Docstoc

contextual-grammar

Document Sample
contextual-grammar Powered By Docstoc
					CONTENTS
CONTEXTUAL GRAMMAR
General Information about Contextual Grammar .......................................................................... 1
Verb Semantics ........................................................................................................................................2
       Homeworks about verb semantics...................................................................................................3
Tenses.......................................................................................................................................... 5
      Homeworks about tenses .................................................................................................................6
Thematic Roles........................................................................................................................... …………10
     Homeworks about thematic roles……………………………………………………………………………………………….11
Causative Voice………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..13
Voice………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..14
Causative Inchoative.............................................................................................................................15
   Interaction Between Voice Form and Thematic Roles………………………………………………………………….16
     Homework and worksheet about voice………………………………………………………………………………………17
Passive Voice……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………19
  Passive Infinitive……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………21
      Homework about passive voice…………………………………………………………………………………………………22
Functions of Modal Auxiliaries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………23
Modals……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..25

Sentence Structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..27

      Worksheet and homework about sentence structure………………………………………………………………..28

-Ever Words and Corralative Conjuctions………………………………………………………………………………………..33

Adverbial Clauses…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….34

Sentence Connectors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….35

Reduction of Clauses………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..36

Participles………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..39

  Gerund or Participle………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………40

Relative Clauses vs. Nominal Relative Clauses…………………………………………………………………………………40

Adjectives vs. Adverbs……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..41

  Linking Verbs…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………41

Analyzing the Paragraphs…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………42

Researches and Online English Grammar Website………………………………………………………………………….45

References……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….48
                         CONTEXTUAL GRAMMAR



Context (of situation) is the groups of ideas, sentences. A context takes place in a place.
*place
*time: When time is given we do not neccessary make the time.
     If time is given, time is clear.
     In present tense time is clear.
*speaker-hearer
*manner
*intention
 Context and Grammer: tenses/ modals/ passives/ conditionals/ noun clauses/ gerund and
infinitive/ adjective-adverbs/ adverbial clauses/ relative clauses.




PLACE: adverbial + noun clauses
TIME: tenses + adverbial clauses of time
SPEAKER-HEARER: passives, reported speech, modals
MANNER: adverbs, modals, adverbial clauses of manner, noun clauses
INTENTION: gerund-infinitive, passives, modals

Parameter: Differences between two languages

Principles: Similarities between two languages
                                    VERB SEMATICS
Tense gives another identity to the sentece.
Verbs can change according to tenses.
An activity verb becomes accomplishment when used in simple past, present perfect, past
perfect and future perfect.




                                     T     A      M
                            Tense                     Modality
                                      Aspect



                Progressive                               Perfect

                 Aspect                  Simple           Aspect

                                         Aspect




                HOMEWORK (study on situation types of verbs )
1.The teacher put Ali and me in the same class.
 The verb is action verb because there is an intention and action.
2. He has already taken the books to the library.
  The verb is action verb beceuse there are time and activity.
3. An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
  The verb is an achievement verb because there are no intention and effort.
4. I found her in the kitchen.
  The verb is achievement because there are no intention and effort.
5. They are laying the wounded man on the bed right now.
  The verb is an action verb because there is an intention, activity, effort and time.
6. I had made my way into the smoking room.
  The verb is accomplishment because there is not only an intention but also an activity.
7. We lived in a dream when we were children.
  The verbs are state verbs because there is no an intention,activity, effort.
8. The earth revolves around the sun.
   The verb is an achievement verb because There is not an intention and effort.
9. I will never forget telephoning Jill for the fist time.
  The verb is accomplisment because of intention, activity and time.
10. He was writing the report when I left the office.
  The verbs are action verbs because of time, activity.
11. He has been working in Ankara for ten years now.
   The verb is action because there is an intention and activity and time.




                                       HOMEWORK
1. He searchs some information about intonation on the internet.
   I think verb is an activity verb because there is an intention and also an activity

2. He is searching some information about intonation on the internet right now.
   I think the verb is an activity verb because there are motion, intention and period.

3. He has already searched some information about intonation on the internet.
     I think the verb is an accoplishment verb because there is end point besides activity and
time.

4. He has been searching some information about intonation on the internet for two hours.
     The verb is activity because there are time, activity, intention.
5. He searched some information about intonation on the internet yesterday.
     The verb is accomplishment. There is end point addition to activity and intonation.

6. He was searching some information about intonation on the internet when I came home.
      I think the verb is activity because there is time.

7. He had searched some information about intonation on the internet.
      The verb is accomplishment because there is an end point.

8. He had been searching some information about intonation on the internet for two days.
     I think the verb is activity because there is a time, montion, intention.

9. He will search some information about intonation on the internet tomorrow.
     I think the verb is activity.There is an intention,time, activity.

10. He will be searching some information about intonation on the internet this time
tomorrow.
     The verb is activity because there is an activity, intention, time.

11. He will have searched some information about intonation on the internet by the time we
arrive.
       The verb is accomplishment because there is an end point and activity, time.

12. He will have been searching some information about intonation on the internet for two
hours by the time we arrive.
      I think the verb is activity. There is an intention, time, montion and effort.
                                                 TENSES
The Present Continuous     He is writing the report now/at the moment.
Tense

The Past Continuous        He was writing the report when I left the Office.
Tense
                           He was writing the report while you are sleeping.

The Simple Present         He writes a report every week.
Tense

The Simple Past Tense      He wrote a report last Friday/three days ago.
                           He wrote a report before he left the office.

The Present Perfect        He has already written two reports of this kind.
Tense
                           He hasn‟t written the report yet.
                           He has written two reports since he started to work here.
                           He hasn‟t written a report for a long time.
                           This is the first time he has written a report.
                           He has written several reports recently/lately.

The Past Perfect Tense     He had already written the report when I left.
                           He had just finished the report when you called.
                           He had finished the report by the time you called.

The Present Perfect        He has been writing this report for the last three days/since last Monday.
Continuous Tense

The Past Perfect           He had been writing a report for an hour when you called.
Continuous Tense

The Future Tense           He will write a report tomorrow.
                           He is going to write a report tomorrow.

The Future Continuous      This time tomorrow he will be writing his report.
Tense

The Future Perfect Tense   He will have written several reports by the next October.


The Future Perfect         He will have been writing the report for two years by next October.
Continuous Tense
                                     TIME TABLE




             PAST                                                     FUTURE


Simple Past Tense
                                        PRESENT
                                                                   Future Tense
Past Continuous Tense                                              Future Continuous Tense
Past Perfect Tense                                                 Future Perfect Tense
                                Simple Present Tense
Past Perfect Continuous Tense                                      Future Perfect Continuous
                                Present Continuous Tense
                                                                   Tense
                                Present Perfect Tense

                                Present Perfect Continuous Tense
                                   TELL THE DIFFERENCE
     The class had been waiting for 20 minutes when the teacher came.
     (the class had waited then the teacher came)
     The class got up when the teacher came.
     (two things happened at the same time)
     The class had left when the teacher came
     (the class left and then teacher came)
     The class had left before the teacher came.
     (the teacher came s/he found the class left or the class left, after sometime the teacher
     came)
           time gap between two things
     Mary lived with her aunt when her uncle died.
     (her uncle died and she started tol ive her aunt)
     I will have been living in İstanbul for 5 years by 2015.
     I will still be living there by 2015.




   HOMEWORK Tell the difference
1. a) James lived with Mary for two years.
   Now James is not living with Mary(the speaker is talking about a past action)

   b) James has lived with Mary for two years.
   James stared to live with Mary two years ago and now they are stil in the same time.

   c) James has been living with Mary for two years.
   James started to live with Mary two years ago and stil lives with her.

2. a) I was staying with my aunt when my uncle died.
   I started tos tay with my aunt after sometime my uncle died.

   b) I stayed with my aunt when my uncle died.
   My uncle died and then I started tos tay with my aunt
    c) I had been staying with my aunt when my uncle died.
    I started to stay with my aunt and I was stil staying with my aunt when my uncle   died.
3. a) I had left my girl friend when I met Mary.
   First I left my irl friend and then I met Mary.

4. a) I help my sister on Sunday.
   It is my routin to help my sister every Sunday.

    b) I‟m helping my sister on Sunday.
    It is my plan to help my sister on Sunday and my sister knows it.

   c) I have been helping my sister since Sunday.
    I started to help my sister on Sunday and I continue to help her.


5. a) Every morning when I wake up, I wash my face.
   It is my routin to wash my face every morning when I hake up.

   b) Every morning when I wake up I‟ve washed my face.
   Every morning when I wake up it is my habit to wash my face, but I don‟t know about the
   future.

6. a) When I saw her yesterday, she was crying.
   Her crying is in progressive

   b) When I saw her yesterday, she had been crying.
   She started crying sometime ago. When I saw her she was still crying.(bitmişte olabilir)

7. a) I never met my grandfather.
   I didn‟t know my grandfather and there is no possibility to meet him in the future.
   I have never seen him.

   b) I‟ve never met my grandfather
   I didn‟t know my grandfather. But there can be possibility to meet him in the future

8. a) I haven‟t been to the bank today.
   The spoker is stil at the moment of speaking time.

   b) I didn‟t go to the bank this morning.
   The speaker is speaking about the past action.

9. a) I didn‟t invite John to the party.
   The party is over.

    b) I haven‟t invited John to the party.
    The party isn‟t over so I may invite John. There is possibility of inviting John.
10. a) Someone has been reading my book!
    Someone started reading book and stil doing it.

   b) They had been moking in the room.
   They started doing something and did it repeated times.
11. a) He appears to be very busy
    I understand that he is busy.

   b) He‟s appearing at the Ritz next week.
   He is going to have a show.

12. a) When the company went bankrupt, they opened a new company under a new name.
    The company went bankrupt and then they opened a new company under a new name.

   b) When the company went bankrupt, they had already run up debts.
   After they had already run up debts, the company went bankrupt.
   Time gap between two things.

   c) When went bankrupt, the company had been running for several years.
    The company started running when the company went bankrupt, it was stil running.

   d) When the compay went bankrupt, they were losing $2000 a day.
   They were losing and they will lose.

13. a) She has corn on her feet.
    She is suffering from corns.

   b) She is having treatmet for them.
   She is going to see a doctor.

14. a) I‟m measuring this box.
    agent

   b) this box measures 50cm.
   the lenght of this box is 50cm
                                  THEMATIC ROLES
          agent(kılıcı): mostly living and intentional things
                         animals and human beings.
                         movement, instinct, free to move


         causer: inanimate
                   the wind damaged the house
        instrument: preposition
      experiencer: mostly somebody wh mostly somebody who is affected psyhologicaly
by something in heart and mind. Experincer must be subject position.
                    I am broken-hearted.
                 Agent becomes experience
    theme: animate and inamniate
                 the wind is blowing = the wind is theme (doğa olayları)
             the wind damaged the house = the wind is causer
        recipient(beneficiary): person who makes use of
                                I made this cake for you.
        location: the children are in the classroom.
    goal = hedef
    patient: fiziksel olarak etklenen
                 I am melting the butter.

 Examples
  The kettle blackened on the oven.
    theme                       source
 He smashed the radio into pieces in the living room thanks to a stone.
 agent           patient                 location               instrument


 She keeps sneezing, cleaning her nose
 patient                          theme
 A friend lent her a handkerechief.
agent        beneficiary
             HOMEWORK(thematic roles)
1. Tom moved his chair closer to Mary.
   agent    instrument           goal

2. The hole filled with water.
   theme               instrument

3. The teacher stopped the tape, and left the class.
   agent                                  location

4. She shook her head with disbelief.
   agent     theme

5.                 The ball rolled down the hill, and came to a halt.
     theme              location

6. She tipped her chair and fell off it.
   agent      theme

7. First heat the oil, and add the tomatoes.
               patient           theme



     Agent
     Jane killed her husband with a knife in their bedroom.
     Agent
     The boys caught some fish.
     Agent

     Instrument
     Jane killed her husband with a knife in their bedroom.
                                  İnstrument
     This key opens the door to the main office.
     Instrument

     Patient
     Jane killed her husband with a knife in their bedroom.
                   patient
     The falling rocks crushed the car.
                               patient
     Location
     Jane killed her husband with a knife in their bedroom.
                                               Location
     We put the book on the self
                         location
Causer
An epidemic killed off all of the tomatoes.
causer
An econemic downturn put thounsands of workers out of work.
causer

Experiencer
The chesus monkey had never seen snow before.
experiencer
Tom annoyed when he heard that Mary abandoned him.experiencer

Beneficiary
They gave the workers a raise.
          beneficiay
He spared me his usual sad story
       beneficiay

Theme
Bill kissed Mary
theme

Source
The rocket was launched from Central Comman
                              source
We walked in the rain.
              source

Goal
The caravan continued on toward the distant oasis.
                                     goal
                                      The CAUSATIVE VOICE
        There are two major patterns used to form causative contructions in English.

        I.Subject         Auxiliary            Direct Object        Past Participle      by + Indirect Object

        A.He              will have            His car              repaired             by the mechanic

        B.He              will get             His car              repaired             by the mechanic



        II.Subject        Auxiliary            Indirect Object      (to) Infinitive      Direct Object

        A.He              will have            the mechanic         repair               his car

        B.He              will get             the mechanic         to repair            his car



                                             The Causative Form

Tense                 Subject   Auxiliary           Direct         Past Participle    Remainder of the sentence
                                                    Object

The Simple Present      He      Has                      his car      serviced        every month.

The Simple Past         He      Had                      his car      serviced        last month.

The Present             He      is having                his car      serviced        now.
Continuous

The Past                He      was having               his car      serviced        when I arrived.
Continuous

The Present Perfect     He      hasn‟t had               his car      serviced        yet.

The Past Perfect        He      had had                  his car      serviced        before he started the
                                                                                      journey.

The Future Tense        He      will have                his car      serviced        tomorrow.
and Modals
                                may have
                                should have

Perfect Infinitives     He      should have had          his car      serviced        yesterday.
                                could have had
                                might have had
                                may have had
                                must have had
                                             VOICE
    1. Syntactically: on the sentence = The child was kidnapped.
       They greeted each other. / He cut himself. / He made his daughter clean the car.
    2. Morphologically:
       Boya – t – mak (Türkçe olarak)
    3. Semantically(Lexically):
       break ( intention, cause, activity) (semantically causative)
       send (intention, cause, activity) (semantically causative)
       shave (intention, self) (semantically reflexive)


    ** ”passive” i ayırt edici özellik “by” alabiliyorsa, sorusuna cevap verebiliyorsa
    ‘passive’ dir.

    **dönüşlü = kişi işi kendisi isteyerek yapıyor ve de etkileniyorsa dönüşlüdür.




Reciprocal: one other, another, together, alltogether, each other…
= özne en az iki kişiden oluşacak ve eş zamanlı olacak.
They are sitting all together. = sytantically reciprocal
The class is listening to the teacher.
= topluluk ismi kullanılmış ve „listen‟ kendi başına işteş (reciprocal) değil.
        Reciprocal olduğunu anlamak için özneyi teke indir.
        The class is listening to the teacher.
        I am listening to the teacher.         Reciprocal değil

        The class is listening to the teacher alltogether. = reciprocal
        I am corresponding with Tom. = reciprocal
                                    Katılımcı sayısını ikiye çıkardı.


          reciprocal, reflexive yapanlar yüzde yüz agent tır.
           Agent istemli davranır.
Causative Testi için cause……to + V1, V
                                CAUSATIVE INCHOATIVE
The sugar dissolves in water.
dissolve=çözünmek
The sugar is dissolved in water. (by???)
       We cannot add “by” or “someone”. “by” bu cümleye değer vermiyor.
       In causative inchoative there is no “by” ; however, there is cause.
       Genellikle doğa olayları ve bir sebebe bağlı olur.
       The meal cooked. (yemek pişti) = causative inchoative
       The meal was cooked by my mother. (yemek pişirildi) = syn. passive
Passive olabilir fakat anlam değişir.
Eylemerin çatıları (özellikle Türkçe‟ye çevrildiğinde) değişebilir.
The sugar was dissolved by the chemist.
                çözmek
       Causative Inchoative = Kendiliğinden oluşacak
                           = Eylemin kendi anlamının içinde bir cause olmalı
                                = “by” phrase almamalı, agent yok.
                                = Passive hale dönüştürülebilmeli ama “by agent” olmaz.
boil: kaynamak/ kaynatmak
melt: erimek/ eritmek
fry: kızarmak/kızartmak
thicken: kalınlaşmak/koyulaşmak/ koyulaştırmak
The water boils at 100°C = CI
The ice melts in a hot place = CI
Potatoes and chickens fried = CI
Potaoes and chickens were fried by Mary = syn. Passive
The coffee thickened after boiled = CI
       Öznesinde patient olan eylemler ya passive olmaya yatkındır ya da causative
       inchoative olabilir.


       Her voice records well in the studio. = lexically passive.

       Silk creases easily. = causative inchoative
       The pilot landed the plane. = lexically passive.
The car reserved and the driver put it into the garage.
    lexically passive         lexically causative

She photographs well. = lexically passive

She is photographed well by the photographer.

  The Interaction Between Voice Forms and Thematic Roles

The snow on the mountain melted and                 the water    filled the rivers.
patient                  active                      theme       active
                   lexically causative               causer      lexically
                       inchoative                                causative


Causative Inchoative is mostly patient in thematic roles.
Lexically causative = theme, causer, agent.
Causative Inchoative differs from lexically causative because in lexically causative
there is a doer.


Melt (V intransitive)


Subject         Object
something           No object ( Intransitive)
that can melt
in nature
which is suitable
patient

Melt ( V transitive)                        = agent causer ve doer olabilir.

                                          = ama doer agent ve causer olamaz.

Subject        Object
agent          patient

causer

doer



[The heat from the fire] caused [the building] to brown.
  NP(noun phrase)   lexically  NP
causer/theme      causative patient
                                        HOMEWORK
1. I was moved by the pictures of rescued child.
   Syntactically passive

2. We agreed on the plan.
   Lexically reciprocal

3. He quicekned the process by talking to the autorities.
   Lexically causative

4. We got beaten in the race.
   Lexically passive

5. The door opened and a soft breeze came in.
   Lexically passive

6. The book earned him a fortune.
   Lexically causative

7. They demolished the old buildng.
   Lexically causative

8. The birds flew together in the same direction.
   Syntactically reciprocal

9. The storm wiped away all the sand of the coast.
   Lexically casuative


10. Pull yourself together.
    Syntactically reflexive

11. Why don‟t you join us?
          active

12. I disagree with you.
    Syntactically reciprocal

13. The two friends kissed each other and left.
    Syntactically reciprocal

14. The boy hid in the wardrope.
    Lexically reflexive

15. He got the manager to punish his friend.
    Syntactically causative
                                        WORKSHEET
1. The cat licks itself to clean. = Syntactically reflexive
   agent activity         activity

2. The frog turned into a prince when the princess kissed him.
   patient achievement                   agent activity beneficiery
     active(Lexically causative)                  (active)

3. The line got disconnected. = Syntactically passive
   theme        achievement

4. If yellow and blue is blended, one can have the colour green.
          theme         activity agent state             patient
                (syntactically passive)    (active)

5. I    creamed the sugar and the butter together. = active(Lexically causative)
   agent activity patient     patient

6. Brenda and Molly agreed on what to do. = active(Lexically reciprocal)
   agent     agent accomplishment

7. If you separate the oil from the vinegar, the oil comes to the top.
   accomplishment patient        patient   patient activity goal
   active(Lexically causative)                            (active)

8. Bill    married   Helen at the church. = active(Lexically reciprocal)
   agent accomplishment agent location

9. Narcissus wore himself out due to his love for himself and a white and yellow
   agent     accomplishment                                         theme
           (syntactically reflexive)
   flower arose on the place he used to stand.
          achievement
           (active)

10. Do not abuse your power to impress people.
          activity theme       activity theme
         (active)           active(Lexically causative)

11. The ship was named as Titanic after it was launched. = Syntactically passive
    theme accomplishment                     accomplishment



12. The President appointed Sabrina as the spokperson. = active(Lexically causative)
    agent    accomplishment theme
13. You can establish your innocence by showig the letter you have received this
    agent activity                             theme              achievement or
          active(lexically causative)                             accomplishment
    morning.

14. Water filled the pail and the boy took it home. =active(lexically causative)
       accomplishment        agent activity

15. The government keeps asserting that it will not reduce taxes.
    theme         state                        activity
                (active)                active(lexically causative)

16. The paper incorporates the new results.
    theme       state
               (active)

17. The two man greeted before the seminer started.
    agent        activity
              active(lexically reciprocal)
18. The meat cut itself. = active(lexically passive)
    theme    activity

19. The butcher cuts the meat. = active(lexically causative)
    agent      activity

20. The book remaind untouched for many years.= active
    theme    state

21. The mushrooms were sliced by the cook while the sauce was simmering aside.
    patient       activity       agent
                syntactically passive

22. This bed was slept on by Atatürk when he visited Mersin.
    theme       ativity          agent agent accomplishment goal
           syntactically passive                active

23. The problem developed as there was something wrong with the process.
    theme        achievement
              active(lexically passive)

24. The truck rumbled into the garage. = active
    theme activity          goal
                                 The PASSIVE VOICE
Passive constructions are derived from active constructions.

The active voice    Active subject       Active Verb         Active Object

                           Ali              Killed              the bear



  The Passive      Passive Subject        To be+V3           Optional Agent
    Voice
                       The bear           was killed             by Ali



           Tense                       The Active Voice                    The Passive Voice

 The Simple Present Tense        He paints the house every        The house is painted every year.
                                 year.

   The Simple Past Tense         He painted the house last        The house was painted last year.
                                 year.

   The Simple Future and         He will paint the house next     The house will be painted last
          Modals                 year.                            year.
                                 He can paint the house next      The house can be painted last
                                 year.                            year.
                                 He may paint the house next      The house may be painted last
                                 year.                            year.

  The Present Continuous         He is painting the house now. The house is being painted now.
          Tense

 The Past Continuous Tense       He was painting the house all The house was being painted all
                                 last week.                    last week.

 The Present Perfect Tense       He has just painted the          The house has just been painted.
                                 house.

   The Past Perfect Tense        The house looked good            The house looked good because it
                                 because he had just painted      had just been painted.
                                 it.

  The Future Perfect Tense       He will have painted the         The house will have been painted
                                 house by next week.              by next week.

     Perfect Infinitives         He should have painted the       The house should have been
                                 house last year.                 painted last year.
                                 He could have painted the        The house could have been
                                 house last year.                 painted last year.
           Questions            Does he paint the house       Is the house painted every
                                every year?                   year?
                                Did he paint the house last   Was the house painted last
                                year?                         year?
                                Who painted the house?        Who was the house painted
                                                              by?

Form                            The Active Voice              The Passive Voice

Negative                        He hasn‟t painted the house The house         hasn‟t   been
                                yet.                        painted yet.

Reduced Clauses                 When they paint the house, it When(it is)painted, the house
                                looks beautiful.              looks beautiful.
                                The house(which)he painted The              house(which
                                last year looked beautiful. was)painted last year looked
                                                            beautiful.

The Subjunctive Form            They demand that he paint They demand that the house
                                the house.                be painted.



a. Passive of the Gerund
   He dislikes being called by his firs name.
   He was afraid of being recognized.
   She acknowledged having been offered a bribe.
b. Passive of the Infinitive
   She expects to be selected for the scholarship.
   He claims to have been tortured.
c. Passive of Participles
   The policeman simply watch the cars being turned upside down.
d. Passive of the verbs which take ø-‘Infinitive’
   They made him clean the house→He was made to clean the house.
   We saw him enter the building→He was seen to enter the building.
   The teacher let us know that he wouldn‟t tolerate any misbehavior. →The teacher let it be
   known that he wouldn‟t tolerate any misbehavior.
e. Passive of the verbs that take two object
   They gave him a lot of presents.
   He was given a lot of presents.
   A lot of presents were given to him.
                                     PASSIVE INFINITIVE

       People thinkthat Mary has committed the crime.

       Passive of the Gerund
       I hate people calling me „madam‟.

       Passive of the Infinitive
       I would like people to call me „madam‟
    = Mary is thought that Mary has commited the crime.
    = I hate being called madam.
    = I would like to be called „ madam‟



       Passive or Active
       Syntactically passive = aim
    If passive is used, there is an aim.
    I bear him no ill will. = always in active.
     state object object
I was born. = always in passive structure.
The book earned him a fortune.
I wish you luck. = it cannot be put in passive.


They declared him President. = Whom did they declare President?
He was declared President.           President is not an object.
He lays stil on the bed. = it cannot be put in passive.
They made him promise. = noun gets article.


He was made to promise.
They mad ehim a promise.
       Causative olursa passive olma olasılığı yüksek. Tekrar passive yapmaya gerek yok.
   The sun dried their clothes.
                      object
   Their clothes were dried.
   This stain will wash out with Kosla.
   lexically causative         object değil (prepositional phrase)
   Kosla will wash out the stain.
   passive olabilir      object
   The stain will be washed out with Kosla.


   People think that Tom was dishonest.
   Tom is thought to have been dishonest.
   People thinkthat Tom was stealing from his friends.
   Tom is thought to have been stealing from his friends.
    People think that Tom has come.
    Tom is thought to have come.
   I hate people asking me personal questions.
   I hate being asked personal questions.

                                    HOMEWORK (PASSIVE VOICE)
1. The house is painted every year.
2. The house was painted last year.
3. The house will be painted next year.
4. The house can be painted next year.
5. The house may be painted next year.
6. The house is being painted now.
7. The house was being painted all last year.
8. The house has just been painted.
9. The house looked good because it had just been painted.
10. The house will have been painted by next week.
11. The house should have been painted last year.
12. The house could have been painted last year.
13. The house hasn‟t been painted yet.
                            Functions of Modal Auxiliaries
Function                     Modal                         Example

ABILITY                      can                           1.Because of her artistic talent,
                                                           she can design very well.
Present                      am/is/are able to
                                                           2.She is able to swim well.


                                                           3.He could play the violin
                                                           when he was five years old.
Past (action repeated over a could                         4.He was able to play the
period of time)                                            violin when he was five years
                             was/were able to
                                                           old.


                                                           5. He was able to play the
                                                           violin beautifully last night.


(a particular past event)
                             was/were able to




POSSIBILITY
Present                      can, be able to               7.The florist can deliver the
                                                           bouquet early.
                                                           8.Ali and Helen were able to
Past                         was/were able to              work out their cultural
                                                           differences and got married.
                                                           9.Necla may get married this
                                                           summer if she decides she‟s
Future                       may/might                     ready to settle down.

                             could                         10.We could get married by
                                                           next year.
                             will be able to
                                                           11.We might go to Hawaii for
                             may/might                     our holiday.

POLITE REQUEST               can/could/may/might/would/will 12.Could I get a price list,
                                                            please?
PERMISION                     can/ may/could              14.May I attend only the
                                                          reception?

OFFERS                        can/ may/could              15.May I drive you home?

OBLIGATION                    have to                     16.Ali and Aynur have to
                                                          move.
                              have got to
                                                          17.We have got to decide by
                              must                        tomorrow.

SUGGESTION                    can/could/ might            18.You might try another store.
                              should                      19.You had better think very
                                                          carefully.
                              ought to
                              had better
                              have to/must

EXPECTATION                   should/ought to/must        20.The divorce rate ought to
                                                          down.

HABITUAL ACTIVITY             be used to                  21.He‟s accustomed to hot
                                                          weather.
Present                       be accustomed to


                                                          22.He used to smoke, but he
Past(discontinued        past used to                     doesn‟t any more.
action)


                                                          23.When I was in Bursa, we
(repeated past action)                                    used to work in the same office
                              would/ used to
                                                          and we would often play cards
                                                          together.

ADVICE                        should/ had better          24.You should/had better take
                                                          an aspirin.

DESCRIPTION                   should(+see, hear, taste)   25.You should       see their
                                                          wedding rings.      They are
                                                          beautiful.

DISBELIEF                     can‟t                       26.You can‟t mean that. You
                                                          must be kidding.

INAPPROPRIACY                 can‟t                       27.You can‟t wear that dress.
                                                          It‟s indecent.

FRUSTRATION                   have to/must/would          28.You had to be late, didn‟t
                                                          you?
PREFERENCE                     would prefer                      29.I‟d prefer   to   take   the
                                                                 subway.
                               would rather
                                                                 30.I‟d rather make the decision
                               would just as soon                later.
                               would sooner

PROHIBITION                    mustn‟t                           31.You mustn‟t smoke in the
                                                                 classroom. It is strictly
                                                                 prohibited.




                                         MODALS
       modals reflects our points of view, thinks, events, situations…etc.
       A fact cannot bear a modal.
       Modals reflect people‟s mood.
       Konuşmacının gözünden bakmalıyız. Konuşmacı ne derse o modal‟ ı şekillendirir.


       He could come tomorrow.                   Could= possibility
          may come

Modality
Modality (kiplik) insanların olaylara bakış açısından oluşur.
= passive
= conditionals
= inversion
= imperatives
= adverbials
       What is the difference between modal and auxiliary verb?
       Her ikisi de tümcede soru ve olumsuz yapmak için kullanılır.
        auxiliary verb = olumsuz yaparken “not” alabilecek, kendisiyle olumsuz ve soru
yapılabilecek.
modal verb = verb gibi davrananlar

modal like expressions:
to be supposed to
to be expected to
to be to
modal verb                                              modal auxiliary
have to                                                  can
need                                                     should
be able to                                               must
                                                        could
                                                        could have
                                                        shall
                                                        will
                                                        have got to
                                                        ought to
                                                        had better


could = geçmişte bir zamanda yaptığımız iş. = zamana yayılıyor. = yapıyordu
I could run fast when I was young.
was able to = bir şeyi yapabildi.
I was able to run fast when somebody chases me.


could have come = yapabilirdi ama yapmadı
must = ben öyle sanmıyorum
had to = zorunda kaldı, zorundaydı
needn‟ t = gerek yok
needn‟ t have done = gerek yoktu ama yaptı
should have done = yapmalıydı ama yapmadı
                               SENTENCE STRUCTURE
    Predicate: yüklem

From, for, to = ditransitive

Complement is the neccessary part of the verb.

Adjunct is the unneccessary part of the verb.

All reduced forms are non-finite.

Any inverted structure is finite. Which sentence has a fullstop is finite.

Complement & Adjunct:

Adjunct answers when, where, how, why

Complement answers what, who, whom

Mary is ill today = complement = what comes after the verb and complete the sentence is
complement.

Gerekli olmayan ama cümlenin de anlamını bozmayan adjunct

CLAUSES-SENTENCES
A sentence can have one or two or more than two clause. Simple clause has a clause.

Each complex sentence has at least two simple sentence.

Small Clause

 Small clause is verbless, adjunct clause and non-finite.

Susan found the job (to be) very difficult.

The job is difficult and Susan found so.

 The NP will have two roles: object should be both object and subject of small clauses.

I saw Tom going home.

Tom was going home and I saw him doing so.

I consider Sawyer to be handsome.

Sawyer is handsome and I consider him so.

Tom made me go shopping= small clause.
       Complex cümle iki yüklem alır.
       gerund ve infinitive cümlede özne ve nesne boşluğunu doldurur.



been doing = in Turkish -mekte I‟ve been studying English.= çalışmaktayım

doing = in Turkish –yor I‟m studying English.= çalışıyorum

Examples

1.I considered Tom hardworking.

Tom is hardworking. I considered him to be so.

2.I remember Tom going to school on rainy days.

Tom was going to school on rainy days. I remember him doing so.

3.A husband criticizing me everytime is the least thing I want.

A husband criticizes me everytime. This is the least thing that I want.

4.That John answered the phone surprised me.

John answered the phone. This surprised me.




                                       WORKSHEET
1.Unless you practice, you will have nothing to obtain.

-You have to practice, or you will have nothing to obtain.
2.You must account for every penny you spend.

- You spend the penny. You must account for it.
3.People accuse him of lying to the lawyer.

- He lied to the lawyer. People accuse him of doing so.
4.If an engine is maintained regularly, it lasts twice as much as it is supposed to.

- An engine is maintained regularly in that case it lasts twice as much as it is supposed to.
5.He laid the table with difficulty as he could not walk owing to the fracture.

- He could not walk owing to the fracture, so he laid the table with difficulty.
6.People watch processions go past on the pavements of the stress on celebration days.

- Processions go past on the pavements of the streets on celebration days. People watch them
do so.
7.They found the man lying on the floor after two days of absence.

- The man was lying on the floor. They found him doing so after two days.
8.He lay on the bed listening to the slow music with his eyes shut.

- He lay on the bed, at the same time he listened to the slow music with his eyes shut.
9.I could not make myself heard due to the high volume of the disco music.

-The volume of the disco music was high, so I couldn‟t make the other people hear me.
10.I heard this story told by some other people.

-Some other people told this story. I heard them do so.
11.We must have our car serviced for the tour we will have next week.

- We will have a tour next week, so we must have the repairman service our car.
12.They are contemplating going to England once they finish with their children‟s education.

- They are contemplating going to England, but first they must finish with their children‟s
education.
13.Not having seen either a Chinese or Japanese man before, I found it hard to tell apart
which one is which.

- I hadn‟t seen either a Chinese or Japanese man before, so I found it hard to tell apart which
one is which.
14.Tom agreed to come with us on condition that we would stop to have something to eat on
the way.

- We would have to stop to eat on the way. Then, Tom would come with us.
15.Tom pretended that he hadn‟t met Susan before, but he gave himself away when she called
him by the name.

- Tom had met Susan before, but he pretended not to have done so. She called him by the
name and at that time he gave himself away.
16.While trying to help raise some money for the charity, we had to make some dolls and sell
them the people on the street.

- We were trying to help raise some money for the charity, at the same time we had to make
some dolls and sell them the people on the street.
17.You must commit yourself to working hard to be able to cope with the economic situation.

- You will be able to cope with the economic situation, so you must commit yourself to
working hard. / You must commit yourself to working hard in that case you will be able to
cope with the economic situation.
18.Despite being seriously hurt, the footballer refused to stop playing in the match.

- The footballer was seriously hurt, but he refused to stop playing in the match.
19.As well as the income from the funds allocated for the organization, the charity enjoys a
great deal of public contribution.

- There are some funds. These funds are allocated for the organization. Besides, the charity
enjoys a great deal of public contribution.
20.If dealt with extreme care, this letter of intention will clearly display or goals.

- This letter should be dealt with extreme care, it will clearly display our goals.
21.I wished I hadn‟t objected to your offer of working together now that I am in trouble.

- I regret objecting to your offer of working together, for I‟m in trouble.
22.I wonder who the teacher meant when she said there were some people who were doomed
to fail.

- The teacher said that there were some people. These were doomed to fail. At that time
(when teacher said so) I wondered who teacher meant.
23.What these words mean to you is none of my business.

- These words mean something to you, but it isn‟t my business.
24.Mary proved that she could make a perfect teacher if given time.

- Mary was given time. In that case, she could make a perfect teacher and she proved this.
25.The only candidate found worthy of an interview did not turn up.

- Only one candidate was found worthy of an interview, but he didn‟t turn up.
26.The invitations to be sent to people were left in the drawer by mistake.

- The invitations would be sent to people, but they were left in the drawer by mistake.
HOMEWORK
1.I didn‟ t realize that Brain wasn‟t feeling well.(complex & noun clause)
2.We learned that pineapples don‟t grow on trees. (complex & noun clause)
3.I found the keys which were missing. (complex & relative clause)
4.Debbie only drinks juice made from fresh fruit. (complex & reduced relative clause)
5.There are several things that we need from the shop. (complex & relative clause)
6.What they‟re doing seems wrong. (complex & relative clause)
7.I came as soon as I heard the news.(complex & adverbial clause of time)
8.Since his wife left him, he has been depressed. (complex & adverbial clause of time)
9.Looking outside, he saw the police car. (complex & reduced form of adverbial clause of
time)
10.Not feeling very well, she sat down. (complex & reduced form of adverbial clause of
reason)


       coordinators make compound sentence. Coordinators just come after a comma.
       Coordinators: for,and, nor, but, or, yet, so
       subortinators make complex sentence.
       Complex Sentence:
    1.Adverbial clause beginning with a subortinator such as when, while, because, etc.,
    2.A dependent adjective clause beginning with a relative pronoun or relative adverb such
as where, when, why, etc., These clauses function as an adjective, they modify a noun.
    3. A dependent noun clause beginning with that, a wh- question word, whether and
sometimes if.



   Compound sentence have two clauses and these are indepentent clause.
   Complex sentence have also two clauses, but one of them is independent other one is
dependent.
   Because I was ill I didn‟t go to school.(complex)

   I didn‟t go to school, because I was ill. (compound)
SUBORDINATING CONJUCTIONS
Time:

after: -den sonra                             when: -diği zaman
before: -den önce                             while,as: -iken
since: -den beri                              now that: -mağdem ki
as long as, so long as: -diği sürece          whenever, everytime: her ne zaman
as soon as, the moment, immediately, once: -mez, -maz
no sooner…than, hardly…when, barely…when: -mez, -maz


        afterwards: sonradan, sonraları = subordinater değil, time maker‟ dır.

   Cause:
   so/such…..as to +V1……..: yapacak kadar
   not because……..but because: için değil,….için

   Purpose:
   for fear that: korkusuyla
   for the purpose of
   so that/ in order that +would/ could
   lest/ in case + should
   → He speaks as if he is British.(I think he is English)
   → He speaks as if he were British.(I know he isn‟t English)

   Likeness:
   Just as…..so = Just as Tom is hardworking, so is his sister.
   by the same taken
    -EVER WORDS AND CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
A.-Ever words versus Relative clauses
whoever         a)Whoever wants to come will be welcome.
                b)Anyone who wants to come will be welcome.
whichever       a)Study whichever article you prefer.
                b)Study any article that you prefer.
whatever        a)Write down whatever comes to your mind.
                b)Write down anything that comes to your mind.
however         a)It is an informal party. You may dress however you wish.
                b) It is an informal party. You may dress in any way that you wish.
whenever        a)You may call me whenever you wish.
                b) You may call me at any time that you wish.
wherever        a)If you have a car, you can go wherever you want to go.
                b) If you have a car, you can go any place that you want to go.




B.-Ever Words used as Noun Clauses and Adverbial Clauses
-Ever word   Noun Clause                                 Adverbial Clause
whatever     Whatever I said seemed to annoy him.        a)Whatever I said, I couldn‟t
                                                         persuade him.
                                                         b)No matter what I said, I
                                                         couldn‟t persuade him.
whoever      Whoever he is isn‟t important.              a)Whoever he is, he must obey
                                                         the law.
                                                         b) No matter who he is, he must
                                                         obey the law.
however      However you cook it is all right with me.   a)However you cook it, he won‟t
                                                         eat it.
                                                         b)No matter how you cook it, he
                                                         won‟t eat it.
whenever     Whenever you come is convenient for me.     a)Whenever you come, you cause
                                                         problems.
                                                         b)No matter when you come, you
                                                         cause problems.
                             ADVERBIAL CLAUSES
Basic Relation    Basic sentences                              Subordinate      Clause+Main
                                                               Clause
Time              The telephone rang.                          When the telephone rang, I
                  I woke up.                                   woke up.
Contrast          Bill entered the contest.He won first prize. Although Bill entered the
                                                               contest, he won first prize.
Cause- Effect     We don‟t have any money. We can‟t buy Since we don‟t have any
                  food.                                        money, we can‟t buy food.
Purpose           He has to earn a lot of money.He wants to He has to earn a lot of money
                  provide a good education for his children.   so that he can provide a good
                                                               education for his children.

                   Type of Clause and Subordinating Conjunction
Time                              Until/till, after, before, as, as long as, as soon as, no
                                  sooner... than, hardly... when, once, scarcely... when,
                                  by the time, the moment, whenever, while, when,
                                  since
Place                             Where, wherever, everywhere, anywhere
Reason                            Because, since, as, now that, seeing that, because of
                                  the fact that, due to the fact that , owing to the fact
                                  that, on account of the fact that, in view of the fact
                                  that, inasmuch as, on the grounds that, in that
Direct Contrast                   While, whereas
Concessive Contrast/Opposition    Although, even though, though, despite the fact that,
                                  in spite of the fact that, even if, while
Result                            So+adj+that, so+adv+that, Such+a(n)+adj+N +that,
                                  abstract noun+be+such that, such+a lot of+N +that,
                                  so+adj+a(n)+N+that, so many...that, so few..that, so
                                  much....that, so little..that
Purpose                           So that, in order that, in case, for fear that, lest
Manner                            As, as if, as though(showing actions that are probable),
                                  as if, as though(showing actions that are improbable)
Degree(proportion)                The...er, the...er/the more..,the more../to the extent
                                  that, to the degree that, in so far as, as.. so
Condition                         If, only if, suppose x happens, if x should happen,
                                  assuming that, in the event that, unless, as long as/so
                                  long as,provided( that), providing(that), whether..or, if
                                  it had‟t been for, if it weren‟t for, but for
Comparison                        As...as, er..than, more...than, ...the est, the most...,just
                                  as... so
                       SENTENCE CONNECTORS
Contrast                 Direct opposition/direct contrast
                         However, on the other hand, conversely, in contrast
                         Denial of expectation/concessive contrast
                         However, yet, still, nonetheless, nevertheless, even so, in spite
                         of this
Result                   As a consequence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, as a
                         result, consequently, hence, thus
Addition and Listing     Also, besides, further, moreover, furthermore, in addition
                         First(firstly, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, for
                         one thing)
                         Secondly(second, in the second place),for another thing
                         Finally(lastly, last of all)
Time                     At first, afterwards, later, then, in the meantime, meanwhile
Examplification          For instance, for example, to illustrate
Particularization        In particular, particularly, specifically
Explanation              That is, namely, in other words, that is to say
Similarity               Likewise, similarly, correspondingly, by the same taken, in
                         the same way
Emphasis                 In fact, indeed, as a matter of fact, actually
Refutation               On the contrary
Reformulation            In other words, to put it in a different way, put differently
Correction               Rather, to be more precise
Transition               As for, as to, with regard to, with respect to, as regards,
                         regarding, as far as, x is concerned
Alternative              Alternatively
Negative Condition       Or else, otherwise
Summation/conclusion     In summary, in brief, in short, in conclusion, to be brief, to
                         sum up, all in all
others                   After all, incidentally/by the way, above all, all the same,
                         anyway,anyhow, in any case, instead
                          REDUCTION OF CLAUSES
A finite clause has a subject and a finite verb which must agree with the subject.
A verbless clause is a clause from which a form of the verb to be has been deleted.

Finite(full) Clause                             Verbless(reduced) Clause
The woman who is in the shop                    The woman in the shop
The women who are on the boat                   The women on the boat
The book which is on the shelf                  The book on the shelf
The books which are on the table                The books on the table

I. Finite Clauses versus Verbless(reduced) Clauses

Finite(full) clause                             Verbless(reduced) Clause
While we were in İstanbul, we visited all       While in İstanbul, we visited all the major
the major museums.                              museums.
When she was in London, she met very            When in London, she met very interesting
interesting people.                             people.
Though he was popular with teenagers, the       Though popular with teenagers, the singer
singer was criticized by adults for his         was criticized by adults for his suggestive
suggestive movements.                           movements
Use a comma where it is necessary               Use a comma where necessary
Mathematics, which was once my favorite         Mathematics, once my favorite subject, no
subject, no longer interests me.                longer interests me.
Mary Thatcher, who is a well-known              Mary Thatcher, a well-known fashion
fashion designer, earns a lot of money.         designer, earns a lot of money
The students who were present at the            The students present at the meeting signed
meeting signed petition.                        petition

II. Finite versus Non-Finite(reduced) Clauses

Form                            Non-finite verb                 Used for
-ed participle                  Written                         Passive constructions
-ing participle                 Writing                         Active constructions
-to infinitive                  To write/to be written          Both active and passive
                                                                constructions


Finite verbs                                    Non-Finite verbs
The student who is shouting....                 The student shouting....
The students who are shouting....               The students shouting....
The man who was killed yesterday...             The man killed yesterday...
The men who were killed yesterday...            The men killed yesterday...
As it was mentioned above, it....               As mentioned above, it....
III.Passive Constructions in Finite and Non-Finite Clauses
A.Adverbial Clauses
Finite Clauses                                  Non-Finite Clauses
Although it was begun many years ago, the       Although begun many years ago, the road
road is still not completed.                    is still not completed.
Though it was written for children, the         Though written for children, the book is
book is popular among adults as well.           popular among adults as well.
As soon as it was announced, the plan came      As soon as announced, the plan came under
under attack.                                   attack.
Once it is learned, language cannot easily be   Once learned, language cannot easily be
forgotten.                                      forgotten
When it is cooled, the vapor condenses and      When cooled, the vapor condenses and
forms droplets.                                 forms droplets.
If this method is used properly, it will be     If used properly, this method will be higly
higly effective.                                effective.
He began shouting as though he were             He began shouting as though annoyed at
annoyed at what he had seen.                    what he had seen


B.Adjectival Clauses
Finite Clauses                                  Non-Finite Clauses
The method which has been used in               The method used in England for the last 3
England for the last 3 years has been very      years has been very effective
effective.
The man who was arrested yesterday              The man arrested yesterday refused to
refused to answer any questions.                answer any questions.
The courses which are offered by our            The courses offered by our department are
department are basically elective.              basically elective

                                   Being+past participle
Ali had to look for a job for months after he Ali had to look for a job for months after
was dismissed from the factory.               being dismissed from the factory.
Students must be given sufficient training in Students must be given sufficient training in
the use of computers before they are the use of computers before being allowed
allowed to use them freely.                   to use them freely.
He fainted while he was being questioned at He fainted while being questioned at the
the police station.                           police station.
The subject which was being discussed The subject being discussed interested me.
interested me.



       Reduction is a grammatical process.
       Reduction is equal to Ellipsis.
IV.Active Constructions in Finite and Non-Finite Clauses

A.Adverbial Clauses
Finite Clauses                                  Non-Finite Clauses
Adults sometimes do not realize their           Adults sometimes do not realize their
strength when they deal with children.          strength when dealing with children.
The prime minister has held his second press    The prime minister has held his second press
conference since he took office.                conference since taking office
Though he was dying of cancer, he painted       Though dying of cancer, he painted
everyday.                                       everyday
He moved his lips as if he wanted to say        He moved his lips as if wanting to say
something.                                      something
While he accepts the proposed plan in           While accepting the proposed plan in
principle, he has some reservations about its   principle, he has some reservations about its
content.                                        content.
While he was walking past the post office,      While walking past the post office, he ran
he ran into one of his friends.                 into one of his friends
The president consults his aides before he      The president consults his aides before
makes his final decision.                       makeing his final decision

B.Adjectival Clauses
Finite Clauses                                  Non-Finite Clauses
People who live in big cities have some         People living in big cities have some
advantages.                                     advantages.
The factories which pollute the environment     The factories polluting the environment
should be closed down.                          should be closed down.

V.Reducing Finite Clauses with Infinitives(Active or Passive Voice)

A.Adjectival Clauses
Finite Clauses                                  Non-Finite Clauses
Charles Lindbergh was the first person who      Charles Lindbergh was the first person to
flew across the Atlantic Ocean.                 fly across the Atlantic Ocean
I have a lot of work which I must do.           I have a lot of work to do.

B.Noun Clauses
Finite Clauses                           Non-Finite Clauses
He can‟t decide what he should do.       He can‟t decide what to do.
She can‟t decide whether she should sell She can‟t decide whether to sell her car or
her car or not.                          not.

C.Adverbial Clauses
Finite Clauses                               Non-Finite Clauses
He was in such bad health that he was He was in such bad health as to be obliged
obliged to resign.                           to resign.
His work was so good that it made him His work was so good as to make him
internationally famous.                      internationally famous.
I studied hard so that I could get a passing I studied hard to get a passing grade in the
grade in the exam.                           exam.
                                   PARTICIPLES
Type                           Active Voice                     Passive Voice
Present                        Writing                          being written
Past                                                            written
Perfect                        having written                   having been written
Perfect Progressive            having been writing


Active       The journalist writes articles for a local The journalist earns his
             newspaper. He earns his living.                  living, writing articles for a
                                                              local newspaper.
             The journalist was writing an article. He Writing an article, the
             suddenly had a bright idea.                      journalist suddenly had a
                                                              bright idea.
             The journalist wrote an article. He showed it to Having written an article, the
             his boss.                                        journalist showed it to his
                                                              boss.
             The journalist has been writing this article for Having been writing this
             a long time. He feels rather tired.              article for a long time, the
                                                              journalist feels rather tired.
Passive      The article was written by a well-known Written by a well-known
             journalist. It interested many people.           journalist,      the      article
                                                              interested many people.
             The article was written. It went to press Having been written, the
             immediately.                                     article     went     to    press
                                                              immediately.




                                    PARTICIPLES

   Present                              Past                            Prefect
    Ving                                 V3                             having V3
*Progressive Tenses         *Adjective                         *Reduction of Relative Cl
*Reduction of Relative Cl.  *Reduction of Relative Cl.(pas.) * Reduction of Adverbial Cl
*Reduction of Adverbial Cl. *Reduction of Adverbial Cl.(passive)
                                GERUND or PARTICIPLE
                                                  ,
Participle ile Gerund arasındaki farklardan biri “ ” dür.

Seeing is believing. (gerund)
Seeing my friends, I‟m going near them.(participle)
Gerund cannot be omitted from the sentence. Because it is complement. It answer the
questions “who? what?”
Participle answers the questions “when? how? where? why?”
Walking in the park, I smiled at the flowers.(when)
Walking in the park, I missed the bus.(when/because/as)
Walking in the park, she injured her leg.(when/how)




  RELATIVE CLAUSES vs. NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES
I haven‟t seen what he left.= the thing which he left. What haven‟t you seen?
              Noun Cl.          Nominal Relative Cl.


I haven‟t seen where he put the book.= the place where he put the book.
                 Noun Cl.                Nominal Relative Cl.


I know how he succeeded it.= the way in which he succeded it.
        Noun Cl.                 Nominal Relative Cl.


I know why he said so.= the reason why he said so.
          Noun Cl.        Nominal Relative Cl.


       Nominal Relative functions as noun.
                                 ADJECTIVE vs. ADVERB
1.The river froze solid. (Correct)
2.Tom slid the door shut.(Correct)
3.The vase broke clean.(Correct)
4.He fell flat on the face.(Correct)
5.He got his answer right.(Correct)
6.I closed the lid tight.(Correct)
7.The film fell short of my expectations.(Correct)
8.Wipe the floor clean.(Correct)
9.It is raining hard.(Correct)
10.The razer feels sharp.(Correct)


Definition:
       An adverb defines the verb in terms of direction,manner,place, ect.
       An adjective defines the noun in terms of quality, quantity, etc.
       Adjective state konumuna geçmiş durumdan bahseder ve sondur.
       Adverb‟ de son nokta yoktur, process‟dir ve süreci kapsar.



Liking verb+adjective

appear        He appears confident.
become        He became famous as an artist at the age of thirty.
emerge        He emerged triumphant from the power struggle.
fall          The court room fell silent.
feel          This material feels soft.
get           He got ill.
go            The milk went sour.
grow          He grew interested in the course as time went by.
keep          Keep silent, please.
lie           A bird lay dead in the snow.
look          She looks pale, doesn‟t she?
remain        The prices remained stable for a long time.
seem          He seems quite energetic for a man of seventy.
smell         The room smells terrible.
stay          Bill stood motionless for at least a minute.
taste         The food tastes very good indeed.
turn          Leaves turn yellow in autumn.

Note: Here the verbs fall, go, grow, turn mean become
                    ANALYZING THE PARAGRAPHES

        [[[[For as long as peole can remember,][small towns like Stone Creek and
Pineville in northern Alabama have been hit by storms every spring.]]]] They are as
predictable as [the apple blossoms that are always shaken loose from the trees and blown
along the country roads.] [[Some trees maybe knocked over,]or[the roof of a building might
be slightly damage,]  ][but     usually the effects of the storm are more incovenient     than
deadly.]This yaer was really different.




        [[[[For………,][small………spring.]]]]→ matrix clause.
İçten dışa ikinci parantez cümlelerin birleşimi için, üçüncü parantez interaction için, son
parantez de matrix clause‟ u belirtmek için kullanılır.


Surface structure: Matrix Cl.
  deep structure
1.interaction between something.

2. [subordinate clause]+[main clause]

Matrix için cümle complex olmalı ve subordinate clause‟ ı olmalı.




[[[[[SC][SC][MC]]]]]                 = cümle eğer iki subordinate clause‟ a sahipse beş bracket


alır.


[[[[[    They………,][apple blossoms…..][ apple blossoms….]          ]]]  ]
        [He had already had the day from hell, testifying at the sentencing hearing [for a man
who had acted as his informant for more than a year,][and then watched the guy‟s daughter

pratically collapse in the courtroom as the tough-on-crime judge handed her father ten years

in federal prison, despite [Nick‟s promises and][the old guy‟s co-operation.]   ][[Then he had
spent what was left of the day sparring with high-priced lawyers who were trying to paint him
as a whack job as he had testified in a related case, giving despositions, filling out the

mountains of paperwork that followed the conclusion of every case like a tail follows a dog,]

[and then, finally, on his way situation that had resulted in one of the hostages, a woman,
being killed.]   ]

                                    and then




     [ [[[[
   0 1           He……][a man….]    ]]]    2   [[[[watched……][as..….]]]] ]0 .


.Then [[[[[      He……][what ….]    ]]]   [who….]]]    ] [that….]]]]]

        Some say the earth will [end in fire,][some say in ice],   [[[[but from what I‟ve tasted
of desire,][I hold with those who favor fire]] ]],[[[[[but if I had to perish twice,][I think I

know enough of hate to say that for destruction,][ ice is also great and would suffice.]]   ]]]

*Her “but” bir independent clause yapar.
I owed my security to the masterly air of the copyist, who disdaining the letter, gave but the
  Main clause
full spirit of his original for my individual contemplation lying inside me.




       There was no replay to my questions; and               1   on looking around I was only Joseph

bringing in a poil of porridge for the dogs, and          2       Mrs. Heathcliff leaning over the fire,
diverting herself with burning a bundle of matches which had fallen from the chimney-piece
as she restored the tea-canister to its place.   3   The farmer, when he deposited his burden, took
a critical survey of the room; and, in cracked tones, grated out.


1.Matrix Clause
  1.Main Clause: I saw only Joseph.
1.1.Subordinate Clause: On….around. (reduced form of adverbial clause of time)
1.2.Subordinate Clause: Joseph……dogs.(small clause)


2.Matrix Clause
  1.Main Clause: I saw Mrs.Heathcliff
1.1.Subordinate Clause: leaning over the fire (small clause)
1.2.Subordinate Clause: diverting……matches (small clause)
1.3.Subordinate Clause: which had…..chimmey-piece (relative clause)
1.4.Subordinate Clause: as she restored…….its place. (adverbial clause of time)
son subordinate clause 1.yan cümledir ve birinci dereceden main clause‟a bağlıdır.

*Main clause subordinate clause‟ un başladığı yerde biter.
2.Matrix Clause
  1.Main Clause: The farmer…..
1.1.Subordinate Clause: when he…….burden(adverbial clause of time)
RESEARCHES and ONLINE ENGLISH GRAMMAR WEBSITE




http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/passive_prepositions.htm

http://www.1-language.com/englishcourse/index.htm

Grammar

1. Present Simple

The Simple Present is used to make statements about the present time. It is used in the
following ways.

- Permanent facts: These sentences give facts which are always true.
It is cold in winter. - The sun shines. - Fish live in water.

- Present facts: These sentences are true now.
I work at home. - She plays the piano.
"I work at home" doesn't mean I am working right now, but it does mean that in my present
condition I work at home.

- Habitual actions: I get up at 8.00. - They come here every day.
These actions are repeated regularly, so they are considered a present reality and are
expressed in the Simple Present.

Here is the verb "to give in the Simple Present:

Singular                                           Plural

I give                                             We give

You give                                           You give

He gives                                           They give

She gives

It gives
2. Spelling Rules for the Present Simple

If you look above you'll see the spelling doesn't change, except for the third person singular
(He, She, It) which adds an "s" to the verb. For example "I eat - He eats".

Sometimes other spelling rules also apply to He, She and It. All the following verbs add "es"
instead of "s":



The short forms for the negative verb "to be" are as follows:

Verb Endings                                    Spelling Examples

Verbs ending in -o add -es                      do - does, go - goes

Verbs ending in -s add -es                      pass - passes, kiss - kisses

Verbs ending in -x add -es                      fix - fixes, mix - mixes

Verbs ending in -ch add -es                     match - matches, catch - catches

Verbs ending in -sh add -es                     push - pushes, rush - rushes

-----

Verbs ending in a consonant and -y often        try - tries, cry - cries
change the -y to -ies:

Verbs such as "buy" have no consonant           buy - buys, pay - pays.
before the "y", so you simply add -s
as usual.
Thematic Roles
Thematic relations were introduced in generative grammar during the mid-1960s and early
1970s (Gruber, 1976; Fillmore, 1968; Jackendoff, 1972) as a way of classifying the arguments
of natural language predicates into a closed set of participant types which were thought to
have a special status in grammar. A list of the most popular roles and the properties usually
associated with them is given below.

Agent
       -- A participant which the meaning of the verb specifies as doing or causing
       something, possibly intentionally. Examples: subjects of kill, eat, hit, smash, kick and
       em watch.
Patient
       -- A participant which the verb characterises as having something happen to it, and as
       being affected by what happens to it. Examples: objects of kill, eat and smash but not
       those of watch, hear and love.
Experiencer
       -- A participant who is characterised as aware of something. Examples: subject of love
       or object of annoy.
Theme
       -- A participant which is characterised as changing its position or condition, or as
       being in a state or position. Examples: objects of give and hand, subjects of walk and
       die.
Location
       -- The thematic role associated with the NP expressing the location in a sentence with
       a verb of location. Examples: subjects of keep, own, retain and know and locative PPs.
Source
       -- Object from which motion proceeds. Examples: subjects of buy and promise,
       objects of deprive, free and cure.
Goal
       -- Object to which motion proceeds. Examples: subject of receive and buy, dative
       objects of tell and give. (Adapted from Dowty (1989))

Since its inception, the classification of argument positions into role types was meant to be
carried out in terms of primitive semantic properties of predicates. Jackendoff (1972)
suggested that thematic relations should be defined in terms of the three semantic
subfunctions CAUSE, CHANGE and BE which constitute some of the primitive building
blocks of lexical meanings. For example, the semantic representation of a transitive verb like
open would be that of (154) where, according to Jackendoff's characterisation of roles in
terms of semantic subfunctions, NP is agent and NP theme
REFERENCES
General information about grammar and tables are from the book Building Skills in
Proficiency by Cesur ÖZTÜRK.
The information about “Thematic Roles” is from
http://www.ling.upenn.edu/~beatrice/syntax-textbook/box-thematic.html