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					POSTEC Lecture


       Network Management

          Chapter 4 SLA and QoS


                 May 6-27 , 2008

                 Masayoshi Ejiri
                      Japan



                                   1
                            Agenda
1.     ICT Operations and Management
   - Service Industries
   - ICT Services and Networks—
   - Target of the Management
2, Architecture ,Function ,Information Model and Business Process
   - ITU-T TMN( Telecommunications Management Network)
   - TeleManagement Forum Telecommunications Operations Map ( TOM)
   - Multi domain management and System Integration
   - Standardization
3. OSS( Operations Support System ) Development
    - Software Architecture ,Key Technologies and Product Evaluation—
4. SLA( Service Level Agreement) and QoS( Quality of Service)
     - SLA Definition , reference point and policy based negotiation
5, IP/eBusiness Management
     - Paradigm shift , Architecture beyond TMN and enhanced TOM
6. NGN( Next Generation Networks) Management
     - NGN Networks and Services , New Paradigm of ICT Business and
       Management


                                                                    2
                     Agenda
•   Service Life cycle of QoS/SLA
•   IP QoS and network performance
•   QoS , QoE and SLA
•   SLA and OLA Overviews
•   SLA Management
•   SLA Features
•   SLA Negotiation
•   Security



                                     3
       Service Life cycle and QoS/SLA

• ITU-T Recommendation M.3341
Requirements for QoS/SLA management over the TMN
  X-interface for IP-based services

Management of QoS and associated SLAs require interaction
between many telecom operations business processes and TMN
management services as defined in ITU-T Rec. M.3200 and TMN
management function sets as defined in ITU-T Rec. M.3400.




                                                              4
           M.3341 – Service life cycle (Figure 5-1/GB917)

 Product/service     Negotiation
  development         and sales       Implementation        Execution         Assessment




Develop templates     Negotiate       Take line/service      Monitor,           Reassess
 and parametric       individual         orders and        surveillance,
   boundaries          contracts         provision         maintain, bill


                                                                                 M.3341_F5-1




•Service product planning and development;
•Negotiation and sales of a service product;
•Implementation (configuration, provisioning and commissioning) of a service product;
•Operation and maintenance of a service product;
•Periodic assessment of the QoS of a service and whether it meets the SLA.
                                                                                   5
       QoS/SLA management interactions
         across QMS interface M.3341
SC( Service Customer) initiated:
•    Retrieve MPs MP : Measurement Point
•    Retrieve Obs Ob : Observation
•    Configure Ob
•    Assign PM data collection interval PM : Performance Management
•    Suspend/Resume PM data collection
•    Reset PM data
•    Assign PM history duration
•    Assign PM threshold (including severity)
• Request PM data (current or history)
SP( Service Provider ) initiated/provided:
•    Report MP configuration changes
•    Report SP suspension of PM data collection
•    Report PM threshold violation

    QMS : QoS/SLA Management Services
                                                                      6
     Measurement point and observation                                                                M.3341


The observation provides QoS measurements from the ingress to the egress
of the ISP's network regardless of the service providers or network operators involved.

                                                        ISP
                               TSP                                           TSP


SC                 NO                       NO                       NO                   NO                SC

            MP-a        MP-b         MP-c        MP-d         MP-e        MP-f     MP-g        MP-h
                                                                                                          M.3341_F3-1
                                                  Observation

 MP Measurement Point




           SC :Service Customer
           NO :Network Operator
           TSP: Telecommunications Service Provider
                                                                                                                    7
           ISP: Internet Service Provider
 IP QoS related Y series . Recommendations

• Y.1540
 Internet protocol data communication service –
   IP packet transfer and availability performance
   parameters
• Y.1541
Network performance objectives for IP-based services

Note : SERIES Y: GLOBAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE,
  INTERNET PROTOCOL ASPECTS AND NEXT-GENERATION
  NETWORKS
  Internet protocol aspects – Quality of service and network
  performance

                                                               8
      Rec. Y.1540 – Layered model of performance for IP service – Example




                  User information                                              User information
                    (e.g., data)                                                  (e.g., data)

Higher layer
                  (HTTP)                                                         etc.     (HTTP)
performance                  (RTP)
                   (FTP) etc.                                                    (RTP) (FTP)
                  (TCP)   (UDP)                                                 (UDP)    (TCP)

    IP packet
Layer service
                      IP layer              IP layer          IP layer              IP layer
performance
         Y.1540
Lower layer
                                     LL                LL                LL
performance
(3 instances)
Network
components:            SRC           Link   Router     Link    Router    Link           DST
                                                                                          Y.1540_F02




                  SRC : Source host
                  DST : Destination host
                                                                                               9
      Services in ISO 7 layers Model
                          Human/Business
                                     Application service
•   Layer 7 : Application
                                Presentation service
•   Layer 6 : Presentation
                               Session service
•   Layer 5 : Session
                             Transport service
•   Layer 4 : Transport     Network service
•   Layer 3 : Network
                            Data link service
•   Layer 2 : Data link
                           Physical service
•   Layer 1 : Physical

                                                           10
      Generic IP Service performance model :
      IP Network Connectivity Y.1540

                                                           ER            (more NS and EL)


                                        C                       D
                                                      ER
                                   ER                               ER

                       ER
                                                      ER
                        B         ER
                                                                                                 DST
                                                                         ER      G
SRC                A
                                            ER             ER
                             ER                                          F           destination NS
       source NS

         (more NS and EL)
                                                                    (more NS and EL)
                                                 ER    E

      Network Section (NS)
      Exchange Link (EL)
                                                                                              Y.1540_F04

ER    Edge Router




                                                                                                           11
Y.1541 – UNI-to-UNI reference path for network QoS objectives




                                                                12
            End-to-End QoS

• NOTE – The phrase "End-to-End" has a
  different meaning in Recommendations
  concerning user QoS classes, where end-to-
  end means, for example, from mouth to ear
  in voice quality Recommendations. Within
  the context of this Recommendation( Y.1541),
  end-to-end is to be understood as from
  UNI-to-UNI.



                                            13
Quality evaluation MOS                         ITU-T Rec P.800


Listening-quality scale

•   Excellent   5
•   Good        4
•   Fair        3
•   Poor        2
•   Bad         1
    The quantity evaluated from the scores (mean listening-quality
    opinion score, or simply mean opinion score) is represented by
    the symbol MOS.


                                                                14
                         DMOS

Degradation category scale
•   5   Degradation is inaudible.
•   4   Degradation is audible but not annoying.
•   3   Degradation is slightly annoying.
•   2   Degradation is annoying.
•   1   Degradation is very annoying.

The quantity evaluated from the scores (degradation mean
  opinion score) is represented by the symbol DMOS.
Note: In non voice services , audible should be perceptible.

                                                           15
            NP,QoS ,QoE and SLA

•   Network performance
•   Quality of Service
•   Quality of Experience
•   Quality of Preference ??
•   Service Level Agreement




                                  16
    Definition of Quality of Experience (QoE)
                   Rec.G100

The overall acceptability of an application or
 service, as perceived subjectively by the
 end-user.

• NOTE 1 – Quality of Experience includes the complete end-to-end
  system effects (client, terminal, network, services infrastructure, etc.).
• NOTE 2 – Overall acceptability may be influenced by user
  expectations and context.




                                                                         17
                 REC.P.862 – Overview of the basic philosophy used in PESQ

original                  degraded
input                      output
              Device
             under test




                                               SUBJECT                 MODEL




      Note :
      SERIES P: TELEPHONE TRANSMISSION QUALITY, TELEPHONE INSTALLATIONS,
original
      LOCAL LINE NETWORKS-Methods for objective and subjective assessment of quality-
input Rec. P.862
              Perceptual               Internal representation
      Perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ): An objective method for end-to-end
                model                        of original
      speech quality assessment of narrow-band telephone networks and speech codecs        18
              Subjective quality assessment
               for voice codec Rec. P 830

ACR( Absolute Category Rating ) on Listening Quality scale
Testing procedure
• Source speech materials : recording system, speech sample, talker,
  speech level/equalization
• Experiment parameter : Codec condition( speech /listening level,
  talkers, errors, bit rate, transcodings, tandeming, bit rate mismatch,
  environmental noise, signaling, reference condition( SNR, codecs)
• Experiment design
  combination of parameters result in a single experiment minimum
  set of experiments
• Listening test procedure : : Receiving system, opinion scale,
  gaussian noise
• Analysis of results

                                                                    19
        Subjective audiovisual quality assessment
          for multimedia applications Rec. P 911
Typical viewing and listening conditions
•   Room size : Specify L  W  H
•   Viewing distance : 1-8 H
•   Peak luminance of the screen : 100-200 cd/m2
•   Ratio of luminance of inactive screen to peak luminance :
    0.05
•   Ratio of the luminance of the screen, when displaying only
    black level in a completely dark room, to that corresponding to
    peak white : 0.1
•   Ratio of luminance of background behind picture monitor to
    peak luminance of picture : 0.2
•   Chromaticity of background : D65
•   Background room illumination : 20 lux

• Background noise level : 30 dBA
• Listening level : 80 dBA
• Reverberation time : <500 ms, f > 150 Hz
                                                                  20
                                                   SUBJECT                    MODEL

  REC.P.862 – Overview of the basic philosophy used in PESQ (2)


original
input
             Perceptual                  Internal representation
               model                           of original




                 Time                   Difference in internal                                      quality
                                                                                 Cognitive
              alignment               representation determines
                                                                                  model
                                        the audible difference
                                                                                      T1212870-00

              delay estimates di

             Perceptual                 Internal representation
               model                          of degraded
degraded
output

 NOTE – A computer model of the subject, consisting of a perceptual and a cognitive model, is used to
 compare the output of the device under test with the imput, using alignment information as derived from
 the time signals in the time alignment module.



                                                                                                              21
     Objective perceptual video quality
          measurement Rec. J.144
• Measurement method
                          Transmission impairments


     Input/reference
                                                                 Output/degraded
         video
                                                                     video
                            Digital TV chain         Reference
                  Coder
                          (network, equipment)        decoder                        Objective picture
                                                                                      quality rating

                                                                                             10   15
                                                                                         5             20

                                                                       Measurement   0                      25

                                                                         system

                                                                                              T0909730-00



          Four methods are recommended by VQED( Video Quality Experts Group)
          •British Telecon,
          • Yonsei Univ,/SK Telecom/Radio Research
          •CpqD
          •NTIA                                                          22
SERIES G: TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS AND MEDIA, DIGITAL SYSTEMS
AND NETWORKS
International telephone connections and circuits – General definitions

REC. G.107
―The E-model, a computational model for use in transmission planning
―
The E-model is based on the equipment impairment factor method, following
previous transmission rating models. It was developed by an ETSI ad hoc
group called "Voice Transmission Quality from Mouth to Ear".

REC.G.1070
Opinion model for video-telephony applications

a computational model for point-to-point interactive videophone applications
over IP networks that is useful as a QoE/QoS planning tool for assessing the
combined effects of variations in several video and speech parameters that
affect the quality of experience (QoE).

                                                                           23
                     REC.G.107 – Reference connection of the E-model
                                                                                                Receive side
        Send side
                                                       OLR
                         SLR                                                      RLR
                                                    0 dBr point



                                                Weighted echo
        Ds-factor                              path loss WEPL                                             Dr-factor

                                                     Round-trip                                       Room
           Room                                       delay Tr                                       noise Pr
          noise Ps
                                                                                                Sidetone masking
                                                                                                rating STMR
                                              Coding/Decoding
                                                                                                Listener sidetone
                               Circuit noise Nc             Equipment impairment factor Ie
Rating factor R                referred to 0 dBr            Packet-loss robustness factor Bpl
                                                                                                rating LSTR
•Basic signal to noise ratio                                                                    (LSTR =
                                                   Packet-loss probability Ppl                  STMR + Dr)
•Simultaneous impairment
                                                    Mean one-way delay T
•Delay impairment factor
•Equipment impairment                                  Absolute delay Ta
•Advantage factor                                                                               Talker echo
                                          Quantizing distortion qdu                             loudness rating
                                                                                                TELR
                                             Expectation factor A
                                                                                                           G.107_F01   24
                                                                      Default    Permitte
                           Parameter                 Abbr.    Unit
                                                                       value     d range
             Send Loudness Rating                     SLR      dB       +8       0 ... +18
             Receive Loudness Rating                 RLR       dB       +2       5 ... +14
E-model
             Sidetone Masking Rating                 STMR      dB       15       10 ... 20
Parameters
             Listener Sidetone Rating                LSTR      dB       18       13 ... 23
and values
             D-Value of Telephone, Send Side          Ds       –        3        –3 ... +3
             D-Value of Telephone Receive Side        Dr       –        3        3 ... +3
             Talker Echo Loudness Rating             TELR      dB       65        5 ... 65
             Weighted Echo Path Loss                 WEPL      dB       110      5 ... 110
             Mean one-way Delay of the Echo Path       T       ms       0        0 ... 500
             Round-Trip Delay in a 4-wire Loop        Tr       ms       0        0 ... 1000
             Absolute Delay in echo-free              Ta       ms       0        0 ... 500
             Connections
             Number of Quantization Distortion        qdu      –            1     1 ... 14
             Units
             Equipment Impairment Factor               Ie      –            0     0 ... 40
             Packet-loss Robustness Factor            Bpl      –            1     1 ... 40
             Random Packet-loss Probability           Ppl      %            0     0 ... 20
             Burst Ratio                             BurstR    –            1     1…2
             Circuit Noise referred to 0 dBr-point    Nc      dBm0     70        80 ...
                                                                p                  40
             Noise Floor at the Receive Side          Nfor    dBmp     64           –
             Room Noise at the Send Side               Ps     dB(A)         35   35 ... 85
             Room Noise at the Receive Side           Pr      dB(A)         35   35 ... 85    25
             Advantage Factor                          A       –            0     0 ... 20
REC. G1070 Opinion model for video-telephony applications
Framework of multimedia communication quality assessment model

                                       End –to-end delay

   Video-related   Video quality
    assumption      parameters                             Video-alone
                                    Video quality
                                                           quality
                                     estimation
                                       function                            Video quality
                                                             Multimedia
     Common                          Coefficient                Quality    Multimedia
    assumption                       database                Integration   quality
                                                               function
                                    Speech quality                         Speech quality
                                     estimation
  Speech-related                      function             Speech-alone
                   Speech quality
   assumption                                              quality
                     parameters

                                       Coefficient     End –to-end delay
                                        database



                                                                                 26
              Quality assessment factors
Video-related Assumption    Video quality parameters
 Terminal type               End-to-end delay
 Terminal characteristics    Video codec
  Monitor size
  Monitor resolution           Codec type
 Ambient illuminance           Video format
                               Key frame interval
Common assumption              Video display size
 Conversational task         Bit rate
 Packet-loss pattern
                             Frame rate
Speech-related assumption    Packet-loss rate
 Terminal factors
   Loudness rating etc.     Speech quality parameters
 Environmental factors
   Ambient noise             End-to-end delay
 Network factors             Speech codec
   Packet –loss pattern        Codec type
                               Bit rate
                             Packet-loss rate
                             TELR(Talker echo loundness rating)



                                                              27
Assumptions about monitor characteristics


    Monitor specifications             Value
       Diagonal lengtha)            2-10 inches
           Dot pitch                   <0.30
      Colour temperature              6500 K
           Bit depth               8 bits/colour
          Refresh rate                ≥60 Hz
          Brightness              100-300 cd/m2
    a) "Diagonallength" refers to the image size on
    the monitor screen.


                                                      28
IP packet transfer performance parameters
                              REC.Y.1540

Speed ,Accuracy and Dependability
•   IPTD : IP Packet Transfer Delay
•   IPDV : IP packet Delay Variation
•   IPER : IP Packet Error Ratio
•   IPLR : IP Packet Loss Ratio
•   IPRR : IP Packet Reordering Ratio
•   IPSLBR : IP Packet Severe Loss Block Ratio
•   IPDR : IP Packet Duplicate Ratio
•   RIPR : Replicated IP Packet Ration
•   IPPT : IP Packet Throughput
                                                 29
   IP service availability (REC.Y.1540)



    IP Service      Availability       IP Service
   Unavailable      Parameters          Available




Unavailability: IP Packet Loss Ration(IPLR) > C1
      C1 = 0.75
Availability Parameters:% time ratio
      Percent IP service unavailability (PIU)
      Percent IP service availability (PIA)
                                                    30
Conditions for IP Performance Measurement Rec.Y1540

1)   the exact sections being measured:
•    SRC and DST for end-to-end measurements;
•    MP bounding an NSE being measured.
2)   measurement time:
•    how long samples were collected;
•    when the measurement occurred.
3)   exact traffic characteristics:
•    rate at which the SRC is offering traffic;
•    SRC traffic pattern;
•    competing traffic at the SRC and DST;
•    IP packet size.
4)   type of measurement:
•    in-service or out-of-service;
•    active or passive.
5)   summaries of the measured data:
•    means, worst-case, empirical quantities;
•    summarizing period;
      –short period (e.g., one hour);
      – long period (e.g., one day, one week, one month).
                                                            31
Y.1541 – Hypothetical reference path for QoS class 0




                                                       32
                                    Table 1/Y.1541 – IP network QoS class definitions and
                                               network performance objectives

                                                                                    QoS Classes

    Network
                    Nature of network
  performance                                                                                                     Class 5
                  performance objective
   parameter                                  Class 0      Class 1        Class 2          Class 3   Class 4    Unspecified


      IPTD       Upper bound on the mean      100 ms       400 ms         100 ms           400 ms      1s           U
                 IPTD (Note 1)


      IPDV       Upper bound on the            50 ms       50 ms            U                U          U           U
                 1  10–3 quantile of IPTD    (Note 3)    (Note 3)
                 minus the minimum IPTD
                 (Note 2)




      IPLR       Upper bound on the          1 × 10–3     1 × 10–3       1 × 10–3         1 × 10–3   1 × 10–3       U
                 packet loss probability     (Note 4)     (Note 4)


      IPER       Upper bound                                         1 × 10–4 (Note 5)                              U


General Notes:



                                                                                                                              33
                          Table 3/Y.1541 – Provisional IP network QoS class definitions and
                                          network performance objectives


                                                                                 QoS Classes

Network performance   Nature of network performance
     parameter                   objective
                                                                  Class 6                      Class 7


                      Upper bound on the mean IPTD
       IPTD                                                       100 ms                       400 ms


                      Upper bound on the 1  10–5
                      quantile of IPTD minus the
                      minimum IPTD (Note 1)
       IPDV                                                                         50 ms




                      Upper bound on the packet loss
                      ratio
       IPLR                                                                        1 × 10–5


       IPER           Upper bound                                                  1 × 10–6


       IPRR           Upper bound                                                  1 × 10–6

                                                                                                         34
                    QoS Control
        modified Nakajima’s IM2005 panel presentation


Control
• Admission Control : managed bandwidth
• Fairness Control : minimum bandwidth
• Priority Control : reactive control, priority conflict


Outcome
• Guarantee : with proactive control e.g. pre assigned
  resource, on demand reservation,
• Managed Quality : with reactive control
• Best effort : with no active control
                                                           35
                      SLA ??
-How to reach the practical Agreement by Negotiation ?- ,


 •   Who drive SLA ?
 •   Why SLA is needed ?
 •   What S.L.A. is ?
 •   When SLA is agreed ?
 •   How to agree SLA ?



                                                      36
        ITU-T Rec. E860 ( 2002)


• ―A Service Level Agreement is a formal
  agreement between two or more entities that
  is reached after a negotiating activities with
  the scope to access service characteristics,
  responsibilities and priorities of every part ―




                                                37
        SLA for IP Management

Public Network / Services        IP network / Services

Fixed QoS                    Negotiated CoS
Network Performance Oriented    Human Interface Oriented

Internal within SP           Open and Visible to Customers
<Best Effort SLA Announcement> <Guaranteed SLA Agreement>
Based on embedded               Based on Management
QoS Mechanism                   Excellence and Negotiation




                                                            38
Service Level Agreement ???
• Service ?
  Transport , Contents Delivery, Operation, Billing,etc.
• Level ?
  Performance : QoS, CoS, Accuracy, Timeliness, etc.
  Treatment : Reliability,Priority, etc.
  Value : Absolute, Average in long term/in group,etc.
• Agreement ?
   Negotiation, Selection of SLA Package/menu,etc.
   Contract : Long term, Call by Call. Specific Call,etc.


                                                            39
Scope of Operations


                      Managing Plane                Enterprise
Service Plane                                       Manager

                 Customer                            Service
    Operations
    Service
                                                     Planner
                            Communications
                            Service
     OSS                                              Network
           Operator
           Service            NE                      Planner
   Operator
                              Business Management
  Operations                  Service

                                                                 40
      Rec. Y.1540 – Layered model of performance for IP service – Example




                  User information                                              User information
                    (e.g., data)                                                  (e.g., data)

Higher layer
                  (HTTP)                                                         etc.     (HTTP)
performance                  (RTP)
                   (FTP) etc.                                                    (RTP) (FTP)
                  (TCP)   (UDP)                                                 (UDP)    (TCP)

    IP packet
Layer service
                      IP layer              IP layer          IP layer              IP layer
performance
         Y.1540
Lower layer
                                     LL                LL                LL
performance
(3 instances)
Network
components:            SRC           Link   Router     Link    Router    Link           DST
                                                                                          Y.1540_F02




                  SRC : Source host
                  DST : Destination host
                                                                                               41
      Services in ISO 7 layers Model
                          Human/Business
                                     Application service
•   Layer 7 : Application
                                Presentation service
•   Layer 6 : Presentation
                               Session service
•   Layer 5 : Session
                             Transport service
•   Layer 4 : Transport     Network service
•   Layer 3 : Network
                            Data link service
•   Layer 2 : Data link
                           Physical service
•   Layer 1 : Physical

                                                           42
TMF GB917 SLA Positioning within the Business Enterprise MVC



                                                               43
     SLA and OLA Overviews
                            Customer
                          ( eBusiness)
   •Operations Services      SLA           •Content Delivery Services SLA
   SLA                       Negotiation   •Transport Services SLA

                                    Content Delivery
             Operations                Resource
Service                                      Transport Services OLA
              Resource
Provider                                Transport
                                        Resource

 Operations Support   OLA
                                     Resource Provisioning
              OLA     Negotiation    OLA


       Operations Resource      Communications Resource
           Supporters                 Suppliers

                           Partners                                     44
    Guaranteed /Best Effort SLA
• Service Priority ( Class of Services)
  : Guaranteed by Policy based Operations
• Static/Average QoS Value
  : Guaranteed by NW design/implementation
• Individual or Target Service QoS Value
  : Guaranteed by successful Pre-Provisioning/Resource
 Reservation
  : Best Effort in General

                                                         45
   SLA Management(Reference Point)
                          Customer
                       OSF

   Operations Services                      Communication Services
                          SLA Negotiation
   SLA                                      SLA

               Operator
                                       Resource
                 OSF
                     Service Provider
Operations Support   SLA Negotiation           Resources Provisioning
SLA                                            SLA

                OSF          Partner

                                                                        46
   SLA Management(Monitor/ Report)

                                       Customer

                          SLA Report, Invoice

                SM
                     Mapping
         CoS
                      QoS Value/MTxx
Policy            NM Aggregate                            NE
                                                               Resource
         QoS Parameter
                                             QoS Events
                     EM
Operation                               QoS Parameter

                                        SM         Partner
                                                                      47
     SLA Management(Control)

                                         Customer

                            SO,TT,Bill

               SM
Treatment           Mapping
                        QoS order
  Policy
                  NM Analysis                                 NE
                                                                   Resource
    Parameter Control
                                               QoS Control
                    EM
  Operation                               Parameter Control

                                          SM
                                                      Partner
                                                                          48
     SLA and OLA Overviews
                            Customer
                          ( eBusiness)
   •Operations Services      SLA           •Content Delivery Services SLA
   SLA                       Negotiation   •Transport Services SLA

                                    Content Delivery
             Operations                Resource
Service                                      Transport Services OLA
              Resource
Provider                                Transport
                                        Resource

 Operations Support   OLA
                                     Resource Provisioning
              OLA     Negotiation    OLA


       Operations Resource      Communications Resource
           Supporters                 Suppliers

                           Partners                                     49
                SLA Features
• Services
  1, Transport Services
  2, Contents Delivery Services
  3, Operations Services
• Features
   1, Fundamental (Performance , Accuracy & Access)
   2, RAS(Reliability , Availability & Survivability)
   3, Security

                                                        50
     Operation Services SLAs
            -Customer Care Ability-

• Accuracy & Timeliness
  Service Delivery, Report Generation, Handling of Billing, Call
  pick up time, Compensation when SLA violated
• Access Capability
  Availability of Contact ( Method, Opening time etc)
• RAS
  Human/Organizational structure for provisioning, Fault &
  Disaster, Fairness & Priority, Hot line
• Security
  Mechanism for Privacy protection, Countermeasure for Security
                                                                   51
     Transport Services SLAs
              -Transport Capability-

• Performance & QoS
  Transmission Quality ( Bandwidth, Delay, Packet loss, Error )
    --Average Value in long term and/or in group, Absolute value for
  Call by Call or Specific Call—
• Access Capability
  Connectivity, Call loss ratio, Call setup time
• RAS
   Mean ( Max/min) times between outage, Disaster/Fault recovery
  priority
• Security
   Access control mechanism, Prevention mechanism for network
  attack
                                                                  52
    Content Delivery Services SLA
    - Reliability and Guarantee Capability-


 Transport Services SLA plus
• Security
 Prevention mechanism, countermeasure
 &compensation
  --for Access authorization /certification
  --for Protection of Content Integrity, Confidentiality,
         Authentication, Copyright

                                                     53
               Classification of SLA Features
Feature Type   Transport Services SLA               Operations Services SLA
Performance     - Bandwidth,                        Accuracy and timeliness of (1)
& Accuracy      - Packet Loss,                      Service delivery, Report generation,
                - Error rate,                       Etc….
                - Delay - throughput                Mean/Max time between call pickup
                                                    Compensation when SLA violated

Access          - Connectivity                      Contact Method – Email, Phone, Fax,
Capability      - Call Loss Ratio                   Etc…..
                - Call setup time                   Contact Availability – opening times
                                                    Access control mechanism


RAS             Mean time between outages            Hot line
                Disaster/Fault recovery mechanism    Organisational structure to support
                                                     Disaster/Fault recovery


Security        Access Control Mechanism            Privacy Protection mechanisms
                Prevention of Network Attacks,
                Eavesdropping, etc…
                                                                                       54
                   SLA parameter example
•   ATC ATM Transfer capability             •   SECB Severely errored cell block
•   BBE Background block error              •   SECBR Severely errored cell block ratio
•   BBER Back ground block error ratio      •   SEP Severely errored period
•   BER Bit error ratio                     •   SEOI Severely errored period intensity
•   CD Cell delay                           •   SES Severely errored second
•   CDV Cell delay variation                •   SESR Severely errored second ratio
•   CDVT Cell error variation telerance
•   CE Cell error
•   CER Cell error ratio
•   CL Cell loss
•   CLR Cell loss ratio                     •   MTBF Mean time between failures
•   CM Cell misinsertion                    •   MTBO Mean time between outage
•   CMR Cell misinsertion ratio             •   MTIE Maximum time interval error
•   CTD Cell transfer delay                 •   MTPS Mean time to provide service
•   ECBP E2E connection blocking probability•   MTRS Mean time to restore service
•   ES Errored second                       •   MTTP Mean time to provision
•   ESR Errored second ratio                •   MTTR Mean time to repair
•   FTD Frame transfer delay                •   NER Network effectiveness ratio
•   IPDV IP packet delay variation          •   SA Service availability
•   IPER IP packet error ratio              •   SAT SAP( Service access point ) activity time
•   IPLR IP packet loss ratio               •   SCT SAP cover time
•   IPTD IP packet transfer delay

                                                                                          55
56
SLA Categories for Customer Preference

                        Customers

                                Pick&Mix
Limited SLA                                    Negotiated SLA
                                SLA


                          Define
         Define                            Proactive
                      Class of Service
         Default                           Sales
          Market Research

                         Marketing
           Internal
        Negotiation

        Operations               Communications
        Resource                 Resource
                                                                57
58
59
           Service Negotiation

                          Customer              3. Agreed Service
                                                                             Resources
                                       OSF
      4. Service Report              1. Negotiation             2. Service
                                                                Provision

            Service Negotiation Function
                                                                             Status Report
                          Policy




Pricing      Resource               Class of     Traffic/ QoS
  DB            DB                 Service DB
                                                      DB
                      Operation

                                                                                       60
       SLA Negotiation based on Policy Management


                     Customers                                        Operators
                                                SLA
                                              Negotiation



                                          Policy Descriptor
  Negotiation?
Timing       Features                        Policy Editor
・ Static    • Price                                                         Policy
(long term) ・ QoS / CoS
                                           Policy Executor                  Management
・ Pre       ・ Bandwidth
Assigned    ・ Delivery Time              Policy     Policy Decision
                                       Repository      Function
・ On        ・ Security
Demand      • MTxx
                     etc.

                                 OSS                              OSS
                                                                                     61
          IT Capable Terminal
                                              Negotiation Agent
                                              Negotiation Agent
                                              (e.g Java applet)
                                               (e.g Java applet)
JVM                Service/
Web Browser        Resource                              Operation Window
                                                         Operation Window
                   Status       Catalogue                   (e.g XML)
                                                             (e.g XML)
etc.

                Negotiation
                  Inquiry

              Negotiation
                Agent
                            Operation
   Customer                  Window     Service Provider

                                                                    62
          For Effective SLA

• Customer can select SPs
• Customer can negotiate/choose SLA
• SLA should be reflected Customer Perception
• SLA should be Monitored and Reported to
  Customers to confirm SLA
• SPs should Compensate if SLA Violation
  occurs


                                          63
               Security ?
Human/Social                     Human/Social
                 Mechanism

  •Life        •Nation           •Goodwill
  •Property    •Law              •Malice
  •Privilege   •Society          •Indifference
  •Privacy     •Communications   •Credit
  •Comfort     •Technology       •Treachery
                                 •Espionage


               •Environment
               •Disaster
                                 Nature          64
                Security Management

• Management of Human /Society
  Moral, Ethics, Education
  Law, Regulation, Community, Privacy, Vigilant ?
• Management of Information distribution/exchange
  Safe, secure ,accurate and comfortable ICT network/services
• Management of environment
  Prognosis, disaster prevention, environmental preservation




                                                                65
IP/eBusiness Security Management
• Network Security
  -RAS
  -Privacy ( Tapping, fairness , secrecy of
  communications, customer information)
  -Attack : Physical, Logical
• Information distribution security
  -Integrity of contents and delivery
  -Human verification, certification , justification
• eBusiness security
  ーEnsure real and virtual money
  -Forgery( Fake), Fraud, Robbery with/without violence,
  Credibility , Confidence
  ーPrivacy ( Anonymity, Private information leakage)

                                                           66
                                           Environment
              Security Objects             (Community-Culture
              •Contents                    including regulatory
              •Applications                      issues )
              •Communications
              •Operations


                                 Security Mechanisms
                                 •   Security Technologies
                                 •   Security Modules
                                 •   Security Systems
                                 •   Security Infrastructure




ICT Security Management Framework                           67
                 Security Objects
• Contents
  Completeness( Integrity ), Secrecy, Certification, Copyright
• Application
  Virus, Worm, Destruction, Falsify, Fishing,
• Communications
  Access/admission, Routing, AAA (Authentication, Authorization ,
  and Accounting), Tapping, Pretence, Espionage, IP spoof
   Attack ( Intrusion ,Denial of service, Service degradation, jamming,
  etc.)
• Operations
  Privacy, Leakage, Risk



                                                                   68
             Security Domains
• Management Layers/processes
   OSI 7 Layers services, TMN Logical layer, FAB ( Fulfillment,
  assurance and billing ),
• Service Providers and partners
   Contracted SP, Virtual SP, ASP, CSP, Management SP,
  Network Operator, VMNO, Service/operation agent,
• Users
    Enterprise customers Consumers End users Customer
  representatives Shareholders
• Physical/Logical Facilities
   Terminals, CPE/CPN, Transmission , Service node, Storage,
  Data center, Call center, Address/phone number, Routing table,
  Domain name server




                                                                  69
Security Mechanisms/Technologies
• Security Technologies
     Encryption, Cryptograph, Authentication, Firewall,
    IPsec(Security Architecture for IP),
• Security Modules
    SOCKS, Digital signature, Secure protocol ( e.g.IKE: Internet
    Key Exchange protocol) Bio metrics, Intrusion detection/block,
    Anti virus, IC card, Electronic cash
•   Security Systems and Infrastructure
     PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), PKI authority, KES (Key
    Escrowed System) , Certification authority, SET: Secure
    Electronic Transaction, Standardization
      Regulation, Legal and administration protection, Penalty




                                                                 70

				
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