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WPAN ( Wireless Personal Area Network Communication Technologies ) is a wireless connection to the personal area network. It is used in such as the telephone, computer, ancillary equipment and a small range ( personal area network working range is generally within 10 meters ) within the digital assistant communication between devices. Support wireless personal area network technologies include: Bluetooth, ZigBee, OC band ( UWB ), IrDA, HomeRF, the Bluetooth technology in the wireless personal area network used in most widely. Each technology has only been used for specific uses, applications or fields to play to the best effect. In addition, although in some respects, some techniques are considered in the wireless personal area network space in competition with each other, but they often each other is complementary.

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									120         International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp. 120-129 (2010)

                      Lon-Fon Shieh1, Ching-Chiang Yeh2* and Yi-Chuan Huang3
                                    Department of Business Management
                                         National United University
                                            Miao Li (360), Taiwan
                   Information Industry Section in the Industrial Development Bureau
                                        Ministry of Economic Affairs
                                             Taipei (100), Taiwan
                                  Department of Business Administration
                                    National Taipei College of Business
                                             Taipei (100), Taiwan
                                     Institute for Information Industry
                                        Market Intelligence Center
                                          Taipei (106), Taiwan

            Rapid evolvements of mobile broadband application services have attracted much attention
            from business owners and executives in recent years. However, researches have shown that
            numerous challenges and obstacles are involved in the successful implementation of a
            mobile application service. Therefore, a meaningful implementation model is needed. By
            looking through related works and relative case studies, this paper will propose a working
            implementation model for mobile application services. The paper will start by studying a
            Mobile-Customs (M-Customs) case based on Wireless Personal Area Network (WPAN)
            and Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) backbone networks. The paper will then
            define the project’s critical success factors, and in the end, formulate an implementation
            model for mobile applications accordingly. The paper will also recommend a future
            M-Customs service that uses WiMAX as its major communications technology framework
            based on the experiences gained from testing new technologies in a 3G-based “Living
            Labs” environment.

            Keywords: M-customs, Mobile Application, WLAN, WWAN, WiMAX, KSF, Living Lab

             1. INTRODUCTION                               of enhancing operational efficiency and increase
*                                                          overall corporate competitiveness.
      Advancements in wireless communication                     To keep up with the rapid development of
technologies, along with the increasing wireless           Internet and wireless applications and follow recent
population and the popularization of portable devices,     trends on government-led projects and services,
have quickly changed work and leisure alike. MIC           Trade-Van Information Services Co. (Trade-Van) was
(2008) has reported that the global market of              appointed as the direct integrator and implementer of
Application Services, such as Location-Based               the Taiwanese government-funded 2006 project
Services (LBS) or Tracking applications, reached           Development of a Mobile-Customs Service
US$32 million in 2007, and is expected to grow to          Environment. Trade-Van constructed a living lab
US$207 million in 2012. Other related researches           based on new technologies such as 3G/3.5G, RFID
have shown that wireless technology and Internet           and GPS to experiment on various technology
applications will be in the mainstream of                  applications. After successfully implementing an
development for the latest Intelligent Transport           M-Customs Service based on 3G /3.5G mobile
Systems (ITS) and Monitoring solutions. Many               technology, Trade-Van promptly joined the M-Taiwan
enterprises have therefore started to research and         program ran by the Industrial Development Bureau in
invest on related mobile application services in hopes     2008. The company, hoping to use its previous
                                                           3G/3.5G experiences on future WiMAX application
                                                           services, will contribute on establishing a Real-Time
    Corresponding author:
L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications                      121

Monitoring and Tracking Service of Customs Goods           new technologies through the cooperation of different
and Cargo based on the Wireless Metropolitan Area          firms and users in a real-life/working environment.
Network (WMAN) and the Wireless Personal Area
Network (WPAN) frameworks.                                 2.2 Location-based Services
      This paper will propose an implementation                   Currently there are three technologies used
model for mobile applications based on the                 widely in Location-based Services (LBS): stand-alone,
integration of 3G/3.5G, GPS and RFID Wireless              satellite and terrestrial. Traditional stand-alone
Systems (WS). By looking through related works and         systems had already been largely replaced by newer
case studies, the paper will also recommend a future       technologies. LBS Systems based on satellite are
M-Customs service that uses WiMAX as its major             essentially Global Positioning Systems (GPS). As for
communications technology framework. Finally, the          terrestrial systems, most use a C-configuration of
paper hopes to help businesses reduce the risks            Long Range Navigation (LORAN-C) terrestrial
involved in building mobile applications by the            technology.
establishment of the proposed implementation model.               There are a number of LBS services that have
This paper will begin by giving a brief introduction of    already started or even finished their respective
the research in the first chapter, followed by a           testing phases, including the Guide project [4] and the
thorough review of related works and literatures in        Cyber Guide [1]. Most LBS applications are used as
the second. The third, forth, and fifth chapters will      location warning systems, aimed at providing users
focus on research methodology, research results and        with self-location knowledge, focusing on various
research benefits accordingly. A conclusion will be        security and safety aspects [9].
given in the final chapter.                                       In addition to location based service, usability
                                                           testing of the mobile applications has also faced
      2. LITERATURE REVIEW                                 major challenges, including mobile content,
                                                           connectivity, screen size, display resolutions,
2.1 Living Lab                                             capability and power, and data access methods [14].
       The continuous implementation of new
technologies has increased the need for better             2.3 Wireless Networks
forecasting of possible future technological                      Wireless networks, with different coverage
applications. Some researchers have adopted the            distances and connection speeds, can be classified as
“Living Laboratory” concept by constructing an             Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWAN), Wireless
intelligent, technological environment and observing       Metropolitan Area Networks (WMAN), Wireless
its user’s behaviors and interactions with the various     Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Personal
technologies used in it [7, 8]. The European Network       Area Networks (WPAN). Table 1 compares the
of Living Labs defines a “Living Lab” as a                 different wireless network types.
human-centric system that aims for the co-creation
and innovation of new products and services using

                                          Table 1: Wireless network
                              WPAN                 WLAN              WMAN                WWAN
          Stan-dard         IEEE 802.15         IEEE 802.11        IEEE 802.16         IEEE 802.20
                         Bluetooth, RFID,                            WiMAX,         3G, 3.5G (HSPA),
         Technology                                 Wi-Fi
                        ZigBee, NFC, UWB                              WiBro              4G(LTE)
            Range             <10m                  100m             <50km               >50km
                                                 11a/g: 54M                         3.5G:14.4M /384K
         Speed (bps)       By technology                             70Mbps
                                             11n(MIMO): 300M                         4G: 100M /50M

3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                    the use of a “Living Laboratory” real-life
                                                           experimental environment, a more accurate
3.1 Related Works                                          qualitative and quantitative measure approach on
       Intille [7] constructed the “Home of the Future”    human usage behavior of new technologies can be
living lab to uncover more in-depth understanding of       derived. The long-term, real-life “Living Labs”
the relationship between technology, products and          experimental method can also promote better
services in real-life households. C. Kidd et al. [8], on   understanding of any behavioral changes [7]
the other hand, created the “Aware Home” project to
research on ubiquitous computing for everyday              3.2 Methodology
activities. Technology usage behavior levels are                This paper will start with a case study on a
traditionally hard to accurately measure, but through      3G/3.5G-based     M-Customs       Service.       An
                                                           implementation model for mobile applications is then
122              International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010)

developed through an analysis of critical success          4.2 Objective
factors, a discussion of a mobile monitoring                      The aim of the M-Customs project was to
framework, and a differential analysis of the              increase the overall customs clearance speed of
characteristics of mobile, wireless and information        related businesses by integrating the latest wireless
systems. Finally, recommendations will be given on         technologies into current systems, mainly RFID, GPS
future implementations of WiMAX-based M-Customs            and 3G/3.5G technologies. Specifically, the project
services.                                                  hoped to achieve the following goals:
                                                            To ensure zero vehicle stoppage for all cargo
        4. RESEARCH RESULT                                      vehicles those enter or leave the harbor area by
                                                                building an exclusive lane for them.
4.1 Background                                              To reduce customs inspection ratio by using new
       Trade-Van provides a complete, one-stop                  technologies to monitor the entire cargo
customs service window, and is solely responsible for           clearance process until the cargo is fully deemed
the implementation, operation, maintenance, service             safe.
and added-value service of the Electronic Data              To ensure a fast and reliable cargo clearance
Interchange (EDI) platform of the Customs Trade                 process by transmitting real-time cargo status and
System. Its main services include customs clearance             image to Trade-Van’s real-time monitoring
automation and paperless trading, as well as                    center.
added-value customs services, internet customs
clearance, electronic trading and logistical services.     4.3 Need Analysis
The 3G/3.5G-based M-Customs service was                          According to the Regulations Governing
implemented on Trade-Van’s Business Cargo                  Applications for the Establishment of Free Trade
Information Platform. The platform is a shared             Zones, any entity that applies for the establishment of
platform used by the Customs and related logistical        a free trade zone has to implement an electronic
firms, and currently port administrators, customs          monitoring and control system that tracks and
administrators, shipping firms, cargo distributers,        monitors all cargo that enters or leaves the free trade
customs brokers and vehicle drivers all use the            zone. Therefore, all firms that are related to the
system. The service started operation in Keelung           customs clearance business has such as need.
Harbor, and would gradually expand to include all
ports and harbors in Taiwan. After implementation of       4.4 To-be Model Analysis
the 3G/3.5G-based M-Customs service, Trade-Van                    The project aimed to fulfill the demands of the
started planning on a WiMAX-based solution in 2008.        Customs for a fully automatic system by
Therefore, this paper hopes to transfer the success        implementing a real-time cargo monitoring platform
factors of previous 3G/3.5G implementations into           that used 3G/3.5G mobile applications, mobile
newer,     WiMAX-based         implementations       and   sensing applications and situational awareness
recommend on future WiMAX services.                        applications to extend the previous system. The entire
                                                           M-Customs framework is shown in Figure. 1. The
                                                           scenario for the full mobile customs clearance process
                                                           is as followed:

                                     Figure 1: M-customs service framework
L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications                        123

    Suspicious Cargo Investigation                        4.5 System Planning
      When a suspicious cargo is discovered,                      System Planning involved two separate service
Customs officials can extract related information          platforms. The network and hardware architecture
from the central database through a 3G/3.5G network        diagram is shown in Figure 2
and a wireless mobile device. The system would              Business Cargo Information Platform
respond by showing related information such as ship               The aim of this system was to provide a
number, arrival date and firm history. The official        platform that would allow retrieval of real-time cargo
could also search on other related data, such as illegal   logistical, sealing and warehousing information. After
smuggling record or cargo dynamic status, etc.             the cargo is sealed, dynamic information of the
 Inspection and Image Upload                              cargo’s status going through various access points
      While inspecting the cargo, officials could take     could be retrieved through this system.
pictures of suspicious cargos and upload them to the        Real-Time Dynamic Cargo Delivery Monitoring
central database.                                               Platform
 Inspection Notification                                         This system allowed related entities such as
      When the system receives an inspection order,        administrators, cosigners, logistic firms, vehicle firms,
it would automatically notify an official and send any     drivers, etc. to retrieve real-time delivery information
relevant information to his or her mobile device.          of all cargos.
 Mobilization of Current Operations
      Through their mobile devices officials could         4.5.1 System Efficiency
easily connect to other systems such as Air Customs               The system used a database as its backend data
System, Sea Customs System, Government                     retrieval system. Data were transferred throughout the
Authorities, E-Mail Websites and Customs Intranet,         entire network in eXtensible Markup Language
which in turn include online services such as Cargo        (XML) format. Despite the major webpage oriented
Inspection System, Foreign Tourists Shopping Taxes         service, some functions were still provided using web
Rebates System, Customs Administration System, etc.        services to distribute workload efficiently and to
This would enable the official to do operational work      achieve cross-platform requirements.
even when out-of-office.

                              Figure 2: Network and hardware architecture diagram

4.5.2 Wireless-environment Evaluation                      4.5.3 End User Planning
      To achieve suitable transfer speed within the               The possible end users of this project include
projected maximum distance at every access point,          authorities, cosigners, logistical firms, vehicle firms
transfer efficiency had been measured at every corner.     and drivers. Therefore separate plans had to be made
An optimal network layout analysis of 3G/3.5G and          for different users:
RFID access point placements had to be carefully
planned out.
124              International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010)

    Authorities                                          manual inspection.
      Authorities were provided with remote
monitoring of cargo delivery service, real-time           4.5.4 Information and Communication Quality
vehicle positioning service, cargo status monitoring             A standard, open source data format was chosen
service and vehicle or cargo seal abnormalities           to ensure maximum portability within the various
detection service through the central monitoring          technologies. An open source data exchange method
system.                                                   was used together in the design framework to form an
 Cosigners                                               open service platform. The end user of the
      Cosigners were provided with various services       M-Customs service could include many units ranging
such as real-time goods status monitoring, real-time      from authority officials to logistical firms, therefore
monitoring of goods delivery and real-time response       the overall aim was to provide a system with full
to abnormalities, which in whole achieved a more          network security and access control that uses the
transparent delivery process for the cosigners.           latest technologies, namely 3G/3.5G, RFID and GPS,
 Logistical Firms                                        that could run on any browser using any device under
      Logistical Firms were provided with real-time       any network circumstances.
cargo delivery information, which helped the firms
achieve better operational efficiencies.                  4.5.5 System Security
 Vehicle Firms                                                 The whole premise of this project was built on
      Vehicle Firms were provided with real-time          mobile devices and remote data access. Therefore,
vehicle positioning and status monitoring services. In    theft prevention mechanism was one of the project’s
the case of a vehicle anomaly, the system would           main design focuses. The project’s security
immediately notify the firm and other authorities to      mechanism is shown in Fig. 3. An end user protection
quickly resolve the situation.                            mechanism was also integrated into the system, in
 Drivers                                                 which all users are protected under the Personal Data
      Drivers were provided with a button that, when      Protection Act and all having his or her own unique
pressed, would promptly notify the central system and     operational process. This would ensure that personal
related authorities in case of any vehicular failure.     information and the rights of all end users of the
Automated gateway access inspection was also              service would be thoroughly protected.
provided to save time from any vehicle stoppage and

                                         Figure 3: Security mechanism

4.6 System Development                                    communication network to create a wireless, mobile,
       To successfully speed up the customs clearance     secure and convenient ubiquitous customs clearance
process, the project stressed on automation. Dynamic,     environment. It enhanced the overall quality of
real-time data transmission was made possible by the      customs services and increased efficiency on customs
construction of an M-Customs service platform and a       clearance and investigation.
cargo monitoring system.                                   Fast and Transparent Cargo Clearance
                                                           Increased Harbor Operational Performance and
4.6.1 Construction of the M-customs Service                    Creation    of    a    Zero-Barrier   Logistical
Platform                                                       Environment
      The M-Customs Service Platform combined              Strategic Alliance Between the Customs and the
wireless mobile devices and the 3G/3.5G                        Businesses
L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications                      125

   Full Paperless Environment                             5. IMPLEMENTATION BENEFIT
   Open Framework, Data Exchange and Resource
    Sharing                                                5.1 Features and Implications
   Set a Dynamic Cargo Message Format, and                       Three important aspects could be achieved
    Unify Operational Rules and Standards                  through the development of an integrated mobile
   Dynamic Status Retrieval of Cargo                      application featuring 3G/3.5G, RFID and GPS
                                                           technologies: cargo tracking, monitoring and fast
4.6.2 Cargo Monitoring System                              customs clearance. Through the integration of
       The technologies that the system used in cargo      communication       technologies,      logistics,   and
monitoring were RFID, GPS and 3G/3.5G. RFID was            information, the M-Customs service would provide
used as a cargo sensor, and any detection of               an all new, highly efficient customs clearance tool for
abnormalities would immediately trigger a                  the Directorate General of Customs and related firms.
transmission back to the central system. Customs            Provide Real-Time Customs Clearance and
officials would immediately know the location of the            Investigation Information for Out-of-Office
cargo through GPS, and could quickly arrive at the              Customs Officials.
site to deal with the problem. There, the official could          Through the use of mobile devices and wireless
use a 3G/3.5G mobile device to retrieve related data       technology, out-of-office Customs officials would be
and report the latest status updates back to the           able to retrieve any needed information in real-time,
database.                                                  speed-up the customs clearance process, and improve
                                                           on the control of import and export goods.
4.6.3 Implementation Procedure                              Provide a Real-Time, Convenient Online
       After developing the application system, a               Signature Service.
complete implementation procedure was developed.                  This would enable inspectors to easily inspect
The implementation procedure included service              and sign any cargo without any space or time
promotion, system education and training, system           restrictions. In the case of a suspicious cargo,
construction and installation, system testing, parallel    inspectors could also easily take pictures of the cargo
online, and official online.                               with a mobile device and upload the results back to
                                                           the database.
4.7 Operational Model                                       Provide an Active Message Notification
       The implementation strategy includes the                 Mechanism.
following elements:                                               The system would actively send message
 Extend on current systems to reduce                      updates to out-of-office inspectors and Customs
     implementation obstacles                              officials to enable prompt response in the case of
A. Extend the Business Cargo Information Platform          anomalies or illegal activities such as smuggling.
     framework by creating a cargo delivery                 Provide a Seamless Integration of Current
     monitoring service in the area between the                 Customs Intranet Systems.
     following two important end-points: 1) The                   The system would establish a linkage with
     Customs operation sector in the logistics centre      current Customs intranet systems to create a seamless
     of the Science Park; and 2) The air logistics         and ubiquitous customs clearance operational
     centre belonging to the Taipei Customs Office.        environment.
B. Add a module to the Business Cargo Information           Provide Internet Linkage for Special Mobile
     Platform that enables it to process front-end data         Operational Needs.
     requests transmitted through 3G/3.5G networks.               The system would provide a linkage through
C. After the implementation of the project,                internet to a number of needed outer-sites, such as the
     formulate the service price structure on a            Trade-Van’s Cargo Inspection System and the
     monthly-rental basis (with deposit) instead of a      Ministry of Finance’s Foreign Tourists Taxes Rebates
     one-time fee.                                         System. Overall, the system hopes to create a
 Cooperate with leaders of the IT industry in             complete M-Customs solution that would fulfill all
     Taiwan to ensure that the front-end monitoring        kinds of user operational needs.
     devices, components and sensors always
     maintain high quality and performance.                5.2 Implementation Benefit
 Increase the cosigners’ interest on joining the                This case was an implementation of mobile
     service by sharing real-time cargo delivery status    communications application and service led by the
     information with them.                                government of Taiwan. The system went officially
                                                           online on January 2008, and within two months
                                                           (2008/01/28-2008/03/18)    the   system     already
                                                           accumulated more than 11 thousand (11,674) times of
126              International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010)

       By using the “Living Labs” concept to test the            On the basis of the above discussion, while
integration of new technologies, the M-Customs            incorporating the challenges of mobile commerce that
application      enabled     greater   efficiency    in   Siau, Lim, Shen [10] proposed, including application
administrative        procedures      and        proper   challenges, network problems, infrastructure tasks
implementations of different types of technologies in     and security considerations, an implementation model
the overall architecture. At the same time,               for mobile applications that combines both theory
deficiencies of current technologies were discovered,     and practice is shown in Figure. 4. The important
allowing the preparation of newer technological           features are as followed:
alternatives, such as WiMax and Zigbee, as a              (1) Analyze the needs of the Ecosystem. In the
complement for current deficiencies. The above                 process of implementing an innovative mobile
benefits are just a part of the numerous advantages of         application service, the trade-off between the
testing new technologies (such as 3G/3.5G and RFID)            opportunities and risks of the innovation
in a real-life “Living Labs” environment.                      ecosystem needs to be measured. Priorities of the
                                                               ecosystem need to be established while
5.3 Reasons of the Implementation Success                      considering factors such as the government, users,
      In summary, the implementation was a success             intermediaries and complements [2].
for the following reasons:                                (2) Define the users of the mobile application service
 Meeting the Users’ and Government’s Needs                    to accurately fulfill user needs. Siau, Lim, Shen
      Before actual plans on an M-Customs service,             [10] stated that mobile devices in mobile
improving the efficiency of customs clearance                  application services should act as a multi-purpose
services were already one of the government’s main             carrier to meet the diverse needs of users. Needs
goals. The project not only fulfilled the government’s         ranging from voice communications of the past
needs, it also fulfilled the users’ need on a faster           to data communications that is recently gaining
customs clearance process.                                     importance and popularity should all be
 Government Support                                           considered in the service.
      By relying on a guarantee on the quality of         (3) Design the project plan, implementation strategy
automated customs clearance implementation by the              and expected goals and benefits. de Lussanet [5]
government, the risk of failure was significantly              stated that the deployment of mobile application
reduced.                                                       services can promote consumer service, improve
 Support from Top Management                                  productivity and reduce costs for a firm. Henley
      Because the implementation of automated                  [6], on the other hand, proposed three elements
customs clearance concerned all facets of customs              of mobile strategy, which includes 1) Extend the
and trades, management took part in this project from          right business processes: decide which business
the planning stages all the way to the final                   process could gain the most benefits from mobile
implementation stages.                                         application services, 2) Build an integrated
 Experienced Team                                             platform: integrate the various mobile
      The promotion team included a customs and                applications on a single platform by using
trades team and a wireless communications                      information technology, in order to better focus
technology team. There was therefore an integration            on the functional side of the application, and 3)
of wireless communications technology, Internet and            Define measurable success criteria: the mobile
information technology, and the domain of customs.             strategy should be realistic, achievable and needs
                                                               to have momentum to encourage organizations to
             6. CONCLUSION                                     reach set goals.
                                                          (4) Construct a feasible To-be application model.
6.1 Implementation Mode                                        Siau, Lim, Shen [10] indicated that challenges
      The contribution of this paper presented a case          such as business model transformation,
study of the integration of different network                  investment risks, customer faith and ease of use
technologies such as 3G/3.5G with Customs system               still exists in mobile application services. Risks
software (and hardware) applications to implement a            for both service providers and users could be
fully featured M-Customs service. The service has              reduced by constructing a feasible To-be model.
the potential to integrate with 3G/3.5G mobile            (5) Plan out the application system, technology and
phones, networks, notebook computers and other                 partnerships. In the implementation process of
communication systems to offer a service of higher             mobile application services, network problems
quality. After the case study, the paper investigated          such as reply and control, network compatibility
the success factors in M-Customs implementations,              and bandwidth access need to be considered [10].
and proposed a possible mobile application                     In the planning process of mobile application
implementation model, especially a possible model              systems, needs such as mobile capability,
for implementing a mobile monitoring system.                   package apps support, management capability,
L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications                        127

    development capability and security, scalability           management-level factors include value/cost
    and standardization can be fulfilled through the           ratios, promotion and business model [3].
    use of middleware. Combined with proper                (7) Develop a promotion strategy. Siau, Shen[11]
    selection of partnership that can create true value,       stated that in mobile application services, in
    high implementation performance can be reached             addition to the creation of user awareness
    [5].                                                       through promotion strategy, security issues of
(6) Create key performance indicators (KPI) that are           mobile applications is also another important
    required to measure the implementation                     focus. Trust in the service can be achieved by
    performance. All software and hardware needs to            strengthening user familiarity through promotion
    have individual performance indicators no matter           strategies.
    the IT architecture chosen by the organization [6].          Implement and continuously monitor the
    Factors could be set and observed through the          mobile      application   service.    Through    the
    customer, producer and management levels.              implementation and continuous monitoring of the
    Customer-level factors include flexibility, value      service, problems that arises through the service
    adding and mobile technology; producer-level           process could be collected [12] and solved,
    factors include modularity, layers and bundling;       constructing a feedback mechanism.

                           Figure 4: An implementation model for mobile applications

6.2 Suggestion                                             service to achieve even higher transfer rates with a
       By integrating new technologies to increase         broader service range.
customs clearance efficiency, the M-Customs project               This paper recommends the use of
opened up an all-new window of opportunity for             3.5G/WiMAX dual mode and ZigBee on future
future mobile applications. However, while at system       developments of the M-Customs service to provide
planning stages, 3.5G communication service was            higher transfer rates and better uninterrupted
still a budding technology and the availability of         notification and monitoring of cargo to complement
devices with built-in 3.5G modules were limited. In        the deficiencies that the current 3G/3.5G+
addition, in terms of transmission bandwidth, the          RFID-based implementation suffers from.
transfer rate of 3G/3.5G is also not sufficient enough     (1) In the current 3G/3.5G-based M-Customs service,
for real-time, high-bandwidth usage requirements.               RFID is used as the sensor component, which
Adding the deficiencies of 3G/3.5G to the fact that             limits the service mostly to passive messaging. In
RFID detection is easily interfered and cut off, the            the     future,    active     sensor       component
paper recommends the use of WiMAX and ZigBee to                 implementations, such as ZigBee, can be
further strengthen the M-Customs application service.           considered. All imported cargos permitted to
WiMAX’s          high-bandwidth      and      ZigBee’s          clear customs will be attached with an electronic
auto-notification scheme in case of interference are            ZigBee seal. Vehicles installed with WiMAX
the correct remedies for the current technologies’              devices will then transmit real-time cargo
deficiencies.                                                   delivery status, such as seal condition or cargo
       As communication technologies continue to                state, detected by the ZigBee sensor back to the
improve, WMAN-based WiMAX technology is also                    central server through a WiMAX network. In the
starting to gain maturity and popularity. WiMAX is              case of any anomaly such as seal damage or
expected to become the mainstream wireless                      vehicle failure, the sensor could take a picture of
broadband technology in 3 or 4 years. Therefore, the            the exact moment of anomaly and retrieve
Customs should follow the trend and consider                    relevant information, then transmit the problem
integrating WiMAX into the existing M-Customs                   back to the central servers, all in real-time.
128              International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 8, No. 2 (2010)

(2) With the use of WiMAX, current image-based                   and sound: A wireless leash,” Proceedings of
    monitoring solution could be upgraded into a                 CHI, pp. 726-727.
    real-time video-based surveillance solution. IP        10.   Siau, K., Lim, E. P. and Shen, Z., 2001,
    Cameras can be installed inside cargo vehicles or            “Mobile commerce: Promises, challenges, and
    at important gateways. When the ZigBee sensor                research agenda,” Journal of Database
    detects any anomaly, the IP Camera will                      Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 4-13.
    automatically start recording live video and feed      11.   Siau, K. and Shen, Z., 2003, “Building
    the video data back to the central servers in                customer trust in mobile commerce,”
    real-time. If an official wishes to see a particular         Communications of the ACM, Vol. 46, No. 4,
    camera, he or she can also remotely start-up the             pp. 91-94.
    camera through WiMAX and start monitoring the          12.   Wagner, M., 2007, “Tracking service helps
    vehicle or gateway manually. Through the video               companies get a handle on Internet problems,”
    surveillance system, real-time videophone                    Computerworld; Vol. 30, No. 41, pp. 69-70.
    sessions with the drivers will be possible. Drivers    13.   Wu, S. T., Huang Y. J., Chung, K., Chu, J., Lee,
    can also use the devices in the vehicles to                  C. H., Tsai, E., Chen, J. and Lin H. H. 2008,
    retrieve the latest logistical and traffic status,           3G/Wi-Fi/WiMAX Innovative Application
    greatly increasing work efficiency.                          Services, Market Intelligence Center, Institute
                                                                 for Information Industry.
                REFERENCE                                  14.   Zhang, D. and Adipat, B., 2005, “Challenges,
                                                                 methodologies, and issues in the usability
1.    Abowd, G. D., Atkeson, C. G., Hong, J., Long,              testing of mobile applications,” International
      S., Kooper, R. and Pinkerton, M., 1997,                    Journal of Human-computer Interaction, Vol.
      “Cyberguide: A mobile context-aware tour                   18, No. 3, pp. 293-308.
      guide” Wireless Networks, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp.
      421-433.                                                    ABOUT THE AUTHORS
2.    Adner, R., 2006. “Match your innovation
      strategy to your innovation ecosystem,”              Lon-Fon Shieh is an Assistant Professor in the
      Harvard Business Review, Vol. 86, No. 4, pp.         Department of Business Management at National
      98-107.                                              United University (NUU), Taiwan R.O.C. He
3.    Carlson, C. and Walden, P., 2002, “The mobile        received his Ph.D. degree in Business Administration
      commerce: A summary of quests for                    at National Taiwan University of Science and
      value-added       products    and     services,”     Technology in 2004. He is a chief of information
      Proceedings of the 15th Bled Electronic              industry section in the Industry Development Bureau
      Commerce Conference, pp. 17-19.                      (IDB) in Taiwan. In particular, he is interested to
4.    Cheverst, K., Davies, N., Mitchell, K. and           research in Technology Management, Electronic
      Friday, A., 2000. “Experiences of developing         Business and Service Engineering.
      and deploying a context-aware tourist guide:
      The GUIDE project,” International Conference         Ching-Chiang Yeh is currently an associate
      on Mobile Computing and Networking, pp.              professor in the Department of Business
      20-31.                                               Administration, National Taipei College of Business,
5.    de Lussanet, M., 2002, “Mobile enterprise apps       Taiwan. He received his Ph.D. degree in Institute of
      need middleware,” The TechStrategy Report,           Business and Management, and MBA from National
      Forrester Research Center, pp. 6.                    Chiao Tung University, Taiwan. His research focuses
6.    Henley, J., 2002, “Building the case for mobile      on decision science, data mining, and management of
      business,” Global FO Agenda, pp. 46-47.              technology.
7.    Intille, S. S., 2002, “Designing a home of the
      future,” IEEE Pervasive Computing, Vol. 1,           Yi-Chuan Huang is an Industry Analyst of Market
      No. 2, pp. 76-82.                                    Intelligence & Consulting Institute (MIC) at Institute
8.    Kidd, C. D., Orr, R., Abowd, G. D., Atkeson, C.      For Information Industry. Her research domain is
      G., Essa, I. A., MacIntyre, B., Mynatt, E. D.,       Network Communications.
      Starner, T. and Newstetter, W., 1999, “The
      aware home: A living laboratory for ubiquitous       (Received December 2008, revised March 2009,
      computing research,” Lecture Notes in                accepted June 2009)
      Computer Science, Vol. 1670, pp. 191-198.
9.    Marmasse, N. and Schmandt, C. 2003. “Safe
L. F. Shieh et al.: An Implementation Model for M-customs in WPAN and WWAN Applications   129

                                 謝戎峰 1、葉清江 2*、黃怡娟 3
                                      苗栗市恭敬里聯大 1 號
                               台北市大安區信義路三段 41-3 號
                                台北市中正區濟南路一段 321 號
                            台北市大安區敦化南路二段 216 號 19 樓

         礎,以「生活實驗室」(Living Lab)之觀念,測試3G新技術在M-海關之應用上,找
         本研究另對使用WiMAX技術為通信技術框架基礎提供建議方向,協助未來的M -海關


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