR SOLUTIONS   •   JANUARY 2004   •
Years ago, as the story is told—and long before Nachi-
Fujikoshi purchased the 76 year-old National Broach &
Machine Co.—a certain gear worker began setting the com-
pany’s machine tools apart from the others by painting a red
ring around them. Asked why, he said that they worked the
best, and he didn’t want to lose sight of them.
   So began the company’s tradition of marking its
products with the now-familiar Red Ring, according
                                                                        originally developed by National Broach, Wisner says.
                                                                        “National Broach was basically the father of the shaving
                                                                        process, so no matter where you go in the world, you’ll find
                                                                        copies of our machines,” he says. “And as things progressed,
                                                                        there became so many suppliers of shaving machines—and
                                                                        at the same time the market was shrinking due to the intro-
                                                                        duction of other process, such as grinding—that there were
                                                                        soon too many players involved in the game. That’s why we
to F.J. “Butch” Wisner, president and COO of the                        decided to align ourselves with a company in Europe that
Nachi Machining Technology Co. “When you see                            produces a very good machine—in my opinion, it’s one of
that symbol, you know you’re using a time-tested                        the two best machines in the world right now.”
tool that’s been produced by the company who’s                             Another factor that worked to Nachi’s advantage is that it
been the primary supplier of broach tools and shav-                     had a secondary activity to fall back on: manufacturing cus-
ing cutters in North America for more than three                        tom cutting tools such as broaches, shave cutters, hobs, roll
quarters of a century,” he says. “That’s just a fact.”                  dies, and roll form racks. “When the Big Five automakers
   Based in Macomb Township—in a manufacturing facility                 basically stopped buying machines a couple of years ago,
so immense that locals use it as a landmark in giving direc-            companies that didn’t manufacture tools didn’t have a back-
tions—about a half-hour’s drive north of Detroit, Wisner                up income stream, and with no revenue, you’re going to go
says that Nachi Machining Technology’s financial health is              out of business eventually,” he says. “But if you were making
as sound as the tools it produces. “That hasn’t been easy to            machine tools—which is an ongoing thing—like we were,
achieve, but it’s been our primary goal since the beginning             you’re going to be able to sustain yourself and survive.”
of the economic downturn that everyone in the industry is                  Nachi Machining Technology’s relationship with its parent
still dealing with,” he says.                                           company also provided added strength, since Nachi-Fujikoshi
   In addition to this somewhat bleak economic picture, other           is a steelmaker and therefore able to supply top-grade base
factors have added to the struggle for machine-tool companies           materials for manufacturing Red Ring cutting tools. “We make
to remain profitable, the most important being the matter of            bearing steel and custom-tool steel,” Wisner says, “which gives
capacity; “Or ‘over-capacity,’” as Wisner says. “This is actually a     us the ability to be involved in the fundamental material
shrinking industry, because advances in technology have                 research right on up through the design of the product. We
improved the manufacturing process to the point that our pro-           also manufacture furnaces and produce tool coatings, so we’re
duction capacity has outgrown the need in the marketplace.              basically involved in 100 percent of the process, and I don’t
Companies are really in survival mode right now, and there              think too many companies in this industry can say that.”
will be far fewer left standing once the economic skies clear.”            Still, beyond the matter of economics, Wisner sees major
   Nachi will be among them, Wisner says, and for a number              changes in the industry on the horizon, and strategic plan-
of reasons. One is that the company made a conscious deci-                            ning will be required to weather them. “For the
sion about three years ago to cease production of most of its                         North American manufacturer, the challenge is
machine line at the Macomb facility, aligning itself instead                          to be globally competitive,” he says, “and that’s
with a number of manufacturers in Japan and Italy who pro-                            getting harder to do because of developing
duce state of the art equipment. This allowed Nachi to focus                          industrial countries like China, Korea, and South
its attention on its line of custom machine tools. “The                               Africa, which are investing in high-tech equip-
machines we sell all bear the ‘Red Ring’ trademark, and we                            ment and can keep the prices down on their
still provide all the services that our customers require and                         product because their labor costs are so low.
expect, but there was just no use in investing capital in man-                        Whereas here, in the United States, labor costs
ufacturing the equipment ourselves when we can obtain                                 are so much higher that companies aren’t in a
them through partnerships with companies we trust,” he                                position to invest as much in the latest equip-
says, adding that the machines are produced by parent com-                            ment innovations. But with custom tooling, cus-
pany Nachi-Fujikoshi and Sicmat, among others.                                        tomers prefer to buy locally, so that gives us an
   One thing that helped ease the decision is the fact that                           edge in terms of our ability to remain competi-
most shaving machines are fairly direct copies of the design                          tive and retain our customer base.”

                                                    •    JANUARY 2004     •    GEAR SOLUTIONS      13
   Another method that Nachi utilizes to stay on the leading                    be, so each of our efforts support the other. And even the
edge of industry developments involves entering into R&D                        companies that have never purchased a single Nachi product
relationships with its customers. “It’s a simple fact that we                   tend to benefit from the research that we’re conducting since
don’t know whether the machine and cutting tools we’re                          the new materials, processes, and products we develop are
producing right now will even be necessary 10 or 20 years                       good for the industry as a whole.”
down the road, due to all the innovations in transmission                          As important as these innovations are—“You can’t ignore
and drive-train design,” Wisner says. “Our customer’s prod-                     technology, because if you’re just a ‘me, too’ company, the rest
uct designs are going to change, and we will eventually find                    of the industry’s just going to pass you by,” says Wisner—tried
ourselves making tools that we haven’t even envisioned yet.                     and true tactics such as providing excellent customer service
So we have to do our best to anticipate those changes, and                      are still a major component of Nachi’s approach. Although its
to make sure that we’re involved in the process that leads up                   products are promoted through a network of field representa-
to those changes.”                                                              tives, just the same as many other manufacturers, the compa-
   To achieve this, Nachi Machining Technology has been—                        ny assigns members of its central staff to each of its customers
and continues to be—heavily involved in research projects                       to ensure that their needs are being anticipated and met.
with its customers, which include the government, universi-                     “Sure, having a 76-year history helps, but heritage only opens
ties, and tier-one automotive and aerospace suppliers,                          the door for you,” Wisner says. “If you don’t do all the other
among others. “Our customers will come to us and basically                      things well, then it doesn’t really matter.
say ‘What if we wanted to do things this way, how would we                         “So what we’ve done is to structure our company so that all
do it? What would it cost?’ And then we’ll work together to                     phases of management are involved at the customer level.
answer those questions—which is mutually beneficial,                            And that means that every one of our people visit the cus-
because they get answers to their questions, and we’re better                   tomers—I visit, the VPs visit, and the engineers visit, as do
positioned to see how things may unfold in the future.”                         the product managers,” he says. “We take a close look at each
   Wisner points out that this “applied” research is comple-                    customer’s profile and determine exactly who they need to
mented by the “fundamental” research being conducted by                         know at Nachi. That may be a single person, or it may be a
Nachi-Fujikoshi. “We’re involved in the process of making                       team of people, but we make a point of reaching out to our
tools to our customer’s specifications, and they are working                    customers in an effective way, so that they’ll be secure in the
toward making all of their products the best that they can                      knowledge that we’re taking them very seriously—all the way

                                      The finest quality
                                A Leader in the Gear Tool Business for over 50 Years.


                                                                                                       Ultra Precise Hobs
                                   Master Gears                                                           Accuracy Class: AAA, AA, A
                                                                   HOB Resharpening
                                                                                                        Materials: Carbide/Bridge/HSS
                                                                        Service                         Technology: Dry/High Speed/
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                                                                                                        Range: 10~500 Diametral Pitch
               Shaper Cutters                                                                                 STOCK AVAILABLE

                                                                                Gear Rolling Tester

                                                                                                       HOLBROOK &
                                                                                                       HENDERSON, INC.
                                                                                                        17-17 Route 208 North, Fair Lawn, New Jersey 07410
                                                                                                        Telephone: 201-796-5445 Fax: 201-796-5664
                 HOBS                                                       CNC HOB Sharpening
                                                                                 Machine                A MEMBER OF OGASAWARA GROUP

                                    Visit our website at:

14     GEAR SOLUTIONS      •    JANUARY 2004          •
from the company that buys one tool                                                                  that people are drawn to Nachi for a num-
a year to the ones who purchase and                                                                  ber of reasons,” Wisner says. “One is that
depend on our entire product line.”                                                                  we’ve been around for a while, and since
   Since joining the company as direc-                                                               we’ve weathered depressions, and recessions,
tor of engineering in 1994—after                                                                     it’s clear that we’re not going anywhere at
spending more than two decades at                                                                    this point. Another is that all the things
General Motors, starting off as a rear-                                                              we’re involved in provide lateral support
axle manufacturing engineer and work-                                                                across the spectrum of our product lines:
ing his way up into management—and                                                                   Being a manufacturer of furnaces provides
being named president and COO in                                                                     us with an excellent understanding of metal-
2002, Wisner has focused his energies                                                                lurgy, for instance, which supports our mate-
on realigning the company from a                                                                     rials research, and our testing capabilities,
more-standard corporate structure to a                                                               and our machine-tool development.
“product-based” model. In doing so,                                                                     “So when a customer decides to pur-
and by paying close attention to the                                                                 chase a product from Nachi Machining
company’s cost structure, he has helped                                                              Technology, they’re actually aligning
it move into the realm of profitability;                                                             themselves with a massive corporation
and during the most challenging eco-                                                                 that’s constantly working to produce the
nomic times in recent history.                                                                       best-possible product, and there’s a lot to
   “When your market shrinks, you have                                                               be said for that,” Wisner says. “That’s
to be aggressive in your pursuit of new                                                              what gives this company its depth, and
customers,” he says. “And while I’m not                                                              its incredible breadth.”
so naïve as to believe that we haven’t
lost a few accounts in recent years, we’ve                                                           FOR MORE INFORMATION,
been able to gain more than we’ve lost.”                                                             Contact Wisner at (586) 263-012 ext. 143,
   The reason? Determination, quality,                                                               or send e-mail to Visit
and a commitment to service. “I think                                                                the company’s Web site at [].

         Model W-800
         Spiral Bevel Gear Grinder
         Available with variety of software options

         • Max. Work Diameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5”         (800mm)

         • Max. DP (module) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.41 DP     (18 module)

         • Min. DP (module) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25.4 DP     (1 module)

         • Max. Face-Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.12”      (130mm)

         • Max. Cone Distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.11”        (460mm)

         • Max./Min Pitch Angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90/-5 Degrees

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                                                                •   JANUARY 2004     •    GEAR SOLUTIONS        15
                                                                       Why retire a perfectly good
                                                                       machine tool that may still
                                                                       provide years of useful
                                                                       service life? The following is
                                                                       a step-by-step outline of
                                                                       “How to make cents out of it.”


                                                              MACHINE TOOLS
                                                                                     By Kenneth Flowers

16   GEAR SOLUTIONS   •   JANUARY 2004   •
Rebuilding a machine tool requires expert-
ise in mechanical, hydraulic, lubrication,
pneumatic, electrical, control, and coolant
systems, as well as knowledge of the process
the machine performs. The rebuilding
process will require each of these systems to
                                                devoted to the actual rebuilding process,
                                                but I will limit my discussion to a few key
                                                areas that I feel are among the most
                                                important in the rebuild process.
                                                                                                 construction. On older machinery,
                                                                                                 many times you will have cast iron on
                                                                                                 cast iron construction. This type of
                                                                                                 design requires hand scraping to prop-
                                                                                                 erly match the two mating surfaces for
                                                                                                 even contact, and to achieve parallelism
be disassembled, cleaned, inspected, and        DISASSEMBLY                                      and perpendicularity to the other ways.
repaired or replaced as required. A com-        Any machine which is to be totally               Hand scraping is a highly skilled trade
plete rebuild process takes place in a series   rebuilt should be completely disassem-           that requires years of experience at
of steps, depending on the machine and its      bled into its individual parts. All the          which to become proficient. Two key
complexity. But, generally speaking, the        parts should be thoroughly cleaned               indicators of a quality scraped surface
process follows these basic steps.              and then inspected for wear, or other            are the proper bearing area and pattern,
                                                problems. No parts should be over-               plus the final alignments that are
  1) Disassembly, cleaning, and inspection.     looked, or assumed to be okay and                achieved. A commonly used standard
  2) Engineering of software, electrical,       neglected. Thorough cleaning is                  for the bearing area is 10 to 15 contact
     mechanical, and fluid systems.             required to insure that minute deficien-         points in one square inch, and it is con-
  3) Ordering of the required parts.            cies are noticeable during the inspec-           ceivable that you could achieve 40 or
  4) Machine rebuilding.                        tion, as well as to prepare the machine          more points, by a series of repeated fine
         • Rescrape or regrind guide-           for the painting phase.                          scrapings. But, regardless of the number
           ways, realignment verifica-             To speed reassembly, the parts should         of points, the total contact area should
           tion of the slides.                  be categorized and photographed during           be roughly 50-60 percent.
         • Subassembly and electrical           the disassembly process. This simple step          On newer machine tools, you may
           cabinet build.                       will save countless hours of questioning         find hardened and ground guideways
         • Electrical and fluid system          how something goes back together after           that are not scraped. With this type of
           build and installation.              it’s been sitting on the parts shelf for two     construction there will generally be a
         • Painting of the machine, in          months. It also insures that your                low friction coating like SKC3, Moglice,
                                                machine goes back together just as it
                                                came from the original manufacturer,
                                                not in some backward fashion, because
                                                the rebuilder did not know the proper
                                                reassembly order.

Subassembly, fully disassembled                                                                  Recirculating ball screw

                                                Fully disassembled bed

                                                The mechanical portion of the rebuild
Hand scraped surface
                                                encompasses not only mechanical but              Acme screw
                                                also hydraulic, lubrication, pneumatic,
           its disassembled state.              and coolant systems. Within each of              or Turcite on one of the mating sur-
        • Reassembly of the machine.            these subcategories there are some key           faces. This low friction compound slid-
  5) Startup and debug.                         areas which should always be                     ing against the smooth ground way
  6) Mechanical recertification.                addressed in a good rebuild.                     surface has a very low coefficient of
  7) Test cycling and initial test cutting.                                                      friction. This is highly desirable, espe-
  8) Runoff and final testing.                  GUIDEWAYS                                        cially on servo-controlled axes, where
                                                The machine guideways are one of the             stick slip can be a problem. The low
  Obviously, there is a significant number      most important aspects of the rebuild.           friction coatings can be replaced if
of details within each of the steps outlined    The process for refinishing the guide-           required, and the ways reground for
above, and a small book could easily be         ways differs, depending on the machine           finish and alignment.

                                                     •        JANUARY 2004    •     GEAR SOLUTIONS     17
   The last type of guideway is a rolling or linear way that uti-     the rule, of course. This includes items which seldom move
lizes a rolling bearing pack running on a hardened and                during the routine machine operation and may not require
ground linear rail. These types of guideways are generally            replacement of the bearings and bushings because they were
replaced completely, and are never repaired.                          hardly used and are still in “like new” condition. However,
                                                                      any rubber or felt parts like seals, wipers, or packing materials
LEAD SCREWS                                                           should be replaced in case of dry rot, even though they are
Equally important to the rebuild are the screws that move the         not visibly worn.
machine slides. There are two basic types in use today: the             Parts such as clutches and brakes should be inspected closely,
acme screw and the ballscrew. All modern servo-controlled             and probably replaced as a matter of caution. These types of
machines are equipped with preloaded, recirculating ballscrews.       parts are difficult to inspect because many of them are sealed
Older mechanical machines will probably be equipped with              units that cannot be opened or repaired. If in doubt, they
acme screws. During the course of the rebuild, the screws             should always be replaced.
should be removed and inspected. Both types of screws can be
repaired if the damage is not significant, otherwise the screw        GEARS
should be completely replaced. During the replacement                 Machines that produce gears also require gears for their oper-
process, new thrust bearings should be installed on the screws        ation, and these gears must be inspected like any other wear
to insure that no axial lash is present in the drive mechanism.       item in the machine. Since gears do move constantly, the
Some acme screws require adjustment of the nut lash after             teeth, bores, and keyways can become worn. Some of the
installation. Be sure the vendor does not overlook these critical     most critical gears within gear machinery are those that con-
areas during the rebuild process.                                     trol the worktable rotation and the cutter rotation. Any errors
                                                                      in these gears will very likely show up as problems in the
WEAR PARTS                                                            gears the machine produces. Inspection of the gear spacing
During the course of the rebuild, items that are considered to        and tolerances within the cutter spindle assembly and the
be “wear parts” should be completely replaced. These include,         worktable are crucial to the success of a rebuild. Adjustment
but are not limited to, all bearings, bushings, seals, and            of the lash for these gears during final assembly is equally
wipers. With the machine fully disassembled, there is no              important. An excessive amount of lash can manifest itself as
excuse for not replacing these items. There are exceptions to         spacing error on the gears produced by the machine.

18      GEAR SOLUTIONS    •    JANUARY 2004      •
Both during the rebuild and once it
has been completed, alignment veri-
fication of the machine is critical.
Check to verify that the parallelism
and perpendicularity of the axes has
been maintained, both as the ways
are being refinished and after the
machine is under power and capa-
ble of moving the slides via servo or
mechanical control. There have
been standards developed by the
ISO and DIN organizations that
define the allowable tolerances on
these alignments. Most machine
designs have an applicable standard
that should be used to verify the
alignments. For example, on gear
hobbing machines, the standard is
DIN ISO 6545 Acceptance
Conditions for Gear Hobbing
Machines—Testing of the Accuracy.        Detailed electrical drawing

                                                                       but the safety of the operator and the machine itself. You
ELECTRICAL                                                             should investigate the vendor to verify his ability to design a
Design of the electrical system for the machine is a critical task,    fully NFPA and OSHA compliant system. Proper control system
since it will control not only the operation of the equipment,         architecture is required for the machine to function correctly

         Custom Manufacturing of High Performance Gears

                                Spur and Helical Gears up to 10" diameter
                                   Shaping, Hobbing & Gear Grinding
                                 Palloid, Spiral Bevel & Hypoid Gearing
                                             Gear Assemblies
                                            Custom Machining
                                           Testing & Inspection
                                            O.D. / I.D. Grinding

                                        HIGH PERFORMANCE GEAR, INC.
                                      2119 FM 1626 • Manchaca, TX 78652
            Ph: 512-292-9148 • Fax: 512-280-0678 • Email: •

                                                    •    JANUARY 2004     •   GEAR SOLUTIONS      19
and be safe to operate. The standards set down by OSHA and                          machinery, because of the unique requirements these machines
the National Fire Protection Agency—NFPA 70 National                                have. However, there is still some room for selecting a different
Electrical Code and NFPA 79 Electrical Standard for Industrial                      manufacturer. There are just a few manufacturers of CNC con-
Machinery—are designed to supply the controls engineer with                         trollers that are applicable to a fully servo-controlled gear
all the proper codes and regulations for a safe design. If your                     machine to be found in this country. These include NUM,
vendor does not use these standards, you should consider                            Siemens, GE Fanuc, BWO, and Allen Bradley. Of these five,
selecting another vendor.                                                           Siemens and GE Fanuc are probably the best known. Although
   Your electrical design should be done on a CAD system,                           not as widely known, BWO (produced in Germany) and NUM
rather than the old technique of hand drawing. It should be                         CNCs (produced by Group Schneider, in France) are very pow-
a thorough design, complete with identification numbers for                         erful and economical systems that are easily applied on the
devices, wire numbers, colors, sizes, and stock lists.                              simplest or most complex gear machinery. The presence of
                                                                                    Allen Bradley CNCs on gear machines has dropped off signifi-
GENERAL CONTROLS                                                                    cantly in recent years, and many new machine manufacturers
You have a choice in the selection of the general controls for                      or rebuilders do not commonly apply them.
your machinery. You can request the vendor to use Allen                                Generally, the CNC manufacturer and model does not play a
Bradley, Siemens, GE, or Square D equipment on your                                 significant role in the final performance of the machine, unless
machine. Investigate the local sources you have for replacement                     a very specific feature like automatic stock division, synchro-
parts and choose a manufacturer that has local stock. Bear in                       nous tangential compensation, or custom interpolation is
mind that a vendor may be able to offer you a much better                           required. When these types of special features are required,
price by selecting a certain manufacturer. This is more often the                   some manufacturers have an edge over others, depending on
driving factor behind the vendor’s choice of a particular manu-                     the features needed. Your vendor should consider the require-
facturer, instead of a technical reason.                                            ments and choose the best control for the application.

CNC OR PLC CONTROLS                                                                 SERVO SYSTEMS
Generally speaking, the vendor will choose a PLC (Programmable                      An often-overlooked part of the control package is the servo
Logic Controller) or CNC (Computer Numerical Control),                              system. The servos are the muscle behind the CNC’s com-
based upon its capabilities. This is usually the case with gear                     mands. I say “often overlooked” because so much emphasis



  Focused on Quality and a commitment to 100% customer satisfaction, C-B Gear
  & Machine, Inc. has designed a Quality System within the guidelines of
  ISO 9000. Our complete machining and gear cutting capabilities provide for
  effective processing and quality control, as well as reduced lead times. Our
  repair and rebuild department will perform a complete inspection and issue a
  report accompanied by a recommendation and quotation.

     C-B Gear & Machine, Inc.
             4232 MOONEY ROAD • HOUSTON, TX 77093
     1-800-428-6028    281-449-0777    FAX 281-590-9127
                        EMAIL US AT SALES@CBGEAR.COM

20        GEAR SOLUTIONS         •      JANUARY 2004          •
                                                                                                 Fanuc system, you will discover that the GE Fanuc CNC
                                                                                                 must be coupled with GE Fanuc servos. Although there are
                                                                                                 exceptions, 90 percent of the time this is the case.
                                                                                                    Not all servos are created equal. Performance, adjustability,
                                                                                                 and reliability are key factors in the selection of the servo sys-
                                                                                                 tem. The motors must have the proper torque and speed to
                                                                                                 move the axes at the required accelerations and speeds. The
                                                                                                 servo drives should have sufficient amperage for the motors
                                                                                                 and enough tuning parameters to correct for a variety of
                                                                                                 issues such as inertia mismatches, lash, and inherent response
                                                                                                 frequencies of the machine, plus full PID loop control. The
                                                                                                 motors and drives must also be highly reliable to insure they
                                                                                                 will survive the hottest summer days and will not succumb to
                                                                                                 the dirt, oil, and coolant contamination that is so common
                                                                                                 in many shops.

Typical conversational program screen                                                            SOFTWARE
                                                                                                 Software is probably the most underestimated aspect of an
is usually placed on the CNC that the servos are something                                       upgrade. Few people who consider performing upgrades stop to
of an afterthought. There is at least one driving force behind                                   question how the PLC or CNC will be programmed. They sim-
this neglect: Most people assume that the CNC manufactur-                                        ply assume the software will control the machine correctly. This
er will also be supplying the servo drives and motors. This is                                   is a sure recipe for disaster. Software architecture is a science,
not always the case. When you are considering using NUM                                          not a hobby. A sound software design can make a world of dif-
or Siemens, for example, you have the choice of using their                                      ference in the operation and safety of your machine. There are
servos or choosing servos from another manufacturer such                                         two types of software that are present in a machine, depending
as Indramat. However, if you are considering using a GE                                          on the type of upgrade you are having performed.

                              • Custom Cut Gears to AGMA Class 12
                               – Complete Line of CNC Gear Manufacturing
                               – Hobbed or Shaped Gears
                               – Shaved Gears
                              • Straight and Spiral Bevel Gear Manufacturing
                              • Custom and Standard Sprocket Manufacturing
                              • Splined Shaft Manufacturing
                              • Turning, Milling, Drilling, Honing & Broaching
                              • In House Grinding, Heat Treat & Welding
                              • CNC "M & M" Gear analyzer
                               – AGMA, JIS & DIN Capabilities
                               – Spiral Bevel Gear Cutting Process Development

                              Our modern manufacturing facility is equipped to
                              process a wide variety of medium & fine pitch gear
                              & sprocket products. Our reputation and our ability
                              to provide superior quality, cost effective pricing
                              & on-time delivery gives us a significant advantage
                              over the competition.

                              Let Us Quote Your Next Job!

  M E M B E R O F T H E A M E R I C A N G E A R M A N U F A C T U R E R S A S S O C I AT I O N

                 Royal Road - P.O. Box 880 • Keokuk, Iowa 52632 •
                 Toll Free: 800 / 437-0514 • Phone: 319 / 524-5042 • Fax: 319 / 524-1959

                                                                              •     JANUARY 2004     •    GEAR SOLUTIONS       21
PLC SOFTWARE                                                                 Development of these types of programming techniques
The PLC software is used to control the machine functions:                 requires a good deal of time. A vendor cannot afford to devel-
things like actuators that go in and out, turning pumps on                 op this type of program for every machine they upgrade,
and off, monitoring fault and safety conditions, interlocking              unless they routinely reuse code sections. Suppliers that are
functions, mode selections, etc. It takes years of experience to           sole proprietorships, or that have few engineering talents,
refine the design methodologies required to produce a robust               probably do not utilize these advanced techniques because of
PLC program. You simply cannot produce a robust PLC pro-                   the time investment.
gram in a few days. When you couple the years of experience
required with the fact that every manufacturer’s PLC has a                 CNC SOFTWARE
slightly different syntax, addressing scheme, and operational              This type of software can be further broken down into two
architecture, it becomes apparent that you need a highly                   main parts. The first part is how the operator enters the pro-
skilled engineer to write the PLC program, and a database of               gram data, and the second is the method used to turn the
well-written programs to use as templates.                                 program data into the proper motions on the machine.
   One example of a robust PLC design is one that I call                   Historically speaking, gear machinery software has been
“event-driven fault and diagnostics.” In this scheme the PLC               developed using what is called a “conversational” approach.
logic is written to detect and catch every fault or warning.               In this type of design the operator enters the program data by
When a fault or warning occurs, the fault is used to display a             answering a series of preprogrammed questions about his
message, and to stop the machine if required. Using this                   part, tool, and process. An intelligent macro program actually
scheme, you can never have a fault that stops the machine                  moves the axes in the proper sequence to machine the gear.
without a message indicating why the machine has stopped.                  This conversational technique is alive and well in today’s
Another example of a good programming technique is called                  modern gear machinery.
“operator prompting.” If you have ever operated a machine                    Consider for a moment the task of a rebuilder who is
and pressed a button, only to wonder why that button does                  rebuilding a gear-shaping machine and will be applying a
not function, you know what I mean by operator prompting.                  new CNC control as part of the process. To satisfy the
Today’s modern PLCs are so powerful that there is no reason                demands of their customer, the rebuilder must supply a con-
why you cannot develop logic that informs the operator why                 versational program for this machine. The conversational
he can or cannot press that button.                                        software development time for such a machine can be meas-

 Carnes-Miller Gear Launches a NEW Division - CM Gearbox!

  We have all heard the the old adage “You can’t judge a book by it’s
  cover” The same can be said for gear boxes. It’s what is on the
  inside that counts.

  Carnes-Miller Gear has been providing
  open gearing solutions for over 30 years
  and our reputation for precision, accuracy,
  and top of the line quality is unquestioned.

  NOW! Carnes-Miller Gear can consult,
  design and manufacture complete custom
  gear boxes for low-to-medium production requirements. If your
  best solution is a custom gear box, why rely on a modified off-the-
  shelf solution? You can trust a CM Gearbox “inside and out”!
  Contact us to discuss your custom gear drive needs today!
  Phone: 800 273 6814
  Fax: 704 888 4554

                                                   THE GEAR PEOPLE™
  362 Browns Hill Road / P.O. Box 268
  Locust, NC 28097

22       GEAR SOLUTIONS        •        JANUARY 2004   •
ured in months, if not years. If the rebuilder doesn’t already        • All the original machine mechanical drawings and
have software developed, they have a huge time and cost                 parts books
problem to overcome. Not to mention that you cannot devel-            • The CNC or PLC manuals
op such a program the first time and have it be fully tested          • The servo system manuals
and thorough enough to handle all the requirements on a               • Complete software backup on CD-ROM or diskette
particular machine. Developments of these types of conversa-          • All purchased component manuals and documentation
tional programs are evolutions, not revolutions. Be sure that
any vendor you select is up to the task.                              Although this article contains a variety of interesting topics
                                                                   on rebuilding a machine, there is simply not enough space to
DOCUMENTATION                                                      cover all the details that should go into a quality rebuild.
The final part of the rebuild process involves documentation.      Keep in mind when considering a rebuild that not all
If you get a good rebuild done but end up with little or no        machinery rebuilders are created equal. Do not look solely at
supporting documentation, you will have future difficulties        the price aspect of the rebuild, look very closely at the details,
servicing the machine. At a minimum you should receive the         and ask a lot of questions. Hopefully the information con-
following documentation.                                           tained here will be beneficial to you when investigating
                                                                   rebuilt machinery in the future.
  •   CNC and machine operation manual                                For more information, visit the Machine Tool Builders Web
  •   CNC programming manual                                       site at [].
  •   OEM programming manual (conversational manual)
  •   Electrical schematics
  •   Mechanical drawings for assemblies and parts
  •   Lubrication drawings
                                                                                                     About the author:
                                                                                                     Kenneth Flowers is president
  •   Hydraulic system drawings
  •   Coolant system drawings                                                                        of Machine Tool Builders:
  •   Software printouts of the PLC and CNC programs                                                 (815) 636-7502, or
  •   Parameter printouts                                                                  
  •   CNC system option settings and firmware versions

                                                                    PARKER HAS THEM ALL

                                                                                                                      Skiving Hobs
                                                                                                                 High quality–class A & AA skiving
                                                                                                               hobs–fine, medium or coarse pitches.
                                                                                                                Solid carbide up to approximately 8
                                                                          Carbide Hobs                            DP & carbide tipped for coarser
                                                                                                                   pitches–even larger than 1 DP.
                                                                     3 times the average life of other hobs.

                                                                       Shaper Cutters                              Master Gears
                                                                                 Spur or Helical.                        Spur and Helical.

                                                                                                                            INDUSTRIES INC.

                                                                                      1650 Sycamore Avenue, Bohemia, NY 11716
                                                                                          1-631-567-1000 • Fax: 1-631-567-1355
                                                                        Visit us on the Web at: or E-Mail:
                                                                        YOUR SINGLE SOURCE FOR GEAR CUTTING TOOLS AND GAGES

                                                     •        JANUARY 2004       •     GEAR SOLUTIONS             23
                           P D
                      P H Y S I C A L

                                                 V A P O R                D E P O S I T I O N

                                  GEAR PRODUCTION
                                                              by Dennis T. Quinto, Ph.D.,
                                                                         Olle Wanstrand, Ph.D.,
                                                                                   and Kimberly Kortash

24   GEAR SOLUTIONS    •   JANUARY 2004    •
Low-temperature Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
coatings show proven functionality, both in increasing
the performance of cutting tools used to machine gears
as well as in imparting beneficial layers on the gear itself.
In both applications, the coatings improve tribological
                                                                              Role of Coatings in Hobbing
                                                                              The following discussion focuses on hobs, although similar consider-
                                                                              ations apply for other gear shaper cutters. The impact of TiN coating
                                                                              on gear cutting tools was significant from the earliest days of PVD
                                                                              coating commercialization in the early 1980s. The improved perform-
response of the cutting tool or gear, although the wear                       ance derives from the following factors.
environments are quite different. The continuing evolu-                          PVD allows for a lower temperature deposition of a hard coating
                                                                              (typically <500° C/930° F, unlike chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
tion of PVD coating technologies has led to tailored
                                                                              technology applied to carbide materials at ~1000 C/1830° F) which
properties to fit specific material applications.                             does not degrade the strength of high speed steel hob substrates.
                                                                              The coating increases wear resistance of the cutting edges and
Why Coat Gear-Cutting Tools?                                                  lengthens effective tool life.
Hobs and shaper cutters are tools used in gear cutting that have bene-           From known metal cutting theory, two sources of heat combine to
fited from parallel developments in tool materials, coating, and gear         potentially damage the tool cutting edge: the plastic deformation energy
manufacturing equipment. Advancements in each area have converged             at the primary shear zone during chip formation, and frictional heat gen-
to enable higher productivity with metal-cutting parameters at elevated       erated at contacting surfaces between the tool and workpiece surfaces.
speeds, and even in dry conditions. Higher cutting speeds and greater         The tribological function of the coating is to reduce friction and the asso-
machine tool rigidity obtained in modern gear manufacturing equipment         ciated frictional heat component. A second coating functionality derives
also necessitate tool materials that should have higher wear resist-          from its low thermal conductivity. Transmission of the total generated
ance and high temperature stability at the cutting edge. An estimated         heat to the tool is theoretically reduced via this coating thermal barrier
90 percent of all hobs today are coated.                                      effect (the relative significance of the latter is still in question, however).

Not only do PVD coatings extend the life of your gear-cutting tools,
they can also impart beneficial properties to the actual gears being produced.

   Tool substrate materials include conventional cast high speed                 Metal removal by hobbing is accomplished through interrupted cut-
steel (HSS) alloys which have been upgraded to powder metallurgy ver-         ting of the workpiece, where the main mode of failure is edge wear
sions. At the upper end of high performance tool materials, carbide           and chipping of the hob teeth due to fatigue mechanisms against
hobs with increased wear resistance have been introduced later. The           which PVD hard coatings are particularly effective. In addition to
most recent material development is the so-called “bridge material,”          increased wear resistance, edge chipping and microfracture are thus
designed as an HSS alternative to carbide, with properties approaching        delayed, prolonging useful tool life
carbide wear resistance while sacrificing HSS toughness. All these hob
materials are now coated with several types of PVD coatings to match
the particular metal cutting conditions.                                      Hob Tool Material and Coating Developments
   To obtain the highest productivity, with the expensive hob having          There has been a tandem evolution of hob materials and hard coatings.
complex tool geometry, it must be reconditioned and reused. The               The first generation coatings, TiN, improved tool life two to 10 times
original coated hob, after a certain amount of wear on the hob teeth,         over uncoated HSS hobs and had an immediate impact on the gear cut-
can be de-coated, reground, recoated, and returned to service. Thus,          ting industry. The application of powder metallurgy (PM) to process HSS
the total useful tool life of the hob is extended over, say, 10 cycles of     and recent development of so-called “bridge materials”—with higher
grinding and recoating. To realize the level of performance of the orig-      alloying content to increase the carbide content in the microstructure—
inal coated hob, certain technical issues in regrinding and stripping         brought more wear resistance and incremental speed capability. Dry
of the coating must be taken into account.                                    hobbing became possible, and this capability is now further enhanced
                                                                              by newer TiAlN coatings having higher temperature capability. Cemented
                                                                              carbide hobs are more wear-resistant than HSS, but are also more brit-
Why Coat the Gear?                                                            tle. The interrupted cut nature of hobbing leads to thermal cracks due to
There is an ever-increasing demand for improved performance of auto-          fluctuations of load and temperature as the cutting edge goes in and
motive transmissions and gears for other applications. Typical require-       out of the cut. The ability to suppress the initiation and propagation of
ments are higher power output, reduced friction losses, reduced need          such cracks is more critical in brittle materials. It is known to cutting
for lubrication, increased lifetime, improved reliability, and reduced heat   tool specialists that dry interrupted cutting prolongs tool life in carbide
development. Most, or all, of these requirements can be satisfied by          tools because the thermal shock component is less, compared to wet
applying a thin, wear-resistant, low-friction coating to the gear surface.    cutting. Higher speeds are actually attained at dry cutting conditions
   The most common hard and lubricant PVD coatings in use today, and          with carbide hobs. It is also clear that particular high-temperature coat-
the relevant properties for these two types of applications—to be dis-        ings will further improve the wear resistance of carbide hobs.
cussed below—are shown in Table 1. Note the coating microhardness                A less-known, more-subtle, performance-enhancing mechanism is the
values, which can be compared to those of gears being machined prior          presence of compressive residual stress within PVD hard coatings. This
to hardening, typically at equivalent Vickers hardness of ~ 400; and after    effect can be likened to shot peening in metals to increase fatigue life by
hardening treatments, the finished gear at ~ 650 Vickers hardness.            improving resistance against surface crack initiation and propagation. Ion

                                                              •      JANUARY 2004         •     GEAR SOLUTIONS           25
                                     bombardment during the PVD coating process               coating properties are microhardness, high-tem-
                                     induces compressive stress and increases the             perature stability, and compressive residual
                                     resistance against surface cracking at the (coated)      stress, which dictate the effectiveness of the
                                     cutting edge where stresses are highest during           coating under given cutting conditions. Among the
                                     operation. The downside of too high compressive          newer coatings, the most commonly applied coat-
                                     stress, however, is a tendency for coating delami-       ing for hobs is the nano-layered TiAlN coating.
                                     nation at sharp cutting edges, which gets worse          This coating allows for higher cutting speeds due
                                     with coating thickness. On hob teeth that are prop-      to its better high-temperature wear resistance rel-
                                     erly sharpened and honed, an optimal coating             ative to TiN. It is also excellent for dry hobbing
                                     thickness range is four to six microns.                  operations. It has moderate compressive stress,
                                                                                              which makes it suitable for interrupted cuts, while
                                                                                              not being overly sensitive to spalling at a very
                                     Reconditioning Issues                                    sharp cutting edge. These coatings can be
                                     High performance tools entail more quality require-      stripped with the right chemical treatments to
Fig. 1                               ments in their manufacture (and are therefore            allow for regrind/recoat cycles of the hob.
                                     more expensive). The liability of harder, wear-resist-      The common workpieces in hobbing are alloy
                                     ant tool materials arises from inherently lower          steels machined prior to hardening, which are
                                     toughness, and their consequent sensitivity to brit-     below 35 HRc in hardness, as seen in Figure 2a.
                                     tle fracture must be properly addressed during           During machining, these steels have chip forma-
                                     reconditioning processes. This involves regrinding       tion characteristics for which TiN, TiCN, and TiAlN
                                     to remove worn cutting edge material and generate        coatings are applicable, as shown in figure 2b.
                                     a new cutting edge profile, removal of prior coating     This application diagram is supported by a large
                                     layers, and recoating of the reground cutting edge.      body of empirical data, which show that TiAlN
                                        Consider the bend rupture strengths of three          coatings are preferred at increased speeds and
                                     classes of HSS hob materials and common K or             dry cutting conditions. Some typical comparisons
                                     P carbide grades in Table 2. With lower fracture         of hobbing performance with different coatings
 Fig. 2a                             toughness there is a higher propensity to grind-         are given in Figures 3a and 3b.
                                     ing cracks so that care must be taken to use
                                     prescribed grinding wheels and parameters to
                                     minimize burning and/or thermal cracking. The            Low-Friction Coatings for
                                     bridge material is particularly susceptible to
                                     grinding-induced fine cracks at the base of hob
                                                                                              GearsCarbon Based PVD Coating
                                                                                              Gears and other precision machine and engine
                                     teeth. Any pre-existing crack will contribute to         components subjected to high loads can also
                                     early failure in the hobbing operation.                  benefit greatly from being coated. Typically, a car-
                                        Along with resharpening of a used hob, recondi-       bon-based, tungsten-carbide doped coating
                                     tioning requires removal of the coating, usually         (WC/C) is used for such applications. This coating
Fig. 2b                              with chemical stripping solutions. These preferen-       provides an excellent and unique combination of
                                     tially attack and remove the nitride-based hard          high wear resistance and low friction coefficient.
                                     coating, but will also react to a certain extent with    The PVD coating is deposited at ~ 200° C/400°
                                     the carbide constituents in the substrate                F, and coating thickness is usually in the two
                                     microstructure. Bridge material hobs are more            micron range. Different carbon-based coatings
                                     susceptible to such an attack compared to regular        available today display a wide range of hardness
                                     HSS compositions, as are the P grades compared           values (700-4000 HV). Since a gear coating is
                                     to K grades of cemented carbide. Proprietary strip-      subjected to repeated high loads, it must have
                                     ping solutions must therefore be implemented             very good fatigue properties. Therefore a slightly
                                     with good controls to inhibit unwanted reactions         softer (1000 HV) and more compliant coating is
                                     with the tool material substrate. Instances of low-      usually the best choice for gear applications. It is
                                     ered hob performance due to poor stripping prac-         important that the gear base material can with-
                                     tice have been observed, particularly with bridge        stand the coating temperature without losing
Fig. 3a                              material HSS. P carbide grades are generally             hardness. If the gears are made from a heat sen-
                                     avoided in favor of K grades due to this factor.         sitive steel, a low temperature deposition process
                                        Nevertheless, reconditioning of HSS and car-          of ~150° C/300° F can be applied.
                                     bide hobs is an accepted practice today, proving
                                     that satisfactory controls both in regrinding and
                                     stripping can be maintained.                             Low Friction Properties
                                                                                              The main feature of carbon-based PVD coatings
                                                                                              is their ability to resist cold welding, material
                                     Modern PVD Coated Hobs,                                  transfer, and galling when sliding against steel
                                                                                              and other metals under dry conditions. This
Fig. 3b
                                     Application Examples                                     results in very low friction coefficient and very
                                     Two decades after the first-generation PVD TiN           good wear resistance. The low friction behavior
                                     coating appeared in the market, a few other              of the carbon-based coating is illustrated in
                                     coating types have been introduced, as seen in           Figure 4, which shows a typical friction graph
                                     Figure 1. Besides composition, the variable              from the ball-on-disk test.

26       GEAR SOLUTIONS   •   JANUARY 2004     •
   In Figure 4, the friction behavior of a WC/C      research suggests that a less-formulated
and a titanium nitride (TiN) coating is com-         transmission oil could be used in a gear-box
pared. As seen the two coating materials dis-        with coated gears.
play completely different friction properties. For      Although the coating is hard, it is a miscon-
TiN the initial friction coefficient is approxi-     ception that a gear made of hardened steel can
mately 0.25 but increases up to a steady-            be replaced by a coated gear made of soft steel
state value of 0.6 whereas the initial friction      and still loaded to the same level. Due to the
coefficient for WC/C is approximately 0.45, but      very thin nature of the coating, it can not pro-       Table 1
rapidly decreases to 0.15 at steady-state. The       tect the component from plastic flow if the com-
explanation is that material from the steel ball     ponent is overloaded. The maximum hertzian
is worn off and sticks to the TiN coating sur-       shear stresses are located not at the surface,
face. For every passage of the ball in the wear      but rather at a depth that is typically much high-
track, more steel is sticking to the coating and,    er than the coating thickness. When the shear
eventually, when steady-state is reached, it is      stress reaches the yield strength of the base
basically a steel to steel contact rather than a     material, plastic flow will start no matter how
TiN to steel contact. For WC/C the situation is      hard the thin coating is. So it’s a good idea to
the opposite: material is transferred from the       use nitrided or case-carburized or otherwise
                                                                                                            Table 2
coating to the steel ball, and at the same time      hardened steel as base material for the gear
the coating is polished, resulting in a very         and subsequently apply the WC/C coating.
smooth and easily sheared contact which
translates to very low friction coefficient.
   Evidence of the material transfer is shown in     Application Examples
Figure 5, where a black transfer layer of carbon     Figure 7 shows a slow moving and poorly lubri-
from the WC/C is visible in the wear scar on         cated concrete mixer planetary gear. As seen,
the steel ball. Another very important conclu-       the initial wear rate is almost the same with
sion from Figure 5 is that the ball wear rate is     coated or uncoated gears. However, after the
significantly lower when the steel ball is sliding   break-in, the wear rate goes down dramatically         Fig. 4
against WC/C as compared to TiN, in this par-        for the coated gears, whereas the wear rate
ticular experiment approximately 10 times            stays the same without coating.
lower. This indicates that not only the coated,         In Figure 8, the wear rate of a worm gear is
but also the uncoated, surface is protected          shown. Again, the dramatic effect the WC/C
from wear by the WC/C coating.                       coating has on the break-in behavior is clear.
   The time period from the start of the pin-on-     Although lower than the uncoated gear, the ini-
disk experiment until the steady-state friction      tial wear rate for the coated gear is relatively
has been reached is normally referred to as the      high. Once the break-in is completed (after            Fig. 5
break-in period: a very important process that       about 50 hours in this test) the wear rate for
can be greatly improved by the WC/C coating.         the coated gear is approximately 10 times lower
Figure 6 shows two high magnification cross-         as compared to the uncoated gear.
sections of a coated gear tooth. Figure 6a
shows the as-deposited coating where it has
not been in contact with the mating gear. Note       Conclusion
the relatively rough gear surface, and that the      The use of PVD coating technology in gear produc-
coating is more or less copying the surface pro-     tion is in different phases of market maturity, with
file of the base material. Figure 6b shows the       respect to applications. It has been well estab-
same gear in an area where it has been in con-       lished in cutting tools for gears such as hobs and     Fig. 6
tact with the mating gear. As seen, the gear sur-    shaper cutters after almost two decades of devel-
face is still rough, but the coating surface has     opment, continually raising standards of perform-
been polished by the other gear, which indi-         ance in gear cutting. In comparison, the use of
cates a very beneficial break-in situation.          PVD coatings on gears is in its relative infancy.
                                                     The current state has already demonstrated quite
                                                     successful improvements in performance and the
Gear Tribology Considerations                        trend might follow a parallel history with coated
It is important to keep in mind that the coating     hobs. The most promising application areas are
is a part of a complex tribological system. To       highly loaded transmission gears now in common         Fig. 7
reach its full potential, several system parame-     use in sports cars and motorcycles, as well as in
ters should be considered and optimized: e.g.        various industrial gears whose performance can
surface roughness of the coated as well as           be improved with better lubrication.
the uncoated gear, base material hardness,              For more information, visit the Balzers Web
and hardness of the mating gear. Recent              site at [].

 About the authors:
 Dennis T. Quinto, Ph.D., is technical director for Balzers, and Olle Wanstrand, Ph.D., is product
                                                                                                            Fig. 8
 manager of component coatings. Kimberly Kortash is marketing coordinator for Balzers.

                                                           •      JANUARY 2004      •   GEAR SOLUTIONS   27
 Direct Gear

                                                                                By Alexander L. Kapelevich, Ph.D.

     On custom jobs, consider Direct Gear Design — an application-driven gear development
     process with primary emphasis on performance maximization and cost efficiency.

Modern gear design based on the gear rack generating
process was introduced in the 19th century and remains the
only way to design gears today. It considers the gear rack
                                                                     methods (gear milling, broaching, form grinding, etc.) and
                                                                     gear forming processes (powder metallurgy, plastic and
                                                                     metal injection molding, forging). Despite this, all of these
profile as the cutting edge of the tool. In order to define the      processes do not use the gear rack as the tool profile; they
gear geometry, the designer must select the generating rack          are traditionally designed by the rack generation.
parameters such as pitch (or module), tool profile (or pres-            Customization is today’s trend in gear transmission devel-
sure) angle, proportional tooth addendum, and dedendum,              opment. It is driven by market demand for competitive and
etc. It makes gear design indirect, dependent on pre-selected        high performance products. Modern gear design based on
(typically standard) tool parameters limiting the range of           rack generation simply does not meet this demand.
possible gear solutions and gear performance as a result.               AKGears, LLC, has developed a design methodology that is
   There is a distinct difference between gear design and            free from generating process limitations. With Direct Gear
design of any other mechanical components. These compo-              DesignSM the general idea of this methodology is “part
nents are designed directly based on desirable technical and         design is primary, tool definition is secondary,” and not vice
market product performance for certain operating condi-              versa. This is not new: almost all machinery parts are
tions. Tooling selection, in this case, is a secondary concern.      designed this way.
   The gear generating process is not dominant in the gear              The rack generating-based design can be applied to a sin-
industry anymore. There are high productive machining                gle gear. But in the same way that any gear drive must have

28     GEAR SOLUTIONS     •    JANUARY 2004     •
at least two gears, Direct Gear Design is applicable to at least           (hobbing, for example) is selected, the gear profile defines
two gears. It defines the tooth profile by two involutes and               the cutting edge of the tool by reversed generation.
angular distance between them. If the involutes are unwound
from the same base circle, the gear has symmetric teeth (Figure          Direct Gear Design optimizes the gear tooth in the normal
1). If the involutes are unwound from two different base cir-          section that makes it equally applicable for any kind of invo-
cles, the gear has asymmetric teeth (gears with asymmetric             lute gears such as spur, helical, bevel, worm, face, etc. It
teeth are used to significantly improve performance of gear            expands the current limits of the involute gear parameters:
drives with unidirectional load application such as propul-
sion gear transmissions, Figure 2). The outside circle provides          • Minimum number of teeth is just three for spur symmetric
the necessary top land to avoid pointed tooth tips. The bot-               gears and just one for helical and spur asymmetric gears.
tom portion of the tooth or fillet is the area of the maximum              Maximum number of teeth is unlimited.
bending stress that is initially described as a trajectory of the        • Operating pressure range 5-85°.
mating gear tooth tip. Later, the fillet is optimized to mini-           • Face contact ratio range is 0-5 and higher. Range 0-1 is
mize the bending stress concentration. The direct designed                 for helical gears with axial contact ratio > 1.0.
gears can work together, if they have the same base pitch.               • One stage gear ratio from 1:1 to 50:1 and higher.
This is a necessary and sufficient condition to define all gear          • One planetary stage (number of planets at least three)
mesh parameters such as the operating pressure angle, con-                 gear ratio from 1:1 to 300:1 and higher.
tact ratio, backlash, etc., without any of the tool parameters.

 Fig. 1                                                                  Fig. 2

  Direct Gear Design can be defined as an application driven             The creativity, freedom, and flexibility of Direct Gear
gear development process with primary emphasis on perform-             Design allows the user to optimize the custom gear drive for
ance maximization and cost efficiency without concern for              certain application and operating conditions, providing the
any predefined tooling parameters.                                     following benefits:
  Direct Gear Design includes following stages:
  • Gear mesh synthesis—initial gear geometry definition                 • 15-30 percent increased load capacity.
    for the gear in the tight mesh (backlash is zero).                   • 3-5 times longer life.
  • Efficiency maximization—equalizing the specific sliding              • 10-20 percent reduced size and weight.
    velocities for mating gears. Unlike in the rack generating           • Cost reduction.
    method, it could be done without compromising tooth                  • Increased reliability.
    strength and stress (or safety factor) balance.                      • Noise and vibration reduction.
  • Bending stress balance—achieving the equally strong                  • 1-2 percent increased gear efficiency per stage.
    gears by adjusting the tooth thicknesses at the operat-              • Maintenance cost reduction.
    ing pitch diameters. Iteration method combined with                  • Other specific benefits for the particular application.
    FEA is used.
  • Fillet profile optimization—achieving minimum bend-
    ing stress concentration along the fillet. Random search           About the Author
    method combined with FEA is used. It provides 15 to 30             Alexander L. Kapelevich, Ph.D., is owner of the consulting
    percent maximum stress reduction compared to the best              firm AKGears LLC, and developer of the Direct Gear Design
    rack generated gears.                                              methodology and software. He can be reached at (651) 308-
  • Tool design—tool parameters’ definition for the selected           8899, or via e-mail at For more details, go
    manufacturing process. If the rack generating machining            to [].

                                                   •     JANUARY 2004     •    GEAR SOLUTIONS       29
     Staying Aloft as an
                                                 At a time when strategic planning is
                                                 more crucial than ever, aerospace
                                                 suppliers must identify trends in the
                                                 industry in order to be prepared to
                                                 meet the coming challenges.
                                                                                                    By Lee Mason

About the Author: Lee Mason is vice president of Clarke Gear Co.,            RECOMMENDED READING:
a precision gear supplier for the past five decades. E-mail questions        • Passion for Manufacturing, by Richard E. Dauch
or comments to                                        • The Innovator’s Dilemma, by Clayton Christensen

30     GEAR SOLUTIONS   •    JANUARY 2004    •
                                                                                                          (Images courtesy of the U.S. Air Force)

It’s no secret                              that the pressure to reduce input costs has led prime aerospace
                                            manufacturers to reexamine each element in the supply chain for
both military and civilian aircraft. Aerospace gear manufacturers are no exception to the scrutiny. What seemed
to be an elite element of aircraft in the last century is no more than a “commodity” now, subject to the same
pricing pressures as more mundane, non-critical components. Benchmarked commodity prices are used by sup-
ply chain managers (i.e. buyers) who may have no experience with gears or even with machined parts.
  The preferred strategy for reducing supply chain costs is to pressure suppliers to cut their prices,
followed by a continued reduction of the supplier base. Supply chain managers who wring out price
reductions from suppliers are retained, while those who don’t obtain “productivity gains” from their
shrinking supplier base are soon dismissed. The stress of arguing their need for the gear supplier to reduce
prices in the face of mounting production costs takes its toll on many of these mid-level commodity
managers. An adversarial relationship is set up rather the “team” concept which was espoused at
supplier seminars throughout the 80s and 90s.
  Where is this trend leading, and what tactics can be employed by small to medium aerospace gear
suppliers to move ahead?

Trend #1:                                                             group which studied five years of financial and cost data—
No Let-up in “Productivity Gain” Demands                              “Productivity gains seem to have stalled, while recent initiatives
It has been said that “80 percent of the answers to your indus-       such as outsourcing, downsizing, and consolidation have not yet
try’s problems lie outside your own industry, and outside of          delivered the expected cost-efficiency improvements.” The data
conventional wisdom.” Assuming that is the case, looking at           also revealed that pricing pressures from customers have led 30
the automobile industry may give aerospace gear suppliers             percent of the European aerospace/defense companies to estab-
clues to the trends and strategies to put in place for keeping        lish as their top priority cost reductions of 20 to 30 percent by
their “valued supplier” position with aircraft customers.             2006. This is greater than what U.S. gear suppliers are currently
   From 1997 to 2003, the overall average price reduction             being asked to provide, so the handwriting is on the wall.
request coming from the Big Three automakers has risen
from 3.7 percent in 1997 to 6.3 percent in 2003. Ford and             Trend #2:
DaimlerChrysler have been the most demanding, with                    Increasing Demands for Supplier-held Inventory
requests averaging 7.6 percent and 7.5 percent, respectively,         Inventory models using some form of “just-in-time” delivery
in 2003. Aircraft manufacturers learned from the automakers           go back as far as Henry Ford at River Rouge. JIT fell by the
that they, too, could develop “strategic relationships” with          wayside in America, but the Japanese reinvented it in the
suppliers and make annual demands for price reductions.               fifties. It wasn’t until the seventies that America got back
   The terms of these relationships, or partnerships, generally       into it with the auto industry, recognizing that predictability
provide for a quality system approval process, financial review,      and repeatability were needed for profits to get off the
and pricing parameters that include absolute delivery dates           inventory shelves and back into the bottom line.
and quantities. The annual demands for price reductions are              As recently as a decade ago, “total quality management” and
often called “productivity gains,” with reported requests of 5 to     JIT were adopted by aerospace primes and sub-primes with
8 percent which, if taken to their logical conclusion, would          requirements that their supplier base follow the quality and
mean the supplier would eventually charge “zero” for parts            delivery bandwagon. Many gear suppliers fell off the bandwagon
within 12 to 14 years. The auto industry has not demonstrated         when they were not able to comply with the new demands. For
a sustained commitment to achieving lower input costs by any          years, they had made gears in quantities which allowed for setup
method other than by making demands. It is unlikely that air-         time to be justified by delivery of the entire order at once.
craft manufacturers will provide methods for the supplier to          Payments were 30 to 45 days. The same order for 100 gears 10
find the ways and means to meet the pricing demands, and              years ago may now be 10 gears with one-piece delivery each
they will continue to make U.S. gear suppliers nervous with           month. The cost of processing and delivering the order has
the possibility of moving their gear purchases offshore. In the       increased by a factor of 10, while the price has been reduced by
auto industry, however, these pricing demands have led the Big        20 to 40 percent, and payments extended 60 to 90-plus days.
Three to pare their supplier bases to only those demonstrating
full compliance with all parts of the manufacturing process:          Trend #3:
engineering, production planning, pricing, delivery, and inven-       Increasing Movement of
tory management. U.S. aerospace is following suit.                    Gear Manufacturing Offshore
   A new study has found that European aerospace and defense          The recent World Gear Summit, held in conjunction with Gear
companies have been struggling in this area during the last five      Expo in Columbus, revealed some data indicating the extent of
years. According to Antoine Gelain, director and founding partner     gear manufacture in Europe, Asia, and South America. Unlike
of High Strategy Ltd.—a London and Paris-based consultancy            the United States, specific gear types and quantities produced

                                                  •     JANUARY 2004      •      GEAR SOLUTIONS             31
                                                                                                             (Images courtesy of the U.S. Air Force)

are tracked by agencies on those continents. In the U.S., gear            As an example, one aerospace OEM’s Web site has listed
manufacturing is part of aggregate manufacturing data. It does-         the characteristics of a preferred supplier: (author’s interpre-
n’t take statistical regression analysis to know that U.S. order        tation italicized in parentheses)
numbers are decreasing, quantities per order are decreasing,
and RFQs for aerospace gears are decreasing. Data for 2003              1) ACE and lean manufacturing are in place and visible
indicate that Airbus garnered 58 percent of worldwide aircraft             (You need to build it cheaply, using the latest methods)
orders, and 70 percent of the revenue. U.S. manufacturers are           2) Cost-competitive culture
far behind the power curve at this point, with obvious conse-                • Commitment to year-over-year regressive pricing
quences for the aerospace gear industry.                                       (You must sell it for less each year)
  Gear machine tool dealers provide anecdotal data regarding                 • Provide alternatives to reduce cost/add value (You must
the demand for their products overseas. The U.S. market is                     tell us how you make it cheaper and better)
becoming less than secondary. The demand for gear machine                    • Understand the value of low-cost sourcing (You must use
tools is apparently unrelenting in Asia, and particularly in China.            the cheapest suppliers so you don’t pass the costs on to us)
  With gear fabricating technology in place, and with low-cost               • Flexible cash terms (You must accept our slow pay)
labor and government support, it would seem foolish for                 3) Short cycle times (You must rev up the speeds and feeds
aerospace primes not to take advantage of the cost savings off-            to cut costs)
shore. However, recent news reports of infrastructure prob-             4) Financially stable (You need to finance our inventory)
lems in China may cause manufacturers to rethink some of                5) Progressive management, and clear and visible metrics
their aggressive repositioning of contracts offshore. In the               (You give us the data we want, when we want it)
computer industry, customer service failures have resulted in a         6) Provides on-time, defect-free products and services (You
return of functions to the U.S. after units which were moved               make every part perfect and deliver it when we want it)
offshore demonstrated a lack of understanding of the “U.S.              7) Understands and utilizes Web-based paperless systems
culture” when providing service.                                           (It’s cheaper to use the Web, so get up to speed on B2B)
                                                                        8) Registered to Aerospace quality specifications (You pay
Trend #4:                                                                  the auditor, you pay the registrar, and you pay for the annual
Increasing Costs of Doing Business in the U.S.                             renewal; we don’t survey you anymore, but you’d better be
U.S. gear companies are subject to a plethora of costs not                 registered to the standards we require)
encountered by firms in China and the former Eastern                    9) Strong commitment to environment, health, and safety
European countries. Escalating health-care premiums, work-                 (Don’t get mixed up with any OSHA or EPA problems because
ers’ compensation premiums, property insurance premiums,                   it would be bad for us)
and ever-increasing creative taxes disguised as “fees” are pres-        10) Proactively seeks solutions to problems without customer
ent, to some extent, with all gear manufacturers. For aerospace             intervention (If you mess up, you fix it—don’t bother us with it)
gear suppliers, the cost drivers include increasing costs of doc-
umentation, increasing costs of quality audits and certifica-             With multiple customers who each have their own written
tions, and daily diminishing margins for the gear portion of a          requirements, the cost of compliance may seem daunting to
part. For some gears, 100 separate and distinct forms and cer-          a small gear manufacturer.
tifications may be required. These records may need to be
retained for up to 30 years. As the OEMs pursue their separate          Trend #5:
quality standards requirements and business process automa-             A Critical Drop in R&D Funding
tion models, the small to medium supplier is left trying to             for New Military Aircraft Design
emulate and integrate each customer’s protocol into the sup-            The Rand Corporation has concluded in a new report that “the most
plier’s limited asset base.                                             serious risk facing major prime manufacturers is not enough new

32      GEAR SOLUTIONS     •     JANUARY 2004      •
military aircraft design and development         Trend #7:                                         smallest manufacturer requires advanced
work beyond the second half of this decade.”     A Permanent Change in How                         tools and highly-trained personnel. The
In light of this, the top three companies—       People Work and Machinery is                      metrics or markers chosen to reveal
Boeing, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop            Organized                                         progress (or lack of it) toward a goal may
Grumman—won’t have the business to sus-          Technology is becoming the unseen part-           be individualized but should reflect the
tain an adequate core of engineers and tech-     ner of every gear technician and gear busi-       chosen metrics of the customer base.
nical managers to conduct technology             ness owner, with decisions at every step of          Team-based processes for problem
development, prototype development, and          the manufacturing and business processes          solving are moving from the classroom
tests of future system concepts. To keep all     becoming driven by data. In order to gath-        to the gear machine manufacturing
three alive, Rand researchers contend that       er, report, and analyze this data, even the       floor, while in-station process control
new programs must be started soon.
Without new projects, it is not clear that all
three would maintain complex system-inte-
gration skills.
   The interpretation of this trend for
gear manufacturers is mixed. If older air-
craft continue to be built, gear design
will remain similar, with few steep
learning curves. The crystal ball is clear,
to the extent of the fallout from Rand’s
predictions coming true: fewer projects,
fewer new prototype gears and, ulti-
mately, fewer production orders.
                                                         NEW Inventory Additions
Trend #6:
A Change in the Civil-Military                                                                 The No. 429(14) Straight Bevel CONIFLEX
Cycle of Orders                                                                                    Generator is a high precision machine
Following 9/11, the decline in commer-                                                                 designed for cutting straight bevel
cial aerospace orders was staggering,                                                              CONIFLEX gears up to 24” (609.6 mm)
while it was postulated that military                                                           diameter at 10 to 1 ratio, 3.5” (88.9 mm)
orders would begin to make up the                                                                     face width and 3 DP (8.5 Mod). This
shortfall. According to the Aerospace                                                          generator employs two reciprocating side
Industries Association, for the first time                                                         cutting tools, which cut alternately on
since 1994, military orders are expected                                                          opposite sides of the gear tooth. It is a
to exceed civil orders. Since military                                                          universal machine primarily intended for
                                                            #14 GLEASON                             finishing, using a double-roll method,
cycles are usually of longer duration than
                                                                                                       but may also by used for roughing.
civilian cycles, the upward trend in mili-
tary orders is likely to endure at least as
long as the decline of the early 1990s.
   Current scandals surrounding                        The No. 519 Universal Angular
                                                       Hypoid Bevel Gear Testing Machine
Boeing—ostensibly the largest U.S.
                                                       is suitable for testing the running
aerospace manufacturer—will impact
                                                       qualities of straight and spiral bevel
its receipt of military orders. This in                gears, spur and helical gears, up
turn will cause a domino effect to take                to 24" in diameter operating from
place, with gear suppliers suffering                   0 to 180 degree shaft angle, and up
from the fallout. Defense was Boeing’s                 to 36" diameter bevel gears operating
most profitable business, and Boeing is                at a 90-degree shaft angle, with
angering its biggest customer. The new                 SPC (Swing-Pinion-Cone) feature for
CEO has been called out of retirement                  simulating shaft angle deflections
and is committing himself to repairing                 under operating conditions, with
                                                                                                            #519 GLEASON
that relationship. If he is successful,                Hydraulic Chucking
and Boeing receives the previously
anticipated military tanker order, gear
suppliers will benefit. If he is not suc-                        CONTACT US FOR OUR DETAILED
cessful, and Boeing’s weak financial
performance and quality control prob-
                                                                      PROPOSAL TODAY!!!
lems in its commercial space division
continue, aerospace gear suppliers to
Boeing and its sub-tiers will suffer also.
                                                      •        JANUARY 2004      •   GEAR SOLUTIONS          33
                                                                                                                  gives operators the responsibility to
                                                                                                                  ensure defect-free products.
                                                                                                                  Geopolitical changes and changing
                                                                                                                  societal demographics have altered the
                                                              Proven            Graphical         Comprehensive   face of the workforce. Multiple lan-
                                                                                                                  guages may be spoken in one plant,
                                                                                                                  making the in-house education of a
                                  Whether you are a novice or an expert,                                          gear technician a costly challenge.
           UTS Integrated Gear Software is the best in its class for plastic and metal gears.                        Ultimately, the trends give a glimpse
                  It’s not just faster calculations, but smarter calculations with IGS.                           of the future, but handling the pricing
                                                                                                                  demands of today will be the greatest
                   Use IGS to reduce cost and noise while increasing strength and life.                           challenge of the aerospace gear suppli-
                          IGS helps you take better gears to the market, faster.                                  er. Strategies to survive would include
                                                                                                                  taking another look at the automotive
                                                                                                                  industry data of supplier reactions to
                                                                                                                  customer demands over a five-year
                                                                                                                  period. Rationale that helped suppliers
             For gear and engineering software, consulting, training, or custom–developed
                                                                                                                  protect their positions included:
              software, let UTS help you—we have been doing it for companies like Boeing,
           General Electric, Ford, Hewlett–Packard, Arrow Gear, and other customers since 1984.                     • Being the low-cost supplier—a
                                                                                                                      great position to be in, but not one
                    Don’t forget to ask about how UTS Software integrates with Excel
                                                                                                                      that many can claim.
                                                                                                                    • Use of a unique manufacturing
     Contact us today for a free IGS demo and demand proof! Mention code 302 to qualify for a special prize           technology that makes comparison
                          Universal Technical Systems, Inc.                                                         • Critical components embedded in
                          202 West State Street, Suite 700, Rockford, IL 61101, USA                                   complex systems—harder for OEM
                          +1 815–963–2220 • Fax: +1 815–963–8884 • Sales: 800– 435–7887
                 •                                                                 to re-source.
                                                                                                                    • Existence of previously negotiated
                                                                                                                      multiyear contracts with annual price
                                                                                                                      adjustments downward-compromise
                                                                                                                      on the amount of decline from an
                                                                                                                      average of 2.1 percent in 1997 to 3.6
                                                                                                                      percent in 2003. Refusing to reduce
                                                                                                                      prices resulted in repercussions.
                                                                                                                    • Credit for de-contenting of the prod-
                                                                                                                      uct toward annual price reduction.
                                                                                                                    • Steel tariffs, required sourcing, vol-
                                                                                                                      ume alterations, and rising insur-
                                                                                                                      ance rates were factors in the nego-
                                                                                                                      tiation but did not result in fewer
                                                                                                                      demands for price reductions by
                                                                                                                      the customers.
                                                                                                                    • In some cases, suppliers were able to
                                                                                                                      use rationale which protected their
                                                                                                                      position. Individual transactions
                                                                                                                      may not follow the macro path.

                                                                                                                    This is where gear suppliers may have
                                                                                                                  the best chance to retain their place in
                                                                                                                  the customer’s vendor base, by keeping
                                                                                                                  relationships with any customer repre-
                                                                                                                  sentative positive and collegial.
                                                                                                                  Business is still a people-to-people ven-
                                                                                                                  ture, but in aerospace gears, the preci-
                                                                                                                  sion and pricing requirements are not
                                                                                                                  negotiable unless the supplier has a
                                                                                                                  unique advantage. Sometimes that
                                                                                                                  advantage may be skilled employees

34     GEAR SOLUTIONS                •        JANUARY 2004                  •
                                                                                  There are many things to consider when placing an order with a gear
                                                                                  manufacturer, such as trust, confidence and level of integrity. Spending
                                                                                  money correctly is also a primary concern, but so is getting a reliable
                                                                                  product, on-time that fits YOUR particular gear needs.

                                                                                  Being late due to lost time on the production line or receiving a poor quality
                                                                                  product will NEVER happen with Carnes-Miller Gear, guaranteed! For over
                                                                                  30 years, we have maintained a strict quality control process. We make it
                                                                                  easy for our customers to buy from us.We want each of our new or existing
                                                                                  customers to have a positive, risk and worry-free experience.

                                                                                  Give us the chance to earn your business by letting us quote on your next
                                                                                  order. At Carnes-Miller Gear, we assure you that we will handle your
                                                                                  account and your projects, with professionalism and accuracy.
                                     (Images courtesy of the U.S. Air Force)
                                                                                  Let us be a part of your solution. Call us to discuss your gear needs.
who interface with customers in a manner that yields out-                         Call us at: 1-800-273-6814
comes outside the required parameters.
   Often overlooked as a key tactic for survival with large cus-
tomers is the strategy of modeling manufacturing processes
after a customer perceived to be the most successful. That may                   Carnes-Miller Gear...                  The Gear People®
mean outsourcing more of the part including those processes
                                                                                 362 Browns Hill Road • P.O. Box 268 • Locust, NC 28097
you considered your core competency. New skills of supply
chain management and enterprise resource planning are need-
ed and require top-down management commitment in order

to leverage the scarce resources of a small shop.
   Manufacturers who are in rigorous pursuit of cost-cutting
opportunities will find the game to be a draw, if not a win-win
situation. There is room for true productivity gains in every activi-
ty, from the shop floor to the Web site. Using internal metrics and
training all members of the team—operators as well as middle
and upper management—in the ratios which show profitability                                                   Model HC Clutch
will translate into activities which mean success. Sales per
                                                                                                                   The Model HC is an oil-immersed clutch designed for
employee, profit per gear, and percentage of reduction in outside
                                                                                                                   end-shaft, or through shaft mounting configuration.
costs on the same part over the previous lot all reveal a trend for
                                                                                                                   The compact size of the HC makes these units ideal for
growth. For companies to fully implement the structural changes
                                                                                                                   incorporation within a gear housing. Multiple speed
that are needed, they will have to begin using different models, or
                                                                                                                   transmissions use a variety of these units to affect
“levers,” and this will require them to adopt new approaches to
                                                                                                                   fixed mesh speed changes. The Model HC may be used
managing their costs. The goal should not be to improve on exist-
                                                                                                                   as a stand-alone device for disconnects service,
ing industry cost curves, but to reach new cost curves altogether.
   Automation, technology, training, material-flow analysis,                                                       or conveyor/mill soft starts.
ERP, and negotiation training all play a part in this new
                                                                                                              FEATURES INCLUDE:
objective restructuring. Recognizing the complexity of the
                                                                                                                  • Pneumatic or hydraulic actuation
supply chain for aerospace means there are no “quick solu-
                                                                                                                  • Clutch torque capacities range from
tions” to the trends of today. Competitive differentiation
requires time and analysis, and a willingness to try new tac-                                                       55,000 to 1,275,000 pound-inches
tics. A capable, competitive supplier who uses all available
technology and knows his firm’s strengths and weaknesses is
well along the path to “premium supplier.”
   As the futurist Alvin Toffler wrote, “The illiterate of the 21st
                                                                                 2800 Fisher Road • Wichita Falls, TX 76302         515 Frederick St. • Waukesha, WI 53187
century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those
who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn.” These are words that                    1-800-964-3262                                                    866-547-3357
we should all keep in mind in our quest for continued success.                                    

                                                                 •        JANUARY 2004             •       GEAR SOLUTIONS                35
 R.P. Machine Enterprises, Inc. is one of the largest stocking
gear dealers in the United States. We specialize in the buying
                and selling of gear machinery.

             Our contacts are worldwide.
      We buy entire plants or individual machines.

                       325 N. Miller Ave. / Statesville, NC 28677 /
                       (704) 872-8888 • Fax (704) 872-5777 /
                                                                  PFAUTER #PE-150, 6-Axis, CNC, 6” Dia, 5 DP, 6” Face, Fanuc 18MI        OVERTON #HD-400, 15.7” Max Dia, 3 DP, 2 Cut Cycle, Crowning,
  featuredSUPPLIERS:                                              Control, New ‘80’s REF#105
                                                                  PFAUTER #PE-500, 6-Axis, CNC, Hobber, 13.78" Dia, 3 DP REF#105
                                                                                                                                         Diff, Tang, ‘80 REF#105
                                                                                                                                         PFAUTER #P-251 & P-253, 10” Dia, 9” Face, 4 DP, ‘83 REF#105
  Alpha Gear & Machine, Inc. — Ref #100                           SYKES #H160, 4-Axis, CNC, Hobber, 6” Dia, Skip Feed & Crowning,        PFAUTER #P-403 & #P-400, 16” Dia, 3 DP, 2-Cut Cycles, Change
                                                                  Etc, New ‘93 REF#105                                                   Gears, ‘83, REF#105
  Phone: 519-650-0943 •Fax #:519-650-7457                         TOS #OFA-31, 6-Axis, CNC, Hobber, 12.6“ Max Dia, New Machine           PFAUTER #P-630 & 630R, 24” Cap, 2-Cut Cycle, Crowning,
  Email:                      REF#105                                                                Reb/Retrofit ‘78 REF#105
                                                                  TOS #OFA-75, 6 Axis, Hobber, 32“ Max Dia, 18” Face, New Machine        PFAUTER #P-900, 2 DP, 36” Dia, 15” Face, Universal Head,
  C-B Gear and Machine — Ref #101                                 REF#105                                                                Tailstock, New ‘60 REF#105
  Phone: 281-449-0777 • Fax #:281-590-9127                        BORAS Helical Gear Hobber REF#101                                      PFAUTER #P-1501, 1.5 DP, 60” Dia, 24” Face, Crowning, Tang,
                                                                  PFAUTER #PE-150, (6” Dia), 6-Axis CNC, New ‘86 REF#103                 New ‘73 REF#105
  Email:                                      LIEBHERR #LC-152 (6”/8” Dia), 7-Axis CNC w/Automation, New             PFAUTER #RS-00, 10” Dia, 8 DP, 7” Face, Univ/Tang, Head, New
  Website:                                         ’88 REF#103                                                            ‘60’s REF#105
                                                                  PFAUTER #PE-750, (30” Dia), 6-Axis CNC Universal, New ‘00 REF#103      PFAUTER #RS-1, 29” Dia, 3 DP, 12” Face w/Tang Head, New
  Gear Works, Inc. — Ref #102                                     LIEBHERR #L-902, (36” Dia), 3-Axis CNC Universal REF#103               ‘50’s REF#105
  Phone: 802-885-5039 • Fax: 802-885-5176                         LIEBHERR #L-1801, (72” Dia), 6-Axis CNC Universal REF#103              SCHIESS #RF 40/50S, 197” Dia, 79” Face, 1 DP, ‘73 REF#105
                                                                  G&E #96H (100” Dia.) .75 DP, CNC Universal REF#103
  Email:                                                                                                               TOS #OFA32A, Auto, New, 12”x10”, Yr ‘86 REF#100
                                                                  BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5437, ’90 2-Axis CNC Sgl Thrd REF#106
                                                                                                                                         TOS #OFA71A, Auto, 29”x18”, Yr ’91 & ‘88 REF#100
  Website:                                              GEAR HOBBERS/CUTTERS                                     TOS #FO16, 63”x22”, Set-ups, Sgl Index REF#100
                                                                                                                                         LIEBHERR #ET-1202, (48” Dia), 4-Axis CNC Ext Miller/Gasher REF#103
  Mohawk Machinery, Inc. — Ref #103                               BARBER-COLMAN #14-15, 14” Dia, 15” Face, Dual & 4-Start                G&E #60S2, (60” Dia), 3-Axis CNC, Spur/Bevel REF#103
  Phone: 800-543-7696 • Fax: 513-771-5120                         Worms, (Several) REF#105                                               G&E #60S, 72” (Dia), Yr ‘52/’64 REF#103
                                                                  BARBER-COLMAN #14-30, 14” Axis, 30” Dia, 3.5 DP, ‘67 REF#105           MIKRON #A21/2, (1-9/16” Dia), 26 DP, Hopper Feed REF#103
  Email:                                BARBER-COLMAN #16-16, Multi-Cycle, Dual Thrd Worm, Downfd,             BARBER-COLMAN #2-1/2-4, (2.5” Dia),4” Face, Var Speed Drive
  Website:                                Auto Hob Shift, 50’s-78’s REF#105                                      REF#103
                                                                  BARBER-COLMAN #16-36, Special Riser, 24” Dia, C-Frame Style,           BARBER-COLMAN #3, (5” Dia), 10” Axial Travel, With or w/o Diff
  New England Gear — Ref #104                                     4 1/8” Bore, Ext Overarm, ‘68 REF#105                                  REF#103
                                                                  BARBER-COLMAN #16-56, 16” Dia, 56” Face, Diff, Dbl Thread              BARBER-COLMAN #6-16, (6”Dia), 3-Thread, Turret Tailstock, Yr
  Phone: 860-223-7778 • Fax #:860-223-7776                                                                                               ’63 REF#103
                                                                  Worm, ‘68 REF#105
  Email:                                  BARBER-COLMAN #22-15, 22” Dia, 14” Face, Diff, Dbl Thread
                                                                                                                                         BARBER-COLMAN #Type D, (14” Dia), 15” Axial Travel, 3.5 DP,
                                                                                                                                         Diff REF#103
                                                                  Worm, Auto Hob Shift, ‘56 REF#105                                      BARBER-COLMAN #14-15, (14” Dia), Hobshift, 6-Thrd Index REF#103
  R. P. Machine Enterprises, Inc. — Ref #105                      BARBER-COLMAN #3 (6-10), Sgl Start Precision Worm, Screw               BARBER-COLMAN #16-36, (16” Dia), Multicycle, 2-Thrd Index,
  Phone: 704-872-8888 • Fax #:704-872-5777                        Type Ctr REF#105                                                       Reb REF#103
  Email:                                      BARBER-COLMAN #6-10, Triple Thread Comm Worm, Downfeed                 BARBER-COLMAN #16-36, (16” Dia), Differential, 2-Thrd Index,
                                                                  90 Deg Head REF#105                                                    36” Axial Travel REF#103
  Website:                                                                                                             BARBER-COLMAN #16-56, (16” Dia), Hobshift, Dbl Thread Index,
                                                                  BARBER-COLMAN #6-16, 6 Start Worm, Downfeed, Hyd Clamping,
                                                                  Mag Loading, ‘72 REF#105                                               Recon REF#103
  Repair Parts, Inc. — Ref #106                                                                                                          CLEVELAND #1883, (7” Dia), w/Ext Hgt Tailstock REF#103
                                                                  DAVID BROWN #MT-60, 60” Dia, 1.5 DP Diff, Infeed, Tailstock, New
  Phone: 815-968-4499 • Fax #:815-968-4694                        ‘60 REF#105                                                            LEES-BRADNER #7HD, (8” Dia), 4 DP, Auto Hobshift REF#103
  Email:                                 G&E #16H, Univ Head, Hob Shift, Excellent Condition, ‘62, Reb          CLEVELAND #1886, (8” Dia), 4 DP, Sine Bar Att REF#103
                                                                                                                                         PFAUTER #RS00S, (8”/10” Dia), 6 DP, Diff REF#103
  Website:                               ‘80’s REF#105                                                          LIEBHERR #L-200, (10” Dia), Hvy-Duty Hi-Speed, Yr ‘79 REF#103
                                                                  G&E #24H, Univ Head, Infeed, Tailstock, Diff, Good Condition, ‘50’s    LIEBHERR #L-252, (10” Dia), Crowning, Spur only REF#103
  Contact Gear Solutions at 800-366-2185                          REF#105                                                                LIEBHERR #L-301, (12” Dia), 2-Cut, Crowning REF#103
                                                                  G&E #36HWD, Diff, Excellent Condition, New ‘40’s REF#105               CLEVELAND #CR-300, (12” Dia), Crowning, 2-Cut, New REF#103
  to list your Machines, Services and Tooling!                    G&E #48HWD, Diff, Excellent Condition, New ‘50’s REF#105               KASHI FUJI #KS-14, (14” Dia), Crowning, Auto Cycle, 4 DP REF#103
                                                                  G&E #60S, Sgl Index Machine, 72” Dia, 16” Face, 9” Cutter, Under       PFAUTER # P-400 (16” Dia) Vertical Universal, High Tailstock REF#103
                                                                  Power, Nice! REF#105                                                   PFAUTER #P-400H (20” Dia x 160” Face) Horiz, Crowning, 2-Cut,
   GEAR ACCESSORIES, PARTS & TOOLING                                                                                                     Sgl Index, ‘76 REF#103
                                                                  G&E #72H, 72" Dia, 1.5 DP, 24" Face, Diff, Infeed REF#105
FELLOWS Model #10-4/10-2, All Parts Available REF#104             G&E #84/96H, High Stanchion, Diff, Infeed, Excellent Condition,        PFAUTER #P-403, (18” Dia), 2-Cut, Full Mach Encl, New ‘81 REF#103
Tilt Tables for 10-2/10-4, Qty 2 REF#104                          In Plant REF#105                                                       PFAUTER #P-630, (24” Dia), Diff, Infeed, New ’69 REF#103
                                                                                                                                         LIEBHERR #L-652, (24” Dia), Diff, Infeed, Crowning, 2-Cut, Yr ’76
          GEAR HOBBERS/CUTTERS CNC                                G&E #96HWD, 1 DP, 66" Face, 125" Max Dia, Ext Col, New ‘48 REF#105     REF#103
                                                                  HAMAI #120, 4.8” Dia, 4” Face, 12 DP, ‘70 REF#105                      BARBER-COLMAN #25-30, (25” Dia), 30” Face Width, 2.5 DP REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN #6-10, 2 Axis, CNC, 6” Dia, 10” Face, New ‘96       HURTH #WF-280, 11” Dia, 10” Face, 4 DP, ‘85 REF#105                    PGM-STAEHELY #SH-651, (25.5” Dia), Univ Hobhd, Yr ‘82 REF#103
REF#105                                                           KOEPFER #135, Horiz Loader, 3” Dia, 3” Face, 25 DP, ‘60 REF#105        PFAUTER #P-900, (36” Dia), Diff, 2.5 DP REF#103
G&E #120H, CNC, Gasher/Hobber, Twin Stanchion, 1/2 DP, 42”        LIEBHERR #L-252, 9.84" Dia, 4.2 DP, 5.7" Hob Dia REF#105               LIEBHERR #L-901 (36” Dia), Crowning, Auto-2-Cut, Diff, Yr ’74
Face, ‘94 REF#105                                                 LIEBHERR #L-301, 12” Dia, 9’ Face, 4 DP, ‘74 REF#105                   REF#103
G&E #60S-2, CNC, Miller/Gasher, 1 DP, 72” Dia, 38” Vert Travel,   LIEBHERR #L-400, 16” Dia, 10’ Face, 3 DP, High Helix, Crowning,        G&E #48HWD, (48” Dia), Worm Driven Hobhead REF#103
60 HP, ‘80 REF#105                                                ‘68 REF#105                                                            G&E #48HWD, (48” Dia), Worm Driven Hobhead, Yr ‘72 REF#103
                                                                  LIEBHERR #L-401, 16” Dia, 8’ Face, 3 DP, ‘70’s REF#105                 LIEBHERR #L-1500, (60” Dia), Sgl-Index, Diff, Yr ’68 REF#103
LIEBHERR #L-1202, 6-Axis, CNC, 49” Dia, 24” Face, 1.2 DP, ‘78                                                                            G&E #72HWD, (72” Dia), 1.25 DP, Diff, Infeed, Sgl-Index REF#103
REF#105                                                           LIEBHERR #L-1200, 2 DP, 49" Dia, 22" Face, Hyd Tailstock, Nice,        G&E #96H (100” Dia.), 1 DP, Crowning, New ’72 REF#103
LIEBHERR #LC-152, 6-Axis, CNC, Hobber, 6" Dia, 5 DP, 10" Face     In Plant, New ‘75 REF#105                                              MODUL ZSTZ-2000/3 (100” Dia) Universal Hd, Milling Hd, 49” Face,
REF#105                                                           LIEBHERR #L-1500, 1-1/2 DP, 60" Max Dia, Diff, Infeed, New ‘72         1 DP, New ’76 REF#103
LIEBHERR #LC-183, CNC, Full 6-Axis, 8” Dia, 10” Face, 8 DP, New   REF#105                                                                SCHIESS #RF-30E, (125”/196” Dia), Hvy Duty w/Gashing Hd REF#103
‘88 REF#105                                                       LIEBHERR #L-402, 16” Cap, 2-Cut Cycle, Crowning, Chip Conveyor,        BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2 -4, S/N 90, ’60 Sgl Thrd w/Var Speed
LIEBHERR #LC-502, CNC, Full 6-Axis, 20” Dia, 16” Face, 2 DP,      New ‘77 REF#105                                                        Drive REF#106
New ‘87 (Same Machine) REF#105                                    LIEBHERR #L-652, 25" Dia Cap, 19.7" Face, 2 DP, Well-Equipped          BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2 -4, S/N 119, ’62 Hi-Production Spur
MITSUBISHI #GA40, CNC Vert Hobber, 16” Cap, w/Fanuc 6M            REF#105                                                                Gear REF#106
Control, New ‘86 REF#105                                          LIEBHERR #L-900 Duty, 35" Dia, 2.5 DP, Diff, Infeed, ‘61 REF#105       BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 797, ’26 Triple Thrd, Gone Through
MITSUBISHI #GB-100, 6-Axis, 40” Dia, 20” Face, 2 DP, New ‘96      LIEBHERR #L-901, 35" Dia, 2.5 DP, 2-Cut Cycle, Univ Hob Head           REF#106
REF#105                                                           REF#105                                                                BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 878, ’28 Completely Recon in ‘99
PFAUTER #P-250H, 12-Axis, 32” Dia, 3” Face, Yr ‘81 REF#105        LIEBHERR #L-902, 36" Dia, 25" Face, 2 DP, Crowning, Clamping,          REF#106
PFAUTER #P-250H, 6-Axis, 11.81” Dia, Fanuc O Control, New ‘85     New ‘78 REF#105                                                        BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 1088, ’31 Triple Thrd, Gone Through
REF#105                                                           MODUL #ZFWZ, 400/4 REF#105                                             REF#106
PFAUTER #PE-300, 6-Axis, 12” Dia, A/B 8600 Control, New ‘87       RPM #AD-616, 6” Dia, 16” Face, 16 DP, (3) Thread, Bayonette Ctr,       BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 1152, ’34 Triple Thrd, Gone Through
                                                                  New REF#105                                                            REF#106

                                                                                           •           JANUARY 2004            •       GEAR SOLUTIONS                   37
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 1158, ’35 Prec Triple Thrd w/Down         BARBER-COLMAN 14-15 Dual Fd, S/N 926, ’62 Dbl Thrd REF#106
                                                                                                                                  GEAR HOB & CUTTER SHARPENERS (incl CNC)
Feed & 90 Deg Hd REF#106                                         BARBER-COLMAN 14-15 Dual Fd, S/N 938, ’62 Dbl Thrd, Comp
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 1178, ’35 Triple Thrd, Gone Through       Recon REF#106                                                   ARTER #A-12, 12” Rotary Surface Grinder for Sharpening
REF#106                                                          BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 957, ’63 Dbl Thrd REF#106              Sharper Cutters REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 1676, ’41 Sgl Thrd Precision REF#106      BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 1033, ’65 REF#106                      BARBER-COLMAN #10-12, Dry Machine, Dust Collector, Manual
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 1976, ’41 Triple Thrd, Gone Through       BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 1055, ’65 Dbl Thrd w/New Hyd Sys       Dresser, ‘40’s REF#105
REF#106                                                          REF#106                                                         BARBER-COLMAN #4-4, 4” Dia, 4” Long, ‘51 REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2058, ’42 Triple Thrd, Reasonably         BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 1068, ’65 REF#106                      BARBER-COLMAN #6-5 & #4-4, All machines will grind straight
Priced REF#106                                                   BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 1114, ’66 Dbl Thrd REF#106             & spiral gash REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2139, ’42 Triple Thrd, Gone Through       BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 1131, ’66 Dbl Thrd w/Hyd Tailctr       HEALD #22 Rotary, 13” Dia, 12” Chuck REF#105
REF#106                                                          REF#106                                                         KAPP #AS204GT, 10” Dia, Wet Grinding, CBN Wheels, New ‘82
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2241, ’42 Triple Thrd Prec, Gone          BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 1162, ’66 Dbl Thrd REF#106             REF#105
Through REF#106                                                  BARBER-COLMAN 14-15 Dual Fd, S/N 1169, ’66 Dbl Thrd w/Hyd       KAPP #AS-305T, 12” Dia, Straight & Spiral Gash, CBN Wheels,
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2451, ’42 Triple Thrd w/90 Deg Hob        Live Ctr REF#106                                                Lots of Tooling REF#105
Head REF#106                                                     BARBER-COLMAN 14-15 Dual Fd, S/N 1261, ’67 Dbl Thrd w/Hyd       KLING #SNC-30, CNC, 12” Dia, 18” Length, CBN or Std Wheels
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2648, ’43 Triple Thrd, Gone Through       Live Ctr REF#106                                                w/Hob Checker, ‘83 REF#105
REF#106                                                          BARBER-COLMAN 14-15 Dbl Cut, S/N 1278, ’68 Dbl Thrd w/4-1/8”    KLING #AGW-30A, 11” Dia, 16” Part Length, Straight & Spiral
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2823, ’45 Triple Thrd w/Differential      Bore REF#106                                                    Gash, ‘62 REF#105
REF#106                                                          BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 1383, ’72 Sgl Thrd w/Hyd Live Ctr      UTMA #LC-35-NC4, 4-Axis, NC Hob & Cutter Sharpener, 10” Dia
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2840, ’43 Triple Thrd w/Downfeed          REF#106                                                         x 10” Length REF#105
REF#106                                                          BARBER-COLMAN 14-15 Dual Fd, S/N 1438, ’75 Dbl Thrd REF#106
                                                                                                                                 STAR #2VHS-EZ, 6” Max Hob, Coolant Filtration System, New
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 2982, ’44 Triple Thrd, Gone Through       BARBER-COLMAN 14-30 Dual Fd, S/N 1371, ’71 4-Thrd w/Sizing
                                                                                                                                 ‘73 REF#105
REF#106                                                          Cycle REF#106
                                                                                                                                 MAAG #WS, 2 Rack Cutter Sharpener REF#100
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 3002R, ’44 Prec Triple Thrd, Fact         BARBER-COLMAN 22-15, S/N 923, ’62 Dbl Thrd REF#106
                                                                                                                                 KLING #GW20, Hob Sharpener/Grinder, Very Nice, Complete
Reb REF#106                                                      BARBER-COLMAN 16-11, S/N 148, ’45 Dbl Thrd w/Hollow Wk
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 3414R, ’47 Prec Triple Thrd, Fact        Clamp Cylinder REF#106                                          Machine REF#100
Reb REF#106                                                      BARBER-COLMAN 16-11, S/N 184, ’50 Dbl Thrd w/Vert DRO REF#106   BARBER-COLMAN 10x10 Hob Sharpeners, Qty 2 REF#101
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 3431, ’47 Prec Triple Thrd, Fact          BARBER-COLMAN AHM, S/N 1896, ’42 Sgl Thrd w/3 Jaw Chuck         BARBER-COLMAN 4x4 Hob Sharpeners, Qty 2 REF#101
                                                                                                                                 MIKRON #121, (2.1” Dia), Hob Sharpener REF#103
Reb REF#106                                                      REF#106
                                                                                                                                 BARBER-COLMAN #2 1/2-2, (2.5” Dia) Straight Flute Hobs REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 3492, ’52 Sgl Thrd Prec, 90 Deg           BARBER-COLMAN AHM, S/N 2133, ’44 Sgl Thrd REF#106               BARBER-COLMAN #3-4/4, Index Plates REF#103
Att Avail REF#106                                                BARBER-COLMAN AHM, S/N 2448, ’46 Dbl Thrd w/Cam Down            BARBER-COLMAN #6-5, (6” Dia, 5” Face), Yr ‘57-‘70 REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 3HM, S/N 3837R, ’52 Prec Triple Thrd, Fact         Fd REF#106                                                      MIKRON #A62, (6” Dia), Auto Dressing, Coolant REF#103
Reb REF#106                                                      BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 2745, ’51 Sgl Thrd w/90 Deg Hd         KLING #AGW-230, (10” Dia), Index Plates REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 SYKES, Triple Thrd w/Lever Operated           REF#106                                                         KLING #SNC-30, (12” Dia), CNC Hob Sharp, New ‘84 REF#103
Collet Assy REF#106                                              BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3169, ’53 Sgl Thrd REF#106             KLING #ZS-231, Wheelhd for AGW-232, 230, 231, 301, 421 REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 B&C Ltd, S/N 8079, Triple Thrd REF#106        BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3171, ’53 Dbl Thrd, Spanish            FELLOWS #6SB, (6” Dia), Helical, 50° Helix Angle REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4573, ’57 Triple Thrd REF#106            Nameplates REF#106                                              MAAG #WS/3, Rack-Type REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4626, ’57 Triple Thrd 3” Hob Slide       BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3409, ’56 Sgl Thrd REF#106             GLEASON #2JST, (6” Dia), Straight Bevel Coniflex REF#103
REF#106                                                          BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3572, ’58 Sgl Thrd REF#106             GLEASON #13A, (18” Dia), Bevel REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4659R, ’56 Triple Thrd Adj Ctr Assy      BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3580, ’59 Dbl Thrd w/Diff & Auto       KLING Index Plates and Arbors REF#103
REF#106                                                          Hobshift REF#106                                                BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2 -2, S/N 3, ’64 Wet Manual Feed REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4664R, ’57 Triple Thrd REF#106           BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 3682R, ’59 Dbl Thrd,        BARBER-COLMAN 2 1/2 -2, S/N 16, ’66 Wet w/Auto Feed REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4665, ’57 Fine Pitch Prec Triple         Air Operated w/Diff REF#106                                     BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 47R, ’53 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
Thrd REF#106                                                     BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 3641, ’60 Dbl Thrd w/Diff   REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4701, ’58 Triple Thrd w/Power Down       REF#106                                                         BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 51R, ’53 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
Feed REF#106                                                     BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 3660, ’57 Sgl Thrd REF#106             REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 M/C, S/N 4754, ’59 Triple Thrd w/MC           BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 3718, ’61 Dbl Thrd          BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 110R, ’55 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
Conversion REF#106                                               w/Auto Hob Shift REF#106                                        REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 M/C, S/N 4755, ’59 Triple Thrd w/MC           BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4061R, ’66 REF#106                     BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 157, ’56 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
Conversion REF#106                                               BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4111, Dbl Thrd, “C” Style End Brace    REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 Multicycle, S/N 4778R87, ’60 (’87 Rebuild),   REF#106                                                         BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 264, ’62 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
Sgl Thrd Hi-Spd REF#106                                          BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4136, Dbl Thrd, “C” Style End Brace    REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4813, ’60 Triple Thrd, 800 RPM REF#106   w/Diff REF#106                                                  BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 265, ’62 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 M/C, S/N 4913, ’63 Triple Thrd w/90           BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4170, Dbl Thrd w/Jump       REF#106
Deg Hob Slide REF#106                                            Cut Cycle “C” Style REF#106                                     BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 296, ’63 Wet REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 4941, ’63 Triple Thrd REF#106            BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4175R, ’67 4-Thrd, “C” Style End       BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 392, ’66 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 Multicycle, S/N 5055, ’66 Triple Thrd, 800    Brace REF#106                                                   REF#106
RPM REF#106                                                      BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4176R, ’67 4-Thrd, “C” Style End       BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 396, ’66 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5066, ’66 Triple Thrd, 800 RPM           Brace REF#106                                                   REF#106
REF#106                                                          BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4182R, ’67 4-Thrd, “C” Style End       BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 424, ’69 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5141, ’67 Triple Thrd w/Prec Hob         Brace REF#106                                                   REF#106
Shift REF#106                                                    BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4257, ’68 4-Thrd w/Workclamp           BARBER-COLMAN 6-5, S/N 433, ’69 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 Multicycle, S/N 5148, ’68 Triple Thrd, 800    Cyl “C” Style REF#106                                           REF#106
RPM REF#106                                                      BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4259, ‘68 REF#106                      BARBER-COLMAN 4HS, S/N 332, ’51 Dry w/Mist System REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 Multicycle, S/N 5259, ’75 Triple Thrd         BARBER-COLMAN 16-16, S/N 4473, ’73 4-Thrd w/Workclamp           BARBER-COLMAN 4HS, S/N 381, ’52 Dry REF#106
w/Auto Hob Shift REF#106                                         Cyl “C” Style REF#106                                           BARBER-COLMAN 10-12, S/N 520R82, Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout,
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 M/C, S/N 5330, ’75 Sgl Thrd Prec REF#106      BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4520, ’75 Dbl Thrd          Fact Reb ‘82 REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5351, ’77 Triple Thrd w/3” Hob Slide,    w/Gooseneck Slide REF#106                                       BARBER-COLMAN 10-12, S/N 598, ’65 Wet w/Auto Dress & Sparkout
800 RPM REF#106                                                  BARBER-COLMAN 16-16 Multicycle, S/N 4631, ’79 “C” Style End     REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5353, ’77 Triple Thrd w/3” Hob Slide,    Brace, 4W Adj Ctr REF#106                                       BARBER-COLMAN 10-12, S/N 643R83, Wet w/Auto Dress, PC
800 RPM REF#106                                                  BARBER-COLMAN AHM (36”), S/N 572, ’39 Dbl Thrd REF#106          Control, Fact Reb ‘83 REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5394, ’81 Fine Pitch Triple Thrd         BARBER-COLMAN AHM (36”), S/N 1152, ’42 Dbl Thrd REF#106
w/Dwell & Hob Rev REF#106                                        BARBER-COLMAN 16-36, S/N 3613, ’59 Sgl Thrd REF#106                                  GEAR LAPPERS
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 M/C, S/N 5432, ’87 Sgl Thread Prec            BARBER-COLMAN 16-36, S/N 4090, ’66 Dbl Thrd, “C” Style End      GLEASON #503, (10.5” Dia), Hypoid, 90-Degree REF#103
REF#106                                                          Brace REF#106
BARBER-COLMAN 6-16 Auto, S/N 5044, ’66 Auto Loader REF#106       BARBER-COLMAN 16-36 Multicycle, S/N 4232, ’68 Dbl Thrd “C”                       GEAR SHAPERS CNC
BARBER-COLMAN 6-16 Auto, S/N 5045, ’66 Auto Loader REF#106       Style End Brace w/Diff REF#106                                  FELLOWS #10-2 & 10-4, 1 to 4-Axis, CNC, 10” Dia, 2”-4” Face, 4
BARBER-COLMAN 6-16 M/C, S/N 5121, ’68 Triple Thrd, 800           BARBER-COLMAN 16-56, S/N 3136R84, ’53 (Reb ’84), Dbl Thrd       DP, Reb ‘03 REF#105
RPM REF#106                                                      REF#106                                                         FELLOWS 20-4, 4-Axis, 20” Int/Ext Dia, 4” Face, New ‘70/’03
BARBER-COLMAN 6-16 M/C, S/N 5238, ’70 Triple Thrd, Recon         BARBER-COLMAN 10-20, S/N 6700045890, ’76 Dbl Thrd w/2           REF#105
‘02 REF#106                                                      Cut Cycle REF#106                                               FELLOWS 100” CNC Gear Shaper, 12” Stroke, Retrofitted In ‘98
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10 Auto, S/N 5245, ’70 Auto Loader REF#106
                                                                  GEAR PINION HOBBERS & SPLINE MILLERS                           REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN 6-10, S/N 5407, ’82 Auto w/PLC Control REF#106
                                                                                                                                 FELLOWS 50-8, 6-Axis, 51.18” Int/Ext Dia, 8” Face, New ‘86 REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN DHM, S/N 105, ’42 Double Thrd REF#106              LEES BRADNER #SH, 8” Dia, 54” Face, 4 DP, ‘50 REF#105
                                                                                                                                 FELLOWS FS-400-90, 5-Axis, CNC, 16" Dia, 4 DP, GE Fanuc 15MA
BARBER-COLMAN DHM, S/N 129, ’42 Sgl Thrd REF#106                 LEES BRADNER #HH, 15” Dia, 59” Face, 2.5 DP, ‘77 REF#105
                                                                                                                                 Control REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 336R, ’49 Dbl Thrd, Fact Reb REF#106    HURTH #KF-32A, 15” Dia, 59” Face, ‘67 REF#105
                                                                                                                                 FELLOWS FS-630-200, 6 Axis, 24” Dia, 8” Face, 3 DP, ‘95 REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 537R, ’51 Dbl Thrd, Fact Reb REF#106    BARBER-COLMAN #11”x48”, 11” Dia, 48” Face, 2 DP, ‘68
BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 635R, ’53 Dbl Thrd, Fact Reb REF#106                                                                    LIEBH/LORENZ #WSC-1202, CNC, Shaper, 48” Dia, 12” Face, 3
BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 741, ’55 Sgl Thrd REF#106                                                                               DP, ‘90 REF#105
                                                                 NEWARK Horiz Pinion Hob, 18” Dia, 112” Face, 5 DP REF#105
BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 745, ’55 Dbl Thrd w/Dwell REF#106                                                                       LORENZ #LS-180, 4-Axis, CNC, 7" Max OD Ext, 11” Max ID, 2”
                                                                 WANDERER #GF32N, 13” Dia, 200” Face, 200” CC, 3” DP, ‘80
BARBER-COLMAN 14-15, S/N 793, ’56 Dbl Thrd w/Hyd Tailctr                                                                         Stroke, New Controls ‘03, New ‘87 REF#105
REF#106                                                                                                                          MITSUBISHI #SC15, CNC, 5-Axis, 5.9”/2.4” Ext/Int Dia, 6.35 DP,

38         GEAR SOLUTIONS             •      JANUARY 2004            •
Fanuc OMB Control, New ‘93 REF#105
                                                                      GEAR DEBURRING/CHAMFERING/POINTING                                                     GEAR GRINDERS
FARREL-SYKES #2A Herringbone Gear Shaper REF#101
FELLOWS Type 6 Gear Shapers REF#101                                  CROSS #55 Deburrer, 18” Dia Cap, 14” Face, Hyd Chuck, Guards,      OKAMATO # SHG-360H, 15” Dia, 8” Face, 5 DP, ‘80’s REF#105
LORENZ #MCS-40, (20” Dia), 6” Face, 6 Axis Ret w/Warr, New           Covers, ‘52 REF#105                                                PFAUTER #PE-1200G, 47” Dia, New ‘95 REF#105
‘90 REF#103                                                          CROSS #75 Gear Tooth Chamferer, 10” Max Dia, 10” Face, New         REISHAUER ZA, 13" Dia, 6" Face, Straight & Helix REF#105
LIEBHERR #WS-501, (20” Dia), 5” Face, 5 Axis SIEMENS 840D,           ‘52 REF#105                                                        REISHAUER #OZA, 11.8" Dia, 6.7" Face, 5 DP, ‘69 REF#105
New ‘89/’03 REF#103                                                  HURTH #SRS400, Gear Shaver, Grinder & Sharpener, 1.57” Dia         REISHAUER #RZ-300E, 12” Dia, 5 DP, ‘86 REF#105
FELLOWS #50-8, (51” Dia), Sgl Axis NC, 3 Axis PLC, New ‘76 REF#103   REF#105                                                            REISHAUER #RZ-301S/AS, 13” Dia, 7” Face, ‘90’s REF#105
MAAG CNC Retrofit Pkgs for Both Crank-Type & Screw Type              HURTH #ZK-10 Deburrer, 16” Dia, 1 Spdl, ‘60’s REF#105              REISHAUER #AZA & #AZA-K, 11” Diam, 3 DP, 7” Face, Exc Cond,
Machines REF#103                                                     HURTH #ZK-5, Twin Spindle Chamfering & Deburring Mach, Good        ‘77-‘89 REF#105
FELLOWS #10-4/10-2, Qty 150 REF#104                                  Condition REF#105                                                  REISHAUER #ZB, 27.5” Max Dia, 11” Face, Good Cond, New ‘70
HYDROSTROKE #50-8, Qty 2 REF#104                                     NAT BROACH RED RING, #GCU-12, 9” Cutter Shaver, 8” Max Dia,        REF#105
HYDROSTROKE #20-8, Qty 5 REF#104                                     New ‘82 REF#105                                                    HOFLER #H-500, 20” Dia, 7” Face, 2 DP, ‘79 REF#105
HYDROSTROKE #FS630-125, Qty 1 REF#104                                                                                                   HOFLER #H-630, 25” Dia, 9” Face, 1.5 DP, ‘80 REF#105
                                                                     RED RING #GCY-12, Gear Shaver, 12” Dia, 6” Stroke, Crowning,
HYDROSTROKE #FS400-90, Qty 2 REF#104                                                                                                    RED RING #SF-500, Int/Ext, 26” Dia, 30” Face, 2 DP, ‘88 REF#105
                                                                     ‘68 REF#105
FELLOWS #20-4, Qty 6 REF#104                                                                                                            MAAG #SD-36-X, 14.2" Dia, 2.1 Max DP, Like New!! ‘89 REF#105
                                                                     RED RING #GYC-18, Gear Honing Machine, 18” Dia, 6” Stroke,
FELLOWS #48-8Z, Qty 1 REF#104                                                                                                           NILES #10L, 39.4" Dia, 12 DP, AB PLC 2 Control, New ‘88 REF#105
                                                                     ‘64 REF#105                                                        MAAG 72” Gear Grinder REF#101
36” Shapers, 14” Throat Risers, 53” of Swing, Qty 3 REF#104          RED RING #GCX-24”, 3”-24” Pitch Dia Crowning, Tailstock, Taper     MAAG 32" Gear Grinder REF#101
                     GEAR SHAPERS                                    Attachment, ‘74 REF#105                                            STANKO 24" Gear Grinder, New REF#101
                                                                     RED RING #GCU-12, 9" Cutter Head, w/Crowning, New ‘91 REF#105      HORFLER 800 Millimeter Gear Grinder REF#101
BARBER-COLMAN #HD-200, 3 DP, 2.75” Stroke, Exc Cond, New             RED RING/NAT BROACH #GF-300, 7-Axis CNC Gear Finisher, 12”
‘84 REF#105                                                                                                                             NILES 800 Millimeter Gear Grinder REF#101
                                                                     Dia Cap, ‘90 REF#105                                               MAAG #HSS-30A, (11.8” Dia), Spur REF#103
FELLOWS #10-2, 10” Dia, 4” Face, 4 DP, ‘82 REF#105                                                                                      FELLOWS-REISHAUER #12, (12” Dia), 6.75” Face, Yr ’65 REF#103
                                                                     REDIN #18, 28” Dia, 2,3,4 Spindle, Deburrer/Chamfer, NEW ‘90’s-
FELLOWS #10-4, 10” Dia, 4” Face, 4 DP, ‘96 REF#105                                                                                      REISHAUER #AZA-K, (12” Dia), SPA Diamond Disc, New ’79 REF#103
                                                                     ‘00, (8) Machines REF#105
FELLOWS #120-8, 8” Stroke, Spur Guide, Reb ‘88, New                                                                                     MAAG # SD-32X, (12.6” Dia), 9.8” Face, T&R REF#103
                                                                     REDIN # 6, 6" Dia, 3" Face, .33 to 14 RPM, 4" Int REF#105
Electrics, Dig Readout REF#105                                                                                                          OKAMOTO #SHG-360, (14” Dia), FAESSLER “DSA” Diamond Disc
                                                                     SAMPUTENSILI #SCT-3, Chamf/Deburrer, 14” Dia, 5” Face, New         REF#103
FELLOWS #18-5, 18” Dia, 5” Face, 3 DP, ‘74 REF#105
FELLOWS #200, 8” Stroke, 200” Dia Spur, Exc Cond, 1 DP, Reb          ‘82 REF#105                                                        DETROIT GEARGRIND #GGI-16X3A, (16” Dia), Internal Spur REF#103
                                                                     CROSS #75, (10” Dia) REF#103                                       HOFLER #H-500, (20” Dia), Spur/Helical, Crowning T&R, New ’80
‘88 REF#105                                                          CROSS #65, (10” Dia), 9” Face, 4 DP REF#103
FELLOWS #20-4, 20” Dia, 4” Face, 4 DP, ‘75 REF#105                                                                                      REF#103
                                                                     SAMPUTENSILI #SCT-3, (13.78” Dia), ‘97/’98 REF#103                 HOFLER #H-630/800 (30” Dia) Spur/Helical, Crowning, New ’80
FELLOWS #3-3 & #3-1, 3” Max Dia, 1” Face, Pinion Support,            WERA #DRT-250, (9.8” Dia), CNC REF#103                             REF#103
High Precision, New ‘60’s REF#105                                    REDIN #24 (28” Dia) CNC Twin Spindle Deburring Mach, Yr ’90        HOFLER #H-1000E (40” Dia), Spur/Helical, Crowning, New ‘88 REF#103
FELLOWS #36-6, 36” Dia, 6” Face, 3 DP, ‘51-‘55 REF#105               REF#103                                                            NILES #ZSTZ-10 (40” Dia), Spur/Helical, Crowning, New ’88 (Perfect)
FELLOWS #36-6, 36” Dia, 6” Face, 3 DP, ‘68 REF#105                                                                                      REF#103
FELLOWS #36-8, 36” Dia, 8” Face, 3 DP, ‘53 REF#105                                        GEAR HONERS                                   MICHIGAN #MHGGI-FA, (40” Dia) x 24” Face, Spur/Hel/Int/Ext
FELLOWS #4AGS, 6” Dia, 2” Face, 4 DP, ‘68 REF#105                    FASSLER #K-400, Int Gear Honer, 12.6” Dia, 12” Stroke, NUM         REF#103
FELLOWS #4GS, 6” Dia, 2” Face, 6 DP, 2” Riser, New ‘61 REF#105       1080 Control, New ‘95 REF#105                                      HOFLER #H-1600 “MAXIMA” (63” Dia), 61.4” Face, .8 DP, New ‘86
FELLOWS #50-8 Hydrostroke, 50" Dia, 8" Face REF#105                                                                                     REF#103
                                                                                         GEAR SHAVERS                                   REISHAUER #DS, Diamond Lapping Machine REF#103
FELLOWS #50-12 Hydrostroke, 50" Dia, 12" Face REF#105
FELLOWS #6, 16” Dia, 3” Face, 3 DP, ‘70’s REF#105                    RED RING Shaver 12" REF#101                                                  GEAR RACK MILLERS/SHAPERS
FELLOWS #61, #6A, #61A, #645A, From 18”-35” Dia, 0-12” Risers,       RED RING #GCY-12, (12” Dia), 9” Cutter-Head REF#103                FELLOWS #3X36 Rack Shaper, 3” Face, 36” Length, 4 DP, Good
Sev Avail REF#105                                                    RED RING #GCU-18, (18” Dia), Crowning REF#103
                                                                     RED RING #GCX-24, (24” Dia), 12” Cutter-Head REF#103               Cond, New ‘60 REF#105
FELLOWS #612A, 18” Dia, 5” Face, 3 DP, ‘40’s REF#105
                                                                     RED RING #GCJ-36/60, (60” Dia), 12” Cutter-Head REF#103            FELLOWS #61A, Gear Shaper w/48” Rack Att, 8” Riser, Exc Cond,
FELLOWS #615A, 18” Dia, 5” Face, 3 DP, ‘40’s-‘60’s REF#105
FELLOWS #645A, 18” Dia, 5” Face, 3 DP, ‘50 REF#105                                                                                      Reb ‘90’s REF#105
                                                                          GEAR GENERATORS, STRAIGHT BEVEL                               MIKRON #134, Shaper, 1.1” Face, 14.4” Length, 16-20 DP REF#105
FELLOWS #71, 7” Dia, 1.5” Face, 6 DP, ‘50’s REF#105
FELLOWS #712, 7” Dia, 1.5” Face, 6 DP, ‘48 REF#105                   GLEASON #114, Coniflex, Str Bevel Generator, 7” Max Cone Dist,     SYKES VR-72, Vert Rack Shaper, 72” Cut Length, 4DP, 4” Stroke,
FELLOWS #7125 & #7125A, 7” Dia, 1.5” Face, 6 DP, ‘50’s REF#105       2.5” Face REF#105                                                  ‘60’s REF#105
FELLOWS #7125A, #7, #7A, #715, 7” Dia, 1 1/2-2” Stroke,              GLEASON #12, 12” Cone, 3.5 Face, ‘50’s REF#105                     SYKES VR-72B, Vert Rack Shaper, 72” Cut Length, 4DP, 4” Stroke,
Different Risers REF#105                                             GLEASON #14, Coniflex, Str Bevel Generator, 12” Max Cone Dist,     ‘70 REF#105
FELLOWS #72, 7” Dia, 1.5” Face, 6 DP, ‘48 REF#105                    3.5” Face REF#105                                                  SYKES 1800R, Vert Rack Shaper, 72" Cut Length, 4DP, 4" Stroke,
FELLOWS #725, 7” Dia, 1.5” Face, 6 DP, ‘50’s REF#105                 GLEASON #24A, Coniflex, 1.5 DP, 6" Face, 6" Work Spindle Bore      ‘80 REF#105
FELLOWS #75, 7” Dia, 1.5” Face, 6 DP, ‘50’s REF#105                  REF#105                                                            SYKES Machine Package Price Also Available, CALL TODAY REF#105
FELLOWS #75A, 7” Dia, 1.5” Face, 6 DP, ‘50’s REF#105                 GLEASON #37, 26” Cone, 10” Face REF#105                             GEAR THREAD & WORM, MILLERS/GRINDERS
FELLOWS #8AGS, Vert Shaper, 8” Dia, 2” Face, 6-7 DP REF#105          GLEASON #54, 38” Cone, 17” Face REF#105
FELLOWS #Horiz Z Shaper, 6” Stroke, 17” Bore in Table, New           MIKRON #120.1 & 132.02, 1.6” Dia, 25 DP, 50’s-60’s REF#105         EXCELLO #39A, 9.5” Dia, 5” Length, ‘60’s REF#105
‘50’s REF#105                                                        GLEASON #3”, (4.45” Dia), 2-Tool w/Segments & Gears REF#103        HANSON-WHITNEY, 10” x 24” Univ Thread Mill REF#105
MAAG #SH-100K, Disc Control, 47” Dia, 12” Face, 1.7 DP, ‘60’s        GLEASON #710, (10” Dia), Coniflex REF#103                          HECKERT #ZFWVG, 10” Dia, 49” Length, ‘99 REF#105
REF#105                                                              GLEASON #114, (16” Dia), Coniflex REF#103                          HECKERT #ZFWG, 250 X 2000, 19.6” Over Bed, 19.6” 78.7” Hob
MAAG #SH-180/300, Ext Generating/Int Gashing Heads, New              OERLIKON #K4A, (63” Dia), Templates, Full Gears, .7 DP REF#103     Length, Reb ‘01 REF#105
‘60’s REF#105                                                         GEAR GENERATORS, SPIRAL BEVEL (HYPOID)                            J&L #TG636, 7.5” Dia, 36” Length, ‘42 REF#105
MAAG #SH-350/500, 200” Dia, 21” Face, .75 DP, New Cutter Head                                                                           J&L 12x45, 12” Dia, 45” Length REF#105
Installed 85, ‘60’s REF#105                                          GLEASON #641 (G-PLEPE) (16” Dia), CNC Retrofit ’03 REF#103         LEES BRADNER #HT, 12"x 36" Horiz Thread Mill, 12" Dia, 36"Length
MAAG #SH-450/500, 200” Dia, 27.5” Face, Crowning, Exc Cond,          GLEASON Index Plates for 11 & 22 Hypoid Rougher & Finisher         REF#105
‘76 REF#105                                                                                                                             LEES BRADNER #LT, 9” x 54” Thread Miller, 2-3/4” Hole, Steady
MICHIGAN #18106, 10” Dia, 4.5” Face, 5 DP REF#105                           GEAR GENERATORS, HERRINGBONE                                Rest, ‘40’s REF#105
TOS #OHA-50A, 20” Dia, 5” Face, 3.1 DP, ‘85 REF#105                                                                                     PRATT & WHITNEY #6x20, #4.5 x 36, 6” Dia, 20” Length, ‘48 REF#105
                                                                     SYKES #1A, 12” Dia, 30˚ Guide & Spur Guide REF#105
TOS #OHA50A, Auto, 20” x 5”, Yr ’86 Low Hours REF#100                                                                                   REISHAUER #UL-900, 9” Dia, 18” Grinding Length, ‘80’s REF#105
                                                                     FARREL-SYKES #5B, 61” Dia, 18” Face, 2 DP REF#105
MAAG #SH100, w/JV100 REF#100                                                                                                            REISHAUER #US, 10” Dia, 36” Grinding Length, 46” Bet Ctrs,
MAAG #SH75C, Sub Table, Steady, Nice REF#100                         FARREL-SYKES #10A, 120” Dia, 24” Face, 1-1/4 DP, 18” Hole
                                                                                                                                        New ‘80 REF#105
MAAG #SH45 w/Tail Stock & Tooling REF#100                            Thru Spindle, 30 Deg Guides REF#105
                                                                                                                                        WANDERER #31L x 3000, 8” Dia, 120” Length, ‘60’s REF#105
FELLOWS 7125A, 2” Riser, Fresh Rebuild, Full Warranty REF#102        FARREL-SYKES #2A Herringbone Gear Shaper REF#101
                                                                     FARREL-SYKES #3C, (37” Dia), 8” Face, 30” LH/RH Guides REF#103     WANDERER #31Lx3000, 120” Centres REF#100
FELLOWS #3, (3” Dia), Fine Pitch, w/Change Gears REF#103
FELLOWS #725, (7” Dia), 1.5” Face REF#103                                            GEAR GRINDERS CNC                                        GEAR TESTERS/CHECKERS (incl CNC)
FELLOWS #8AGS, (8” Dia), 2” Face REF#103
FELLOWS #10-2, (10” Dia), 2” Face REF#103                            OERLIKON/OPAL #50, CNC, Form Grinder, 20.5" Dia, 24.8" Face,       Please Check Our Website to View the Gear Testers & Recorders
FELLOWS #10-4, (10” Dia) 4”Face REF#103                              New ‘98 REF#105                                                    In Our Inventory REF#105
MICHIGAN #18106, (14” Dia), “Shear Speed” REF#103                    REISHAUER #RZ-301S, CNC, 12" Dia, 4 DP, DIN 5 Grinding Quality,    GLEASON #15, (15” Dia), Blank Checking Device REF#103
FELLOWS #36-6 (36” Dia) Cutter-Elevating, 6” Riser, New ‘69/’70                                                                         GLEASON #D-15S, Spiral Bevel Cutter Inspection Device REF#103
                                                                     New ‘89 REF#105                                                    FELLOWS #4RL, (4” Dia), Comp Roll Checker REF#103
FELLOWS #50-8, (51” Dia), “Hydrostroke”, 8” Face REF#103             NILES #10L, CNC, 39.4" Dia, 12 DP, AB PLC 2 Control, New ‘88       FELLOWS #12M, (12” Dia), Involute REF#103
MAAG #SH-180/300K (118” Dia), 17” face, DS-Swivel Hd REF#103         REF#105                                                            HOFLER #EFR-401, (15.75” Dia), Lead & Involute REF#103
MAAG #SH-250/300, (121.3” Dia), 26” Face Width, New ‘76 REF#103      HOFLER #H-1253, 10-Axis, CNC, 59” Dia, 28” Face, 1 DP, ‘96         ILLINOIS #3412B-2C, (12” Dia), Involute REF#103
MAAG #SH-450 (170” Dia), 26” Face, Swivel Tool Holder, ’76 REF#103   REF#105                                                            ILLINOIS #3424B-3C, (24” Dia), Involute REF#103
BARBER-COLMAN Model 10, ’73 Three Cut Machine REF#106                MITSUBISHI #ZG-400, 5-Axis, CNC, 15.75" Dia, 3.175 DP              ILLINOIS #3712A-2C, (12” Dia), Tooth Space Comp REF#103
FELLOWS 645A, S/N 20683 REF#106                                                                                                         ILLINOIS #3806, (6” Dia), 24”cc REF#103
FELLOWS 7125, S/N 23090, ’42 Face Cutting Atc REF#106                                                                                   ILLINOIS #524, (36” Dia), Involute Profile Checker REF#103
                                                                     MITSUBISHI #ZG-1000, 5-Axis, CNC, 39.37" Dia, 1.41 DP REF#105      MAAG #DAS-1, Composite REF#103
FELLOWS 645A3, S/N 20716, ‘41 REF#106                                REISHAUER #RZ-301AS, (13” Dia), Production CNC, New ’92 REF#103    MAAG #TML, Hand-Held Pitch Tester, 50–3 DP REF#103
FELLOWS 7125A, S/N 27805, ‘50 REF#106                                SAMPUTENSILI #RI-370, (15” Dia), CNC Int/Ext, New ‘96 REF#103      RED RING #GRH, (10.375” Max cc) REF#103
FELLOWS 6A, S/N 20212, ‘41 REF#106                                   KAPP #VAS-531, (20” Dia), CNC Spur/Helical, New ‘91 REF#103        PARKSON #30, Worm & Worm Wheel Att REF#103
FELLOWS 7125, S/N 33904 REF#106                                      KLING-WIENER #W-800 (31.5” Dia.), CNC Spiral Bevel, 1.4 DP,        KLING #PFSU-2500, (100” Dia), Lead/Inv/Spacing, w/Warranty REF#103
FELLOWS 3.2 S/N 32251 REF#106                                        New ‘90/’03 REF#103                                                GLEASON #527, Spiral Bevel Cutter Insp Mach REF#103
FELLOWS 645A, S/N 33506 REF#106                                      GLEASON # 130, (36” Max Dia), CNC Curvic Cplg, Comp Reb REF#103    GLEASON #61, (90” Dia), Angular Bevel Tester REF#103

                                                                                           •          JANUARY 2004            •       GEAR SOLUTIONS                  39
Contact Gear Solutions at 800-366-2185 to feature your business
in the Marketplace!

                                                              BEST VALUE
 Allen Adams      Shaper Services, Inc.                       AND RELIABITY
                                                              FOR PRODUCTION
                                                                                           Enhanced                         ABUNDANT MANUFACTURING, INC.

                                                                       4                        GS
                                                              SHAPING                                                       325 NORTH MILLER AVE. • STATESVILLE, NC 28677
     Servicing Fellows                                                                                                                           PHONE: (704) 871-9911
       Gear Shapers                                                                                                                              FAX:      (704) 871-9961
                                                                                                                                       EMAIL: KEVIN@ABUNDANTMFG.COM
 On Site Service: Emergency & Scheduled
 Technical Support: Via Telephone. Fax or E-mail                                                                                       WEBSITE: WWW.ABUNDANTMFG.COM
 Training: Operator, Set Up & Maintenance
 (Electrical & Mechanical)
 Preventive Maintenance plans: Customized to                  • ELECTRONIC CUTTER
 Your Needs
 Parts: New and/or Used                                       • VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE
 Retrofits – Counters, Servo Controllers, or Single           • OPERATOR INTERFACE
 and Multiple Axis CNC                                          DATA DISPLAY
 Hydrostatic Guides: Repair Service or Purchase New
                                                              • IMPROVED ACCURACY

 I am the former Service and Technical Support Manager        • EXCLUSIVE ALLEN BRADLEY,
                                                                IEC CONTROLS
 for Fellows. Working with me are several former Fellows
 Service Engineers. Between us we have the knowledge          • EXCLUSIVE PARKER PNEUMATICS
 and capability to support all modes of Fellows shapers       • EASY SERVICE, DIN CONNECTORS
 from the oldest to the newest CNC and Hydrostroke            • OPTIONS INCLUDE: CENTER
 machines. Please consider us for all of your Shaper needs.     SUPPORT, RISERS AND POWER                                   GEAR GRINDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27” DIAMETER
                                                                CLAMPING                                                    GEAR HOBBING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84” DIAMETER 36” FACE
 Allen Adams                                                  • FULLY TOOLED, TURN KEY
                                                                PACKAGES                   GEAR WORKS, INC.                 GEAR SHAPING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120” DIAMETER 8” FACE
             Telephone: 802-259-2937                          • FREE TRAINING AND
                                                                                           76 Pearl Street
                                                                                           Springfield, Vermont 05156
                                                                                                                            GEAR SHAVING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24” DIAMETER
                 Fax: 802-259-3937                              LIFETIME SUPPORT           Phone (802) 885-5039
                                                                                           Fax   (802) 885-5176
           e-mail:                                                     Email
                                                                                          ABUNDANT — GEARED TO SERVICE YOUR NEEDS!

                                                              INNOVATIVE                                                    KEYWAY, Inc.
 CUTTING TOOLS                                                RACK & GEAR
                                                              C O M P A N Y
                                                                                                                                                The Name Says It All!

                                                                Custom Manufactured                                        • Large Capacity Slotting
      Please visit our website for more information.            GEARS & GEAR RACKS                                         • Shaping & Broaching
                                                                                                                           • Blind Slotting & Shaping to 20” Long
                                                                                                                           • Tapered Slots & Shapes
                                                                                                                               0° to 10° x 20” Long
                                                                                                                           • Straight Sided Splines
                                                                                                                           • Keyseating to 24” Long
                                                                                                                           • Standard & Metric Sizes
                                                              Various Rack Shapes, Sizes & Materials • Unique Tooth
                                                                                                                           • Also Complete Machine Shop Service
                                                              Configurations • Heat Treating • Complete Machining •          (Gear Cutting, CNC Turning & Milling)
                                                              Accuracy Tolerances up to AGMA Q12 • Spur, Helical,
                                                              Relieved, Tapered, Crowned • Breakdown Service Available •            3 Wells Road • Wethersfield, CT 06109
 HANIK                  CORPORATION                           Reverse Engineering Capability                                                  PHONE: 860-571-9181
     271 E. BEINORIS DRIVE // WOOD DALE, IL 60191                797 EAGLE DRIVE • BENSENVILLE, IL 60106
                                                                                                                                               FAX: 860-571-2932
       PHONE 630-595-7333 // FAX 630-595-7343
                                                                 630-766-2652 • FAX 630-766-3245 • WWW.GEARRACKS.COM                       email:

40        GEAR SOLUTIONS              •       JANUARY 2004      •
                                                                            LAWLER GEAR CORP.                                                                            Find Your Marking Solution
     GEAR TOOTH                                                             L E E ’ S              S U M M I T ,                     M I S S O U R I                     With Durable Permanent Indenting Systems

                                                                                                                                                                         For additional information
         Spur - Helical - Double Helical                                                                                                                                 call us today at 412-665-2500
  Capacity up to 60.5” O.D. , 1 D.P., 29” Stroke. All                                                                                                                    or visit us on the internet at
  ground gears certified up to AGMA Class 14+ on
  Zeiss-Höfler 1602 CMM. Inventory of grinders
                                                                                  Gear Manufacturing                                                           
                                                                           (from singles to production & reverse-engineering services)                                   to see how we can assist
  includes Höfler 800, Höfler 1253 Supra, Höfler                           SPUR - HELICAL - SPLINE - WORM - BEVEL - RACK                                                 you in finding your
  1500, two Höfler Nova CNC 1000s (Fully CNC with                                                                                                                        marking solution.
                                                                             Gear Hobbing • Gear Shaping • Gear Rack • Sprockets
  on-board CMM checker), and Höfler Rapid 1000                             Broaching • CNC Turning • CNC Milling • Automatic Sawing
  Form Grinder.                                                                                                                                                          INDENTING, ETCHING,
                                                                                                                                                                         INK-JET, CONTACT PRINTING

                    Kreiter Geartech
  2530 Garrow St. Houston, TX 77003                                           A   HANDFUL                       OR A         TRUCKLOAD!
  Phone: 713-237-9793 Fax: 713-237-1209
  Contact: Mr. Willie Whittington                                                                      LAWLER GEAR CORP.
  Email:                                                                   1320 S.E. Hamblen Road • Lee’s Summit, MO 64081                                               PRO•POINT STYLUS MARKERS

  Visit our Website at                                                            Toll Free: 800-346-3038
                                                                                                           Missouri: 816-525-0002 • Fax: 816-525-1113

GEAR GRINDING SERVICES                                                                                                                   Consulting
                                                                                                                                                                            GEAR RACK
                                      Gear cutting from raw
                                      material to finished parts
                                                                           • Design & Analysis of Mechanical/
                                                                             Structural Components
                                                                                                                                         casting, welding
                                                                                                                                         & machining
                                                                                                                                         mechanical parts.
                                                                           • Design & Analysis of Complete
                                                                                                                                         Min. 10% less of
                                                                             Power Train Systems
                                      Ground tooth gears and               • Detailed Analysis of
                                                                                                                                         any quoted price.                 STOCK, STANDARDS & SPECIAL GEAR RACK
                                      pinions to 1 D.P. and up               Tranmission Housing & Gears
                                      to AGMA quality class 13             • Failure Analysis and Prevention
                                                                                                                                                                          64 DP TO 1⁄2 DP, CIRCULAR & MODULE PITCHES
                                                                           • Complete Drafting Service                                                                         UP TO 313⁄4” FACE WIDTH AND 157”
                                                                             (AutoCAD, Pro/ENGINEER, Autodesk
                                                                             Inventor, Solidworks)
                                                                                                                                                                           CONTINUOUS CUT (LONGER BY RESETTING)
From 1” Diameter, 64 D.P.
to maximum sizes listed             Max. Face   Max. Size    Max. Pitch
                                                                           • Design and Analysis with                                                                              QUALITY TO AGMA CLASS II
                                                                             Finite Element Analysis (Cosmos)                      MSDS Software accelerates
Spur Gears                             24”       92” P.D.       1 D.P.
                                                                                                                                   your ability to deliver optimum
Helical Gears                          24”       72” P.D.       1 D.P.     No job is too small for us!!!                           designs with superior
Spur & Helical Gears,                                                      We treat all jobs equally!!!                            performance & component life.
Crown Hobbed                           22”       72” P.D.       1 D.P.
                                                                                       DESIGN AND ANALYSIS PROGRAMS:
Internal Gears & Splines               8”        100” P.D.    1-1/4 D.P.
                                                                             SPUR, HELICAL, STRAIGHT BEVEL, SPIRAL BEVEL, HYPOID,
Ground Gears, Crowned or Straight     20.5”      72” P.D.       1 D.P.       SIMPLE EPICICLIC SPUR GEAR TRAINS, SIMPLE EPICICLIC
Herringbone Gears, Center Grove        14”       36” P.D.       2 D.P.      HELICAL GEAR TRAINS, INVOLUTE SPLINE, ROLLER BEARING,                                        STANDARD STEEL SPECIALTY CO.
                                                                             THREADED FASTENERS, HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRING,                                             P.O. BOX 20 • Beaver Falls, PA 15010
                                                                               VARIABLE CROSS SECTION SHAFT, GENERAL FATIGUE                                             800-356-9232 • FAX: 866-338-4279
                                                                                                                                                                         724-846-7600 • Fax: 724-846-9814
               2182 E. Aurora Rd., Twinsburg, OH 44087                      MECHANICAL & STRUCTURAL DESIGN & SOFTWARE                                                    email: •
              Phone: (330) 425-4419 • Fax: (330) 425-8600                     3630 Andrews Dr. #217 • Pleasanton, CA 94588 • Tel: 925-251-0911 • Cell: 925-596-4262
                                                                                E-mail: • • Web:
    • E-mail:                                                                                                                  STOCK GEAR RACK AVAILABLE • BEST PRICE & DELIVERY

                                                                                                                             •       JANUARY 2004      •     GEAR SOLUTIONS                41
industryNEWS       << from page 8                   the gear will be affected in its actual use       gears is highly involved. However, Arrow’s
                                                    under load. In addition, finite element           system has proven to greatly reduce
customers with facilities in Padova, Virginia       analysis is used to study the physical            expense to the customer. By eliminating
Beach, and Suzhou, China.                           stresses on the gear under                                        the conventional trial and
   For more information contact Carl Tarantino      load, thus allowing engineers                                     error process of developing
at (757) 233-7000 ext. 307, or via e-mail at        to modify the design to pro-                                      bevel gears, Arrow has Visit the com-        vide maximum performance.                                         been able—in some
pany’s Web site at [].                Notably, Arrow Gear is the                                     cases—to reduce develop-
                                                    first gear company in the                                         ment time from six months

Arrow Gear Introduces New                           world to offer these complete design capa-
                                                    bilities in-house.
                                                                                                      to less than three weeks. Customers that
                                                                                                      have taken advantage of Arrow’s
Computer Modeling Technology                           The benefits to Arrow’s customers from         advanced bevel design capabilities have
In a recent press release, the Arrow Gear           this capability are far-reaching. By mini-        conser vatively saved $250,000 per gear
Company—a global provider of high-preci-            mizing the time spent on design and               set in design and development costs.
sion gearing—announced the introduction of          development of a new gear application,               “It’s important to understand that bevel
a computer modeling system for use in the           the customer saves a great deal of time           gear development is much more involved
design of spur and helical gears. Promising         and expense on up-front costs. In addi-           than spur and helicals, and by nature, spur
to be the next generation of production tech-       tion, the benefit of bringing a product to        and helical development is not as costly.
nique for precision gearing, Arrow’s system         market sooner than previously allowed             However, we anticipate that our new
provides a dramatic reduction in lead times,        translates to a faster return on new              design capabilities will translate into a sig-
greatly enhances quality, and lowers costs          product investment.                               nificant impact on cost savings and
to the customer.                                       This system for spur and helical gears         improved quality for our customer’s spur
   This system uses advanced computer               is the most recent expansion of Arrow’s           and helical gear needs,” according to
technology to predict the performance of a          design and development capabilities,              James J. Cervinka, Arrow’s CEO and chair-
gear before the part is machined. These             which follows a similar system used by            man of the board.
techniques include loaded tooth contact             the company for spiral and hypoid bevel              For more information, visit Arrow Gear’s
analysis, which is used to determine how            gears. The development phase of bevel             Web site at [].

            Gear Hobs
        Gear Shaper Cutters
         Broaching Tools...
          Because our company works closely with
        several well-established gear tool manufacturers,
          we can offer very competitive prices on
          stock tools, as well as any special cutters.
                                                                                         NEW HOFLER HELIX 400 CNC GEAR GRINDER
         Modern Gearing Specializes in the sale of                                            WITH ONBOARD GEAR ANALYZER
      Gear Cutting Tools & other Gear-Related Products                                     Precision Ground Spur or Helical Gears up
                                                                                         • to16 inches in diameter. Achieving and
          Contact us today for a prompt price quote                                        Exceeding AGMA Class 12 Quality
         on any special orders, materials and coatings                                   • Prototype to Medium Production Quantities
                      you may require.                                                   • Holfer ZP350 Analytical Gear Analyzer
                                                                                           to Insure Quality

                                              Toll Free:                                                4884 STENSTROM ROAD • ROCKFORD, IL 61109
                             Tel: 1-888-595-9897 / Fax: 1-888-595-9860                                  PHONE: 815-874-3948 • FAX: 815-874-3817
                                                                                                        w w w . r a y c a r g e a r . c o m

42      GEAR SOLUTIONS       •     JANUARY 2004         •
           Index of                                                              MACHINE
           Advertisers                                                           INC.
COMPANY NAME                               PAGE

Abundant Manufacturing, Inc.                   40
Allen Adams Shaper Services                    40
Arrow Gear Company                             34
Balzers                                       IBC
Bourn & Koch
C B Gear
                                                                      YOUR        #1
Carnes Miller                               22,35                      FOR NEW & USED
Clarke Engineering                            IFC
                                                                       GEAR MACHINERY
Encoder Products                               18
Gear Works, Inc.                               40         R.P. Machine Enterprises Inc. is one of the largest stocking
Hanik Corporation                              40         gear dealers in the United States. We specialize in the buying
High Performance Gear                          19         and selling of Gear Machinery. We sell Fellows, Lorenz, G&E,
Innovative Rack & Gear Co.                     40         Pfauter, Barber-Colman, Liebherr and other manufactured Gear
IonBond                                        22         Machinery. The majority of the machinery we advertise, we
KAPP Technologies                               1         own! Inspect machines under power in our 50,000 square foot
Keyway, Inc.                                   40
                                                          facility. We repair our equipment on site. Let us quote your
Kreiter-Geartech                               41
                                                          Turn-Key operation. Our contacts are worldwide. We buy
Lawler Gear Corp.                              41
                                                          entire plants and individual machines. Our inventory is updated
LeCount, Inc.                                  21
Matthews Marking                               41
                                                                          weekly. Feel free to speak with us about any
Midwest Gear Corp.                             41                         machines you require or have for sale. We
Mitsubishi Gear Technology Center             BC                          offer MDNA one-year service warranty and
Mitsui Chemicals America                        7                         AGMA 10% off first machine purchase.
Modern Gearing                                 42
Mohawk Machinery                            15,33
MSDS Engineering                               41
                                                              We Offer CNC Control Retrofits
Nachi Machining                                 2
New England Gear                                5                    Outsourcing Opportunities
Parker Industries                              23         Parts, Change Gears, Repair Service
Perry Technology                               23
R. P. Machine                               36,43
Raycar Gear & Machine                          42
Repair Parts, Inc.                             20
                                                                    325 N. Miller Ave.
Russell Holbrook & Henderson                   14
                                                               Statesville, NC 28677 • USA
Society of Manufacturing Engineers (SME)       41
St. Louis Gear Co.                             21
                                                                    fax 704.872.5777
Standard Steel Specialty Co.                   41
Universal Technical Systems                    34
                                                                    visit our website @
Welter                                          8
Wichita/Industrial Clutch                      35

                                     •      JANUARY 2004      •    GEAR SOLUTIONS         43
          Q &A                         Our Conversations with Industry Leaders

                                                                 with    Dave Pumphrey
                   Pumphrey Marketing, designer of NavCat presentation software

GS: Can you explain the idea behind NavCat?             clients aren’t familiar with, we’re using PDFs, which
DP: Sure. We knew that a lot of folks have 3-D          they deal with every day. Plus, once we’ve pro-
CAD drawings or files in their engineering archives     duced the CD, we give the client a secured version
that they don’t know what to do with. They’d like to    to reproduce and send out to their customers, and
show them to their customers, but they don’t know       an unsecured version that they can edit and
how. The purpose of NavCat is to take what they         update themselves. They can send it through the
have—videos, still shots, animated files,               mail, link it from their Web site, or take it to

PowerPoint presentations, just about anything—          Kinko’s and print out the whole thing, or even sec-
and repackage it into a unified presentation of their   tions and individual pages. It’s very, very flexible.       “NavCat doesn’t replace
products and services on a single CD. Think about       And since the capacity for a CD is more than
all of the sales and technical information that’s       10,000 pages and over an hour’s worth of video—                magazine advertising.
generated for one-time use, and then it’s forgotten,    all of which can be accessed from a table of con-                As a matter of fact,
when it can actually be used time and time again.       tents, directly and instantaneously, instead of hav-        it opens up a whole new
And that’s the whole idea behind NavCat: to get         ing to scroll through the whole thing—virtually any
this archived information out into the open, so that    size catalog or presentation will fit.
                                                                                                                   way of using magazines.”
it’s available right at your customer’s fingertips,
with just one or two clicks of the mouse.               GS: How did you come up with this idea?
                                                        DP: We were working on a 300-page print catalog
GS: I’m especially impressed with the 3-D graph-        for one of our clients, Stellram, and it had to be
ics. How do you go about producing them?                ready for a trade show in Europe. But this is a glob-
DP: All we need is a customer’s dxf files off of        al company, with a lot of people involved in such a
their engineering computer and we can transform         project, and for various reasons it became clear
them into multidirectional images for the CD. What      that it wouldn’t be ready in time, which would’ve
we do is take the files, put them into a solid mod-     been a major disaster. So we said “tell you what,
eling program where we apply the various textures,      we can put it all on a CD, and you can take it along
and then we set a virtual camera loose, which           to show your customers on a computer monitor,”
takes some 1,200 photos of the object. What that        which they did. Well, it was a major hit, and we
allows the user to do is to basically create his own    ended up combining every one of their catalogs into
movie in real time, rotating the image on his           a single NavCat CD. They’ve put the whole thing on
screen and looking at it from various aspects. For      their Web site, in fact, and it gets 2,700 downloads
an engineered product, it can’t be beat.                a month, which is saving them $10,000 in printing
                                                        and distribution charges—every single month.
GS: And it incorporates basically every form of
media that’s currently in use, right?                   GS: How much does producing a NavCat CD cost,
DP: That’s right. We’ve broken down the barri-          and how many have purchased them so far?
                                                                                                                  A longtime marketing professional,
ers between media. You’ve got people who do             DP: We launched it in 2001, and there are already
Web sites, and people who produce videos,               more than 30 of them out in the marketplace. Costs            Dave Pumphrey has designed
and people who are involved in print, but they          range from a low of about $5,000 to just a little over
don’t tend to cross-think. NavCat breaks down           $30,000. But we showed the $30,000 CD to a divi-         NavCat: a revolutionary new way for
the barriers between them and brings it all             sion of Rockwell Automation recently, and their peo-        companies to utilize pre-existing
together in one place. Also, when you insert            ple thought it cost $300,000! And they thought it
the NavCat disk, it searches your hard drive for        took us six months to produce, when it only took six     CAD, 3-D, video, and animated files
the components it needs, and if it doesn’t find         weeks. They were pretty amazed.
                                                                                                                      to promote their services and
them, it’ll install them for you. All it needs are
Acrobat Reader and Quicktime, though, which             GS: How else can NavCat be used?                          products. For more information, or
most people already have.                               DP: Drake Manufacturing has been very savvy with
                                                        the NavCat CD we produced for them. They took                  to request a free NavCat CD,
GS: How is the program put together?                    the mailing list of an industry magazine that goes              call Dave Pumphrey at (216)
DP: NavCat is based on PDF—portable document            out to 116,000 people, honed it down to the
format—and you can make a PDF out of anything,          exact 5,200 companies they wanted to reach, and                 464-9687, or send e-mail to
including an Excel file, a Word file, a Pagemaker or    then ran an ad with a CD attached to it. In a mag-
Quark file, a CAD file, even a blueprint file. So       azine ad, all you can do is show the tip of the ice-
instead of using some mysterious program that our       berg. With NavCat, you can show the whole thing.         online at [].

44       GEAR SOLUTIONS       •     JANUARY 2004        •
                                                             In a business where you’re
Get more cost savings                                        constantly pinching pennies,
                                                             there’s a way to save up to 15%
from your manufacturing.                                     of your total manufacturing costs.
                                                             With BALINIT® PVD coatings
                                                             you’ll be able to produce more
                                                             with your existing resources,
                                                             while spending less. How can
                       Manufacturing Costs                   you squeeze more out of your
                                      3%                     production with coatings?
                                             19%             BALINIT® resists heat and wear,
                                                             enables higher production
                                                             speeds and reduces the
                                                             necessity for coolants. Want to
                                               tool change   lower costs per piece? Contact
                    coolants                       25%
                      16%                                    your Balzers representative
                                down time
                                   7%                        today, or call (800) 435-5010. We’ll
                         Increase your speeds to
                          save up to 15% in total            show you savings that are more
                           manufacturing costs.              than just pennies!

                                                             Balzers, Inc.
                                                             Phone (716) 564-8557
     Ready, Willing and Able...

  capable, reliable, serviceable, affordable,
  profitable...         MITSUBISHI GEAR MACHINES
                                                                    Gear Technology Center
                                                  Division of Mitsubishi International Corp.
                                              46992 Liberty Drive • Wixom, Michigan 48393
                                                           248-669-6136 fax 248-669-0614

P.O. Box 383185 • Birmingham, AL 35238

For Return Information, Fax To 205-380-1580

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