Structure of the Lecture WPAN WPAN - Bluetooth Bluetooth Protocol

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Structure of the Lecture WPAN WPAN - Bluetooth Bluetooth Protocol Powered By Docstoc
					                       4 kitamrofnI rüf lhutsrheL                                                                         4 kitamrofnI rüf lhutsrheL
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Structure of the Lecture                                                                          WPAN
                                                                                                  • Smallest radio network: Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
                                                    Large variety of standards for different      • Prominent example: Bluetooth
                                                      purposes:
Chapter 2                                                                                              1994: Ericsson (Mattison/Haartsen), “MC-link” project
                                                    • Bluetooth for wireless ad-hoc
• Technical Basics: Layer 1                           connections in personal space                    Renaming of the project: Bluetooth according to Harald “Blåtand” Gormsen
• Methods for Medium Access: Layer 2                                                                   [Son of Gorm], king of Denmark in the 10th century
                                                    • WLAN for installing wireless local
                                                      networks (focus on mobility)                     1998: foundation of the Bluetooth Special Interest Group (Ericsson, Intel, IBM,
Chapter 3                                                                                              Nokia, Toshiba), www.bluetooth.org
• Wireless Networks: Bluetooth, WLAN,               • WirelessMAN for wireless broadband
                                                      access in whole buildings (focus on              Later joined: 3Com, Agere, Microsoft, Motorola
  WirelessMAN, WirelessWAN
                                                      capacity)                                        More than 2500 members
• Mobile Telecommunication
                                                    • WirelessWAN for wireless access in               2001: first consumer products for mass market, specification v1.1 released
  Networks: GSM, GPRS, UMTS
                                                      larger regions, also with high speeds            Adopted from IEEE WPAN Working Group for integration into the
• Satellites and Broadcast Networks
                                                                                                       802.15 standard. Several variants:
Chapter 4                                                                                                  • Higher transmission rates
• Mobility on the network layer: Mobile IP, Routing, Ad-Hoc Networks                                       • Low transmission rates with
• Mobility on the transport layer: reliable transmission, flow control, QoS                                   very low power consumption
• Mobility support on the application layer                                                                • More stations per network
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WPAN - Bluetooth                                                                                  Bluetooth Protocol Stack

• Universal radio interface for ad-hoc wireless connectivity of heterogeneous devices                 Audio       vCal/vCard       NW apps.       Telephony applications       Management

• Interconnection of computers with peripherals, handheld devices, PDAs, cellular                                   OBEX           TCP/UDP
  phones – i.e. target group: small devices with low capabilities                                                                                  AT modem
                                                                                                                                       IP
• Embedded in other devices, goal: 5€/device (2002: 50€/USB Bluetooth)                                                                             commands
                                                                                                                                                                  TCS BIN     SDP
• Often for devices already supporting GSM/GPRS or UMTS                                                                           PPP/BNEP                                            Control
• Short range (10 m, to achieve a low power consumption)                                                               RFCOMM (serial line interface)
• Uses license-free 2,4 GHz ISM
                                                                                                      Audio          Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)                         Host
  (Industrial-Scientific-Medical) band
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Controller
• Voice and data transmission, ca. 2 Mbit/s gross data rate                                                                                                               Link Manager            Interface
• Automatic connection with devices in range
                                                                                                                                            Baseband
• Searching for services installed on other devices
• Possible: bandwidth reservation, QoS parameters                                                                                             Radio

• Authentication and ciphering                                                                     AT: attention sequence                                       SDP: service discovery protocol
                                                                                                   OBEX: object exchange                                        RFCOMM: radio frequency comm.
                                                                                                   TCS BIN: telephony control protocol specification – binary
                                                            One of the first modules (Ericsson)    BNEP: Bluetooth network encapsulation protocol
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Bluetooth Protocols                                                                               Radio/Baseband

Baseband/Radio                                                                                    • Usage of 2,4 GHz ISM band
• Provide radio access for higher layer protocols                                                       79 channels (some countries: only 23) with a bandwidth of 1 MHz each
Link Manager Protocol (LMP)                                                                             Channel 0: 2402 MHz … Channel 78: 2480 MHz
• Connection management                                                                                 GMSK for Modulation
L2CAP                                                                                             • Medium access: TDD and FHSS
• Provides several logical channels                                                                      Election of a master for transmission coordination
• Segmentation of large messages for data transfer                                                       Frequency hopping with 1600 hops/sec (resulting slot duration: 625µs)
Host Controller Interface (HCI)                                                                          Hopping sequence in a pseudo random fashion, determined by the master
• Command interface for access to baseband functions                                                     Time Division Duplex for separation of send/receive operation of the master
Service Discovery Protocol (SDP)                                                                  • Topology
• Searching for services on other devices                                                                Basic unit: Piconet
RFCOMM                                                                                                   Overlapping piconets (stars) form a scatternet
• Emulation of serial interfaces (by this support of a variety of existing applications)
                                                                                                  • Devices
Telephony Control Protocol Specification - Binary (TCS BIN)
                                                                                                         Three classes of devices, depending on transmission power
• Function for phone call control
                                                                                                         Class 1 (100 mW), class 2 (2.5 mW), class 3 (1 mW)
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Piconet                                                                                           Forming a Piconet
                                                                                                  • All devices in a piconet hop together
• Basic unit of a Bluetooth network                                                                      The master sends out its clock and device ID
• Connection of devices in an ad-hoc fashion                           P                                   • Hopping pattern: determined by device ID (48 bit, unique worldwide)
                                                                                S
• Consists of one master (M)                                                                               • Phase in hopping pattern determined by clock
  and up to 7 slaves (S)                                   S                                      • Addressing
• The master coordinates medium                                        M            P                    Active Member Address (AMA, 3 bit)
  access (hopping sequence)
                                                                                                         Parked Member Address (PMA, 8 bit)
• Slaves only communicate with the master                 SB                                             And: unique Bluetooth address (B_ADDR)
                                                                                S
• Possible: independent overlapping piconets.                                                            for each device
                                                                   P       SB                                                                                          P
  Devices which exchange data belong to the                                                                                                                                       S
  same piconet                                                                                                              SB
                                                                                                                                      SB                     S
• Each piconet has a unique hopping pattern,
  participation of a slave in the piconet means            M = Master      P = Parked                          SB                                                        M             P
  synchronization to that sequence                         S = Slave       SB = Standby                                     SB             SB
                                                                                                                                                            SB                    S
                                                                                                              SB                      SB                             P       SB
                                                                                                                           SB    SB
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                                                                                                                                 Frequency Selection during Data
Scatternet
                                                                                                                                 Transmission
    • Linking of multiple co-located piconets through the sharing of common master                                                   625 µs                                      fk: carrier frequency f in slot k regarding to the hopping sequence
      or slave devices                                                                                                                  fk           fk+1             fk+2               fk+3           fk+4           fk+5           fk+6
        – Devices can be slave in one piconet and master in the other
    • Communication between piconets                                                                                                  M              S                M                   S             M               S             M

        – By devices jumping forth and back between the piconets                                                                                                                                                                                  t
                                                                                                                                                     fk                                 fk+3           fk+4            fk+5          fk+6

                                                                                                            Piconets
                                                                                                                                                     M                                    S             M               S             M
                                                                                                            (each with a
                                    P                                                                                                                                                                                                             t
                                                    S                                                       capacity of
                                                                 S                                                                     fk                                               fk+1                                          fk+6
                                                                                                            720 kbit/s)
                          S                                              M
                                     M                      P                                                                         M                                                  S                                            M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  t
 M = Master              SB                                                            P
                                                        S                                                                          • TDMA for coordinating the medium access
 S = Slave
                                                                                                                                   • TDD for duplex transmission: the master send in odd, the slave in even slots
 P = Parked                    P          SB                                      SB
 SB = Standby                                                                                                                      • If several slaves are in the piconet: capacity is divided, the master cyclically polls all
                                                                     S                                                               slaves (Master all odd slots, slaves share the even slots)
                                                                                                                                   • 3 or 5 slots hops can be combined to one frame. No hoping during the frame, the hops
 htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                                                9 etieS       are simply skipped
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Link Types                                                                                                                       Baseband Frames
SCO (Synchronous Connection-Oriented) – Voice                                                                                    • Access code
• Reservation of slots in firm intervals                                                                                            – Unique identification in the piconet, basing on device ID of the master
• 64 kbit/s data rate                                                                                                               – Consists of a preamble and a synchronization sequence (for hopping)
• Point-to-point links, connection-oriented                                                                                      • Header
• Only FEC (Forward Error Correction), no retransmissions                                                                           – Active Member Address (1 Master, 7 Slaves)
ACL (Asynchronous Connectionless) – Data                                                                                            – Packet type, e.g. high quality voice, POLL, …
• Variable frame size (1,3,5 slots)                                                                                                 – Flow: flow control, receiver can stop the sender
• Asymmetric (723,2:57,6 kbit/s) or symmetric (433,9 kbit/s) bandwidth                                                              – ARQN/SEQN: sequence and acknowledgement numbers
• Point-to-multipoint connections, connectionless with flow control                                                                 – HEC: CRC checksum
              SCO             ACL        SCO        ACL              SCO               ACL         SCO          ACL              • Payload: can use an additional FEC, if necessary (reducing the data rate)
MASTER         f0              f4         f6        f8                f12              f14          f18         f20                                             72                 54               0-2744           Bits
                                                                                                                                                            access code          header              payload

SLAVE 1
                    f1                         f7           f9              f13                           f19
                                                                                                                                                                             3                  4      1         1            1        8        Bits
                                                                                                                                  1/3-FEC: spend 2/3 of the
SLAVE 2                                                                                                                                                              AM address           type        flow     ARQN         SEQN     HEC
                                    f5                                                       f17                      f21         data for error correction
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SCO Payload Types                                                                                  ACL Payload Types

                                                                                                                                                payload (0-343)


                                             payload (30)                                                        Header (1/2)                       payload(0-339)                    CRC (2)

    HV1            Audio (10)                               FEC (20)
                                                                                                       DM1 Header (1)           payload(0-17)          2/3 FEC    CRC (2)

    HV2                         Audio (20)                              FEC (10)                       DH1 Header (1)               payload(0-27)                 CRC (2)               (Bytes)


    HV3                                       Audio (30)                                               DM3        Header (2)          payload(0-121)         2/3 FEC        CRC (2)

                                                                                                       DH3        Header (2)                payload(0-183)                  CRC (2)
    DV             Audio (10)          Header (1)   payload (0-9)   2/3 FEC   CRC (2)
                                                                                                       DM5        Header (2)            payload(0-224)                 2/3 FEC        CRC (2)
                                                                                   (bytes)
                                                                                                       DH5        Header (2)                        payload(0-339)                    CRC (2)


    High-quality Voice, Data and Voice                                                                AUX1 Header (1)               payload(0-29)
                                                                                                                                                                             Data Medium/High rate
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Baseband Data Rates                                                                                Example for Power Consumption
                      Payload Payload                       Symmetric     Asymmetric
                      Header User                           max. Rate     max. Rate [kbit/s]        Mode
 ACL         Type     [byte]  [byte]         FEC    CRC     [kbit/s]      Forward Reverse           SCO connection HV3 (1s interval sniff mode) (Slave)                                 26,0 mA
             DM1      1         0-17         2/3    yes     108.8         108.8      108.8
1 slot                                                                                              SCO connection HV3 (1s interval sniff mode) (Master)                                26,0 mA
             DH1      1         0-27         no     yes     172.8         172.8      172.8
                                                                                                    SCO connection HV1 (Slave)                                                          53,0 mA
             DM3      2         0-121        2/3    yes     258.1         387.2      54.4
3 slots                                                                                             SCO connection HV1 (Master)                                                         53,0 mA
             DH3      2         0-183        no     yes     390.4         585.6      86.4
                                                                                                    ACL data transfer 115,2kbit/s (Master)                                              15,5 mA
             DM5      2         0-224        2/3    yes     286.7         477.8      36.3
5 slots                                                                                             ACL data transfer 720kbit/s (Slave)                                                 53,0 mA
             DH5      2         0-339        no     yes     433.9         723.2      57.6
                                                                                                    ACL data transfer 720kbit/s (Master)                                                53,0 mA
             AUX1     1         0-29         no     no      185.6         185.6      185.6
                                                                                                    ACL connection , sniff mode 40ms interval, 38,4kbit/s                                4,0 mA
             HV1      na        10           1/3    no      64.0
                                                                                                    ACL connection , sniff mode 1.28s interval, 38,4kbit/s                               0,5 mA
             HV2      na        20           2/3    no      64.0
SCO                                                                                                 Parked Slave, 1,28s beacon interval, 38,4kbps                                        0,6 mA
             HV3      na        30           no     no      64.0
             DV       1D        10+(0-9)     2/3    yes     64.0+57.6                               Standby-Modus (connected to host, no radio activity)                                47,0 µA
                                                                                                    Deep sleep mode                                                                     20,0 µA
                  Data Medium/High rate, High-quality Voice, Data and Voice
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Acknowledgement Mechanism                                                                   Link Manager Protocol

                                                                                            Provides additional functions to the simple baseband transmission service:
Retransmissions for ACL only, very fast; 1 Bit for sequence/acknowledgement                 • Authentication of the communication partner, ciphering of data during
numbers is enough because master and slave have to send alternating:                          transmission
                                                                                            • Clock synchronization (frequency hopping) by computing a clock offset added to
                                                                           NAK       ACK      the local time
                                                                                            • Switching of master/slave roles, because the master has a higher power
MASTER              A           C            C          F       H                             consumption
                                                                                            • Switching of states (park, standby, active)
                                                                                            • Adaptation of transmission power regarding to measured signal strengths
SLAVE 1                   B            D            E                                       • Reaction on varying transmission quality by changing the payload type (e.g.
                                                                                              usage of a higher FEC rate when quality goes down)
                                                                                            • Setup of SCO connections. Default is ACL, but it can be used up to three SCO
SLAVE 2                                                     G                    G
                                                                                              connections in parallel


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Link Manager for Connection Establishment                                                   Connection Establishment - Inquiry
 A Bluetooth device can be in one of several states:
                                                                                            A device discovers its environment by an inquiry procedure; while no connection
 Standby                                                                                      is established, the device switches between two states:
 • Each 2048th slot (1.28s) a device listens on 32 of the 79 channels                       • Inquiry (“ask for connections”)
 • Incoming signals are examined, the device activates itself on demand                       Search for other devices by broadcasting special ID-frames on 32 defined
 • Alternatively, use active connection establishment                                         channels (hopping through those frequencies)
                                                                                            • Inquiry Scan (“search for such asks”)
 Connection Establishment
                                                                                              Listen of the 32 channels for incoming inquiries (hopping)
 • Process of connection establishment consists of three states
     1.    Inquiry                                                                          A scanning device, on receiving an inquiry frame, answers with its B_ADDR
     2.    Paging                                                                           • After message exchange, devices know Bluetooth addresses, a common
     3.    Paring                                                                             clock, Bluetooth device classes (power management)
 Connected                                                                                  • Human user can influence inquiry by deciding about visibility and power
                                                                                              consumption of its device
 • Device is is a piconet either as master or as slave, depending on the
   connection establishment phase
                                                                                            The “inquiry” device becomes master, the “inquiry scan” device becomes slave
 • Also possible to switch to a power-save mode
                                                                                            Afterwards: paging
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Connection Establishment - Paging                                                                      Pairing and following Security Mechanisms
                                                                                                                                                User input (initialization)
  The inquiring device becomes master, but in inquiry state only the existence of                                        PIN (1-16 byte)                   Pairing                 PIN (1-16 byte)
    other devices is tested – to really establish a connection, paging is done
  • Master is in page mode: connection establishment request is sent to slave,                                                                Authentication key generation
                                                                                                                                E2                                                        E2
    including the address (B_ADDR) of the slave                                                                                               (possibly permanent storage)
  • Slave is in page scan mode: listen for incoming page message
                                                                                                                       link key (128 bit)              Authentication             link key (128 bit)
  • Used in connection establishment: page hopping sequence – a hopping
    sequence based on the slave’s ID
                                                                                                                                               Encryption key generation
  • If the slave answers in a certain time, the master sends a message including                                                E3                                                        E3
                                                                                                                                               (temporary storage)
    an AMA for the new slave as well as all synchronization information for
    joining the network                                                                                            encryption key (128 bit)             Encryption             encryption key (128 bit)
  • Average time for connection establishment: 0.64 s
  Afterwards: Pairing (optional)                                                                                    Keystream generator                                         Keystream generator
  • When connecting to a new device, check the rights of the new device for
    joining the network                                                                                                    payload key                   Ciphering                    payload key
  • Used: PIN, given by the user                                                                                                                        Cipher data
                                                                                                                Data                                                                                   Data
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                                                                                                       L2CAP - Logical Link Control and Adaptation
States of a Bluetooth Device
                                                                                                       Protocol
                                                                                                        • Simple data link protocol on top of baseband
                  standby                                     unconnected                               • Connection-oriented and connectionless (based auf ACL),
                                                                                                          additionally signaling channels
                                                                                                        • Several logical channels on one connection
                                                                                                          (Protocol multiplex: RFCOMM, SDP, …)
           detach            inquiry                page      connecting
                                                                                                        • Management of QoS specifications per logical channel
                                                                                                          (delay, jitter, burst, bandwidth)
                                                                                                        • Segmentation & reassembly of data packets up to 64Kbyte user data
                  transmit                    connected       active                                    • Management of communication groups
                    AMA                         AMA
                                                                                                                   Slave                             Master                           Slave

                    park           hold             sniff                                                 L2CAP                             L2CAP                             L2CAP
                                                              low power modi
                    PMA            AMA              AMA
                                                                                                          Baseband                          Baseband                          Baseband

 Standby: do nothing                       Park: release AMA, get PMA
 Inquiry: search for other devices         Sniff: listen periodically, not each time slot
 Page: connect to a specific device        Hold: stop ACL, SCO still possible, possibly
 Connected: participate in a piconet              participate in another piconet

htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                      32 etieS         signaling
                                                                                                       htooteulB :1.3 letipaK        ACL            connectionless      connection-oriented          42 etieS
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Higher Layer Protocols                                                                                       SDP – Service Discovery Protocol

    Audio       vCal/vCard       NW apps        Telephony applications       Management

                  OBEX           TCP/UDP                                                                         • Protocol for the discovery of available services
                                                 AT modem                                                              Searching for and browsing services in radio range
                                     IP
                                                 commands
                                                                TCS BIN     SDP
                                                                                                                       Adapted to highly dynamic environment
                                PPP/BNEP                                            Control                            Can be completed by other services like SLP, Jini, …
                                                                                                                       Only defines the discovery of services, not the usage
                     RFCOMM (serial line interface)
                                                                                                                       Caching of discovered services
    Audio          Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol (L2CAP)                         Host                   Gradual discovery
                                                                                                Controller
                                                                        Link Manager            Interface
                                                                                                                 • Service record format
                                          Baseband                                                                     Information about services provided by attributes
                                            Radio                                                                      Attributes are composed of a 16 bit ID (name) and a value
                                                                                                                       Values may be derived from 128 bit Universally Unique Identifiers (UUID)
 AT: attention sequence                                       SDP: service discovery protocol
 OBEX: object exchange                                        RFCOMM: radio frequency comm.
 TCS BIN: telephony control protocol specification – binary
 BNEP: Bluetooth network encapsulation protocol
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                           52 etieS    htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                               62 etieS



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Protocols to support Legacy
                                                                                                             Profiles
Protocols/Applications
                                                                                                             Represent default solutions for a certain usage model
                                                                                                                                                                                   Applications
 • RFCOMM                                                                                                         Vertical slice through the protocol stack
                                                                                                                  Basis for interoperability




                                                                                                                                                                       Protocols
      Emulation of a serial port (supports a large base of legacy applications)
      Allows multiple ports over s single physical channel                                                   •   Generic Access Profile
                                                                                                             •   Service Discovery Application Profile
 • Telephony Control Protocol Specification (TCS)                                                            •   Cordless Telephony Profile
       Call control (setup, release)                                                                         •   Intercom Profile
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Profiles
       Group management                                                                                      •   Serial Port Profile                   Additional Profiles
                                                                                                             •   Headset Profile                       • Advanced Audio Distribution
 • OBEX                                                                                                      •   Dial-up Networking Profile            • PAN
                                                                                                             •   Fax Profile                           • Audio Video Remote Control
      Exchange of objects, replacement for IrDA
                                                                                                                                                       • Basic Printing
                                                                                                             •   LAN Access Profile                    • Basic Imaging
 • WAP                                                                                                       •   Generic Object Exchange Profile       • Extended Service Discovery
     Interactions with applications on cellular phones                                                       •   Object Push Profile                   • Generic Audio Video Distribution
                                                                                                             •   File Transfer Profile                 • Hands Free
                                                                                                                                                       • Hardcopy Cable Replacement
                                                                                                             •   Synchronization Profile
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WPAN: IEEE 802.15-1 – Bluetooth                                                                     Bluetooth Enhancements
• Data rate                                         • Quality of Service                            The Bluetooth standard is developed on till now several times:
       Synchronous, connection-oriented:                  Guarantees, ARQ/FEC
       64 kbit/s                                                                                    Bluetoot h 1.2
                                                    • Manageability
       Asynchronous, connectionless                                                                 • Adaptive frequency hopping to protect against interference on some frequencies
                                                          Public/private keys needed, key
          • 433,9 kbit/s symmetric                        management not specified, simple          • New packet type for synchronous communication: eSCO (enhanced SCO) with
          • 723,2 / 57,6 kbit/s asymmetric                system integration                          CRC checksum, variable data rates (up to 288 kBit/s), retransmission of lost
• Transmission range                                • Advantages/disadvantages                        packets, variable payload size, and multislot operation
       POS (Personal Operating Space) up                  Advantages: already integrated into       Bluetooth 2.0+ EDR
       to 10 m                                            several products, available worldwide,
                                                                                                    • EDR = enhanced data rate
       With special transceivers 100 m                    free ISM band, several vendors, simple
                                                          system, simple ad-hoc networking, peer-   • Up to ~ 2.1 MBit/s data rate by allowing for differential QPSK and differential 8PSK
• Frequency
                                                          to-peer                                     as modulation techniques
       Free 2.4 GHz ISM band
                                                          Disadvantages: interferences on ISM
• Availability                                                                                      Bluetooth 2.1+ EDR
                                                          band, limited range, max. 8 devices per
       Integrated into several products,                  network, high setup latency               • Mechanisms for simpler pairing, lower power consumption, and increased security
       several vendors
• Connection setup time
                                                                                                    Bluetooth 3.0
       Depends on power mode                                                                        • Planned with 480 MBit/s
       Max. 2,56s, average 0,64s                                                                    • See below: Ultra-Wideband (UWB)
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                   92 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                         03 etieS



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WPAN: IEEE 802.15 – Further Developments                                                            WPAN: IEEE 802.15 – Further Developments

 • 802.15-2: Coexistence                                                                            • 802.15-4: Low-rate, very low-power (Zigbee)
       Coexistence of WPANs (802.15) and WLANs (802.11), both are using the                               Low data rate solution with battery life time of several month up to several
       same frequencies - quantify the mutual interference                                                years and with very low complexity
                                                                                                          Potential applications are sensors, interactive toys, smart badges, remote
 • 802.15-3: High-Rate (UWB = Ultra Wide-Band)
                                                                                                          controls, home automation, ...
       Standard for WPANs with high data rate (20 Mbit/s or higher), while still low-
                                                                                                          Data rates of 2-250 kbit/s, latency down to 15 ms
       power and low-cost
                                                                                                          Master/slave or peer-to-peer operation
       Data rates: 11, 22, 33, 44, 55 MBit/s, also as a vision: 500 MBit/s
                                                                                                          Up to 254 devices
       Ad hoc peer-to-peer networking
                                                                                                          Support for critical latency devices, such as joysticks
       Security
                                                                                                          Automatic network establishment by the PAN coordinator
       Low power consumption
                                                                                                          Dynamic device addressing, flexible addressing format
       Low cost
                                                                                                          Fully handshaked protocol for transfer reliability
       Designed to meet the demanding requirements of portable consumer
       imaging and multimedia applications                                                                Power management to ensure low power consumption
                                                                                                          16 channels in the 2,4 GHz ISM band, 10 channels in the 915 MHz US ISM
                                                                                                          band and one channel in the European 868 MHz band

htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                   13 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                         23 etieS
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802.15.3 – UWB                                                                          UWB Definition
The frequency spectrum is overcrowded…                                                                           Time-domain behavior                           Frequency-domain behavior

… thus use all of it!                                                                                            0      1       0        1

 Normal narrowband signal                                                                      Frequency
                                                                                               Modulation
 • Narrow frequency range                                                                                                                                             2.4                              GHz
 • Susceptible to jamming
                                                                                                                 1          0        1
                                                                                               Impulse
                                                                                               Modulation


 UWB signal                                                                                                                                  time                     3         frequency           10 GHz

 • Broad frequency range
 • Robust
 • Low transmission power                                                               • Frequency range 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz
                                                                                                                                              Power
                                                                                                                                             Spectral     GPS     Bluetooth/
                                                                                                                                             Density              802.11b/g

                                                                                        • Indoor: up to 20 meters range                                                                   802.11a

Signal is defined as an ultra wideband if                                                                                                                                                                     Part 15 Limit
                                                                                        • Suitable for short-distance                                                                                   UWB
• Signal bandwidth > 500 MHz                     f −f                                     communication with high bandwidth                             1.6     2.4    3.1            5                10.6

• Fractional bandwidth η > 0.20           η = 2 ⋅ high low                                (100 MBit/s)
                                                                                                                                                                               Frequency (GHz)

                                                    fhigh + flow
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                       33 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                                         43 etieS



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Possible Applications                                                                   Possible Applications
 • Personal Area Networking (PAN), connecting cell phones, laptops, PDAs,
   cameras, MP3 players with much higher data rates than Bluetooth or 802.11              Vehicular Radar
 • Can be integrated into automotive in-car services and entertainment                    • Collision Avoidance/Detection
 • Download driving directions from PDA/laptop for use by on-board navigation             • Driver aid/alert to avoid collisions.
   system using GPS                                                                       • Aid for airbag/restraint deployment
 • Download music and videos for passenger entertainment                                  • Resolution to distinguish cars/people/animals/poles on or near road
 • Info-station concept: road side ‘markers’ containing UWB transmitters
        Short burst of very high rate data (100s of MBit/s for 1-3 sec at a time)
        Messages could contain road conditions, construction, weather advisories
        Allow for emergency assistance communication




htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                       53 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                                         63 etieS
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Modulation Schemes                                                                                     Advantages and Challenges
Different coding schemes – how to do modulation with short pulses?                                      Advantages of UWB
• Pulse length ~ 200ps                                                                                  • Ability to share the frequency spectrum
• Voltage swing ~100mV; Power ~ 10uW                                                                    • Large channel capacity
Common modulations:                                                                                     • Ability to work with low Signal-to-Noise-Ratios
• Pulse position modulation (PPM)                     • On/Off Keying (OOK)                             • Low probability of interception and detection
                                                                                                        • Resistance to jamming
                                                                                                        • High performance in multipath channels
                                                                                                        • Superior penetration properties
  (can code n bit as once using                                                                         • Sub-centimeter resolution of localization
  2n positions at different times)                    • Bi-Phase Signaling (BPSK)                       • Low transmission power
                                                                                                        Challenges
• Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)                                                                      • Pulse-shape distortion
                                                                                                        • High-frequency synchronization
                                                           (Possible: combination with PPM)             • Multiple-access interference
                                                                                                        • Low transmission power
  (also: n bit using 2n amplitude levels)                                                               • New higher-layer protocols for efficient use of the new network concept
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                     73 etieS    htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                       83 etieS



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UWB Variants: Singleband Approach                                                                      DS-UWB Networks

Direct sequence (DS-UWB)                                                                               Ad-hoc communication based on Bluetooth principles: Piconet
                                             power
• Defined by 802.15.3                         (dB)                                                     • One Piconet Coordinator (PNC): analogous to master, provide snychronization
• Use 2 frequency bands:                        0                                                        and various management functions: power management, security, Quality of
  3.1-4.85GHz, 6.2-9.7GHz                                                                                Service (QoS)
• CDMA has been proposed at the                                                                        • Several devices (DEV): slaves of piconet
  encoding layer
• Has no carrier frequency
                                                                                                                            DEV                            DEV
• Requires wideband antennas
• Potential problem with GPS and                     3.1       4.85     6.2          9.7   frequency
                                                                                           (GHz)
  other licensed bands
                                                                                                                                                DEV
 Medium Access:                                                                                                                                 PNC
                                                                                                                                                                 Data
 • UWB systems typically use many pulse repetitions (100s) to represent each
   data symbol                                                                                                                                                   Beacon

 • A uniform pulse train has spectral lines present (not a smooth spectrum)                                                            DEV
 • For multiple access this could also lead to catastrophic collisions.

htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                     93 etieS    htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                       04 etieS
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DS-UWB MAC Layer                                                                       DS-UWB Networks

On each channel: time is divided into superframes
                                                                                        “Scatternet” variants in DS-UWB:
                                                                                        Independent piconets:
                                                                                        • Bridging devices between two independent piconets (as in Bluetooth
                                                                                          scatternets)
                                                                                        Neighbour piconets:
• Beacon: assign channel time allocation (CTA), distribute management                   • Neighbour PNC is not member of parent piconet and parent PNC is not member
  information                                                                             of the neighbour piconet
• Contention Access Period (CAP, optional): CSMA/CA mechanism for the                   Dependent piconets (parent/child piconet):
  transfer of commands and/or asynchronous data
                                                                                        • Created by a DEV of an existing piconet
• Channel Time Allocation Period (CTAP):
                                                                                        • Child piconet requests a pseudo-private CTA from the parent PNC
       Dynamic TDMA protocol: each device is assigned a CTA of defined
                                                                                        • This CTA is used by all members of the child piconet, i.e. child piconet gets
       duration (QoS)
                                                                                          parts of the transmission capacity exclusively
       A device can send a CTA request to the PNC in the management CTA
       (MCTA)
       PNC schedules CTAs for the next superframe based on such requests
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                     14 etieS    htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                                       24 etieS



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UWB Variants: Multiband Approach                                                       MBOA MAC Layer

Multiband Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM)                            Beacon Group (BG) topology:
• Also: multi-carrier UWB (MC-UWB)                                                     • Analogous concept to piconet, but no use of PNC (distributed MAC)
                                       Power
• Similar in nature to 802.11a/g       (dB)                                            • Every device can send a beacon, common beacon group interval
                                            0
• 14 bands of 528MHz each (simplest                                                    • Also superframe structure
  devices need to support 3 lowest                                                                                                     Superframe N                             Superframe N +1
                                                                                           Start timing of              Composed of 256 Media Access Slots, = 65,536 μs
  bands, 3.1GHz – 4.7 GHz)                                                                 superframe N                                                                                     Start timing of
                                                                                                                                                                                           superframe N+1
• Each band subdivided in 128 subbands                                                                                                                                    ...
                                                                                                                                                                                              t
• Coexistence with other networks by
  avoiding certain bands                                                                                                 Media Access Slot                                      Beaconig
                                                                                                             Beaconig
                                                                                                                                                                                Slots
• Defined by Multiband OFDM Alliance          3.1  4.7                     frequency                         Slots
                                                                           (GHz)
  (MBOA)                                                                               Medium Access in two variants:
 Medium Access:                                                                        • Pre-defined timeslots for isochronous traffic, i.e. making reservations using a
 • Mutually orthogonal frequency bands for parallel usage                                distributed reservation protocols
 • Interference-free transmissions                                                     • Asynchronous traffic based on CSMA/CA
 • Efficient data transmissions
                                                                                       Note: multiband approach seems to be more prominent than singleband approach,
                                                                                       but development is still in progress
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                     34 etieS    htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                                       44 etieS
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IEEE 802.15.4 – ZigBee                                                                             ZigBee: Channels and Data Rates

                                                                                                   Defined for several frequency bands, all using DSSS, but with different data rate:
ZigBee was defined (and adopted as IEEE 802.15.4) for low data rate (LR-WPAN)
  – but why should we define a standard for low data rate???                                                                    868/915 MHz PHY                             2.4 GHz PHY
• Low data rate sounds negative, but…
• Low data rate applications are closer to our daily lives than high data rate                                                        2 MHz                  5 MHz
  applications; they are expected to play an increasingly important role in our lives:
      Automation and control: at home, in a factory, in a warehouse – e.g. remote
      control for TV                                                                                                                      . . . . . . 10                        ......
                                                                                                   Channel:                 0         1                      11                                      26
      Monitoring: as well health as environments
      Location technologies: e.g. real-time tracking of inventory, but maybe also                  Frequency:        868 MHz          902 – 928 MHz                       2.4 – 2.4835 GHz
      military applications
                                                                                                   Data rate:            20 Kb/s          40 Kb/s                              250 Kb/s
      Entertainment, e.g. learning games or interactive toys
                                                                                                                     (Europe)             (America)                           (worldwide)
                                                                                                   Low data rate is one characteristic, but also:
                                                                                                   • Low power consumption (long-living batteries)
                                                                                                   • Low cost
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                  54 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                      64 etieS



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ZigBee: Network and MAC                                                                            ZigBee: Network and MAC
                                                                                                   Beacon Mode:
Network topology:
                                                                                                   • Beacon for synchronization / network identification, sent by coordinator
• Range of up to 10 meters
                                                                                                   • Active and inactive (power-saving) phase; active phase subdivided in 16 slots
• Piconet structure, or Multi-hop peer-to-peer structure (mesh or tree)
                                                                                                   • Contention Access Period (CAP) with slotted CSMA/CA
                         PAN Coordinator (FFD)            Two device classes:                      • GTS (guaranteed time slots) during Contention Free Period (CFP)
                                                          • Full function device (FFD):            • In beacon enabled mode, a device can track beacons from its parent for
                                  Coordinator (FFD)
                                                            capable of any topology, of being        synchronization and failure detection
                                                            network coordinator, of talking to                  Beacon                                                                      Beacon
                                                            any other device
                                                          • Reduced function device (RFD):
                                           Device (RFD)
                                                            limited to star topology, cannot
                                                            become a network coordinator,                                                      GTS     GTS                  Inactive

                                                            talks only to a network
                                                            coordinator, but very simple                           0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
                                                            implementation
                                                                                                                                CAP              CFP

Communication: beacon mode with superframe structure / non-beacon enabled
with CSMA/CA mechanism                                                                                                                                            varying: 15ms – 252s

htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                  74 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                      84 etieS
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802.15.1, 2, 3, 4                                                                          Other Technology in Short Range: RFID

                                                                                            RFID = Radio Frequency Identification Device
                                                                                            • Holds a small amount of unique data – a serial number or other unique attribute
                                                                                              of the item
                                                                                            • The data can be read from a distance – no contact or even line of sight
                                                                                              necessary (compared to, e.g., laser scanners)
                                                                                            • In response to a radio interrogation signal from a reader (base station) the RFID
                                                                                              tags transmit their ID
                                                                                            • RFID tags withstand difficult environmental conditions (sunlight, cold, frost, dirt
                                                                                              etc.)
                                                                                            • Products available with read/write memory, smart-card capabilities
                                                                                            • Enables individual items to be individually tracked e.g. from manufacture to
                                                                                              consumption

… and relatively new: 802.15.5: Mesh Networking in WPANs by enhanced
reliability via route redundancy, easier network configuration, better device
battery life due to fewer retransmissions
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                          94 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                           05 etieS



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Where to use RFID?                                                                         Passive RFID Tags

                                                                                           “Traditional” tags used in retail security
 • Applications
                                                                                             applications:
       Total asset visibility: tracking of goods during manufacturing, localization of
                                                                                           • Tag contains an antenna, and a small chip that
       pallets, goods, etc
                                                                                             stores a small amount of data
       Loyalty cards: customers use RFID tags for payment at, e.g., gas stations,
                                                                                           • Tag can be programmed at manufacture or on
       collection of buying patterns
                                                                                             installation
       Automated toll collection: RFIDs mounted in windshields allow commuters to
                                                                                           • Tag is powered by the high power
       drive through toll plazas without stopping
                                                                                             electromagnetic field generated by the antennas
       Others: access control, animal identification, tracking of hazardous material,        (connected to a reader) – usually in doorways
       inventory control, warehouse management, ...
                                                                                           • The field allows the chip/antenna to reflect back
 • Local Positioning Systems                                                                 an extremely weak signal containing the data
       GPS useless indoors or underground, problematic in cities with high                 • Collision Detection – recognition of multiple tags
       buildings                                                                             in the read range – is employed to
       RFID tags transmit signals, receivers estimate the tag location by measuring          separately read the individual tags
       the signal‘s time of flight                                                         • Low prices



htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                          15 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                           25 etieS
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Active RFID Tags                                                                                  RFID Tag Attributes

• Battery Powered tags
                                                                                                                                            Active RFID            Passive RFID
      Have much greater range – 100m
      Hold much more information – Kbytes                                                                                                                     Energy transferred
                                                                                                      Tag power source              Internal to tag
      Can integrate sensing technology, e.g.                                                                                                                  using RF from reader
      temperature, GPS                                                                                Tag battery                   Yes                       No
      Can signal at defined time
                                                                                                      Availability of power         Continuous                Only in range of reader
      Multiple tags can be recorded at once
                                                                                                      Required signal strength Very Low                       Very High
• Used for higher value items
     Shipping containers                                                                              Range                         Up to 100m                Up to 3-5m, usually less
     Babies                                                                                                                         1000’s of tags recognized Few hundred within 3m
     Electronic assets                                                                                Multi-tag reading
                                                                                                                                    – up to 160 km/h          distance of reader
• Much higher costs per item                                                                          Data storage                  Up to 128Kb of read/write 128 bytes of read/write
• Life between 2 – 4 years


htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                 35 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                            45 etieS



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RFID – Radio Frequency Identification                                                             RFID – Radio Frequency Identification
 • Data rate                                        • Connection setup time
        Transmission of ID only (e.g. 48 bit,             Depends on product/medium access         • Security
        64kbit, 1 Mbit)                                   scheme (typically 2 ms per device)            Denial-of-Service attacks are always possible
        9,6 – 115 kbit/s                            • Quality of Service                                   • Interference of the wireless transmission, shielding of transceivers
 • Transmission range                                     None
                                                                                                        IDs via manufacturing or one time programming
        Passive: up to 3 m                          • Manageability
                                                                                                        Key exchange via, e.g., RSA possible, encryption via, e.g., AES
        Active: up to 30-100 m                            Very simple, same like serial
        Simultaneous detection of up to 256               interface                                • Further trends
        tags, scanning of 40 tags/sec – more        • Advantages/disadvantages                           RTLS: Real-Time Locating System – big efforts to make total asset visibility
        using active tags                                 Advantages: extremely low cost,                come true
 • Frequencies                                            large experience, high volume
                                                          available, for passive RFIDs no
                                                                                                         Integration of RFID technology into the manufacturing, distribution and
        125 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 2.4
                                                          power needed, large variety of                 logistics chain (“Future Store” in Rheinberg)
        GHz, 5.8 GHz and many others
 • Security                                               products, relative speeds up to 300            Creation of „electronic manifests“ at item or package level (embedded
                                                          km/h), broad temperature range                 inexpensive passive RFID tags)
        Application dependent, typically no
        coding on RFID device                             Disadvantages: no QoS, simple DoS              3D tracking of children, patients
                                                          attacks possible, crowded ISM
 • Availability                                           bands, typically simplex connection
        Many products, many vendors                       (activation, transmission of ID)
htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                                 55 etieS   htooteulB :1.3 letipaK                                                            65 etieS

				
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Description: WPAN ( Wireless Personal Area Network Communication Technologies ) is a wireless connection to the personal area network. It is used in such as the telephone, computer, ancillary equipment and a small range ( personal area network working range is generally within 10 meters ) within the digital assistant communication between devices. Support wireless personal area network technologies include: Bluetooth, ZigBee, OC band ( UWB ), IrDA, HomeRF, the Bluetooth technology in the wireless personal area network used in most widely. Each technology has only been used for specific uses, applications or fields to play to the best effect. In addition, although in some respects, some techniques are considered in the wireless personal area network space in competition with each other, but they often each other is complementary.