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					Collaborative Assessment Project

Report on the 1996 CCCU Senior College Student Survey

Bayard Baylis
Associate Dean, Messiah College
Project Co-Director




The College Student Survey (CSS), developed by the Higher Education Research Institute
(HERI), was administered on 37 CCCU campuses during the spring of 1996. The number of
usable responses was 4,593. Because of the national norms published by HERI, we can compare
our seniors with seniors from all Protestant, 4-year colleges and all private, 4-year colleges. This
gives us a picture of our seniors against the seniors at these two types of institutions. One very
interesting note must be made at the outset: The Protestant and private seniors are generally
more like the CCCU seniors than the entering students at the three types of institutions. There
seems to have been something of a "regression to the median."

We can also compare our seniors with the 1994 first-year students from Council institutions
through data gathered by an administration of the College Institutional Research Project (CIRP)
freshman survey. The CIRP survey was also developed by HERI. Thus, there are many common
or similar questions on the two surveys. This comparison will give us an indication of changes
that could occur during students' careers at CCCU colleges and universities. The 1996 seniors
are not the same individuals as the 1994 first-year students. However, given the demographic
similarities between the two populations, we can legitimately infer certain hypotheses concerning
"what happens to students while at CCCU institutions."

- Demographics - Participation in Activities and Events - Self-Rated Strengths and Abilities -
College Satisfaction - Peer Associations - Important Life Objectives - Conservative/Liberal
Responses to Current Issues - Christian Faith and Discipline - Summary - Issues for continued
consideration -

Demographics

The gender distribution of CCCU graduating seniors is very similar to the gender distribution of
entering first-year students. For the 1994 CCCU entering, first-year students, there were 59.3%
females and 40.7% males. For the 1996 graduating seniors, there were 61.2% females and
38.8% males. This two percent change is much smaller than the eight to nine percent change in
the Protestant college or all private college populations. The percentage of females in the 1994
Protestant college CIRP population was 56.7% compared to 64.6% for the 1996 CSS population.
The percentage of females in the 1994 private college CIRP population was 55.8% compared to
64.8% for the 1996 CSS population.

The ethnic backgrounds of the graduating CCCU seniors are also very similar to ethnic
backgrounds of the entering CCCU students. In 1994, there were 93% Caucasian, with the
minority population fairly evenly divided among African-Americans, Native Americans, Asian
Americans and Hispanics. In 1996, there were 93.4% Caucasian, with the minority population
evenly divided among the other four groups.

These similarities, especially among African-American students did not hold up among the
Protestant or private college populations. In 1994, 12.9% of the entering first-year, Protestant
college population was African-American. In 1996, 8.9% of the graduating students at Protestant
colleges were African-American. The percentage of entering and graduating students of the other
minority groups were essentially the same at the Protestant colleges. In 1994, 13.9% of entering
first-year, private college students were African-American. In 1996, 5.5% of the graduating
students were African-American. The percentage of entering and graduating students of the other
minority groups were essentially the same at the private colleges.

These data seem to indicate that all three groups, the CCCU, Protestant colleges and all private
colleges, do a good job graduating their Native American, Asian American and Hispanic students.
It also indicates that although the CCCU colleges start with far fewer African-American students,
they tend to graduate a higher percentage of those who do enroll on CCCU campuses, than the
Protestant or private colleges. This is the first of many variables that illustrate a tendency for the
three populations to "regress toward the median." The differences shown at entrance are not as
great at graduation. The chart below indicates these differences.

        Percentages of Minorities
        1994 CIRP/ 1996 CSS


                             1994 CIRP                      1996 CSS
                             CCCU Protestant Private CCCU Protestant Private
        African-American     2.5      12.9         13.9     2.0      8.9          5.5
        Native American      2.0      1.8          2.6      2.5      2.4          1.9
        Asian American       2.0      2.4          4.3      2.4      2.6          3.6
        Hispanic             2.3      1.7          2.7      2.6      2.5          3.4


How did four-years of college affect students' degree aspirations? In 1994, the entering students
at Protestant or private colleges had higher great degree aspirations than the entering CCCU
students. In 1996, the degree aspirations of the graduating CCCU seniors were slightly more the
entering 1994 CCCU students. However, the 1996 degree aspirations of students at the
Protestant and private colleges had "slipped" somewhat, almost to the level of the 1996 CCCU
students. This variable shows the pattern of regression toward the mean that was mentioned
above. The following chart indicates these patterns.
How did these students do while in college? In 1994, entering CCCU students reported better
high school grades than entering Protestant or private college students. In 1996, graduating
CCCU students reported college grades that were better than the Protestant or private college
students, but the differences were not as great as in 1994. The college grades of the CCCU and
Protestant college students were not as great as their high school grades. On the other hand, the
college grades of the private college students were much better than their high school grades.
The chart below indicates these patterns.




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Participation in Activities and Events

When asked about participation in certain events since entering college, the CCCU students were
less likely to have been involved in the most of the listed events than the Protestant or private
college students. The largest differences were in joining a fraternity or sorority, enrollment in
women's studies course or attendance at a racial or cultural workshop. The most obvious
exceptions where CCCU students were more likely to have participated were to have gotten
married, hold part-time jobs on or off campus and to have transferred from another college.
These data are shown in the chart below.
When there were gender differences in participation, those differences were consistent across all
three college types. The largest gender differences occurred in enrollment in ethnic studies
courses, enrollment in women's studies courses, attendance at racial or cultural workshops and
participation in intercollegiate sports. These differences are shown in the following chart:
The three areas of academic activities in the past year in which the greatest differences between
the CCCU students and the Protestant or private college students occurred, were being a guest
in a professor's home, taking an interdisciplinary course and having challenged a professor's idea
in class. These data are shown in the following chart:




There was much more gender differences in the academic activities within the past year than
differences between students at different types of colleges. In all except one case, the gender
differences were in the same direction for all three types of colleges. The one exception was
being a guest in a professor's home. For the CCCU and Protestant college students, a greater
percentage of females were guests in professors' homes than males. For the private colleges, a
greater percentage of males than females were guests in professors' homes. The activities for
which there were the greatest differences for CCCU students were participation in intramural
sports, completing homework on time, having discussed a course with other students and
challenging a professor's ideas in class. These data are shown in the following chart:
With respect to general activities in the past year, there were a number of statistically significant
differences between the CCCU students and Protestant and private college students. Many of
these differences were in the area of personal or behavioral choices. CCCU students were more
likely to have attended religious services, performed volunteer service or attended a recital or
concert, while much less likely to have engaged in drinking, smoking or "discussing safe sex."
These data are shown on the chart below:
There were a series of questions on the 1996 CSS related to ethnic relationships. There were
some small differences among the three college types. Although the data are not completely
consistent, the CCCU students tended to have less interaction with students of other ethnic
backgrounds. However, the interaction that did occur may not have been as negative at CCCU
institutions as the Protestant or private colleges, as indicated by the questions related to students
feeling excluded or being pressured to exclude others based upon race. These data are shown
the following charts:
In general, there were greater differences between the genders than among the college types in
relation to interaction with students of different ethnic backgrounds. Males at all three institution
types had less interaction or more negative interaction with students of different ethnic
backgrounds than females had. The data for CCCU students are shown in the following charts:
Several activities were reported on both the 1994 CIRP and the 1996 CSS. In some cases there
was little difference between activities reported by college seniors related to their senior year of
college and activities reported by first-year students related to their last year of high school. In
some cases there was much difference. When there were differences, the size and magnitude of
the differences tended to be reflected across all three college types. The greatest differences for
CCCU students occurred in the areas of being bored in class, drinking beer and wine/liquor,
completing homework on time, and participating in demonstrations. These data are shown in the
following chart:




When asked to diary time spent per week during the past year, there were some differences
among the three types of college students. The typical CCCU student accounted for 57.9 hours,
while the typical Protestant college accounted for 58.9 hours and the typical private college
student accounted for 59.4 hours. The typical CCCU student spent less time partying, reading for
pleasure, hobbies and watching tv, but more time in religious services and attending classes and
labs than either Protestant or private college students. The following chart shows the median
number of hours per week in various categories:
        Hours per week in the past year spent on
                               CCCU     PROT       PRIV
        Socializing            9.0      9.0        9.9
        Exercising             3.6      3.5        4.0
        Pleasure Reading       1.0      1.1        1.1
        Volunteer Work         0.7      0.7        0.6
        Partying               0.0      0.4        1.3
        Working for Pay        11.8     12.8       11.3
        Clubs/Groups           0.6      0.9        1.0
        Watching TV            3.0      3.4        3.5
        Commuting              0.9      1.1        0.8
        Religious Services     2.0      1.6        1.2
        Hobbies                1.1      1.2        1.3
        Classes/Labs           14.3     13.8       13.5
        Studying               9.9      9.4        9.9
        TOTAL                  57.9     58.9       59.4


The gender differences within activities appeared to be greater than the differences among the
institutional types. When there were gender differences, those differences also tended to be
present across all three institutional types. Male CCCU students spent more time socializing,
exercising, partying, working for pay and watching tv than female CCCU, while spending less
time volunteering, in classes and studying. Somewhat more surprising was that CCCU males
accounted for more total time spent, and spent more time reading for pleasure, on hobbies and in
religious services. Similar patterns occurred in these last three categories at Protestant and
private colleges.


        CCCU Students: hours per week in the past
        year spent on
                                MALE      FEMALE
        Socializing             9.3       8.9
        Exercising              4.4       3.2
        Pleasure Reading        1.1       0.9
        Volunteer Work          0.6       0.8
        Partying                0.2       0.0
        Working for Pay         12.6      11.4
        Clubs/Groups            0.7       0.6
        Watching TV             3.5       1.9
        Commuting               0.9       1.0
        Religious Services      2.0       1.9
        Hobbies                  1.5       0.9
        Classes/Labs             14.0      14.5
        Studying                 8.9       11.8
        TOTAL                    59.7      57.8
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Self-Rated Strengths and Abilities

When students were asked if they were much stronger in certain abilities in 1996 than when they
started college, there were many, many similarities across the three institutional types. The only
category in which there was a difference of more than three percent was in religious beliefs and
convictions. Although the differences across institutional types were small, fewer CCCU students
tended to rate themselves much stronger in all categories except three. The three categories with
fewer CCCU students rating themselves much stronger, and which showed greater differentials
across institutional types were understanding community problems, understanding the nation's
social problems, and writing skills. The four areas where more CCCU students rated themselves
much stronger were religious beliefs and convictions, knowledge of a particular field, leadership
ability and interpersonal skills. These data are shown in the following charts:
There were greater gender differentials in students reporting much stronger abilities than
differentials across institutional types. In all but four areas, the gender differentials were
consistent across institutional types. For the areas of general knowledge, writing skills, and
understanding the nation's social problems, more females at Protestant and private colleges
reported much stronger abilities, while more males at CCCU colleges reported much stronger
abilities. For the area of reading speed and comprehension, more males at CCCU and private
colleges reported much stronger abilities, while more females at Protestant colleges reported
much stronger abilities.

For about half of the other areas more Council senior females reported much stronger abilities,
while Council senior males reported much stronger abilities in the other half. The three areas of
greatest differential with more females reporting much stronger abilities were knowledge of a
particular field, knowledge of different races and cultures, and religious beliefs and convictions.
The three areas of greatest differential with more males reporting much stronger abilities were
public speaking abilities, leadership abilities and mathematical skills. These data are shown in the
following charts:
When students were asked to rate themselves on a list of abilities, fewer CCCU than Protestant
or private college students rated themselves above average or in the highest 10% in all areas
except three. More CCCU than Protestant college students rated themselves above average or in
the highest 10% in academic ability and physical health. More CCCU than private college
students rated themselves above average or in the highest 10% in emotional health. These data
are shown in the following chart:




For student rating themselves above average or in highest 10%, the three areas with the greatest
institutional differences were writing ability, drive to achieve and intellectual self-confidence.
These data are shown in the following chart:
More CCCU students than Protestant college students rated themselves above average or in the
highest 10% in two areas, academic ability and physical health. Slightly more CCCU students
than private college students rated themselves above average or in the highest 10% only in one
area, emotional health. These data are shown in the following chart:




The greatest differences between CCCU and Protestant or private college students were in the
areas of drive to achieve, writing ability and intellectual self-confidence. These difference are
shown in the following chart:
The gender differentials at all three institutional types are much greater than the differences
among institutional types. The direction of the gender differences was fairly consistent among the
areas. There were three areas across the three institutional types in which more female students
reported themselves above average or in the highest 10%. For the CCCU institutions, these were
understanding of others, cooperativeness and drive to achieve. The largest differential in these
three areas was understanding others. These data are shown in the following chart:




The magnitude of the differentials in those areas where more males reported themselves above
average or in the highest 10% was much greater than the magnitude of the differentials in those
areas where more females reported themselves above average or in the highest 10%. There
were eight areas where the gender differential (male percentage MINUS female percentage)
across the three institutional types exceeded the 7.1% differential which represented the gender
differential in area of "understanding others". The eight areas are competitiveness, physical
health, mathematical ability, leadership ability, intellectual self-confidence, public speaking ability,
emotional health, and social self-confidence. The male/female differentials for the CCCU students
is shown in the following chart:
Fewer male CCCU students rated themselves above average or in the highest 10% in all but four
areas compared to the Protestant college students, and in all but one area (emotional health)
compared to the private college students. These data are shown in the following chart:




The three areas with the greatest differential for males across the three institutional types were
drive to achieve, social self-confidence and academic ability. For the first two listed, fewer CCCU
males reported themselves above average or in the highest 10% than Protestant or private
college students. In academic ability, fewer CCCU students than private college students
reported themselves as such. However, more CCCU male students than Protestant college
students did. These data are shown in the following chart:
Fewer female CCCU students reported themselves above average or in the highest 10% than
Protestant or private college females in all areas. The three areas with the greatest differentials
were drive to achieve, intellectual self-confidence and mathematical ability. These data are shown
in the following chart:




First-year students were also asked to rated themselves in many of these areas on the 1994
CIRP. Generally, more students rated themselves above average or in the highest 10% in 1996
than in 1994. However, there were three areas where fewer students rated themselves as such.
In mathematical ability fewer seniors at all three types of institutions rated themselves above
average or in the highest 10%. In the area of competitiveness, more CCCU seniors but fewer
Protestant and private college students rated themselves above average or in the highest 10%. In
the area of physical health, a very small decline occurred in the percentage of Protestant college
students rating themselves above average or in the highest 10%. These data are shown in the
following chart:
There were only two areas where CCCU students out gained the Protestant college students and
only one area where CCCU students out gained the private college students. These data are
shown in the following chart:




The five areas where Protestant students out gained the CCCU students the most were drive to
achieve, cooperativeness, intellectual self-confidence, social self-confidence and leadership
ability. The five areas where the private college students out gained the CCCU students the most
were drive to achieve, writing ability, intellectual self-confidence, academic ability and
understanding others. These data are shown in the following charts:
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College Satisfaction

On the series of questions that asked the graduating seniors how satisfied they were with various
aspects of their college experience, the CCCU students were almost universally more satisfied
than Protestant or private college students. Out of 26 questions, more CCCU than Protestant
college students indicated that they were satisfied or very satisfied on 21 of them. Out of the
same 26 questions, more CCCU than private college students indicated that they were satisfied
or very satisfied on 23 of them. The three areas with the greatest differentials on which fewer
CCCU students expressed satisfaction were humanities courses, social science courses and
ethnic diversity of faculty. These data are shown in the following chart:
The six areas with the greatest differentials on which more CCCU than Protestant or private
college students expressed satisfaction were sense of community on campus, job placement
services, leadership opportunities, student housing, campus health services and recreational
facilities. These data are shown on the following charts:
CCCU students were generally very satisfied with their experiences. There were only two areas,
job placement services and ethnic diversity of faculty, for which fewer than 50% indicated that
they were satisfied or very satisfied with their experiences. It should be noted that although less
than 50% of the CCCU students expressed satisfaction with the job placement services, even
fewer Protestant or private college students were satisfied with their experiences in this area. In
addition to these two lowest areas, there were another six areas with between 50% and 60% of
the CCCU students indicating satisfaction. For the Protestant colleges, there were 9 areas with
less than a 60% satisfaction level. For the private college, there were 10 areas with less than the
60% satisfaction level. The lowest CCCU areas are shown in the following chart:




For the CCCU colleges, more than 90% of students indicated that they were satisfied or very
satisfied with two areas, courses in major field and interaction with other students. No area
reached the 90% level in the private colleges. For the Protestant colleges, only courses in the
major field reach the 90% satisfaction level. For all three institutional types, the same seven areas
had more than 80% the students express satisfaction for their experiences. In each case, more
CCCU students expressed satisfaction than Protestant or private college students. These areas
and the percentages of CCCU expressing satisfaction are shown in the following chart:




The gender differences on the satisfaction questions were less than the difference across
institutional types. The magnitude and direction of the gender differences that did occur are
consistent across all three institutional types. Women were more satisfied on 20 out of the 26
areas. The areas with more men were satisfied were science and mathematics courses, library
facilities, computer facilities, campus health services, ethnic diversity of faculty, and recreational
facilities. The areas of the greatest gender differences for the CCCU colleges are shown in the
following chart:




The overall, better satisfaction that CCCU students expressed in their experiences was borne out
with more than 50% of the CCCU students indicating a definite willingness to re-enroll at their
particular colleges. This percentage was 5 percentage points greater than the Protestant
students, and more than 9 percentage greater than the private students. These data are shown in
the following chart:
There was a series of twelve questions in which students were asked if professors frequently
provided various forms of service or assistance. Generally, fewer CCCU than Protestant or
private college students said that their professors provided the listed services. There were only
three areas cited by more CCCU students. All three areas dealt more with personal relationships
than direct assistance. They were being treated with respect, providing emotional support, and
intellectually challenging students. These data are shown in the following chart:




There were only three areas that more than 50% of students from all three institutional types
indicated that professors frequently provided. These were being treated with respect, intellectually
challenged or stimulated and provided opportunities to discuss course work. These data are
shown in the following chart:
There were more gender differences than differences across institutional types. More women
cited their faculty in all areas except two. More men, by less than one percentage point, cited their
faculty for frequently providing the opportunity to work on research projects and the opportunity to
publish. There were five areas for which the gender differential for CCCU students exceeded six
percent. These data are shown in the following chart:




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Peer Associations

There was a series of questions in which students were asked with whom they associated most.
The responses for the number of close friends, co-workers and study partners were very
consistent across the three institutional types. There was much more of a gender differential
when students were asked about friends, co-workers and study partners of the same gender.
There was also much less of a gender differential for study partners rather than co-workers.
These data are shown in the following charts:
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Important Life Objectives

Out of a series of 19 questions, asking what objectives students thought were important in their
lives, more than 80% of the CCCU students cited two objectives as essential or very important.
These two objectives are altruistic and personal in nature. They are helping others in difficulty and
raising a family. The Protestant and private college students did not reach the 80% level on any
question. There were only five questions that more than 50% of any group cited as essential or
very important. These data are shown in the following charts:
The altruistic outlook of the CCCU students can also be seen in those objectives for which there
was the greatest differential across institutional types. The objectives with the greatest differential
were obtaining recognition from colleagues, being very well off financially, being successful in
their own business, and being involved in environmental cleanup. These data are shown in the
following chart:
There tended to be more gender differentials than differences across institutional types. More
CCCU males than females cited 14 of the objectives as essential or very important. Only one of
those might be considered surprising. More CCCU males than females listed raising a family as
essential or very important. The objectives noted by more females were influencing social values,
helping others in difficulty, creating artistic work, participating in community action groups and
promoting racial understanding. These objectives are more altruistic or social in nature.




The objectives with the greatest gender differential were having administrative responsibility,
being successful in own business, keeping up to date with politics and becoming a community
leader. These data are shown in the following chart:
The 1994 CIRP asked entering students how they felt on the same 19 objectives. For all
students, there were "gains" on twelve objectives and "losses" on seven. The "gains" could all be
viewed as positive in that, generally speaking, we would want our graduates to value these
objectives. There was only one objective with a gain of more than ten percent. Eighteen percent
more seniors than first-year students said that developing a philosophy of life was essential or
very important. The next three top "gainers" were helping others in difficulty, influencing social
values, and promoting racial understanding. These data are shown in the chart below:




Of the seven "losses," some may be viewed as positively. Losses on the objectives of being very
well off financially and being successful in own business could be viewed as gains in an altruistic
sense. The only objective with more than a 10% loss was being very well off financially. The next
three greatest losses were in being successful in own business, achieving in performing arts and
influencing political structure. These data are shown in the following chart:
There were more variations in the gains and losses for the specific genders than for the total
population. For males, there were only five objectives that showed declines from first-year
students to seniors. The largest decline was in being very well off financially. This area showed a
decline of more than 17%, which was a significantly larger decline than that for the total
population. The next two largest declines were in being successful in own business and receiving
recognition from colleagues. These data are shown in the chart below:




For CCCU males, there were also three areas which showed gains of more than 10%. They were
developing a philosophy of life, helping others in difficulty and influencing social values. For the
latter two these gains were significantly larger than the gains for the total population. These data
are shown in the following chart:
For CCCU females, there were eight objectives which showed declines. Some of these could be
viewed positively in an altruistic sense. Being well off financially and be successful in own
business showed declines. However, becoming a community leader and achieving in the
performing arts also showed declines. These data are shown in the following chart:

                                      [chart to be supplied]

For the CCCU females, there was only one objective, developing a philosophy of life, which
showed more than a 10% increase. The next three top gainers were promoting racial
understanding, becoming an authority in one's field and keeping up to date with politics. These
data are shown in the following chart:




There were five objectives for which one gender showed a gain and one gender showed a loss.
The four objectives for which males showed increases while females showed declines were
raising a family, making theoretical contributions to science, participation in community action
groups and becoming a community leader. The one objective for which males showed a
decrease but females showed an increase was receiving recognition from colleagues. These data
are shown in the following chart:




When asked to label themselves politically, CCCU seniors were decidedly conservative.
However, there were slightly more conservative, slightly more liberal, and slightly fewer middle of
the road 1996 CCCU seniors than the 1994 first-year CCCU students.While Protestant and
private college students showed much more movement toward the conservative side, CCCU
tended to move away from it. These changes are shown in the following chart:




Although the CCCU males were somewhat more conservative than the CCCU female students,
there was less variation between the male and female responses for CCCU students than for
Protestant or private college students. The faculty were also asked to label themselves politically
on their survey. They tended to be somewhat more liberal than the CCCU students. These data
are shown in the following charts:
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Conservative/Liberal Responses to Current Issues

There was a series of 25 statements related to current social and/or educational concerns.
Students were asked to indicate their degree of agreement with the statements. For 22 of the 25
statements, one can distinguish a more "politically conservative" response and a more "politically
liberal" response. On 21 of these 22 statements the CCCU seniors were more conservative than
the Protestant college students. The only area for which CCCU seniors were "more liberal" was
controlling AIDS by using mandatory testing. The CCCU seniors were more conservative than
private college students on 18 of the 22 areas. In addition to controlling AIDS, the areas for which
CCCU seniors were "more liberal" were increasing federal military spending, abolishing the death
penalty and racial discrimination no longer being a problem.

Although the CCCU students appear to be more conservative than their counterparts at
Protestant and private colleges, the numerical differences were fairly small. There were only three
areas where the difference between CCCU and Protestant college students exceeded 10%.
These areas were legalizing abortion, prohibiting homosexual relations and having sex if the
partners "like" each other. Each of these areas are related to matters of personal ethics or
religious beliefs, for which CCCU students might tend to be more conservative. There were seven
areas where the difference between CCCU and private college students exceeded 10%. In
addition to the three listed above, the four other areas were government not controlling pollution,
legalizing marijuana, need for a national health plan and college officials clearing student
publications. One of these areas is related to personal ethics or religious beliefs. The other three
are current campus or national political "hot buttons." These data are shown in the following
chart:
Of this series of 25 statements related to current social and/or educational concerns, 19 of them
were included on the 1994 CIRP survey. In general, the 1996 CCCU seniors could be considered
slightly more "liberal" than CCCU freshman, on 11 of the 19 items included on both surveys, but
somewhat more "conservative" on the other 8 items. Of the five items with the greatest
percentage change from the 1994 CIRP to the 1996 CSS, four moved in the "liberal" direction.
The one exception was the item about the government not protecting consumers. These items
are shown in the following chart:
On 16 of the 19 items, the movement for males was either in the direction of being more
conservative (or at least being less liberal) than for the females. The three items for which the
movement for males was in the direction of being more liberal than the females dealt with
controlling AIDS with mandatory testing, government discouraging energy usage and racial
discrimination no longer being a problem. The differences are shown in the following chart:




There were seven items for which the movement was in different directions for males and
females. In only one area was the change for females in the conservative direction and the
change for males in the liberal direction. That item concerned the government discouraging
energy usage. These data are shown in the following chart:

                                       [Chart to be supplied]

There were four items from the statements related to current social concerns that were also
included on the 1995 CCCU faculty survey. For three of the four items, the faculty were more
liberal than the 1996 seniors. The one item for which faculty were more conservative was
prohibiting racist/sexist speeches. The data are shown in the following chart:




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Christian Faith and Discipline

There were 10 supplemental questions added to the CSS dealing with students' faith, the
expressions of their faith and their exercise of Christian disciplines. Eight of those questions were
asked on the 1994 CIRP survey and three were asked of faculty on the 1995 faculty survey. Just
looking at the responses on the CSS, one could conclude that the CCCU seniors were committed
Christians. On questions related to Christian disciplines, approximately 85% of the seniors
indicated that, at least occasionally, they maintained daily personal devotions, shared their faith
with others and participated in small group prayer and Bible study. However, these percentages
are 3 to 5 percent less than the corresponding answers for the 1994 entering students. These
data are shown in the following charts:
More than 90% of the CCCU seniors indicated that they had a personal relationship with God
and, in the face of opposition, they would hold fast to their convictions. Almost 90% also indicated
that their day-to-day lives were affected by their relationship with God and that they open to new
insights about their faith. These percentages are within a point or two of the corresponding
responses from 1994 entering students. On the question concerning identifying and using
spiritual gifts, more than 80% of the 1996 seniors indicated that they thought it was important to
do so. This was about 10% percentage points less than the 1994 entering students.

The three questions concerning their personal relationship with God, whether it affects their day-
to-day lives, and whether they were open to new insights about their faith were also asked on the
1995 faculty survey. More than 99% of the CCCU faculty indicated that they had a personal
relationship with God, more than 96% indicated it affected their day-to-day lives, and more than
97% indicated that they were open to new insights.. These responses are approximately 10%
greater than the 1994 entering students and 1996 senior responses. Moreover, there was a much
greater percentage of faculty that strongly agreed with the statements as opposed to "just"
agreeing. These data are shown in the following charts:
The two questions that were asked just on the 1996 CSS related to the importance of the local
church and the effectiveness of prayer. More than 95% of the CCCU seniors believed in the
effectiveness of prayer, while more than 85% thought that it was important to be active in a local
church. These data are shown in the following chart:




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Summary

In summary, the CSS was administered in the spring of 1996 to 4,593 graduating seniors on 40
CCCU campuses. The typical senior is female. The percentage of females in the sample was
61%, a one percent increase from the freshmen data. However, instead of being 3 to 5% greater
than the comparison groups, this number is now approximately 3% less than the percentage of
females graduating from the four-year schools in the HERI sample. The typical CCCU senior is
Caucasian (93%). This is 5 to 9% greater than the Protestant or general four-year college
percentage.

The typical CCCU senior is hardworking, but in ways that may be different from the Protestant or
general four-year college student. CCCU seniors spend more time per than their counterparts at
the other institutions, working for pay, volunteering, exercising, participating in religious services,
in classes or labs, and studying or doing homework. On the other hand, CCCU seniors spend
less time per week partying, socializing with friends, watching tv, or reading for pleasure. CCCU
seniors were also more likely to have attended a recital or concert. They were less likely to have
participated in demonstrations, worked in a political campaign or socialized with someone from a
different ethnic background. The CCCU senior was less likely to have smoked or drank, or felt
depressed. However, the CCCU senior was also more likely to have felt overwhelmed.

The 1996 CCCU seniors expressed more confidence in themselves than the entering Council
students of 1994. More seniors rated themselves as above average or in the highest 10% than
entering students in academic ability (71% to 64%), leadership ability (62% to 59%), intellectual
self-confidence (66% to 55%), and social self-confidence (58% to 46%). More CCCU seniors
(72%) reported much stronger abilities and skills in the knowledge of a particular field than
seniors from Protestant (69%) or general four-year colleges (69%). Not surprisingly, more CCCU
seniors (37%) also reported much stronger religious beliefs and convictions than seniors from
Protestant (30%) or general four-year (22%) colleges. Much more surprisingly, given where they
started, was that more CCCU seniors (27%) reported much stronger leadership abilities and skills
than the general four-year college (24%) seniors.

CCCU seniors are altruistic. The same three objectives that CCCU entering students noted as
essential or very important were noted by the CCCU seniors, but in a different order. Raising a
family, which was the number one objective with 84% of entering students listing it, was the
second most noted objective among the seniors with 81%. Helping others in difficulty rose from
number two with a 72% share to number one with just over 81%. Influencing social values
remained number three, while rising from a 51% share of the entering students to a 61% of the
seniors. All three of these objectives received a two to four percent larger share of the CCCU
seniors than the Protestant seniors, and a three to six percent larger share than the general four-
year college seniors. The altruism of the CCCU seniors can also be seen in that only 29% of
CCCU seniors noted being very well off financially as essential or very important, compared to
41% of the Protestant seniors and 47% of general four-year college seniors.

CCCU seniors are politically conservative. In fact, more seniors labeled themselves as
conservative (59%) than entering students (56%). However, this has to be placed in the context
of the fact that more general four-year college seniors (34%) labeled themselves as conservative
than entering students (23%). It must also be placed in the context of the fact that on the
individual issues, there was even more agreement between CCCU seniors and four-year college
seniors, than between CCCU entering students and four-year college entering students. It almost
all cases, the percentages on the individual issues tended to "regress to the mean," i.e., the
scores above 50% went down, while the scores below 50% went up.

CCCU seniors are religiously committed individuals. As noted above, more CCCU seniors (37%)
than general four-year college seniors (22%) reported much stronger religious beliefs and
convictions. More CCCU seniors (97%) than general four-year college seniors (82%) reported
frequent or occasional attendance at religious services. The 97% figure for CCCU needs to be
placed in the context of the entering student statistics. There were 99% of the entering CCCU
students that indicated they had participated in religious services the year prior to entering
college. However, only 66% of these same students indicated that they expected to continue
such participation. The CCCU seniors also reported spending more time per week in religious
services and meetings than the general four-year college seniors. The CCCU median time was
slightly over 2 hours per week, while the median for the general four-year college students was
less than 1 hour per week.

One area of continued concern about CCCU students was evident among the 1996 seniors.
Since the CCCU colleges are more homogeneous than the general four-year colleges, do CCCU
students related appropriately with individuals of different races and genders? The data is both
encouraging and somewhat discouraging. Fewer CCCU students reported that they only studied
with individuals of the same race or gender than the general four-year college seniors. However,
fewer CCCU seniors reported socializing with someone from a different ethnic group. Fewer
CCCU seniors felt pressure to exclude other races. However, fewer CCCU seniors noted the
objective of promoting racial understanding as essential or very important. It would appear that
CCCU seniors have wrestled with some racial and gender issues, but more may be needed.

The summary data for the 1996 CSS questionnaire along with corresponding answers from the
1994 CIRP and the 1995 faculty survey are attached.

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Issues for Continued Consideration

    1. Although the degree aspirations of CCCU "improved" between the 1994 freshmen and
         1996 seniors, the degree aspirations of CCCU students are still less than those of
         Protestant or private college students. What can we do to increase our students'
         academic aspirations?
    2.   The percentage of CCCU seniors who plan to do volunteer work or to work in a non-profit
         industry is greater than seniors from Protestant or private colleges...but only about 2%
         points different. What happened to the "zeal for missions" and the desire to serve
         humanity?
    3.   A significantly higher percentage of CCCU seniors as opposed to Protestant or private
         college students, worked part-time while in college. What effect did this have on their
         college experience?
    4.   A higher percentage of CCCU seniors than Protestant college students got married
         during college. A much higher percentage of CCCU seniors than private college students
         got married during college. Was this a direct reflection of the CCCU students desire to
         "raise a family?" Should CCCU institutions do anything to encourage or discourage
         getting married during college? How can our campuses best prepare students for the
         realities of married life?
    5.   Significantly fewer CCCU seniors participated in racial/ethnic workshops or organizations,
         or enrolled in women's or ethnic studies courses, than seniors at Protestant or private
         colleges. Is this a problem? If so, how should we be addressing it?
    6.   CCCU seniors were generally very satisfied with their college experiences, and overall
         more satisfied with their experiences than the Protestant or private college seniors. Only
         in the areas of job placement services and the ethnic diversity of faculty did fewer than
         50% of the CCCU seniors indicated that they were satisfied or very satisfied. CCCU
         institutions should be encouraged with this result.
    7.   Generally fewer CCCU seniors than the Protestant or private college seniors indicated
         that their professors frequently provided encouragement or opportunities to interact. Out
         of twelve questions, only on three (providing emotional support, treating students with
         respect, and intellectually challenging students) did the CCCU faculty come out better.
         These areas are important. But so are the other nine. What is happening? Is this real? Is
         it perception? How can we correct it?
    8.   The two most important objectives for 1996 CCCU seniors are helping others in difficulty
         and raising a family. These are important "life" concerns. The 1994 entering CCCU
         students also ranked these two as the most important concerns in their lives. More
      seniors than entering students said "helping others in difficulty" was "essential" or "very
      important." This should be encouraging for the CCCU institutions.
9.    There were "gains" in the percentage of CCCU students reporting that a given objective
      was "essential" or "very important" on twelve of nineteen objectives. Most of the "losses"
      could actually be considered gains in an altruistic sense (e.g. a loss in the objective of
      "being very well off financially"). Again the CCCU institutions should be commended for
      what they are doing in "students' lives."
10.   In these objectives, there were more variations in the gains and losses for males and
      females than for the total populations, with males showing more variation than females.
      We seem to be making more of an impression with the male population. What can we do
      to work with our females?
11.   A higher percentage of CCCU seniors than private college seniors have transferred into
      their "final" institutions. What problems (opportunities) does this create for the CCCU
      institutions in attempting to have students meet certain goals or outcomes?
12.   A much greater percentage of CCCU seniors than Protestant or private college students
      had the opportunity to be a guest in professor's home. CCCU faculty should be
      commended for this. What can we do to encourage more of this?
13.   A greater percentage of CCCU seniors than Protestant or private colleges students felt
      lonely or homesick [NOTE: These are college seniors]. What can the CCCU institutions
      do to help reduce loneliness of students on campus?
14.   More CCCU seniors felt overwhelmed than Protestant or private college students. What
      is the cause of the pressure that CCCU seniors feel? What can the CCCU institutions do
      to help reduce the pressure?
15.   Socialization among different races and ethnic groups is a "mixed bag." Fewer CCCU
      seniors "socialized with different ethnic group" than students at Protestant or private
      colleges. This is not surprising since there are fewer students of ethnic background on
      CCCU campuses. Fewer CCCU seniors than Protestant or private college students
      studied with or dated a person from a different ethnic group. However, more CCCU
      seniors dined with or had a roommate from a different ethnic group than private college
      students. (Besides increasing the diversity on CCCU campuses) What can CCCU
      institutions do to increase contact among persons of different ethnic backgrounds?
16.   CCCU seniors spent less time "reading for pleasure" than Protestant or private college
      students. What can CCCU institutions do to encourage "reading for pleasure"?
17.   CCCU seniors spent more time in classes and labs and in studying or doing homework
      than Protestant or private college students. Is this problematic? Is this part of the reason
      for the "overwhelming" pressure that CCCU seniors feel?
18.   Approximately 15-to-16% of the CCCU seniors are not maintaining daily personal
      devotions, sharing their faith with others or meeting in small group prayer/Bible studies.
      This is 3-to-5% more than the percentage of 1994 CCCU entering students. The fact that
      85% of graduating CCCU seniors are maintaining these Christian disciplines should be
      encouraging. What can we do to keep even more of our students involved in these
      activities?
19.   More than 91% of the CCCU seniors indicated that they had a personal relationship with
      God. However, "only" 87% of them indicated that it affected their day-to-day lives.
      Approximately 92% of the 1994 entering CCCU students indicated that their relationship
      with God affected their day-to-day lives. What can we do to encourage more of our
      graduates to make sure that their relationship with God means something in how they
      live?
20.   More than 86% of the CCCU seniors indicated they believed it was important to be active
      in a local church. Are 14% of our students leaving our colleges not intending to be active
      in local churches? Is this acceptable?
21.   More than 17% of the CCCU seniors said identifying and using spiritual gifts is not
      important. This is 8% more than the number of 1994 CCCU entering students who said
      the same thing. Why would there be such a difference in these percentages?
22. More than 37% of the CCCU seniors reported "much stronger" religious beliefs and
      convictions as they graduated compared to when they entered college. This is 10-to-15%
      points higher than the Protestant or private college seniors. Should the percentage of
      CCCU seniors be even higher?
23.   The percentage of CCCU seniors reporting that they were "much stronger" in their
      acceptance of different races and cultures and in their understanding of community
      problems was 1-to-2% points less than the seniors at Protestant and private colleges
      reporting the same. Why should CCCU seniors have "less" acceptance of different
      cultures and races and understanding of community problems? What should be done to
      address this?
24.   The percentage of CCCU seniors reporting that they were "much stronger" in their
      leadership abilities was 1-to-2% points greater than the seniors at Protestant and private
      colleges reporting the same. This small difference is somewhat encouraging in light of the
      fact that the 1994 CCCU entering students expressed less "self-confidence" in their
      leadership abilities than the Protestant or private college entering students. What are we
      doing right? Can we "do more of it"?
25.   Both the 1994 entering students and the 1996 seniors were asked to rate themselves in
      various abilities. For the CCCU students, the only area where a smaller percentage of the
      1996 seniors than 1994 entering students rated themselves "above average" or "in the
      highest 10%" was "mathematical ability." How can the CCCU institutions help their
      students improve their math ability?
26.   In six ability areas (competitiveness, leadership ability, mathematical ability, physical
      health, public speaking ability and intellectual self-confidence) 10% more CCCU male
      seniors indicated they rated themselves "above average" or "in the highest 10%" than
      CCCU female seniors. In each of these areas except competitiveness, the difference
      between the male and female percentages for seniors is actually greater than the
      differences for the 1994 CCCU entering students. Why aren't our female students
      "improving" the same as our male students? What can we do to help our female
      students?
27.   Even though our female students are not "improving" as much as our male students, our
      female students are generally more satisfied with their college experiences. More CCCU
      female seniors rated their experiences "satisfactory" or "very satisfactory" on 19 areas;
      while more CCCU male seniors rated their experiences similarly in only seven areas
      (science and mathematics courses, lab equipment and facilities, library facilities,
      computer facilities, campus health services, ethnic diversity of the faculty, and
      recreational facilities). Why would the female seniors be more satisfied with "less
      improvement"?
28.   The political orientation of the 1996 CCCU seniors is generally conservative. The
      difference between the CCCU seniors and their counterparts at Protestant and private
      colleges is less than the difference between the CCCU entering students and their
      counterparts at Protestant and private colleges. The responses of the CCCU seniors to
      the series of questions on social and educational concerns were generally on the
      "conservative" side of each issue, but less "conservative" than the 1994 entering CCCU
      students. The seniors "looked more like" the faculty than the entering students did. What
      does that tell us? Is this good or bad?
29.   Since the CCCU institutions are more homogeneous with respect to race and gender
      than Protestant or private colleges, do CCCU students relate appropriately with
      individuals of different gender and race? The data are both encouraging and
      discouraging. More Protestant and private college seniors reported studying with
      individuals of different gender and race than the CCCU seniors. More CCCU seniors
      reported socializing only with individuals of their own race and gender. Fewer CCCU
      seniors felt pressure to exclude other races. However, fewer CCCU seniors noted the
      objective of promoting racial understanding as "essential" or "very important." It would
      appear that CCCU seniors have done some thinking about racial and gender issues. But
      it also seems that there is more to do.
The complete data listing for the 1996 CSS Summary, including excerpted data from the 1994
CCCU CIRP Data and the 1995 CCCU Faculty Data, is available. To request a copy, contact
research@cccu.org.

				
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