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WPAN ( Wireless Personal Area Network Communication Technologies ) is a wireless connection to the personal area network. It is used in such as the telephone, computer, ancillary equipment and a small range ( personal area network working range is generally within 10 meters ) within the digital assistant communication between devices. Support wireless personal area network technologies include: Bluetooth, ZigBee, OC band ( UWB ), IrDA, HomeRF, the Bluetooth technology in the wireless personal area network used in most widely. Each technology has only been used for specific uses, applications or fields to play to the best effect. In addition, although in some respects, some techniques are considered in the wireless personal area network space in competition with each other, but they often each other is complementary.
120 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 120-129 (2010) AN IMPLEMENTATION MODEL FOR M-CUSTOMS IN WPAN AND WWAN APPLICATIONS: A TAIWAN CASE Lon-Fon Shieh1, Ching-Chiang Yeh2* and Yi-Chuan Huang3 1 Department of Business Management National United University Miao Li (360), Taiwan 1 Information Industry Section in the Industrial Development Bureau Ministry of Economic Affairs Taipei (100), Taiwan 2 Department of Business Administration National Taipei College of Business Taipei (100), Taiwan 3 Institute for Information Industry Market Intelligence Center Taipei (106), Taiwan ABSTRACT Rapid evolvements of mobile broadband application services have attracted much attention from business owners and executives in recent years. However, researches have shown that numerous challenges and obstacles are involved in the successful implementation of a mobile application service. Therefore, a meaningful implementation model is needed. By looking through related works and relative case studies, this paper will propose a working implementation model for mobile application services. The paper will start by studying a Mobile-Customs (M-Customs) case based on Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) and Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) backbone networks. The paper will then define the project’s critical success factors, and in the end, formulate an implementation model for mobile applications accordingly. The paper will also recommend a future M-Customs service that uses WiMAX as its major communications technology framework based on the experiences gained from testing new technologies in a 3G-based “Living Labs” environment. Keywords: M-customs, Mobile Application, WLAN, WWAN, WiMAX, KSF, Living Lab 1. INTRODUCTION of enhancing operational efficiency and increase * overall corporate competitiveness. Advancements in wireless communication To keep up with the rapid development of technologies, along with the increasing wireless Internet and wireless applications and follow recent population and the popularization of portable devices, trends on government-led projects and services, have quickly changed work and leisure alike. MIC Trade-Van Information Services Co. (Trade-Van) was (2008) has reported that the global market of appointed as the direct integrator and implementer of Application Services, such as Location-Based the Taiwanese government-funded 2006 project Services (LBS) or Tracking applications, reached Development of a Mobile-Customs Service US$32 million in 2007, and is expected to grow to Environment. Trade-Van constructed a living lab US$207 million in 2012. Other related researches based on new technologies such as 3G/3.5G, RFID have shown that wireless technology and Internet and GPS to experiment on various technology applications will be in the mainstream of applications. After successfully implementing an development for the latest Intelligent Transport M-Customs Service based on 3G /3.5G mobile Systems (ITS) and Monitoring solutions. Many technology, Trade-Van promptly joined the M-Taiwan enterprises have therefore started to research and program ran by the Industrial Development Bureau in invest on related mobile application services in hopes 2008. The company, hoping to use its previous 3G/3.5G experiences on future WiMAX application services, will contribute on establishing a Real-Time * Corresponding author: email@example.com L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications 121 Monitoring and Tracking Service of Customs Goods new technologies through the cooperation of different and Cargo based on the Wireless Metropolitan Area firms and users in a real-life/working environment. Network (WMAN) and the Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN) frameworks. 2.2 Location-based Services This paper will propose an implementation Currently there are three technologies used model for mobile applications based on the widely in Location-based Services (LBS): stand-alone, integration of 3G/3.5G, GPS and RFID Wireless satellite and terrestrial. Traditional stand-alone Systems (WS). By looking through related works and systems had already been largely replaced by newer case studies, the paper will also recommend a future technologies. LBS Systems based on satellite are M-Customs service that uses WiMAX as its major essentially Global Positioning Systems (GPS). As for communications technology framework. Finally, the terrestrial systems, most use a C-configuration of paper hopes to help businesses reduce the risks Long Range Navigation (LORAN-C) terrestrial involved in building mobile applications by the technology. establishment of the proposed implementation model. There are a number of LBS services that have This paper will begin by giving a brief introduction of already started or even finished their respective the research in the first chapter, followed by a testing phases, including the Guide project  and the thorough review of related works and literatures in Cyber Guide . Most LBS applications are used as the second. The third, forth, and fifth chapters will location warning systems, aimed at providing users focus on research methodology, research results and with self-location knowledge, focusing on various research benefits accordingly. A conclusion will be security and safety aspects . given in the final chapter. In addition to location based service, usability testing of the mobile applications has also faced 2. LITERATURE REVIEW major challenges, including mobile content, connectivity, screen size, display resolutions, 2.1 Living Lab capability and power, and data access methods . The continuous implementation of new technologies has increased the need for better 2.3 Wireless Networks forecasting of possible future technological Wireless networks, with different coverage applications. Some researchers have adopted the distances and connection speeds, can be classified as “Living Laboratory” concept by constructing an Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN), Wireless intelligent, technological environment and observing Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN), Wireless its user’s behaviors and interactions with the various Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Personal technologies used in it [7, 8]. The European Network Area Networks (WPAN). Table 1 compares the of Living Labs defines a “Living Lab” as a different wireless network types. human-centric system that aims for the co-creation and innovation of new products and services using Table 1: Wireless network WPAN WLAN WMAN WWAN Stan-dard IEEE 802.15 IEEE 802.11 IEEE 802.16 IEEE 802.20 Bluetooth, RFID, WiMAX, 3G, 3.5G (HSPA), Technology Wi-Fi ZigBee, NFC, UWB WiBro 4G(LTE) Range ＜10m 100m ＜50km ＞50km 11a/g: 54M 3.5G:14.4M /384K Speed (bps) By technology 70Mbps 11n(MIMO): 300M 4G: 100M /50M 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY the use of a “Living Laboratory” real-life experimental environment, a more accurate 3.1 Related Works qualitative and quantitative measure approach on Intille  constructed the “Home of the Future” human usage behavior of new technologies can be living lab to uncover more in-depth understanding of derived. The long-term, real-life “Living Labs” the relationship between technology, products and experimental method can also promote better services in real-life households. C. Kidd et al. , on understanding of any behavioral changes  the other hand, created the “Aware Home” project to research on ubiquitous computing for everyday 3.2 Methodology activities. Technology usage behavior levels are This paper will start with a case study on a traditionally hard to accurately measure, but through 3G/3.5G-based M-Customs Service. An implementation model for mobile applications is then 122 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010) developed through an analysis of critical success 4.2 Objective factors, a discussion of a mobile monitoring The aim of the M-Customs project was to framework, and a differential analysis of the increase the overall customs clearance speed of characteristics of mobile, wireless and information related businesses by integrating the latest wireless systems. Finally, recommendations will be given on technologies into current systems, mainly RFID, GPS future implementations of WiMAX-based M-Customs and 3G/3.5G technologies. Specifically, the project services. hoped to achieve the following goals: To ensure zero vehicle stoppage for all cargo 4. RESEARCH RESULT vehicles those enter or leave the harbor area by building an exclusive lane for them. 4.1 Background To reduce customs inspection ratio by using new Trade-Van provides a complete, one-stop technologies to monitor the entire cargo customs service window, and is solely responsible for clearance process until the cargo is fully deemed the implementation, operation, maintenance, service safe. and added-value service of the Electronic Data To ensure a fast and reliable cargo clearance Interchange (EDI) platform of the Customs Trade process by transmitting real-time cargo status and System. Its main services include customs clearance image to Trade-Van’s real-time monitoring automation and paperless trading, as well as center. added-value customs services, internet customs clearance, electronic trading and logistical services. 4.3 Need Analysis The 3G/3.5G-based M-Customs service was According to the Regulations Governing implemented on Trade-Van’s Business Cargo Applications for the Establishment of Free Trade Information Platform. The platform is a shared Zones, any entity that applies for the establishment of platform used by the Customs and related logistical a free trade zone has to implement an electronic firms, and currently port administrators, customs monitoring and control system that tracks and administrators, shipping firms, cargo distributers, monitors all cargo that enters or leaves the free trade customs brokers and vehicle drivers all use the zone. Therefore, all firms that are related to the system. The service started operation in Keelung customs clearance business has such as need. Harbor, and would gradually expand to include all ports and harbors in Taiwan. After implementation of 4.4 To-be Model Analysis the 3G/3.5G-based M-Customs service, Trade-Van The project aimed to fulfill the demands of the started planning on a WiMAX-based solution in 2008. Customs for a fully automatic system by Therefore, this paper hopes to transfer the success implementing a real-time cargo monitoring platform factors of previous 3G/3.5G implementations into that used 3G/3.5G mobile applications, mobile newer, WiMAX-based implementations and sensing applications and situational awareness recommend on future WiMAX services. applications to extend the previous system. The entire M-Customs framework is shown in Figure. 1. The scenario for the full mobile customs clearance process is as followed: Figure 1: M-customs service framework L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications 123 Suspicious Cargo Investigation 4.5 System Planning When a suspicious cargo is discovered, System Planning involved two separate service Customs officials can extract related information platforms. The network and hardware architecture from the central database through a 3G/3.5G network diagram is shown in Figure 2 and a wireless mobile device. The system would Business Cargo Information Platform respond by showing related information such as ship The aim of this system was to provide a number, arrival date and firm history. The official platform that would allow retrieval of real-time cargo could also search on other related data, such as illegal logistical, sealing and warehousing information. After smuggling record or cargo dynamic status, etc. the cargo is sealed, dynamic information of the Inspection and Image Upload cargo’s status going through various access points While inspecting the cargo, officials could take could be retrieved through this system. pictures of suspicious cargos and upload them to the Real-Time Dynamic Cargo Delivery Monitoring central database. Platform Inspection Notification This system allowed related entities such as When the system receives an inspection order, administrators, cosigners, logistic firms, vehicle firms, it would automatically notify an official and send any drivers, etc. to retrieve real-time delivery information relevant information to his or her mobile device. of all cargos. Mobilization of Current Operations Through their mobile devices officials could 4.5.1 System Efficiency easily connect to other systems such as Air Customs The system used a database as its backend data System, Sea Customs System, Government retrieval system. Data were transferred throughout the Authorities, E-Mail Websites and Customs Intranet, entire network in eXtensible Markup Language which in turn include online services such as Cargo (XML) format. Despite the major webpage oriented Inspection System, Foreign Tourists Shopping Taxes service, some functions were still provided using web Rebates System, Customs Administration System, etc. services to distribute workload efficiently and to This would enable the official to do operational work achieve cross-platform requirements. even when out-of-office. Figure 2: Network and hardware architecture diagram 4.5.2 Wireless-environment Evaluation 4.5.3 End User Planning To achieve suitable transfer speed within the The possible end users of this project include projected maximum distance at every access point, authorities, cosigners, logistical firms, vehicle firms transfer efficiency had been measured at every corner. and drivers. Therefore separate plans had to be made An optimal network layout analysis of 3G/3.5G and for different users: RFID access point placements had to be carefully planned out. 124 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010) Authorities manual inspection. Authorities were provided with remote monitoring of cargo delivery service, real-time 4.5.4 Information and Communication Quality vehicle positioning service, cargo status monitoring A standard, open source data format was chosen service and vehicle or cargo seal abnormalities to ensure maximum portability within the various detection service through the central monitoring technologies. An open source data exchange method system. was used together in the design framework to form an Cosigners open service platform. The end user of the Cosigners were provided with various services M-Customs service could include many units ranging such as real-time goods status monitoring, real-time from authority officials to logistical firms, therefore monitoring of goods delivery and real-time response the overall aim was to provide a system with full to abnormalities, which in whole achieved a more network security and access control that uses the transparent delivery process for the cosigners. latest technologies, namely 3G/3.5G, RFID and GPS, Logistical Firms that could run on any browser using any device under Logistical Firms were provided with real-time any network circumstances. cargo delivery information, which helped the firms achieve better operational efficiencies. 4.5.5 System Security Vehicle Firms The whole premise of this project was built on Vehicle Firms were provided with real-time mobile devices and remote data access. Therefore, vehicle positioning and status monitoring services. In theft prevention mechanism was one of the project’s the case of a vehicle anomaly, the system would main design focuses. The project’s security immediately notify the firm and other authorities to mechanism is shown in Fig. 3. An end user protection quickly resolve the situation. mechanism was also integrated into the system, in Drivers which all users are protected under the Personal Data Drivers were provided with a button that, when Protection Act and all having his or her own unique pressed, would promptly notify the central system and operational process. This would ensure that personal related authorities in case of any vehicular failure. information and the rights of all end users of the Automated gateway access inspection was also service would be thoroughly protected. provided to save time from any vehicle stoppage and Figure 3: Security mechanism 4.6 System Development communication network to create a wireless, mobile, To successfully speed up the customs clearance secure and convenient ubiquitous customs clearance process, the project stressed on automation. Dynamic, environment. It enhanced the overall quality of real-time data transmission was made possible by the customs services and increased efficiency on customs construction of an M-Customs service platform and a clearance and investigation. cargo monitoring system. Fast and Transparent Cargo Clearance Increased Harbor Operational Performance and 4.6.1 Construction of the M-customs Service Creation of a Zero-Barrier Logistical Platform Environment The M-Customs Service Platform combined Strategic Alliance Between the Customs and the wireless mobile devices and the 3G/3.5G Businesses L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications 125 Full Paperless Environment 5. IMPLEMENTATION BENEFIT Open Framework, Data Exchange and Resource Sharing 5.1 Features and Implications Set a Dynamic Cargo Message Format, and Three important aspects could be achieved Unify Operational Rules and Standards through the development of an integrated mobile Dynamic Status Retrieval of Cargo application featuring 3G/3.5G, RFID and GPS technologies: cargo tracking, monitoring and fast 4.6.2 Cargo Monitoring System customs clearance. Through the integration of The technologies that the system used in cargo communication technologies, logistics, and monitoring were RFID, GPS and 3G/3.5G. RFID was information, the M-Customs service would provide used as a cargo sensor, and any detection of an all new, highly efficient customs clearance tool for abnormalities would immediately trigger a the Directorate General of Customs and related firms. transmission back to the central system. Customs Provide Real-Time Customs Clearance and officials would immediately know the location of the Investigation Information for Out-of-Office cargo through GPS, and could quickly arrive at the Customs Officials. site to deal with the problem. There, the official could Through the use of mobile devices and wireless use a 3G/3.5G mobile device to retrieve related data technology, out-of-office Customs officials would be and report the latest status updates back to the able to retrieve any needed information in real-time, database. speed-up the customs clearance process, and improve on the control of import and export goods. 4.6.3 Implementation Procedure Provide a Real-Time, Convenient Online After developing the application system, a Signature Service. complete implementation procedure was developed. This would enable inspectors to easily inspect The implementation procedure included service and sign any cargo without any space or time promotion, system education and training, system restrictions. In the case of a suspicious cargo, construction and installation, system testing, parallel inspectors could also easily take pictures of the cargo online, and official online. with a mobile device and upload the results back to the database. 4.7 Operational Model Provide an Active Message Notification The implementation strategy includes the Mechanism. following elements: The system would actively send message Extend on current systems to reduce updates to out-of-office inspectors and Customs implementation obstacles officials to enable prompt response in the case of A. Extend the Business Cargo Information Platform anomalies or illegal activities such as smuggling. framework by creating a cargo delivery Provide a Seamless Integration of Current monitoring service in the area between the Customs Intranet Systems. following two important end-points: 1) The The system would establish a linkage with Customs operation sector in the logistics centre current Customs intranet systems to create a seamless of the Science Park; and 2) The air logistics and ubiquitous customs clearance operational centre belonging to the Taipei Customs Office. environment. B. Add a module to the Business Cargo Information Provide Internet Linkage for Special Mobile Platform that enables it to process front-end data Operational Needs. requests transmitted through 3G/3.5G networks. The system would provide a linkage through C. After the implementation of the project, internet to a number of needed outer-sites, such as the formulate the service price structure on a Trade-Van’s Cargo Inspection System and the monthly-rental basis (with deposit) instead of a Ministry of Finance’s Foreign Tourists Taxes Rebates one-time fee. System. Overall, the system hopes to create a Cooperate with leaders of the IT industry in complete M-Customs solution that would fulfill all Taiwan to ensure that the front-end monitoring kinds of user operational needs. devices, components and sensors always maintain high quality and performance. 5.2 Implementation Benefit Increase the cosigners’ interest on joining the This case was an implementation of mobile service by sharing real-time cargo delivery status communications application and service led by the information with them. government of Taiwan. The system went officially online on January 2008, and within two months (2008/01/28-2008/03/18) the system already accumulated more than 11 thousand (11,674) times of usage. 126 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010) By using the “Living Labs” concept to test the On the basis of the above discussion, while integration of new technologies, the M-Customs incorporating the challenges of mobile commerce that application enabled greater efficiency in Siau, Lim, Shen  proposed, including application administrative procedures and proper challenges, network problems, infrastructure tasks implementations of different types of technologies in and security considerations, an implementation model the overall architecture. At the same time, for mobile applications that combines both theory deficiencies of current technologies were discovered, and practice is shown in Figure. 4. The important allowing the preparation of newer technological features are as followed: alternatives, such as WiMax and Zigbee, as a (1) Analyze the needs of the Ecosystem. In the complement for current deficiencies. The above process of implementing an innovative mobile benefits are just a part of the numerous advantages of application service, the trade-off between the testing new technologies (such as 3G/3.5G and RFID) opportunities and risks of the innovation in a real-life “Living Labs” environment. ecosystem needs to be measured. Priorities of the ecosystem need to be established while 5.3 Reasons of the Implementation Success considering factors such as the government, users, In summary, the implementation was a success intermediaries and complements . for the following reasons: (2) Define the users of the mobile application service Meeting the Users’ and Government’s Needs to accurately fulfill user needs. Siau, Lim, Shen Before actual plans on an M-Customs service,  stated that mobile devices in mobile improving the efficiency of customs clearance application services should act as a multi-purpose services were already one of the government’s main carrier to meet the diverse needs of users. Needs goals. The project not only fulfilled the government’s ranging from voice communications of the past needs, it also fulfilled the users’ need on a faster to data communications that is recently gaining customs clearance process. importance and popularity should all be Government Support considered in the service. By relying on a guarantee on the quality of (3) Design the project plan, implementation strategy automated customs clearance implementation by the and expected goals and benefits. de Lussanet  government, the risk of failure was significantly stated that the deployment of mobile application reduced. services can promote consumer service, improve Support from Top Management productivity and reduce costs for a firm. Henley Because the implementation of automated , on the other hand, proposed three elements customs clearance concerned all facets of customs of mobile strategy, which includes 1) Extend the and trades, management took part in this project from right business processes: decide which business the planning stages all the way to the final process could gain the most benefits from mobile implementation stages. application services, 2) Build an integrated Experienced Team platform: integrate the various mobile The promotion team included a customs and applications on a single platform by using trades team and a wireless communications information technology, in order to better focus technology team. There was therefore an integration on the functional side of the application, and 3) of wireless communications technology, Internet and Define measurable success criteria: the mobile information technology, and the domain of customs. strategy should be realistic, achievable and needs to have momentum to encourage organizations to 6. CONCLUSION reach set goals. (4) Construct a feasible To-be application model. 6.1 Implementation Mode Siau, Lim, Shen  indicated that challenges The contribution of this paper presented a case such as business model transformation, study of the integration of different network investment risks, customer faith and ease of use technologies such as 3G/3.5G with Customs system still exists in mobile application services. Risks software (and hardware) applications to implement a for both service providers and users could be fully featured M-Customs service. The service has reduced by constructing a feasible To-be model. the potential to integrate with 3G/3.5G mobile (5) Plan out the application system, technology and phones, networks, notebook computers and other partnerships. In the implementation process of communication systems to offer a service of higher mobile application services, network problems quality. After the case study, the paper investigated such as reply and control, network compatibility the success factors in M-Customs implementations, and bandwidth access need to be considered . and proposed a possible mobile application In the planning process of mobile application implementation model, especially a possible model systems, needs such as mobile capability, for implementing a mobile monitoring system. package apps support, management capability, L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications 127 development capability and security, scalability management-level factors include value/cost and standardization can be fulfilled through the ratios, promotion and business model . use of middleware. Combined with proper (7) Develop a promotion strategy. Siau, Shen selection of partnership that can create true value, stated that in mobile application services, in high implementation performance can be reached addition to the creation of user awareness . through promotion strategy, security issues of (6) Create key performance indicators (KPI) that are mobile applications is also another important required to measure the implementation focus. Trust in the service can be achieved by performance. All software and hardware needs to strengthening user familiarity through promotion have individual performance indicators no matter strategies. the IT architecture chosen by the organization . Implement and continuously monitor the Factors could be set and observed through the mobile application service. Through the customer, producer and management levels. implementation and continuous monitoring of the Customer-level factors include flexibility, value service, problems that arises through the service adding and mobile technology; producer-level process could be collected  and solved, factors include modularity, layers and bundling; constructing a feedback mechanism. Figure 4: An implementation model for mobile applications 6.2 Suggestion service to achieve even higher transfer rates with a By integrating new technologies to increase broader service range. customs clearance efficiency, the M-Customs project This paper recommends the use of opened up an all-new window of opportunity for 3.5G/WiMAX dual mode and ZigBee on future future mobile applications. However, while at system developments of the M-Customs service to provide planning stages, 3.5G communication service was higher transfer rates and better uninterrupted still a budding technology and the availability of notification and monitoring of cargo to complement devices with built-in 3.5G modules were limited. In the deficiencies that the current 3G/3.5G+ addition, in terms of transmission bandwidth, the RFID-based implementation suffers from. transfer rate of 3G/3.5G is also not sufficient enough (1) In the current 3G/3.5G-based M-Customs service, for real-time, high-bandwidth usage requirements. RFID is used as the sensor component, which Adding the deficiencies of 3G/3.5G to the fact that limits the service mostly to passive messaging. In RFID detection is easily interfered and cut off, the the future, active sensor component paper recommends the use of WiMAX and ZigBee to implementations, such as ZigBee, can be further strengthen the M-Customs application service. considered. All imported cargos permitted to WiMAX’s high-bandwidth and ZigBee’s clear customs will be attached with an electronic auto-notification scheme in case of interference are ZigBee seal. Vehicles installed with WiMAX the correct remedies for the current technologies’ devices will then transmit real-time cargo deficiencies. delivery status, such as seal condition or cargo As communication technologies continue to state, detected by the ZigBee sensor back to the improve, WMAN-based WiMAX technology is also central server through a WiMAX network. In the starting to gain maturity and popularity. WiMAX is case of any anomaly such as seal damage or expected to become the mainstream wireless vehicle failure, the sensor could take a picture of broadband technology in 3 or 4 years. Therefore, the the exact moment of anomaly and retrieve Customs should follow the trend and consider relevant information, then transmit the problem integrating WiMAX into the existing M-Customs back to the central servers, all in real-time. 128 International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010) (2) With the use of WiMAX, current image-based and sound: A wireless leash,” Proceedings of monitoring solution could be upgraded into a CHI, pp. 726-727. real-time video-based surveillance solution. IP 10. Siau, K., Lim, E. P. and Shen, Z., 2001, Cameras can be installed inside cargo vehicles or “Mobile commerce: Promises, challenges, and at important gateways. 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H. 2008, retrieve the latest logistical and traffic status, 3G/Wi-Fi/WiMAX Innovative Application greatly increasing work efficiency. Services, Market Intelligence Center, Institute for Information Industry. REFERENCE 14. Zhang, D. and Adipat, B., 2005, “Challenges, methodologies, and issues in the usability 1. Abowd, G. D., Atkeson, C. G., Hong, J., Long, testing of mobile applications,” International S., Kooper, R. and Pinkerton, M., 1997, Journal of Human-computer Interaction, Vol. “Cyberguide: A mobile context-aware tour 18, No. 3, pp. 293-308. guide” Wireless Networks, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 421-433. ABOUT THE AUTHORS 2. Adner, R., 2006. “Match your innovation strategy to your innovation ecosystem,” Lon-Fon Shieh is an Assistant Professor in the Harvard Business Review, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp. Department of Business Management at National 98-107. United University (NUU), Taiwan R.O.C. He 3. Carlson, C. and Walden, P., 2002, “The mobile received his Ph.D. degree in Business Administration commerce: A summary of quests for at National Taiwan University of Science and value-added products and services,” Technology in 2004. He is a chief of information Proceedings of the 15th Bled Electronic industry section in the Industry Development Bureau Commerce Conference, pp. 17-19. (IDB) in Taiwan. In particular, he is interested to 4. Cheverst, K., Davies, N., Mitchell, K. and research in Technology Management, Electronic Friday, A., 2000. “Experiences of developing Business and Service Engineering. and deploying a context-aware tourist guide: The GUIDE project,” International Conference Ching-Chiang Yeh is currently an associate on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp. professor in the Department of Business 20-31. Administration, National Taipei College of Business, 5. de Lussanet, M., 2002, “Mobile enterprise apps Taiwan. He received his Ph.D. degree in Institute of need middleware,” The TechStrategy Report, Business and Management, and MBA from National Forrester Research Center, pp. 6. Chiao Tung University, Taiwan. His research focuses 6. Henley, J., 2002, “Building the case for mobile on decision science, data mining, and management of business,” Global FO Agenda, pp. 46-47. technology. 7. Intille, S. S., 2002, “Designing a home of the future,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol. 1, Yi-Chuan Huang is an Industry Analyst of Market No. 2, pp. 76-82. Intelligence & Consulting Institute (MIC) at Institute 8. Kidd, C. D., Orr, R., Abowd, G. D., Atkeson, C. For Information Industry. Her research domain is G., Essa, I. A., MacIntyre, B., Mynatt, E. D., Network Communications. Starner, T. and Newstetter, W., 1999, “The aware home: A living laboratory for ubiquitous (Received December 2008, revised March 2009, computing research,” Lecture Notes in accepted June 2009) Computer Science, Vol. 1670, pp. 191-198. 9. Marmasse, N. and Schmandt, C. 2003. “Safe L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications 129 整合無線個人網路及無線廣域網路行動海關應用導入模式研究: 以台灣為例 謝戎峰 1、葉清江 2*、黃怡娟 3 1 國立聯合大學經營管理學系 苗栗市恭敬里聯大 1 號 1 經濟部工業局電子資訊組資訊科 台北市大安區信義路三段 41-3 號 2 國立臺北商業技術學院企業管理學系 台北市中正區濟南路一段 321 號 3 財團法人資訊工業策進會 產業情報研究所 台北市大安區敦化南路二段 216 號 19 樓 近年來行動寬頻應用提升管理效率及降低企業成本之效果備受關注，使得行動應用需 求成長快速。因此如何找出可能面臨之挑戰與障礙，以因應企業M化需求，成功建構 行動應用服務，降低導入風險，建立行動應用導入模型已成為重要課題。本文主要係 研究以整合無線個人區域網路（WPAN）和無線廣域網路（WWAN）作為網絡架構基 礎，以「生活實驗室」（Living Lab）之觀念，測試3G新技術在M-海關之應用上，找 出關鍵成功因素，並建構行動應用導入模式，作為未來企業或研究相關議題之基礎， 本研究另對使用WiMAX技術為通信技術框架基礎提供建議方向，協助未來的M -海關 服務可建立成功典範。 關鍵詞：M-關貿、行動應用、無線區域網路、無線廣域網路、WiMAX、關鍵成功因 素、生活實驗室 （*聯絡人：firstname.lastname@example.org）
"AN IMPLEMENTATION MODEL FOR M-CUSTOMS IN WPAN AND "