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NFPA_70E

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					OVERVIEW OF NFPA 70E
    (2004 Edition)
Standards for Electrical Safety-Related
   Work Practice Requirements for
       Employee Workplaces
                 Presented By:
      Steven Strayer, CIH, CSP, REHS, RS
         Cocciardi and Associates, Inc.
                  (717) 766-4500
               (717) 766-3999 (fax)
             sstrayer@cocciardi.com
              Electrical Hazards
• Shock – 1,000 fatalities per year, >50% from
  <600 volts
• Arc-flash
  – 35,000o F
  – 2,000 severe burn cases per year
  – Kill out to 10 feet
• Arc-blast
  –   Cu expands 67,000 x’s from solid to gas
  –   Pressures = thousands of pounds per square feet
  –   Noise >160 dB
  –   Molten shrapnel >700 mph
     Occupational Safety and Health
        Administration (OSHA)
• Worker protection police
• General industry (1910) and construction (1926)
• Subpart “S” – electrical
  – Methods to eliminate/minimize electrical
    hazards
  – Safe work practices (1910.331-335)
  – Training requirement (1910.332)
* Problem: Limited specificity (ex. Flash
  protection)
NFPA 70E – Standard for Electrical Safety in the
      Workplace Background / History

•          Assist OSHA in developing workplace safety
           (NFPA 70 – NEC: Limited Application)
•          Four Parts to 70E
    I.       Installation Safety Requirements
             Now Chapter 4 (Articles 400 – 450)
    II.      Safety Related Work Practices
             Now Chapter 1 (Articles 100 – 130)
    III.     Safety Related Maintenance Requirements
             Now Chapter 2 (Articles 200 – 250)
    IV.      Safety Requirements for Special Equipment
             Now Chapter 3 (Articles 300 – 340)
 History –
• 1979: 1st Edition   (Part I Only)
• 1981: 2nd Edition   (Added Part II)
• 1983: 3rd Edition   (Added Part III)
• 1988: 4th Edition   (Minor Revisions)
• 1995: 5th Edition   (Revised Part I and II)
• 2000: 6th Edition   (Revised Part II and Added IV)
• 2004: 7th Edition   (Revised Title Format, and
                      primarily Part II)
  •NEC format
  •Chapters/articles
  •Part II now Chapter 1
Scope –
• Public and private premises including
  building, structures, mobile homes, RV’s, and
  floating buildings
• Yards, lots, parking lots, carnivals, and
  industrial sub-stations
• Installations used by electric utilities, such as
  offices, buildings, warehouses, garages,
  machine shops, recreational that are not an
  integral part of a generating plant, sub-station,
  or control station
• Conductors that connect installations to a
  supply of electricity
                 Not Covered –
• Installations in ships, watercraft, railway rolling stock,
  aircraft, or automotive vehicles other than mobile
  homes and RV’s

• Installations underground in mines

• Installation of railways

• Installation of communication equipment (must be
  exclusive control of communication utilities)

• Installation under exclusive control of electric utilities
  (service laterals/meters, rights-of-ways/easements,
  and property [owned or leased] for purpose of
  generation, transmission, transformation, etc.)
CHAPTER 1: Safety-Related
    Work Practices

“On Hold For Further Examination”
 Chapter 2: Safety Related Maintenance Requirements

• Preserving or restoring the condition of electrical
  equipment and installations for employee safety.
• Article 200 – Introduction
• Article 205 – General Maintenance Requirements
• Article 210 – Substations, Switchgear Assemblies,
  Switchboards, Panel Boards, Motor Control Centers,
  and Disconnect Switches
• Article 215 – Premises Wiring
• Article 220 – Controller Equipment
• Article 225 – Fuses and Circuit Breakers
• Article 230 – Rotating Equipment
• Article 235 – Hazardous (Classified) Locations
• Article 240 – Batteries and Battery Rooms
• Article 245 – Portable Electric Tools and Equipment
• Article 250 – Personal Safety and Protective
  Equipment (Inspections and Testing)
Chapter 3: Safety Requirements For
        Special Equipment

•       Special Equipment Includes:
    –    Article 300 – Introduction
    –    Article 310 – Electrolytic Cells
    –    Article 320 – Batteries/Battery Rooms
    –    Article 330 - Lasers
            CHAPTER 4: INSTALLATION SAFETY
                    REQUIREMENTS
                Based on NFPA 70 - NEC
• Article 400 –
  General Requirements for Electrical Installations
• Article 410 –
  Wiring Design and Protection
• Article 420 –
  Wiring Methods, Components, and Equipment for General Use
• Article 430 –
  Specific Purpose Equipment and Installations
• Article 440 –
  Hazardous (Classified) Locations: Class I, II, and III, Divisions I
  and II, and Class I, Zones 0, I and II
• Article 450 –
  Special Systems
             Chapter 1: SRWP
Article 100 – Definitions
A. Qualified Person
B. Unqualified Person
C. Limited Approach Boundary
D. Restricted Approach Boundary
E. Prohibited Approach Boundary
F. Flash Protection Boundary
G. Energized Electrical Work/Electrically Safe Work
    Condition
Article 110 – General
•   Practices/Procedures for employees working on or
    near energized conductors/circuit parts and
    unqualified individuals with other equipment
Change – Multi-employer worksites – “Hazcom”
• Training –

  – Risk of electrical hazard not
    reduced to a safe level by Chapter 4

  – Classroom/OTJ – Degree
    determined by risk

  – Include emergency procedures:
    First Aid/CPR, Methods of Release
• Qualified Persons

  – Precautionary Techniques
  – PPE
  – Insulating/Shielding Materials/Tools
  – Test Equipment
  – Distinguishing Live Parts
  – Determine Nominal/Voltage
  – Approach Distances
  – Hazard Evaluation (Including Non-electrical)
  – OJT personnel if under direct QP supervision
• Unqualified Persons
   – Awareness
   – Precautions
   – Hazards
• Electrical Safety Program
   A. Provide awareness and self-discipline

   B. ID electrical safety principals

       –   Inspect/evaluate
       –   Insulation and enclosure integrity
       –   Plan and document procedures
       –   Deenergize
       –   Anticipating the unexpected
       –   ID and minimize hazards
       –   Employee protection
       –   ID appropriate tools
       –   Personnel abilities
       –   Auditing
C. ID Electrical Safety Controls
    • Assumed “energized”
    • No bare-hand contact
    • Deenergizing procedures
    • Training
    • Equipment use for ID of hazards
    • Equipment training
    • Categorize tasks
D. ID procedures when working on >50 volts
    • Purpose
    • Qualifications
    • Hazard/extent of task
    • Limits of approach
    • Safe work practices
    • PPE
    • Insulating tools/materials
    • Special precautions
    • Diagrams/details/pictures
    • References
E. Hazard/risk evaluation procedures


F. Job briefing(s) – each shift or more


G. Work Permit Procedures
CHAPTER II – General Requirements
  For Electrical Work Practices

• On/near exposed electric conductors

• “Electrically safe” work conditions
   – Exceptions -  50 volts
   – Additional increased hazard
   – Operations or equipment design
Article 120 – Establishing On Electrically Safe Work
              Condition
* Must follow LO/TO procedures and confirm (Test)*
- Reference 29CFR1910.147
Article 130 – Working On or Near Live Parts
Change –
A. Energized Electrical Work Permit
    - Circuit/equipment description
    - Justification
    - Safe work practices
    - Shock hazard analysis and boundaries
    - PPE
    - Documentation of job briefing
    - Authorization
   *Exception –   - Voltage measurements
                  - Testing
                  - Troubleshooting
B. Shock Hazard Analysis/Boundaries
• Approach Boundaries

 –Limited
 –Restricted
 –Prohibited
• Flash Hazard Analysis and Boundaries

  – 4ft ( 600 volts and not greater than
    300 kA cycles)

  – Calculation of boundary (incident
    energy) for >600 volts

     • Boundary at 5 j/cm2 (1.2 cal/cm2)
  – PPE – Conform to ANSI/ASTM criteria
            “Hazard/Risk Category Classification” Table


•Categories 1 – 4 (can be -1)
    PPE ranges from t-shirt/pants to flash suits and shields
•Also addresses need for voltage rated gloves and tools
•Clothing material
    Category “0” – natural fibers (weight >4.5 oz/yd2) (assume <2
    cal/cm2)
    Category “1” – flame resistant (4 cal/cm2)
    Category “2” – “1” plus cotton underwear (8 cal/cm2)
    Category “3” – “2” plus FR coveralls (25 cal/cm2)
    Category “4” – “2” plus multi-layer flash suit (40 cal/cm2)
•Synthetics which melt below 600o F
LIMITED APPROACH BOUNDARY
• No unqualified persons, unless advised of hazards,
  escorted by QP
• Conditions for qualified persons
   – Flash protection

RESTRICTED APPROACH BOUNDARY
• Qualified person: Do not cross or take a conductive
  object past, unless:
   – Person is insulated
   – Live part is insulated
   – Person is insulated from other conductive objects

PROHIBITED APPROACH BOUNDARY
• Qualified person
   – Only if body part is insulated
    PERSONAL PROTECTION
       EQUIPMENT (PPE)

• Conform to ANSI/ASTM Standards
  – Based on hazard/risk evaluations
• OTHER COMPONENTS:

 – Alertness
 – Blind reaching
 – Illumination: ANSI IES-RP-7-1991
   Generally 50-100 foot candles depending
   on:
      – Age
      – Speed
      – Accuracy
      – Background Reflection
 – Conductive Articles
      OTHER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

•   Insulated tools (within Limited Approach Boundary)
•   Ropes/handlines
•   Grounding equipment/GFCI’s
•   Ladders
•   Rubber insulating equipment
•   Physical/mechanical barriers: no closer than
    “Restricted Approach Boundary”

Alerting
• Signs/tags
• Barricades
• Attendants
    USE OF SPECIFIC SAFETY RELATED
    EQUIPMENT AND WORK PRACTICES

•   Test instruments
•   Energizing/de-energizing
•   Portable electrical equipment
•   Conductive work locations (GFCI’s)
•   Connecting plugs

      LOCKOUT/TAGOUT PRACTICES
            AND DEVICES

				
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