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					ASEAN Secretariat


Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI)


Formulation of IAI ICT Programmes
                                Formulation of IAI ICT Programmes
                                          DRAFT Report




Contents
1 Introduction ............................................................. 1
  1.1       Purpose of this paper ..................................................................1
  1.2       Acknowledgements......................................................................1
  1.3       IBM’s role ....................................................................................1
  1.4       Structure of this paper ................................................................1
2 Background and objectives ..................................... 3
  2.1       The Initiative for ASEAN Integration ......................................3
    2.1.1         Narrowing the Development Gap ....................................................... 3
    2.1.2         The IAI Work Plan .............................................................................. 3
    2.1.3         The Phnom Penh Workshop ............................................................... 3
  2.2       Structure of work plan ...............................................................4
    2.2.1         Infrastructure ....................................................................................... 4
    2.2.2         Human resource development ............................................................ 4
    2.2.3         Information and communication technology .................................... 4
    2.2.4         Regional economic integration............................................................ 5
  2.3       Taking the Phnom Penh Workshop forward ...........................5
  2.4       The ICT priority area .................................................................5
  2.5       Approach to the project ..............................................................6
    2.5.1         Structure of programme proposals .................................................... 6
    2.5.2         Activities and Steps in the project ...................................................... 7

3 An evolutionary approach ...................................... 8
  3.1       Vision ............................................................................................8
  3.2       Statement of direction .................................................................8
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  3.3       Plan ...............................................................................................9
  3.4       Quick wins....................................................................................9
  3.5       Sustainability ...............................................................................9
  3.6       Design soundness .........................................................................9
  3.7       Terminology and graphics .......................................................10
4 Project plans .......................................................... 11
  4.1       Telecommunications framework (EFT/02/001) .....................11
    4.1.1         Agreed scope ....................................................................................... 11
    4.1.2         Objective ............................................................................................. 11
    4.1.3         Description .......................................................................................... 11
    4.1.4         Barriers and enablers ........................................................................ 18
    4.1.5         Scope.................................................................................................... 19
    4.1.6         Critical success factors ...................................................................... 20
    4.1.7         Assumptions........................................................................................ 20
    4.1.8         Risks .................................................................................................... 21
    4.1.9         Responsible Ministry ......................................................................... 22
    4.1.10        Sustainability ...................................................................................... 22
    4.1.11        Budget ................................................................................................. 22
    4.1.12        Management arrangements .............................................................. 23
    4.1.13        Managing short term achievements in a long term context ........... 23
    4.1.14        Deliverables ........................................................................................ 24
    4.1.15        Measures of success............................................................................ 25
    4.1.16        Linkages to other programs .............................................................. 25
    4.1.17        Principal tasks .................................................................................... 26
    4.1.18        Task Descriptions ............................................................................... 27
    4.1.19        Implementation .................................................................................. 28
  4.2       National ICT Master Plan (EFT/02/002) ................................29
    4.2.1         Agreed scope ....................................................................................... 29
    4.2.2         Objective ............................................................................................. 29
    4.2.3         Description .......................................................................................... 29
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  4.2.4        Barriers and enablers ........................................................................ 35
  4.2.5        Scope.................................................................................................... 36
  4.2.6        Critical success factors ...................................................................... 37
  4.2.7        Assumptions........................................................................................ 38
  4.2.8        Risks .................................................................................................... 38
  4.2.9        Responsible Ministry ......................................................................... 39
  4.2.10       Sustainability ...................................................................................... 39
  4.2.11       Budget ................................................................................................. 40
  4.2.12       Management arrangements .............................................................. 40
  4.2.13       Managing short term achievements in a long term context ........... 41
  4.2.14       Deliverables ........................................................................................ 42
  4.2.15       Measures of success............................................................................ 45
  4.2.16       Linkages to other programs .............................................................. 45
  4.2.17       Principal tasks .................................................................................... 46
  4.2.18       Task Descriptions ............................................................................... 47
  4.2.19       Implementation .................................................................................. 50
4.3       ICT Legislation (EFT/02/003) ..................................................51
  4.3.1        Agreed scope ....................................................................................... 51
  4.3.2        Objective ............................................................................................. 51
  4.3.3        Description .......................................................................................... 51
  4.3.4        Barriers and enablers ........................................................................ 57
  4.3.5        Scope.................................................................................................... 58
  4.3.6        Critical success factors ...................................................................... 58
  4.3.7        Assumptions........................................................................................ 59
  4.3.8        Risks .................................................................................................... 59
  4.3.9        Responsible Ministry ......................................................................... 60
  4.3.10       Sustainability ...................................................................................... 60
  4.3.11       Budget ................................................................................................. 60
  4.3.12       Management arrangements .............................................................. 62
  4.3.13       Managing short term achievements in a long term context ........... 62
  4.3.14       Deliverables ........................................................................................ 63
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  4.3.15       Measures of success............................................................................ 64
  4.3.16       Linkages to other programs .............................................................. 64
  4.3.17       Principal tasks .................................................................................... 65
  4.3.18       Task Descriptions ............................................................................... 66
  4.3.19       Implementation .................................................................................. 67
4.4       National Action Plan for ICT HRD (EFT/02/004) .................67
  4.4.1        Agreed scope ....................................................................................... 67
  4.4.2        Objective ............................................................................................. 67
  4.4.3        Description .......................................................................................... 67
  4.4.4        Barriers and enablers ........................................................................ 74
  4.4.5        Scope.................................................................................................... 74
  4.4.6        Critical success factors ...................................................................... 75
  4.4.7        Assumptions........................................................................................ 75
  4.4.8        Risks .................................................................................................... 76
  4.4.9        Responsible Ministry ......................................................................... 77
  4.4.10       Sustainability ...................................................................................... 77
  4.4.11       Budget ................................................................................................. 78
  4.4.12       Management arrangements .............................................................. 78
  4.4.13       Managing short term achievements in a long term context ........... 79
  4.4.14       Deliverables ........................................................................................ 80
  4.4.15       Measures of success............................................................................ 80
  4.4.16       Linkages to other programs .............................................................. 81
  4.4.17       Principal tasks .................................................................................... 82
  4.4.18       Task Descriptions ............................................................................... 83
  4.4.19       Implementation .................................................................................. 84
4.5       e-Government (EFT/02/005) ....................................................85
  4.5.1        Agreed scope ....................................................................................... 85
  4.5.2        Objective ............................................................................................. 85
  4.5.3        Description .......................................................................................... 85
  4.5.4        Barriers and enablers ........................................................................ 93
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   4.5.5        Scope.................................................................................................... 94
   4.5.6        Critical success factors ...................................................................... 94
   4.5.7        Assumptions........................................................................................ 95
   4.5.8        Risks .................................................................................................... 95
   4.5.9        Responsible Ministry ......................................................................... 96
   4.5.10       Sustainability ...................................................................................... 97
   4.5.11       Budget ................................................................................................. 97
   4.5.12       Management arrangements .............................................................. 98
   4.5.13       Managing short term achievements in a long term context ........... 98
   4.5.14       Deliverables ........................................................................................ 99
   4.5.15       Measures of success.......................................................................... 100
   4.5.16       Linkages to other programs ............................................................ 101
   4.5.17       Principal tasks .................................................................................. 101
   4.5.18       Task Descriptions ............................................................................. 102
   4.5.19       Implementation ................................................................................ 105

5 Integration considerations .................................. 106
 5.1       IAI and the ICT Sector ...........................................................106
 5.2       Connections within the ICT Sector .......................................106
 5.3       A plan for integration .............................................................108
 5.4       Core skills requirements .........................................................108
   5.4.1        Project management ........................................................................ 108
   5.4.2        Programme management ................................................................ 110
 5.5       National ICT Enhancement Programmes ............................111
 5.6       Managing integration .............................................................112
   5.6.2        Location of meetings ........................................................................ 113
 5.7       Costing the integration project ..............................................114
 5.8       Skills development...................................................................115
 5.9       Integration options ..................................................................115
   5.9.1        Option 1: Single program ............................................................... 115
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    5.9.2          Option 2: Coordinated support ..................................................... 115
    5.9.3          Option 3: Individual programs ...................................................... 116
    5.9.4          Summary of benefits ........................................................................ 117

6 Country considerations ....................................... 122
 6.1        Getting started .........................................................................122
 6.2        Establishing a national programme structure .....................123
 6.3        Managing the changes brought by ICT ................................123
 6.4        Providing support ...................................................................124
Annex A: National ICT Enhancement Programme126
    Objective ........................................................................................................... 126
    Description ........................................................................................................ 126
    Scope.................................................................................................................. 126
    Critical success factors .................................................................................... 126
    Assumptions...................................................................................................... 126
    Risks .................................................................................................................. 127
    Budget ............................................................................................................... 127
    Management arrangements ............................................................................ 128
    Deliverables ...................................................................................................... 128
    Measures of success.......................................................................................... 128
    Principal activities ............................................................................................ 128

Annex B: Programme assistance capability ........... 130
 Purpose ...............................................................................................130
 Scope ...................................................................................................130
    Coordination..................................................................................................... 130
    Advice ................................................................................................................ 130
 Resourcing ..........................................................................................130
 Measurement......................................................................................131
 Mechanism .........................................................................................131
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Annex C: Project Plans ........................................... 132
  Telecommunications Framework ....................................................132
  National ICT Master Plan ................................................................133
  ICT Legislation ..................................................................................135
  National Action Plan for ICT HRD .................................................136
  e-Government ....................................................................................137
Annex D: ICT Sector Programme Areas ............... 138
                         Formulation of IAI ICT Programmes
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1 Introduction
1.1 Purpose of this paper
The purpose of this paper is to describe in more detail how to carry forward the
information and communications technology (ICT) part of the Initiative for ASEAN
Integration (IAI) Work Plan for Narrowing the Development Gap within ASEAN. This
paper relates specifically to Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Viet Nam referred to
collectively as “CLMV”.

1.2 Acknowledgements
The production of this paper has been made possible through assistance of each of the
four CLMV countries and the ASEAN Secretariat. In particular a Design Workshop was
held in Jakarta between 8 and 10 April 2002. We are grateful for the participation of the
country representatives whose contribution and enthusiasm for the project was
invaluable. A list of the country representatives is at Appendix A.
In addition Mr Nguyen Minh Cuong, Dr Idros A Hamid, Dr Pola Singh of the ASEAN
Secretariat assisted with background information and briefings.

1.3 IBM’s role
IBM is pleased to be associated with the ASEAN Secretariat and the ASEAN countries.
As ASEAN’s technology partner, IBM’s role is to provide advice based on its global
experience both of the private sector and of trends in government policy and
administration around the world.

1.4 Structure of this paper
We have structured this paper into the following major sections:
 Background and objectives – this section describes the background to the current
  project and sets out the objectives. We also describe the approach we took.
 Project plans – there are five Project plans. Each is described in the common format
  agreed with the ASEAN Secretariat at the outset of the project.
   The five Projects are described in the following sub-sections:
   4.1    Telecommunications Framework
   4.2    National ICT Master Plan
   4.3    ICT Legislation
   4.4    National ICT HRD Action Plan
   4.5    e-Government



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   These subsections are designed to be read as stand-alone documents so there is some
   duplication between the sections. For example, the proposed management
   arrangements for each Project is the same but it is reproduced in each of the 5 Project
   Descriptions. Each of these Sections should, however, be read in conjunction with
   Sections 5 and 6 which describe the integration requirements.
 Integration considerations – the five programme plans are related. In this section we
  describe the linkages and connections between the five programmes and make
  observations and recommendations about how to manage the integration of the
  initiatives into a consistent and coherent programme. There are also integration
  considerations that relate to the other three IAI Workplan areas and we make
  comments about these.
 Country considerations – naturally the four CLMV countries have different
  requirements when it comes to implementation of the IAI ICT Programme. This
  section makes observations which are specific to each country.
 Management considerations – moving ahead with the IAI ICT Programme requires
  both comprehensive plans and a clear management (or governance) structure. In this
  section we expand on how the IAI ICT Programme should be managed at the country
  level, across CLMV and with the framework of relevant ASEAN agreements.
In addition there are a number of Annexes as listed on the contents page.




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2 Background and objectives
2.1 The Initiative for ASEAN Integration
2.1.1      Narrowing the Development Gap
At the Fourth ASEAN Informal Summit held on 22-25 November 2000 in Singapore, the
ASEAN Leaders agreed to launch an Initiative for ASEAN Integration (IAI), to give
direction to and to sharpen the focus of the collective efforts in ASEAN to narrow the
development gap within ASEAN as well as between ASEAN and other parts of the
world.
In pursuing the decision to launch the IAI, the Thirty Fourth Meeting of ASEAN
Ministerial Meeting (AMM) on 23-24 July 2001 in Ha Noi, adopted the Ha Noi
Declaration on Narrowing the Development Gap for Closer ASEAN Integration. The
Ministers agreed to devote special efforts and resources to promote effective cooperation
and mutual assistance to narrow the development gap among ASEAN Member Countries
for the sake of dynamic and sustained growth of the region and prosperity of its peoples.
2.1.2      The IAI Work Plan
Within this context, the IAI Work Plan for Narrowing the Development Gap within
ASEAN: Assisting New Member Countries was prepared with the aims of:
     reducing the development gaps among ASEAN Member Countries,
     expediting greater regional economic integration, and
     promoting equitable economic development and help alleviate poverty in
      Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Viet Nam (CLMV).
The IAI Work Plan for CLMV will focus on the priority areas of infrastructure
development, human resource development, information and communication technology
and promoting regional economic integration in the CLMV countries.
It is intended that the Work Plan be implemented over a six-year period. Annual reviews
will be carried out to allow necessary redirections of the programme objectives and
revisions of the programme outputs.
2.1.3      The Phnom Penh Workshop
In the light of the IAI and the Ha Noi Declaration, ASEAN convened a Workshop on
“Narrowing the Development Gap within ASEAN: Assisting New Member Countries”
on 20-22 November 2001 in Phnom Penh. At the IAI Workshop, the CLMV Member
States determined the priority development activities required to narrow the development
gap. The workshop adopted a prioritised IAI Work Plan for CLMV listing the essential
programmes and outputs to be implemented.




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2.2 Structure of work plan
The work plan comprise 4 separate priority areas each with a defined development
objective. These four areas are listed below with their development objective: this report
is about the third area – ICT.
2.2.1      Infrastructure
Development objective: To improve access to, efficiency and quality of transport and
energy infrastructure networks of Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Viet Nam in order
to enhance their regional economic competitiveness and integration.
2.2.2      Human resource development
Development objective: To increase human resource capacity in Cambodia, Laos,
Myanmar and Viet Nam with the aim to further economic growth and increase ASEAN’s
competitiveness
2.2.3      Information and communication technology
Development objectives
     To narrow the development gap and the digital divide within and among Member
      Countries by harnessing the full potential of ICT in accordance with the e-ASEAN
      Framework Agreement and its recommendations; and
     To expedite liberalization and facilitation of trade and investment in the ICT sector
      to ensure the widespread availability and use of ICT goods and services and to
      adopt concrete measures aimed at facilitating e-commerce in Cambodia, Laos,
      Myanmar and Viet Nam.
Recommendation principles
In this case the work plan proposes some recommendation principles:
     Follow developed countries best practices for legislation and regulation that are
      related to e-commerce but subject to the following attributes:
     Integration with appropriate programme since policy implementation in isolation
      are often unachievable;
     Consideration for sensitivity to local conditions, risks and constraints; and
     Include a strong innovative and opportunistic dimension rather than to repeat
      prescriptions those have been used elsewhere.
     Comprehensive and holistic approach taken which requires the involvement of all
      relevant agencies for maximum impact on national development. Prioritisation will
      be required on the basis of political will and resources availability.




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     Policy denotes any mechanism (regulatory, legislative, executive, etc) that does not
      require funding, and the term programme denotes any mechanism that requires
      either public or private, domestic or international funding or combination of either.
     Common ground of CLMV should be identified and included to develop
      programme areas, objectives and outputs of the Work Plan as far as possible.
     Programme outputs which are addressed by or included in existing ASEAN
      schemes on ICT should be highlighted to avoid duplication and improve
      coordination.
     The need to underscore the importance of private sector and measures to facilitate
      their participation should be reflected in the programme outputs as appropriate.
2.2.4      Regional economic integration
Development objective: Build institutional capacity and HRD in the ASEAN Members to
expedite their regional economic integration into ASEAN especially the ASEAN Free
Trade Area, the ASEAN Investment Area and liberalization of trade in services.

2.3 Taking the Phnom Penh Workshop forward
The IAI Workshop in Phnom Penh also agreed that there would be three main stages to
realize the Declaration on Narrowing the Development Gap for Closer ASEAN
Integration:
     Stage 1: Formulation of the Work Plan. This stage was completed with the
      formulation of the IAI Work Plan for CLMV at the Workshop in Phnom Penh on
      20-22 November 2001;
     Stage 2: Formulation of specific programmes and projects to implement the
      Work Plan. This is expected to be completed through a design mission and a
      formulation workshop in Vientiane to review and endorse the programme and
      project proposals formulated at the design mission; and
     Stage 3: Resource mobilization. This is expected to be carried out through an IAI
      Development Cooperation Forum for CLMV, where the formulated programmes
      and projects are presented to ASEAN Member Countries, Dialogue Partners and
      other potential donors for funding consideration.
Once the IAI Work Plan for CLMV was adopted Stage 1 was complete. This report is of
the project which tackled Stage 2 for the ICT priority area.

2.4 The ICT priority area
The Phnom Penh workshop identified 57 key projects to support the ICT priority area.
These 57 projects were grouped into 6 programme areas. The 57 projects and their
associated programme areas are listed in Annex D. Some of these projects were
identified as “high priority” meaning that the need to tackle them quickly and effectively
is urgent.


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In order to facilitate Phnom Penh Stage 2 (Formulation of specific programmes and
projects to implement the Work Plan), IBM and the ASEAN Secretariat agreed that we
should group the high priority projects into a revised set of Programmes. There are five
of these new Programme groupings respectively:
     Telecommunications framework
     National ICT Master Plans
     National Action Plan for ICT HRD
     ICT Legislation
     e-Government.
These Programmes are described in the appropriate section below.

2.5 Approach to the project
2.5.1      Structure of programme proposals
The objective of the current project is to formulate a high level programme proposals for
each of the above five groupings. Each of the five programme proposals is described
using the following template:




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2.5.2      Activities and Steps in the project
The overall approach to the project is illustrated in the picture. This also summarises the




deliverables that IBM was contracted to produce.


Activity 1: Design Mission
The project was to take the five Programme Proposals listed and subject them to further
design work prior to a Formulation Workshop to be held in Vientiane. The design work
took place between 8 April 2002 and 23 April 2002. The objective of the design work
was to analyse and assess these five Programme Proposals and to formulate the draft
Programme Proposals.
Activity 2: Formulation Workshop
The objective of the Formulation Workshop is to discuss and comment upon the draft
Programme Proposals before the proposals are finalised for presentation at the IAI
Development Cooperation Forum for CLMV.


The role of the consultant was to formulate the Programme Proposals by providing a
process and an approach to achieve these objectives and to actively facilitate that
approach.




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3 An evolutionary approach
Each of the five ICT projects is described in the following sections. Each is self-
contained in a separate section.
The plans associated with the projects are all based on the concept of evolution. This is
illustrated below.




                                                                                n
                                                                             Pla
                                                                      t er
                                                              T   M as
                                                         IC
                                                     nal
                                              N at io
                                      of
                                  ent
                              t em ct ion
                          St a dir e
                 Vision


                1 month

                          3 months
                                                                      Quick wins

                                            12 months



The illustration shows three basic steps in the development of the plans:

3.1 Vision
Develop a vision – the vision is like a picture. It captures something in a few words or
pages. It doesn’t contain everything but it does describe something to aim at.
A vision is a short (between 1 page and 4 pages long) paper which should be capable of
capturing the attention and imagination of senior people. Although it is a short paper it
requires careful research to take account of the wide ranging views which are usually
held on a given subject.

3.2 Statement of direction
Develop a statement of direction (SOD) – the SOD is like a play about the subject of the
picture. It contains more detail that the picture and it fleshes out key scenes. But it still
does not contain all the detail.
The Statement of Direction is a longer document – perhaps between 6 and 20 pages. It
amplifies the vision by setting out the main objectives of the subject. It will set out some



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principles which will apply to the implementation which will need to be taken account of
as the plan is developed.

3.3 Plan
Develop the plan – the plan is like the book about the play and the picture – it contains all
the detail.
The plan sets out the tasks to be performed, the dependencies and priorities of those
tasks, the resources required, the risks to be managed, how quality assurance is to be
performed, the budget and the management structure.

3.4 Quick wins
We anticipate that from the statement of direction task it will be possible to identify
“quick wins”. A quick win is a project which will deliver benefits quickly and which is
expected to carry manageable or low risk. A quick win project need not be big – in fact,
small projects are often better – but they can demonstrate early progress and as a result
help gain support for the main Project.

3.5 Sustainability
A key component of making the IAI ICT Priority Sector successful is the concept of
sustainability. Each project within the Sector must not only deliver a successful output
but it must also ensure that the project has an enduring impact on the development gap
within ASEAN. There are several ways in which the proposals in this report will ensure
the sustainability of the IAI ICT Priority Sector programme:
(a)     the establishment of an Integration Project (described in this Section) will mean
        that the outputs from each Project is consistent with the other Projects
(b)     the establishment of the CCLM Coordination Committee will mean that
        (i)    there is a mechanism for capitalising on commonalities to reduce duplication
        (ii)   there is a way that CLMV can, through the ASEAN Secretariat, make inputs
               to the other IAI Priority Sectors
(c)     the Programme Assistance Capability will help ensure consistency between
        Projects by maintaining documentation, standards and an Integration Project Plan
the individual country National ICT Enhancement Programmes will provide a clear focal
point for the work that needs to be done in each country.

3.6 Design soundness
The Vientiane Formulation Workshop Plenary Session called for soundness of design in
the Project proposals. We have met the requirement for design soundness in two ways:
      (a)      the Integration Project will ensure that linkages between the Projects are both
               understood and catered for


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    (b)    in the analysis of each Project we have shown the linkages with and
           dependencies on other Projects and IAI Priority Sectors.

3.7 Terminology and graphics
In this paper the following terminology has been used:
Term                    Definition                                    Symbol
Priority Sector         One of the four areas identified within the
                                                                         Programme 4
                        IAI Workplan
Programme Area          A unit of work listed within a Priority       (not used)
                        Sector
Programme Output        An element defined by the Phnom Penh          (not used)
                        Workshop. Programme Outputs are
                        grouped together into Programme Areas
Programme Proposal      A collection of Programme Outputs.            (not used)
                        There are 5 Programme Proposals within
                        the ICT Priority Sector
Project                 The work unit which implements a
                        Program Proposal. Also the work unit
                        which integrates the 5 Projects directly              5
                        associated with the Program Proposals.
Task                    An activity which is required to complete     When used to
                        a Project                                     complete the
                                                                      Project under
                                                                      analysis…

                                                                         2.4 Identify
                                                                          legislative
                                                                         constraints

                                                                      Reference to an
                                                                      activity
                                                                      dependency
                                                                      outside the
                                                                      Project

                                                                              2.6




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4 Project plans
4.1 Telecommunications framework (ETF/02/001)
4.1.1          Agreed scope
                                                                                            Category   Completion    Ref.
 No            Program Outputs to be covered by the Programme Proposals
                                                                                                         Period     Number

      Telecommunication policy frameworks including licensing, tariff, interconnection,
  1   standardization, frequency spectrum management, quality of services and consumer        PLC         2004      (3.1.a.1)
      protection [High priority]


      Study on existing regulatory frameworks to identify policy impediments that require    PRG /
  2                                                                                                       2003      (3.1.a.4)
      re-examination [High priority];                                                         PLC



      Policies and measures to allow multiple technologies to compete for communication
  3                                                                                           PLC         2003      (3.2.c.1)
      networks, services and access terminals, such as VoIP [ High priority] ;




4.1.2          Objective
To facilitate the development of a telecommunications infrastructure which enables
economic development through effective regulatory systems which manage convergence
and tariffs in the regional and national interests.
4.1.3          Description
Background
The backbone of the ICT revolution is telecommunications. Telecommunications,
together with the Internet, is the driver behind the establishment of the Global
Information Infrastructure (GII). Countries would wish to take advantage of the ICT
revolution to enhance economic growth and prosperity must both be able to access the
GII and to be able to harness the capabilities it offers.
Central to the GII are interoperable and interconnected communications networks. These
networks will be a combination of private and public networks providing services
whenever and wherever needed over a range of high to low speeds, allowing a variety of
uses, and capable of transmitting information in a combination of formats including text,
voice, images and video. These networks must incorporate agreed international technical
standards that will facilitate putting the network together and enable the pieces to work in
harmony.
The approach to the provision of national telecommunications capability has changed
radically over the last several years. Most countries in the world have a Ministry of Posts
and Telecommunications which is an indicator of the early view that posts and


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telecommunications were similar since they were both related to communication. As
telecommunications and computing has merged countries have needed to rethink their
approach to telecommunications so that they can ensure that they have access to cost-
effective and up-to-date technology. The prevailing view is that the private sector is
better equipped than the private sector to do this.
Lack of access to communication is seen as one of the factors that contributes to the
digital divide – the chasm between the information “haves” and the information “have
nots”. Although the average OECD country has roughly 11 times the per capita income
Asian country, it has 40 times as many computers, 146 times as many mobile phones, and
1,036 times as many Internet hosts (Pyramid Research, 2000).
The situation is even worse in relation to Africa. In 1999 there were only 1 million
Internet subscribers on the entire African continent compared with 15 million in the U.K.
Excluding South Africa, Africa generates a mere 0.02 percent of global Internet hosts.
A similar divide affects more traditional forms of II such as the posts, with more than 700
letters sent per person per year in the U.S., compared to less than one letter per person per
year in Chad.
Access to broadcasting services, such as radio and television, is more egalitarian,
although still very unequal. Residents of low income countries own 1.5 radios for every
10 people, compared to 13 radios per 10 people in high-income countries.
Inequitable patterns of access to II are also visible within countries. In Panama and South
Africa, house-holds in the wealthiest quintile are respectively 43 and 125 times more
likely to have private telephones than those in the poorest quintile. In Ethiopia, where
over 60 percent of the population is illiterate, 98 percent of Internet users have a
university degree. There are also significant access gaps between men and women and
between rural and urban populations. In China, for instance, 75 percent of Internet users
are men, and in India female participation in computer sciences courses in the country is
around 25 percent.
In 2001 IBM undertook an e-Readiness Assessment for the 10 ASEAN countries. The
Assessment made a comparison of each country’s ICT infrastructure capabilities. The




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results of this assessment are shown in the chart reproduced below.
Source: e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment, 2001
In order to harness the opportunities offered by the ICT revolution, CLMV countries need
to pick up on the trends in trend in telecommunications reform. According to the World
Bank (Sector Strategy Paper on Telecommunications, 2000), reform policy for
telecommunications is based upon a three-pronged approach comprising…
(a)   privatisation, to bring in additional capital and management skills
(b)   competition, to expand services and encourage efficiency; and regulation, to ensure
      fair competition, reasonable prices
(c)   universal access.
The Telecommunications Framework Project describes how CLMV countries should
tackle this challenge.


Assessment of frame of reference
The design workshop used a construct or process called a business box to analyse the
work to be done build their Telecommunications Framework Plan.
The business box looks at the current position and the desired position. A summary of
these positions is given in the illustration.




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More details of these positions for each of the CLMV countries is given in the tables that
follow.
The business box process then examines barriers and enablers.         A “barrier” is an
environmental circumstance over which a country has no or limited control and which
may tend to have a negative effect. An example might be the global economy when it is
in recession. An “enabler” is a positive force but again one over which a country no or
limited control – here an example might be other countries’ experience with ICT
development or the willingness of donor countries to fund ICT related activities. Barriers
and enablers are also listed below. Barriers are important because they help identify
risks.
The process then looks at the way in which progress from the initial to the desired state
may be measured – this assists in the identification of measures of success.
After these parameters have been explored the process turns to the identification of the
activities needed to change from the initial to the desired state.


Summary of countries’ initial and desired positions
Initial position                              Desired position
Cambodia
 Telco is both the Operator and               Internet Wireless Broadband access in
  Regulator                                     place in other main towns by 2004
 Now have 5 Mobile Networks                   Local sub-servers for low-cost local
  Services, with 4 Operators.                   dial-up in main towns by/in 2003
 Now have 3 Fixed Phone Operators –           VOIP to be operational and accessible
  1 public, 2 mixed (Joint Venture)             via a specific gateway by 2003
 The trend – new ISP to come                  Telecommunication Act will be passed
  (encourage the number of ISP) – Will          by/in 2003
  be Limited to 10. Currently there are 4      Open Market for more ISPs
  ISP providers.
                                               Stimulate Competition of ISPs for low
 Price – is based on cost. Rule on
                                                cost
  sharing facilities to reduce the cost for
  better price.                                Free connection to local residents
                                                within 10 KM radius of ISPs
 Have to ensure quality of service – by
  adopting the Interconnect Regulation.        Able to have Internet access to district
                                                of sub-district levels (e.g. Citizen
 Trend from fixed phone to mobile,             Centres)
  impacting interconnection cost, try to
  solve this.                                  Support “ARIX” Initiative
 Begin with new activity on allocating        Legal Framework for


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Initial position                            Desired position
   spread Spectrum to be applied for          Telecommunication
   wireless broadband Internet Access        Promote Freeware and Technologies
 Era of Convergence, VOIP is about to       Open Development to develop Local
  be launched to the market                   Contents
 WTO terms – quite different with the       Upgrade the use of
  concept of businessman. So still try to     Telecommunication throughout the
  assess.                                     country
                                             Provide widely available
                                              telecommunications with less charge
                                             Encourage the telecommunication
                                              through Community access points in
                                              district offices, commerce, schools
                                             Resource requirement for
                                              communication networks, services and
                                              access terminals
                                             Need of Head Quarter for
                                              communication network in Provincial
                                              Levels
                                             Need of expertise in
                                              Telecommunication Operation
                                             Exchange program for
                                              Telecommunication, which are
                                              developed by the regional group
                                             ISP Licensing: Trends to get and limit
                                              to a number of 10 within the next 5
                                              years
Laos
 Separated Regulatory and Operational       Provide high speed backbone up to 2.5
  functions:                                  GB/s
 Regulatory function, under the             Provide access to all districts
  Ministry of Communications,                 (Telephone and Internet)
  Transports, Post and Construction          Assure Universal service obligation
  (MCTPC)
                                             Affordable price of service
 Under Operation function, there are 4
  operators:                                 Increase access worldwide
      1 Joint Venture Co (Gov & Foreign

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Initial position                             Desired position
       Private Co), mobile, fixed line        Promote more competition
       operators and ISP                      Involve more private sector to industry
      2 State owned Co, mobile and fixed     Introduce new type of services
       line operators
                                              Gradually introduce IP Technology
      1 Fully Foreign Private Co, mobile
       operator                               Create robust regulations
 Tariff is cost base.                        More high bandwidth
 Funding through grand, aid, soft loan       More Telephone lines
  and government investment                   Tariff is not high
 Regulatory, enacted                         Telecommunication Infrastructure in
  Telecommunication Law on 25 April            rural, remote area
  2001, include very broad policy for
  sector development                          Establish ICT Network at Ministry,
                                               Provincial and District levels as well
 VOIP is not yet legally authorized.          as Educational Institution levels (from
 Under development of Telco Master            some secondary to higher educations)
  Plan.                                       Identify the need of each organization
                                               and private sector
                                              Develop and Implement the ICT Law
                                              Establish ICT Centre for Government
                                               official training
                                              Provide Scholarship for CIO
Myanmar
 Ministry of Post and                        MPT (Myanmar Posts &
  Telecommunication (MPT) – owned              Telecommunications) is now only the
  the national backbone with overseas          sole provider
  access; which provides ISP only             ICT Park is now established and start
 Regulators (PTD) is under the same           providing some services in parallel
  ministry with MPT                            (Encouraging Private Sector)
 High technology with VSAT                   TAR (Total Accounting Rate) is high
                                               now and trying to reduce in line with
 ICT Park which is moving to
                                               Global trend
  privatisation – offers Data and Voice
  (all electronic) – later on will have       Start launching VOIP Service for
  some services linking to other               international and with that low cost,
  countries thru VOIP. Buying time to          can reduce TAR and collection rate
  the national backbone for linking to        Encourage new technology and

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Initial position                             Desired position
   other countries. ICT Park does not          services, such as VOIP, HCDS (Home
   provide ISP.                                Country Direct Service), Prepaid Card
                                               System
 Tariffs for international call currently
  are very expensive, to be                   International and National
  revised/determined to be the same            Interconnectivity is good enough
  with ITU rates.                             Improve the Local line network for
 The International charges is high – try      high speed data with ADSL, HDSL
  to be the same with International            techniques
  Standard – by convincing the cabinet /      Install VSAT Hub Station for remote
  government
                                               area, and link all remote area with
 National and International                   Broadband
  connectivity is good enough / not so        Link with ASEAN Internet Exchange
  bad, submarine cable, do Internet
  broadband is easier                         Allow Privatisation and liberalization
                                               in Telecommunication field
 Tele-density is too low (0.6 out of 5
  million population); especially in the      Each 5 Year plan up to 30 years
  rural area;                                 Improve and advance
 6000 villages with no link (iPSTAR           Telecommunication Infrastructure in
  system)                                      2005
 Frequency spectrum management by            Meanwhile, 1108 channels to the
  Ministry of Post &                           world and will be increasing every
  Telecommunication                            year around 500 channels with
                                               submarine cable
                                              Expanding the Internet Back bone
                                               Bandwidth
                                              Install ISDN Link with other countries
                                               for high speed access
                                              GMPCS (Global Mobile Personal
                                               Communication System) also will be
                                               launched within 2002
                                              iPSTAR mini gateway (roughly cost 2
                                               m USD) will be installed within 2002
                                               for Rural Telephony
Vietnam
 Has separated the Regulatory and            Reduce price/cost
  Operational Functions                       High speed backbone network (NII) –
 Currently drafting the

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Initial position                            Desired position
   Telecommunication Law, expected to         Broadband service
   complete and be adopted by the            Telephone Density: 8 to 10%
   Government at end of 2002.
                                             More Competitions: New ISP and
 State owned, going convergence into         new Telecommunication Operators
  VOIP
                                             Involvement of Private Sector to
 US – Vietnam - Trade Agreement –has         participate into developing
  been approved by not yet implemented        Infrastructure
  – open to private sectors on value
  added services, maybe for the next 3-5
  years
 Until now, there are 4 mobile
  operators, 5 VOIP operators (All state-
  owned). The price is regulated by
  DGPT (fixed price – has tried to price
  based on cost. Costing issues.
 Universal services is Not yet
  implemented -> Universal Services
  Fund
 5 Telecommunication operators, 10
  ISP operators with national license
 Frequency Spectrum control by DGPT


4.1.4      Barriers and enablers
Barriers
     Lack of understanding from senior politicians and bureaucrats: commitment from
      senior people in government will be essential to successfully developing a workable
      and acceptable Telecommunications Framework Plan. A lack of commitment from
      these same senior people would be a significant barrier. It is important to ensure
      that senior politicians and bureaucrats understand the linkage between ICT
      development and telecommunication reform
     Change of government policies: governments change their policies for a number of
      reasons. This can throw carefully laid plans into disarray
     Limited resources: people, money, physical: this is a major barrier all over the
      world and even more so for CLMV.




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     State of the world’s telecommunications industry – this will impact either on the
      willingness of global operators to enter CLMV markets or on the willingness of
      funding agencies to back local initiatives
     Feasibility of addressing everything: the telecommunication reform agenda is large
      and complex…it may not be feasible to address everything.
Enablers·
     e-ASEAN framework: the e-ASEAN framework is a clear policy enabler which
      provides countries with an excellent incentive to act
     Expert assistance/experience: there is expert assistance available to exist both
      within and outside the region
     Best practice: there is a growing body of experience so that best practice can be
      used as a yardstick.       In particular there are clear global trends toward
      telecommunications reform (according to a recent International Telecommunication
      Union (ITU) survey, 28 more than 88 countries around the world have privatized
      the incumbent operator)
     Politicians’ commitment: in the light of world trends and the work of agencies like
      the World Bank and the International Telecommunication Union, politicians are
      increasingly aware of the need for reform of telecommunications
     Public awareness: the public is acutely aware of the Internet and what it might
      do…that awareness is a driver for universal access and lower prices
4.1.5       Scope
In scope
The following areas are considered to be in scope of the Telecommunications Framework
Project:
 The development of a plan for the reform of the telecommunications sector
 The development of a Universal Services Charter
 The establishment of a regulatory framework for telecommunications
 The definition of principles for telecommunications competition
 A review of the legal impediments to reform
Out of scope
The following aspects are not within the scope of Telecommunications Framework
Project:
 Drafting of legislation
 The implementation of the Telecommunications Framework Project:
 The development of policy on

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          Spectrum management
          Standards and technology
          Pricing
          Licensing
          Connectivity
          Convergence
4.1.6      Critical success factors
A critical success factor (CSF) may be defined as something which must go right if
something is to succeed. Conversely, if the CSF is not present then the associated
activity will almost certainly fail.
The following CSFs have been identified for this project:
     The plan must be attractive to the private sector: private sector support – both
      nationally and globally – will be critical. The plan will be in part aimed at
      generating interest from the telecommunications sector and the financial institutions
      that would provide finance for any ventures
     There must be political commitment at the highest level (that is, the Head of State
      or Head of Government)
     The plan must attractive to donor agencies to secure the funding necessary
      particularly for the subsequent reform agenda
     Acceptance by CLMV –regional (that is CLMV) integration is the aim of the
      IAI…CLMV must ensure that the respective country approaches are consistent and
      designed to maximise opportunities for each country
     All stakeholders must support the thrust of the plan. Key stakeholders in this
      regard include the Head of State, the Head of Government, Ministry Heads,
      ASEAN, the other CLMV countries, the private sector (nationally and globally),
      the public and the donor agencies.
     The plan must be capable of implementation. For example, a theoretically
      excellent plan which required more resource than could reasonably be found would
      not work and could not be accepted.
4.1.7      Assumptions
This plan is based on the following assumptions:
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment of IAI Programme (during Leader
      Commitment Summit in Brunei – which includes CLMV) remains in force
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment to the e-ASEAN Framework Agreement
      remains in place


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     The plan will be endorsed by the “plus 3” group of countries (Japan, Korea, China)
4.1.8      Risks
This section lists a few of the major risks to the project. A detailed risk plan should be
constructed when the Telecommunications Framework Project in each country is under
way.
Major risk                    Impact                          Mitigation
Loss of commitment of         Poor perception by global       Ensure that the linkages
politicians/senior            telecommunications              between
bureaucrats                   industry and financial          telecommunications
                              services industry on the        reform and economic
                              opportunity in the country      growth are clearly spelled
                              concerned                       out. This should be done
                              Lowered global perception       in the National ICT Master
                                                              Plan
Lack of understanding of      Inability to gain               Develop a clear and
politicians/senior            commitment                      focussed communications
bureaucrats                                                   plan which contains a set
                                                              of key messages targeted
                                                              at particular groups of
                                                              people.
                                                              Understand why
                                                              politicians/senior
                                                              bureaucrats may have
                                                              objections to
                                                              telecommunications
                                                              reform and develop
                                                              counter-examples and
                                                              arguments
Change in government          Earlier work and resources      Construct a plan that is
policy                        may be wasted                   modular so that
                                                              components can be re-used
                                                              or discarded independent
                                                              of policy
Inability to acquire          Inability to develop            Tailor the work to fit
necessary resources           workable                        reasonable resource
                              recommendations                 expectations
                              Inability to implement
The public are apathetic or   Inability to raise money        Develop a communication
opposed                       for a sale (if there is to be   programme using suitable
                                                              media – radio, television,

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             Major risk                        Impact                               Mitigation
                                               a public offering of shares)         advertising
             The scope of the plan             Inability to implement               Be very clear about the
             becomes too large for             Loss of quality                      boundaries of the project
             effective management                                                   at the outset.
                                                                                    Scale the project back to
                                                                                    fit within available
                                                                                    resourcing


             4.1.9          Responsible Ministry
             It is proposed that the country’s Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (or
             equivalent) should be responsible for this Project. Other Ministries, especially the
             Ministry of Industrial Development (or equivalent) and the Ministry of Science and
             Technology (or equivalent) would be closely involved. Ministries’ interests will be
             represented on the Project Steering Committee.
             4.1.10         Sustainability
             The Vientiane Formulation Workshop called for sustainable projects. Sustainability for
             this Project will be achieved through the establishment of a clear Project Management
             Structure acting under the coordination of the National ICT Enhancement Programme
             (which is described in Section 5).
             4.1.11         Budget
             The resources required to complete the project are a combination of international
             consultants and country specific experts. The following table summarises the estimated
             cost to acquire these resources as well as the associated travel and accommodation costs.
             This is a high level assessment of costs and the estimate will needs to be refined when
             developing the next level of the plan.


          Principal Task            W/M           Year 1              Year 2          Year 3        Total Total Cost Total Cost
                                   Rate or                                                          W/M      per        for
                                  Unit Cost                                                                Country    CLMV
                                              W/M      Cost        W/M     Cost     W/M     Cost
1.0 Contracted personnel            $12,000 76.25     $915,000      5.50 $66,000     0.00      $0 81.75      $981,000 $3,924,000
    (International Consultants)
2.0 Local experts personnel          $3,000 94.00     $282,000      6.00 $18,000     0.00      $0 100.00     $300,000 $1,200,000
    (CLMV)
3.0 Equipment                                  0.00           $0    0.00       $0    0.00      $0     0.00         $0        $0

4.0 Supplies and services                      0.00   $212,973      0.00       $0    0.00      $0     0.00   $212,973   $851,890



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5.0 Travel and DSA                            0.00        $848,725        0.00      $0     0.00   $0     0.00   $848,725 $3,394,900
    (Consultant & CLMV
    Resources)
                    Sub-Total              170.25 $2,258,698 11.50 $84,000                 0.00   $0 181.75 $2,342,698 $9,370,790




           4.1.12              Management arrangements
           The Management Arrangements are key to the success of this Project to ensure soundness
           of design, quality outputs and sustainable outcomes. The structure illustrated here was
                                ASEAN Leaders
                                                                agreed at the Vientiane Formulation
                                                                Workshop and describes the
              ASEAN Foreign                    ASEAN Economic
                                                                relationship    between     existing
                 Ministers                         Ministers    ASEAN political and executive
              ASEAN Standing                    Senior Economic
                                                                committees.
                 Committee                                       Officials
                                                                                 This subsection should be read in
                                          ASEAN                                  conjunction with Section 5 which
                IAI T askforce          Secretariat
                                         IAI Office                              describes a general structure for the
                                                                                 successful management of projects.
             CLMV Coordination
                                                                 e-AW G
                Committee                                     We have recommended in Section 5
                                                              that the ASEAN Secretariat should
           develop awareness and training modules on project management to assist countries in the
           implementation of the Projects.
           Each country’s Telecommunications Framework Project will have its own in-country
           Steering Committee. The Steering Committee will be chaired by a suitably senior public
           servant appointed by the Head of Government. Its role will be to:
                   Ensure that national needs are met
                   Ensure that the Plan will be attractive to the telecommunications industry, donor
                    agencies and other stakeholders
                   Advise and guide the project team in the development of the plan
                   Liaise with other CLMV countries on their progress and ideas
                   Accept the Telecommunications Framework Project Plan
                   Maintain linkages with the IAI task force and the e-ASEAN Working Group
           4.1.13 Managing short term achievements in a long term
           context
           The outputs envisaged by the Telecommunications Framework Plan Project are extensive
           and will entail long-term and sustained changes. National policy development may look
           ahead 20 years or more. Planning to achieve that policy is often broken down into
           shorter planning cycles – so we often hear or read of Five Year Plans. The planing cycle

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               3 – 6 years                 Review and                        Review and
                                           revise plan                       revise plan
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for a given initiative is best set by the country in the context of its own requirements.
The illustration below shows a view of policy development.


We anticipate that during the development of the vision, statement of direction and
planning phase for each of the projects that we will generate “quick wins”. In Section 3
we have defined a “quick win” as a project which will deliver benefits quickly and which
is expected to carry manageable or low risk. A quick win project need not be big – in
fact, small projects are often better – but they can demonstrate early progress and as a
result help gain support for the main Project. These quick wins will assist in the short
term implementation of policy bringing forward the benefits of the policies concerned.
We expect that the ASEAN6 countries will be an excellent source of quick win ideas.
4.1.14     Deliverables
While the major deliverable will be the Telecommunications Framework Project Plan
itself, there are also a number of other sub-deliverables or outputs. These outputs may be
added to by countries but should be considered as a minimum set.
          Output                               Success criteria
1.1       Legal implications                   A clear statement of likely legal
                                               implications arising from reform and a
                                               list of likely legal impediments
1.3                                        A paper which a CLMV the national
          A National Telecommunicationthat Section 6 describesdescribesICT Coordination
                                Note
          Visions                          vision would act as an interface between
                                  Committee which for the Telecommunications.
                                       ASEAN and the individual ICT Projects
                                               There should be supporting
                                               documentation relating to how will the
                                               country take the telecommunications
                                               forward and its contribution to the
                                               overall ICT development.
1.4       A national universal service         This will draw upon world’s best
          charter                              practice and describe the universal
                                               service obligations of providers and
                                               the rights of citizens in relation to
                                               access to telecommunications services.
                                               The charter may not be effective until
                                               a later date.
1.5       Principles for competition           A set of principles that describes how
                                               it is expected that telcos will compete.
                                               It should reflected a fair and open
                                               competition that encourage private


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          Output                             Success criteria
                                             sector involvement.
1.6       A regulatory body                  The establishment of an independent
                                             body that will regulate the
                                             telecommunications industry.
                                             The regulatory body may not
                                             necessarily be staffed at the end of the
                                             project but it will have been
                                             announced and legislation drafted to
                                             put it into effect
1.7       The Telecommunications             A plan which describes how reform is
          Framework Plan                     to be achieved


4.1.15     Measures of success
The following would be measures of success for Telecommunications Framework
Project:
     There is private sector support for the plan. This may be measured by the level of
      interest expressed by global telcos in any privatisation programme.
     The Head of State or Head Government has publicly committed to the reform
     Funding has been made available
     CLMV ICT Coordination Committee has endorsed each country’s plan
     There is evidence of widespread support for the plan – from the privates sector, the
      public and politicians
     The regulatory framework has attracted positive comment
4.1.16     Linkages to other programs
The Programme Proposal to create a Telecommunications Framework Plan is linked to
each of the other four ICT Programme Proposals. The Telecommunications Framework
Plan creates the framework in which the four other Projects do their work.
In the diagrams below the other Programme Proposals are illustrated as blue diamonds as
follows:
           1
                            1: Telecommunication Frameworks

           2
                            2: National ICT Development Master Plan



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            3
                                       3: ICT Legislation

            4
                                       4: National ICT Master Plans on HRD

            5
                                       5: e-Government


There is a separate section in this paper about the integration of the ICT Programme
Proposals.
4.1.17      Principal tasks
The diagram below illustrates the main tasks that need to be achieved to develop the
Telecommunications Framework Plan.             The diagram is an easy-to-understand
representation of the inter-relationships between the main tasks.

                                                                                                                      e-ASEAN
                                                                                                                      readiness
                                                                                                                     assessment
                                                                         Define
           3                                                            measures                      Monitor
                                          1.4 Develop                                                 progress
                                           Universal
                                        Services Charter
                                                                     1.6 Establish                               Adjust
          1.1 Identify legal                                         Appropriate                                  plan
           and regulatory                                             Regulatory
          impediments to                                               Regime
               Reform                                                                                                     1
                                 1.3 Develop National
 2                               Telecommunications              1.9 Develop                    1.7 Build National
                                        vision                   statement of                  Telecommunications
                                                                   direction                           Plan
                1.2 Seek Input
                from Private &
                                                                                 1.8 Align
                 Public Bodies
                                                                           Telecommunication
                                                                               Consumer
                                               1.5 Develop
                                                                            Protection with                           3
                                               Principles for
                                                                           existing Consumer
                                            Telecommunication
                                                                                   Law
                                               Competition

                     3




Sitting outside the main tasks is a set of tasks relating to measurement.
     Define Measurements: Detailed project specific measurement units (e.g.
      teledensity, internet penetration, etc), to be defined during the development process.
      The ASEAN e-Readiness Assessment will be a good source.
     Monitor Progress: Monitor the progress against the targeted measures.
     Adjust Plan: As with any other plan, there is a need to refine and adjust to
      incorporate the conditions and constrains found during the implementation and its


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      alignment with the targeted measures. This should be conducted in an iterative
      manner.
It will be necessary for the responsible Ministry to establish a mechanism for
measurement and to implement that mechanism.
Adoption of the evolutionary approach
The tasks required are based around the evolutionary approach described in section 3.
The following are the three main tasks associated with the approach:
          1.3     Develop National Telecommunications vision
          1.9     Develop statement of direction
          1.7     Build National Telecommunications Plan
4.1.18          Task Descriptions
1.1 Identify legal and regulatory impediments to Reform:
Identify the existing law and regulation that would potentially be an impediment to the
reform of telecommunications framework
1.2 Seek Input from Private & Public Bodies:
Understand both private and public sectors wants and needs.
1.3 Develop National Telecommunications vision:
Define a clear telecommunication vision, that is, a clear picture of how will the country
take the telecommunications forward and its contribution to the overall development of
ICT.
1.4 Develop Universal Services Charter:
Define the universal service obligations of providers in the country and the rights of
citizens in relation to access to telecommunications services
1.5 Develop Principles for Telecommunication Competition:
Define specific country principles for telecommunications, which are aligned with the
vision and direction contained in the National ICT Development Plan.
1.6 Establish Appropriate Regulatory Regime:
Establish an independent regime that will regulate the telecommunications industry. The
regulatory regime will be a separate body from the body that makes telecommunications
policy although both bodies may be responsible to the same Ministry. The responsibility
of the regulatory body is to regulate the telecommunications industry within national
legislation and the policy laid down elsewhere.




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1.7 Build National Telecommunications Plan:
Develop the national telecommunication plan to include the activities to be performed,
the dependencies and priorities of those activities, the resources required, the risks to be
managed, how quality assurance is to be performed, the budget and the management
structure.
1.8 Align Telecommunication Consumer Protection with existing Consumer
Law:
Ensure that the implications on consumer law are understood and communicated
appropriately.
1.9 Develop statement of direction:
Develop a statement of direction that amplifies the vision by setting out the main
objectives of the subject. Set out some principles that will apply to the development and
implementation of the telecommunications framework.
4.1.19     Implementation
The project will take approximately 280 days to complete with 9 associated main tasks.
Project plan is listed in Annex C.




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4.2 National ICT Master Plan (ETF/02/002)
4.2.1            Agreed scope
The following table contains the scope agreed to be covered by this Programme Proposal.


                                                                                                  Category   Completion    Ref.
 No              Program Outputs to be covered by the Programme Proposals
                                                                                                               Period     Number


        National ICT Development Master Plans consistent with the e-ASEAN Framework
    1                                                                                               PLC         2002      (3.2.a.1)
        Agreement [High priority]



        Establishment of national ICT body with a cabinet level representation, responsible
    2                                                                                               PLC         2003      (3.2.b.1)
        for the development and implementation of a National ICT Master Plan


        Policy measures to update and reinforce Intellectual property definition, protection
        and compliance, to encourage international and local businesses to develop locally
        relevant application and content. Key international intellectual property instruments:
    3                                                                                               PLC         2003      (3.2.a.2)
        Protocol to the Berne Convention; the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property
        Rights (TRIPS); the WIPO Copyright Treaty; and the WIPO Performance and
        Phonograms Treaty [High priority]
        Policies on e-commerce taxation and legislation issues ensuring neutrality between
        online and offline transactions, consistency with international standards and across
    4   tax jurisdictions to avoid double taxation, minimum compliance cost, transparency,          PLC         2003      (3.2.a.5)
        predictability, and simplicity; and compatibility with developing international work by
        groups such as the OECD [ High priority];




4.2.2            Objective
To develop and implement policies and legislation which encourage the growth of strong
national and regional ICT-based economies in Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam.
4.2.3            Description
The Okinawa Charter on the Global Information Society published in July 2000 by the
G8 observes that “Information and Communications Technology (ICT) is one of the most
potent forces in shaping the twenty-first century. Its revolutionary impact affects the way
people live, learn and work and the way government interacts with civil society. IT is fast
becoming a vital engine of growth for the world economy. It is also enabling many
enterprising individuals, firms and communities, in all parts of the globe, to address
economic and social challenges with greater efficiency and imagination.”
The ASEAN Framework agreement picks up this theme.                                                It sets objectives for the
ASEAN countries in five key areas:
       e-society
       e-commerce
       e-government
       infrastructure

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     liberalisation of trade in ICT goods and services
In 2001 IBM undertook an e-Readiness Assessment for the ASEAN countries against
these five areas. This assessment looked at the degree to which each of the ASEAN
countries were equipped to take advantage of the benefits offered by ICT in four of the
five areas. The picture below illustrated the relative preparedness of the 10 ASEAN
countries.




Source: e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment, 2001
The study observed that:
Two factors stand out as being critical to the development of an information economy:
     Infrastructure as the building block of ICT development.
     Human capability – The uneven availability of skilled workers and differences in
      skill levels across the ASEAN region can potentially hamper the growth of the
      region.
The report concluded that the key barriers to ICT development include:
     Lack of infrastructure
     Affordability and accessibility
     Awareness within the society and leaders
     Overall education levels and English language proficiency
     Lack of competitive on-line providers
     Transparency and lack of competition
     Lack of local content to drive demand for online access

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The National ICT Master Plans will be the vehicle by which each of the CLMV countries
breaks down these seven barriers.


Assessment of frame of reference
The design workshop used a construct or process called a business box to analyse the
work to be done build their National ICT Master Plans.
The business box looks at the current position and the desired position. A summary of
these positions is given in the illustration.




More details of these positions for each of the CLMV countries is given in the tables that
follow.
The business box process then examines barriers and enablers.         A “barrier” is an
environmental circumstance over which a country has no or limited control and which
may tend to have a negative effect. An example might be the global economy when it is
in recession. An “enabler” is a positive force but again one over which a country no or
limited control – here an example might be other countries’ experience with ICT
development or the willingness of donor countries to fund ICT related activities. Barriers
and enablers are also listed below. Barriers are important because they help identify
risks.
The process then looks at the way in which progress from the initial to the desired state
may be measured – this assists in the identification of measures of success.



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After these parameters have been explored the process turns to the identification of the
activities needed to change from the initial to the desired state.


Summary of countries’ initial and desired positions
Initial position                           Desired position
Cambodia
 National ICT Authority, chaired by        Standardization of Khmer Characters·
  PM (2000)·                                ICT Laws according to e-ASEAN
 Start e-Government with Korean             frameworks agreement·
  Assistance·                               Access of Telephone to communal
 Start from Phnom Penh: existing            levels (Presently, Wireless
  infrastructure – to province area ·        accessibility to all provincial towns)·
 Wireless Broadband in Phnom Penh,         Develop “Citizen Centre” at the
  by private sectors·                        district levels or Communal levels.·
 National awareness session on IT &        Develop Structure of the National ICT
  Society·                                   Authority·
 Open Telecom competition·                 National ICT Master Plan for HRD
 Education:                                  Increase the capacity of educational
      Information infrastructure               of educational institutions, e.g.
      Increased capital expenditure            Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary
      Build ICT centres (24 provinces)         levels to incorporate new curricular
 Legislation, Japanese funding·                that address new requirements
 Khmers/Unicode/Microsoft                    Establish IT Centre for provincial
                                                offices of the Ministry of
                                                Education. First priority for
                                                Educators and Teachers.
                                              Strengthen Capacity of educational
                                                Institutions, small business
                                                enterprise, ICT worker, policy
                                                makers and regulators on ICT. ·
                                            National Level
                                              IP based Network Platform –
                                                Optical Cable Ring for Main Zones
                                              Internet Exchanges -> Expansion of
                                                ISP ·
                                            Scholarship on ICT·
                                            Upgrade a curricular for IT National
                                             educational Institution and
                                             Technical/Software/development web
                                             designer.
                                            TOT programme for professional


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Initial position                            Desired position
                                              educators.
Laos
 High interest in development·              ICT Infrastructure in place
 Much planning in progress·                 All provinces connected to Internet (e-
 Lack of Infrastructure·                     Government, e-Education, and e-
 Lack of HRD ·                               Commerce)·
 by end of 2002 need to draft the cyber     Establish Certification Authority ·
  law (ASEAN), need external experts         Have:
   Issues- lack of resources in               National ICT Master Plan
      developing, lack of infrastructure·      Cyber Law, need external
 Banks start to use ATM·                         assistance
 Government directive in ICT was              Computer Crime, need external
  formed and focused on:                          assistance
   Grant privilege of introducing and         Computer Fraud, need external
      applying of ICT in the national             assistance·
      socio-economic development             e-payment, e-banking·
      strategy                               All TTC, Vocational and Technical
   ICT shall be applied in every             colleges, and Higher Education, and
      economic, cultural and social           some Secondary schools should access
      sectors as well as in the national      in ICT network.
      defence and security                   Big Programme in SchoolNet Project·
   Create favourable conditions for the     Implement e-farmer Project·
      application and development of         Develop Local Content·
      ICT through the National               Standardization of Lao characters code
      Telecommunication Network which
      is an important socio-economic
      infrastructure
   Develop Human Resource in the
      filed of ICT is key factor for the
      successful application and
      development of ICT
 Grant priority to ICT development ·
 Working with telecom development
  master plan (just started, will be
  completed in Oct 2002)·
 Telco Law in place, regulation in ICT
  is under consideration·
 ICT related Projects:
   Internet and Intranet in Ministry of
      Education
   MOE Master Plan
   Establish Internet and Intranet in


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Initial position                               Desired position
       MOE, now Intranet links with
       provinces·
       o Pilot in upper Secondary School;
           Some grant from JICA,
           Malaysia, French and ADB; 2
           Smart schools·
       o Internet available in National
           University
    Need external assistance to prepare
       the curriculum & to train the trainer
    External fund to provide computers
       in the schools, Start from
       University down
    Pilot project for 8 ministries with
       Intranet (Government Intranet
       under PMO provided access to
       LAN for those 8 ministries)
Myanmar
 In progress, start in 2000·                   Improve Infrastructure·
 Responsibility of e-National                  Telephone Density is incrementing
   Taskforce, in line with e-ASEAN               (mostly in rural area)·
   Framework ·                                  IT Master Plan is on going (Draft
 e-National Taskforce Chairman of               2000)·
   Taskforce are Ministry of Posts &            e-National Task Force is preparing ·
   Telecommunications, with delegation          Cyber Law to be finalized in 2003·
   from all Ministries·                         No privatisation yet – will be allowed
 Draft Plan are on approval process by          in the near future
   the cabinet·                                 In the mean time, computer and LAN
 Computerise Government                         Law are temporary law ·
   Administration·                              Desired Date 2003
 ICT committee (4 working groups)
    Infrastructure
    Legal
    Education
    Application·
 Widespread IT applications in
   Government
    Services & cost reduction·
 Widespread IT applications in
   Business and other sectors
    Productivity & services



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Initial position                              Desired position
Vietnam
 Work begin in 1998, now with version         TRIPS/WTO Requirements·
  9 (Ministry of Science &                     Cyber Law·
  Technology)·                                 Desired State 2004:
 Target set for 2005 to be at the level of      30% Population can access Internet.
  ASEAN average·                                 Education: All school & University
 Priority Areas:                                  with high speed connectivity
   Information Infrastructure (Posts,           2010 NII (National Information
     Telecommunications and                        Infrastructure) completely with
     Environment)                                  high speed backbone network,
   IT HRD (Minister of Education &                broad band services, low price·
     Training)                                 2002: Telecommunication Law·
   Promotion of IT Application to key         Standard – Use Unicode for
     economic sector (Banking, Finance,         Vietnamese character code. Start from
     Custom, etc.)                              1/7/2002: all Government office must
   IT Industry – HW&SW Industry                use for exchange of information. ·
     (Ministry of Industry, Ministry of        Law of Post and Telecommunication
     Science, Technology and                    has been implemented·
     Environment) (Resolution 7,               Internet Access for education:
     develop SW industry)                        100% Vocational Schools
   Computerize Government admin                 100% Universities
     (Prime Minister Office)                     70% Secondary Schools
   IT Policy & regulation·                      50% Lower Secondary Schools·
 Possibly form a new government               Local Content Internet Use·
  agency                                       Build Back Bone for EduNet·
                                               Community access points in post
                                                offices spread out to large rural and
                                                remote areas


4.2.4       Barriers and enablers
Barriers
     Lack of understanding from senior politicians and bureaucrats: commitment from
      senior people in government will be essential to successfully developing a workable
      and acceptable National ICT Plan. A lack of commitment from these same senior
      people would be a significant barrier. With so much going on, it is easy for
      politicians and senior public servants to focus on other issues
     Change of government policies: governments change their policies for a number of
      reasons. This can throw carefully laid plans into disarray




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     Limited resources: people, money, physical: this is a major barrier all over the
      world and even more so for CLMV.
     Public perception – privacy, security: public perception needs to be managed.
      Particularly in the e-Government area the public may be very sensitive to their
      information being manipulated without their being fully informed
     Feasibility of addressing everything: ICT and ICT economic development is a
      huge subject…it may not be feasible to address everything.
Enablers·
     e-ASEAN framework: the e-ASEAN framework is a clear policy enabler which
      provides countries with an excellent incentive to act
     Expert assistance/experience: there is expert assistance available to exist both
      within and outside the region
     Best practice: there is a growing body of experience so that best practice can be
      used as a yardstick
     Politicians’ commitment: because politicians are generally focused on jobs and the
      economy, ICT development is generally an area of commitment. Announcements
      like the G8 Okinawa Charter are also major enablers
     Public awareness: the public is acutely aware of the Internet and what it might
      do…that awareness is a driver for change
4.2.5       Scope
In scope
The following areas are considered to be within the scope of the National ICT Master
Plan project:
     The research and writing of the National ICT Master Plan
     The establishment of a national body to oversee the development and subsequent
      implementation of the National ICT Master Plan
     Descriptions of the following policy topics would be addressed within the plan:
           Language, customs and culture
           e-commerce policy
           Local ICT industry development
           Education
           Health and welfare
           e-Government
           Connectivity


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          Infrastructure
Out of scope
The following aspects are not within the scope of the National ICT Master Plan project:
     The implementation of the National ICT Master Plan
     The implementation of any of the policies called for by the National ICT Master
      Plan, nor does it include the development of rules and regulations associated with
      the policies.
     The design and/or implementation or any policy associated with the other
      programme areas identified by the Phnom Penh Workshop
4.2.6      Critical success factors
A critical success factor (CSF) may be defined as something which must go right if
something is to succeed. Conversely, if the CSF is not present then the associated
activity will almost certainly fail.
The following CSFs have been identified for this project:
     The plan must be attractive to the private sector: private sector support – both
      nationally and globally – will be critical. The plan will be in part aimed at
      generating inward investment and this investment will almost all come from the
      private sector
     There must be political commitment at the highest level (that is, the Head of State
      or Head of Government)…implementation of the plan will depend upon some
      reallocation of resources and this will require senior political decision making
     The plan must attractive to donor agencies to secure the funding necessary
      particularly for subsequent implementation
     Acceptance by CLMV – each of the countries must endorse one another’s National
      ICT Master Plans. Regional (that is CLMV) integration is the aim of the IAI…ICT
      planning must be a foundation stone for that integration
     All stakeholders must support the thrust of the plan. Key stakeholders in this
      regard include the Head of State, the Head of Government, Ministry Heads,
      ASEAN, the other CLMV countries, the private sector (nationally and globally),
      the public and the donor agencies.
     The linkage to economic development (part of the engine of economic growth)
      must be apparent. It must be clear from the National ICT Master Plan that
      enhanced economic activity will be forthcoming.
     The plan must be capable of implementation. For example, a theoretically
      excellent plan which required more resources than could reasonably be found
      would not work and could not be accepted.



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4.2.7      Assumptions
This plan is based on the following assumptions:
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment of IAI Programme (during Leader
      Commitment Summit in Brunei – which includes CLMV) remains in force
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment to the e-ASEAN Framework Agreement
      remains in place
     The plan will be endorsed by the “plus 3” group of countries (Japan, Korea, China)
4.2.8      Risks
This section lists a few of the major risks to the project. A detailed risk plan should be
constructed when the National ICT Master Pan Development Project in each country is
under way.
Major risk                   Impact                        Mitigation
Loss of commitment of        Inability to mobilise         Ensure that the reasons
politicians/senior           resource                      behind the need for the
bureaucrats                  Loss of economic              National ICT Master Plan
                             opportunity                   are explained and ensure
                                                           that the economic benefits
                             Lowered global perception
                                                           are clearly described.
Lack of understanding of     Inability to gain             Develop a clear and
politicians/senior           commitment                    focussed communications
bureaucrats                                                plan which contains a set
                                                           of key messages targeted
                                                           at particular groups of
                                                           people.
                                                           Understand why
                                                           politicians/senior
                                                           bureaucrats may have
                                                           objections to the National
                                                           ICT Master Plan and
                                                           develop counter-examples
                                                           and arguments
Change in government         Earlier work and resources    Focus on the basic issues
policy                       may be wasted                 that are likely to be
                                                           common across policy
                                                           change
Inability to acquire         Inability to develop          Tailor the work to fit
necessary resources          workable                      reasonable resource
                             recommendations               expectations


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Major risk                    Impact                       Mitigation
                              Inability to implement
The public are apathetic or   Inability to implement       Develop a communication
opposed                                                    programme using suitable
                                                           media – radio, television,
                                                           advertising
The scope of the plan         Inability to implement       Be very clear about the
becomes too large for                                      boundaries of the project
effective management                                       at the outset. Scale the
                                                           project back to fit within
                                                           available resourcing


4.2.9      Responsible Ministry
It is proposed that the country’s Ministry of Industrial Development (or equivalent)
should be responsible for this Project. The Prime Minister’s Office (or equivalent) would
also need to take a very special interest and other Ministries will have a contribution to
make. Ministries’ interests will be represented on the Project Steering Committee.
4.2.10     Sustainability
The Vientiane Formulation Workshop called for sustainable projects. Sustainability for
this Project will be achieved through the establishment of a clear Project Management
Structure acting under the coordination of the National ICT Enhancement Programme
(which is described in Section 5).




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             4.2.11         Budget
             The resources required to complete the project are a combination of international
             consultants and country specific experts. The following table summarises the estimated
             cost to acquire these resources as well as the associated travel and accommodation costs.
             This is a high level assessment of costs and the estimate will needs to be refined when
             developing the next level of the plan.


          Principal Task            W/M         Year 1       Year 2      Year 3    Total Total Cost Total Cost
                                   Rate or                                         W/M      per        for
                                  Unit Cost W/M     Cost  W/M    Cost  W/M Cost           Country    CLMV
1.0 Contracted personnel            $12,000 45.88 $550,500 0.00      $0 0.00    $0 45.88 $550,500 $2,202,000
    (International Consultants)
2.0 Local experts personnel         $3,000 70.50   $211,500   0.00    $0   0.00   $0 70.50     $211,500    $846,000
    (CLMV)
3.0 Equipment                               0.00        $0    0.00    $0   0.00   $0    0.00         $0         $0

4.0 Supplies and services                   0.00   $133,678   0.00    $0   0.00   $0    0.00   $133,678    $534,711

5.0 Travel and DSA                          0.00   $574,778   0.00    $0   0.00   $0    0.00   $574,778 $2,299,110
    (Consultant & CLMV
    Resources)
                    Sub-Total             116.38 $1,470,455   0.00    $0   0.00   $0 116.38 $1,470,455 $5,881,821




             4.2.12         Management arrangements
             The Management Arrangements are key to the success of this Project to ensure soundness
                                 ASEAN Leaders
                                                                of design, quality outputs and
                                                                sustainable outcomes. The structure
                ASEAN Foreign                   ASEAN Economic
                                                                illustrated here was agreed at the
                   Ministers                       Ministers    Vientiane Formulation Workshop
                ASEAN Standing                  Senior Economic
                                                                and describes the relationship
                  Committee                         Officials   between existing ASEAN political
                                      ASEAN
                                                                and executive committees. This
                 IAI T askforce     Secretariat                 subsection should be read in
                                     IAI Office
                                                                conjunction with Section 5 which
               CLMV Coordination                                describes a general structure for the
                                                    e-AW G
                  Committee                                     successful management of projects.
             We have recommended in Section 5 that the ASEAN Secretariat should develop
             awareness and training modules on project management to assist countries in the
             implementation of the Projects.



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Each country’s National ICT Master Plan Development Project will have its own in-
country Steering Committee. The Steering Committee will be chaired by a suitably
senior public servant appointed by the Head of Government. Its role will be to:
        Ensure that national needs are met
        Ensure that the Plan will be attractive to donor agencies and other stakeholders
        Advise and guide the project team in the development of the plan
        Liaise with other CLMV countries on their progress and ideas
        Accept the National ICT Master Plan
        Maintain linkages with the IAI task force and the e-ASEAN Working Group
4.2.13 Managing short term achievements in a long term
context
The outputs envisaged by National ICT Master Plan Development Project are extensive
and will entail long-term and sustained changes. National policy development may look
ahead 20 years or more. Planning to achieve that policy is often broken down into
shorter planning cycles – so we often hear or read of Five Year Plans. The planing cycle
for a given initiative is best set by the country in the context of its own requirements.
The illustration below shows a view of policy development.


                  Period 1          Period 2                                    Period n

    3 – 6 years                Review and                Review and
                               revise plan               revise plan


We anticipate that during the development of the vision, statement of direction and
planning phase for each of the projects that we will generate “quick wins”. In Section 3
we have defined a “quick win” as a project which will deliver benefits quickly and which
is expected to carry manageable or low risk. A quick win project need not be big – in
fact, small projects are often better – but they can demonstrate early progress and as a
result help gain support for the main Project. These quick wins will assist in the short
term implementation of policy bringing forward the benefits of the policies concerned.
We expect that the ASEAN6 countries will be an excellent source of quick win ideas.




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4.2.14     Deliverables
While the major deliverable will be the National ICT Master Plan itself, there are also a
number of other sub-deliverables or outputs. These outputs may be added to by countries
but should be considered as a minimum set.
Related Output                                        Success criteria
Tasks
2.2       Language, customs and culture
          A statement which underscores the           Provides a clear backdrop of
          importance of language, customs and         the things that are important to
          culture in the digital age.                 national identity in a global
                                                      world. Should also refer to the
                                                      need standardization national
                                                      character codes for
                                                      international adoption (referred
                                                      to again below)
2.2       e-commerce policy
          Principles under which e-commerce           Sufficient for the work pf
          policy and legislation will be developed    Programme Proposal 3 (ICT
                                                      Legislation) to be effective.
                                                      Output will address at least:
                                                       Intellectual property (IP)
                                                        policy (particularly in regard
                                                        to the Berne Convention, the
                                                        Trade Related Aspects of IP
                                                        Rights (TRIPS), the WIPO
                                                        Copyright Treaty and the
                                                        WIPO Performance and
                                                        Phonogram Treaty
                                                       Taxation policy in terms of
                                                        international standards and
                                                        tax treatment across tax
                                                        jurisdictions to avoid double
                                                        taxation
                                                       Privacy policy to address
                                                        personal privacy protection
                                                        and the establishment of a
                                                        privacy commission or
                                                        similar body


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Related Output                                       Success criteria
Tasks
                                                      Financial transactions and
                                                       the principles for ensuring
                                                       neutrality between on-line
                                                       and off-line transactions
                                                      Cyber-crime and the way in
                                                       which it will be expected to
                                                       be treated
2.2       Local ICT industry development
          Policy statement for local ICT industry    The policy should describe the
          development.                               importance of local industry in
                                                     the ICT economy. It should
                                                     describe how small to medium
                                                     enterprises (SMEs) in the
                                                     software and related industries
                                                     will be incentivised. It should
                                                     also seek to encourage the
                                                     establishment of a strong sector
                                                     developing local content. The
                                                     policy should also describe
                                                     measures to accelerate
                                                     standardization of national
                                                     character codes for
                                                     international adoption.
2.2       Education
          A set of principles against which policy   Sufficient for the work of
          relating to education and training, both   Programme Proposal 4 to be
          academic and vocational.                   effective. Output will address
                                                     the areas of academic and
                                                     vocational training. Output
                                                     will also make observations
                                                     about the quantity of skilled
                                                     resources – by industry sector –
                                                     that are forecast to be needed
                                                     over the next 5 years Will
                                                     consider schools, colleges, the
                                                     workforce and training of
                                                     trainers and educators.



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Related Output                                        Success criteria
Tasks
2.2       Health and welfare
          A set of principles relating to the         Sufficient to enable
          provision of health and social welfare      Programme Proposals 3 (ICT
          services on line.                           Legislation) and 5 (e-
                                                      Government) to proceed. Must
                                                      also lay the foundation for
                                                      telemedicine and the on-line
                                                      provisions of welfare services.
                                                      It will address questions of
                                                      equity of access in general and
                                                      deal will the rights and
                                                      obligations of health care
                                                      providers (doctors, hospitals,
                                                      etc) and patients.
2.2       e-Government
          A set of principles relating to the         Sufficient to enable
          provision of government services on line.   Programme Proposal 5 (e-
                                                      Government) to proceed. Will
                                                      address issues of privacy,
                                                      security of information,
                                                      collaboration with the private
                                                      sector and integration within
                                                      government.
2.2       Connectivity
          A set of targets associated with            Sufficient to enable
          connectivity in terms of telephones and     Programme Proposals 1
          the Internet.                               (Telecommunication
                                                      Framework) and 4 (National
                                                      Action Plan on HRD for ICT)
                                                      to proceed. Must state targets
                                                      for Internet access and tele-
                                                      density by geographic area.
2.2       Infrastructure
          A description of the importance of a good Will act as input to the work on
          physical infrastructure to the            IAI Programme Area 1
          development of an ICT economy.            (Infrastructure)



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4.2.15     Measures of success
The following would be measures of success for the National ICT Master Plan project:
     There is private sector support for the plan as evidenced by public support by
      leading business figures
     The Head of State or Head Government has publicly committed to the reform
     The National ICT Coordinating Body is established and accepted by all Ministries
     Funding has been made available
     CLMV ICT Coordination Committee has endorsed each country’s plan
4.2.16     Linkages to other programs
The Programme Proposal to create a National ICT Master Plan is linked to each of the
other four ICT Programme Proposals. The National ICT Master Plan creates the
framework in which those four other Programme Proposals do their work.
In the diagrams below the other Programme Proposals are illustrated as blue diamonds as
follows:
           1
                           1: Telecommunication Frameworks

           2
                           2: National ICT Development Master Plan

           3
                           3: ICT Legislation

           4
                           4: National ICT Master Plans on HRD

           5
                           5: e-Government


There is a separate section in this paper about the integration of the ICT Programme
Proposals. These address the links 6a and 6b in the diagrams below. 6a covers
integration between the ICT programmes and with other IAI programmes. 6b covers
integration between CLMV countries within the ICT programmes.




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4.2.17          Principal tasks
The diagram below illustrated the main tasks that need to be achieved to develop the
National ICT Master Plan. The diagram is an easy-to-understand representation of the
inter-relationships between the main tasks.

                                                                 6a
                         1
                                      2.1 Coordinate                   6b                       e-ASEAN
                                      ICT policy and                                            readiness
                  3
                                         direction                                             assessment

          4                                                                     Define
                                                       2.3 Procure             measures
                             2.2 Build the                experts
                                                                                              Monitor
                             national ICT              (studies etc)
    5                                                                                         progress
                                 plan

                                                                  2.5 Do
                                                               awareness and
              2.4 Identify
                                                              communication
               legislative                                                                Adjust
              constraints                  2.6                                             plan
                                      Implement
                                       quick wins

          3




Sitting outside the main tasks is a set of tasks relating to measurement.
       Define Measurements: Detailed project specific measurement units (e.g.
        teledensity, internet penetration, etc), to be defined during the development process.
        The ASEAN e-Readiness Assessment will be a good source.
       Monitor Progress: Monitor the progress against the targeted measures.
       Adjust Plan: As with any other plan, there is a need to refine and adjust to
        incorporate the conditions and constrains found during the implementation and its
        alignment with the targeted measures. This should be conducted in an iterative
        manner.
It will be necessary for the responsible Ministry to establish a mechanism for
measurement and to implement that mechanism.




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Adoption of the evolutionary approach
The tasks required are based around the evolutionary approach described in section 3.
The following are the main tasks associated with the approach:
          2.2.1     Build Vision
          2.2.2. Statement of Direction
          2.1       Coordinate ICT Policy and Direction
          2.2       Build the National ICT Plan


4.2.18          Task Descriptions
2.1 Coordinate ICT policy and direction
The key tasks are illustrated below.                     Broadly this task ensures that due process is
followed in acquiring resources.


                                            2.1.1 Establish
           2.1.2 Manage                           ICT
           stakeholders                     coordination
                                               structure
                                                                    2.1.3 Maintain
                                                                       strategy

                  2.1.5 Liaise            2.1.6 Liaise
                  with other              with donor
                   countries               countries
                                                                      2.1.4 Acquire
                                                                       resourcing

                                       2.1.7 Maintain
                                          finances




2.1.1 Establish ICT coordination structure, which will involve:
               developing and agreeing the terms of reference
               designing the organisational structure, numbers of staff and their roles and
                responsibilities
               recruiting staff to fill the structure
               developing a strategy and plan for the new body or department
      The following outline structure might be considered:




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                       Head of National ICT Body



          Comms      Strategy Resourcing International Financing
          and
          liaison


2.1.2 Manage stakeholders, which means establishing procedures for communicating
      with the relevant Minister, with other Ministries, donor agencies and external
      organisations within the country.
2.1.3 Maintain strategy, which means developing and maintaining a workplan for the
      department
2.1.4 Acquire resourcing, which means ensuring that there is adequate resource to carry
      out the department’s role
2.1.5 Liaise with other countries, which means establishing links with ASEAN and other
      countries to share matters of mutual ICT interest
2.1.6 Liaise with donor countries, which means co-ordinating ICT relationships with
      donor countries
2.1.7 Maintain finances, which means maintaining the departmental finances.




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2.2 Build the national ICT plan
The next diagram illustrates the tasks needed to build the plan itself.


                  3
       4                              5              3
                             1                                 1
                                              4
 5

                                                                                                  2.6
           2.2.1 Build                                                   2.2.4 Review                                                   2.2.6
             Vision                           2.2.2                        Priorities                                             Integration into
                                          Statement of                                                2.2.5 Review                    the Plan
 2.3                                        Direction                                                Implementation
                         3                                                              1               Options


                                              2.2.3.7Build policy for
             2.2.3.1 Build policy for                                         2.2.3.4 Build policy for         2.2.3.8Build policy for
                                              Language, custom and
                  e-Commerce                                                    Telco Framework                 Health and Welfare
                                                      culture
                                                  2.2.3.5 Build policy
               2.2.3.2 Build policy                                               2.2.3.6 Build policy        2.2.3.3 Build policy for
                                                  for Local Industry
               for e-Government                                                    for Infrastructure                  HRD
                                                     Development


                         5                           Programme 4             1           Programme 1              Programme 2               4

There is a high degree of interaction between (2.2) Conduct research and (2.3) Procure
experts.
We anticipate that the policy research required for the development of the plan will be
undertaken by external experts.
There are two threads to the overall approach:
(a)    The evolutionary approach is reflected in the vision/statement of direction/plan
       sequence of activities. In this thread it will be necessary to review national
       priorities before looking at implementation options. Priorities will be those things
       that are right at the time, social, economic or cultural and the decision making
       process will take account of them.
(b)    Separate policy papers will need to be produced in a number of areas likely to be
       impacted by ICT. We have recommended 8 such areas:
       (i)               e-commerce
       (ii)              e-Government
       (iii)             Language culture and culture
       (iv)              Local industry development
       (v)               Telecommunications
       (vi)              Infrastructure (physical and data)


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      (vii)    Health and welfare
      (viii) Human resource development
2.3 Conduct research
Conduct policy research, looking at best practices that potentially can be modified to
meet the country specific requirements. We anticipate that the policy research required
for the development of the plan will be undertaken by external experts.
2.4 Identify legislative constraints
It will be necessary to construct a paper which describes any legislative or regulatory
impediments to the development of the National ICT Master Plan. The planners will
need to determine whether the Plan calls for those constraints to be lifted through
legislative or regulatory reform or whether they are matters relating to the national
interest and should therefore be factored into analysis and conclusions.
2.5 Do awareness and communication
Maintaining communication will be essential to the success of the plan and the new
National ICT Body should develop a plan as soon as possible. The Communications Plan
should describe what messages will be targeted at what people via which media (radio,
television, advertising, etc).
2.6 Implement quick wins
The National ICT Body should be continually looking for “quick wins”, that is, initiatives
which can be started and finished quickly and then used to show the value of the program
as a whole.


4.2.19        Implementation
The project will take approximately 190 days to complete with 6 associated main tasks.
Project plan is listed in Annex C.




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4.3 ICT Legislation (ETF/02/003)
4.3.1         Agreed scope

    No        Program Outputs to be covered by Programme Proposals                    Category   Completion    Ref.
                                                                                                   Period     Number
     1.   Legislations which include regulations on web contract, digital               PLC        2003
          signatures, encryption security and legal validity of digital information                           (3.2a.3)
          measures conforming to e-ASEAN measures such as Common
          Reference Framework for Legal Infrastructure, Certification of
          Interoperability framework, Electronic Payments and Clearance
          framework etc [ High priority];

     2.   Legislations to cover regulations and enforcement against cyber crimes,     PRG/PLC      2003       (3.2a.4)
          hacking, denial of service and other cyber crimes, without imposing
          unreasonable burdens on the industry, and unnecessary infringements
          on users’ privacy rights [ High priority];




4.3.2         Objective
To lay out a clear and measurable plan to review existing legislation and regulation with
a view to developing regionally harmonised ICT legislation that encourages (is neutral to)
e-commerce and the growth of a digital economy and which protects individual privacy,
identity and well-being.
4.3.3         Description
Background
The changes in ICT – and especially the Internet – are the drivers for the development of
the digital society in general and, in particular, for e-commerce. These changes may be
either constrained or encouraged by the legislative and regulatory framework in a given
country1.
With e-commerce – and e-government – the electronic medium is a substructure for
paper. Yet the very fabric of a computer document is fundamentally different from
paper. The electronic document sits in a computer disk as a string of bits until it is
printed off…there is no signature in the classical sense so can we safely assume that a the
print out we see is really a replica of an electronic document. With paper we could see
the medium for storage and the contents and tell that a human hand had been applied.
Above all, paper is centuries old – we are used to it. The electronic age is new – we need
to come to terms with it and we need to ensure that the right legislation and regulations
are in place to protect people, businesses and governments.



1
         The e-ASEAN Reference Framework for Electronic Commerce and Legal Infrastructure (2001) is
a very useful document is providing background, explaining the issues and giving examples.

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An ICT legislative framework, however, must not constrain the conduct of business
through an electronic medium. Neither must it disadvantage those who still need to do
business using paper. An ICT legislative framework must be neutral to whether a
particular event or transaction is on-line or off-line.
There are several key issues that must be addressed:
(a)   what constitutes a contract? The question of whether an electronic contract is
      recognised in law and under what circumstances needs to be resolved
(b)   where should tax be levied? The Internet enables a customer to buy in one country
      from a firm in another country who then ships the product from a third country.
      How is this to be treated from a tax standpoint? Is the consumer to be taxed several
      times and if not where should the tax transaction fall?
(c)   How are transactions secured? When it is not possible to see a physical transaction
      how does confirmation take place? This raises the question of digital signatures
      and encryption.
(d)   How is privacy to be dealt with? Companies and governments hold large volumes
      of information on people – and will hold increasingly more as the digital age
      matures. People expect that this information will be protected and not used for
      improper purposes. There is a need to establish privacy protection mechanisms.
      Privacy is not a new issue – it existed with paper – but ICT makes it easier to deal
      with large volumes of information and combine it ways that were not previously
      possible.
(e)   How should computer crime be dealt with? Sometimes known as cyber-crime,
      computer crime is a relatively new phenomenon. Two areas are worth mentioning.
      The first concerns individuals: as more an more information that identifies an
      individual goes on line the problem of “identity theft” becomes real. On-line
      someone can masquerade as someone else. The second area concerns business.
      There have been several instances on computer viruses in recent times. These
      spread across the Internet and can wreak havoc to a business. How are the
      perpetrators of viruses to be dealt with? What law have they broken?
(f)   Can electronic documents be admitted as evidence in a court of law?
(g)   How are consumers to be protected under an e-commerce environment?
Most importantly, the information society will not evolve if the users are not confident
about the privacy of their information and transactions on the networks. It is essential that
sensitive, personal and proprietary information be protected and made available only in
accordance within internationally accepted guidelines. Equally important, individuals,
companies and other organisations will not use the information technologies unless they
are assured of the security and integrity of their information and transactions. This only
can be achieved if a body of ICT legislation is in place.



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In 2001, IBM looked at the readiness of the ASEAN member countries to engage in e-
commerce. IBM looked at the legislative frameworks of the countries. In the report of
the e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment IBM concluded that there is a need to strengthen
the legal and regulatory framework to fully exploit the regional physical infrastructure.
We went on to observe that a review in this area should:
 Provide a predictable legal framework for recognition of electronic documents and
  signatures based on the fundamental concept of freedom of contract. The policies
  should:
          be non-discriminatory;
          be technologically and architecturally neutral;
          promote flexibility as to the content, form and function of certificates and
           similar authenticating devices; and
          promote competition among providers of authentication services
 Accelerate the development of common regional certification standards among
  national certification authorities on issuing digital certificates, cross-recognition and
  verification of digital signatures
The results of the e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment for e-commerce (which includes
legislation) are shown below.




Source: e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment, 2001
In this Section we describe the steps that need to be taken to develop a set of cyber-laws
which will tackle the issues outlined above.



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This implementation of this plan will be a major task and one that will need to be tackled
over some years.
Assessment of frame of reference
The design workshop used a construct or process called a business box to analyse the
work to be done build the ICT Legislation Plans.
The business box looks at the current position and the desired position. A summary of
these positions is given in the illustration.




More details of these positions for each of the CLMV countries is given in the tables that
follow.
The business box process then examines barriers and enablers.         A “barrier” is an
environmental circumstance over which a country has no or limited control and which
may tend to have a negative effect. An example might be the global economy when it is
in recession. An “enabler” is a positive force but again one over which a country no or
limited control – here an example might be other countries’ experience with ICT
development or the willingness of donor countries to fund ICT related activities. Barriers
and enablers are also listed below. Barriers are important because they help identify
risks.
The process then looks at the way in which progress from the initial to the desired state
may be measured – this assists in the identification of measures of success.
After these parameters have been explored the process turns to the identification of the
activities needed to change from the initial to the desired state.



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Summary of countries’ initial and desired positions
Initial position                           Desired position
Cambodia
 e-ASEAN Taskforce meeting set             Cyber crime Prevention
  objective to complete cyber Law by        Cross border certification
  2002. Cambodia tries to follow the
  direction, but could not get donor        Digital signature act
  countries interest. Updated e-ASEAN       Dispute resolution in ICT
  Taskforce. During the Brunei Meeting
  Taskforce planned to have a workshop      Banking act
  in Hanoi in the subject legal             Train how to write law on ICT inside
  framework for CLMV.                        and outside the country
 Not in a good position to draft Cyber     Upgrade a legislation framework on
  Law, due to lack of resource/people        ICT
  and fund
 No ICT Law yet, considering model
  from Singapore, Malaysia, and Brunei.
 Believe should have Cyber Tax, Cyber
  Crime, Cyber cross border control, but
  not in position to draft it without
  assistance
Laos
                                           Cyber Law, need external assistance,
                                             includes:
 Not in a good position to draft Cyber
  Law, due to lack or resource, people             Digital Signature Act
  and fund.                                        Electronic transaction Act
                                            Develop Certification Authority
                                            Trainings on Cyber Law, Cyber
                                             Crime, Computer Crime, Computer
                                             Fraud
                                            Some Legislations and regulations
                                             related to ICT should be completed


Myanmar
 Myanmar Computer Science                  Myanmar Computer Development
  Development Act in 1996, how               Council and Computer Federation



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Initial position                             Desired position
   modem, LAN, WAN can be used                 have been formed
 Myanmar Computer Development                e-Legal Infrastructure Committee
  Council is established in 1996               under e-National Task force is drafting
                                               Cyber law
 Computer Federation is established in
  1998                                        e-Legal Infrastructure working
                                               committee also developing e-
 Both have done a lot of activities, like
                                               commerce law
  seminars (share knowledge and
  experience)                                 This working group has submitted two
                                               recommendations of stop-gap
 Legal Infrastructure Working
                                               measures to e-National Task Force
  Committee (the chairman is Director
  General Attorney) under the e-           The stop-gap measurement includes
  National Task Force (separate from        the detailed studies of existing law and
  Computer Development Council) to be       try to cover the e-commerce activities
  aligned with e-ASEAN Framework ––  Temporary using the following Law:
  responsible to prepare comprehensive
  Cyber Law.                               Myanmar Computer Science
                                            development Act
 Temporarily, we apply the Computer
  Act Law (What you can do) and LAN  LAN (Local Area Network) Law
  Law (How to issue License); Cyber        Improve high speed interconnectivity
  Law will supersede this at 2003.          & widely use of e-commerce
 Start launching for e-shopping, on-line  Widely use e-shopping, e-banking,
  e-banking, on-line credit card, (e-       credit card on-line, according to the
  commerce)                                 Laws above
                                              Comprehensive Cyber Law will be
                                               finalized in 2003
Vietnam
 No Cyber Law for ICT, esp. for              Legislations related to e-Commerce
   electronic transaction/payment, e-         Regulations and Enforcement against
   signature                                   cyber crimes
 Now plan to draft the law for e-            Drafted and Approved Cyber Law
  commerce and will be completed end
  of 2003                                     Experience, Best Practice (examples)
                                               from worldwide
 Develop Certification authority
                                              Law for EC will be adopted
 Recognized the importance of Cyber
  Law, demand of the business, and            Electronic-transaction can be used
  global integration, so, in Vietnam
  within ICT Master Plan, the Cyber

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Initial position                                   Desired position
   Law will be one of the high priorities


4.3.4        Barriers and enablers
Barriers
     Lack of understanding from senior politicians and bureaucrats: commitment from
      senior people in government will be essential to successfully developing a workable
      and acceptable legislation. A lack of commitment from these same senior people
      would be a significant barrier. It is important to ensure that senior politicians and
      bureaucrats understand the linkage between ICT development and legislation
      reform
     Change of government policies: governments change their policies for a number of
      reasons. This can throw carefully laid plans into disarray
     Limited resources: people, money, physical: this is a major barrier all over the
      world: cyber-law is a new area and, as a result, world’s best practice may change
      rapidly in the light of experience
     People’s concern with privacy matters mean that no legislation can ever satisfy
      everyone’s needs
     Feasibility of addressing everything: the ICT legislation development agenda is
      large and complex…it may not be feasible to address everything. Also need to
      consider the possibility of having existing legislation as still immature.
Enablers
     e-ASEAN framework: the e-ASEAN framework is a clear policy enabler which
      provides countries with an excellent incentive to act
     Expert assistance/experience: there is expert assistance available to exist both
      within and outside the region although it may be had to find resource of sufficiently
      high quality
     Best practice: there is a growing body of experience so that best practice can be
      used as a yardstick2.
     Politicians’ commitment: in the light of world trends and the work of agencies,
      politicians are increasingly aware of the need for reform of ICT Legislation

2
         The United Nations Commission of International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is a core body within
the United Nations tasked by the UN to further the progressive harmonization of international trade law
including international e-commerce law.

There would also be a number of implications of WTO membership in terms for example of legislating to
take account of the WIPO Copyright Treaty.

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     Public awareness: the public is acutely aware and focusing on the ICT Legislation
      as the Global Integration is there. That awareness is a driver for legislation reform
4.3.5      Scope
In scope
The following activities are considered to be within the scope of the ICT Legislation
project:
     The development of a national vision for an ICT legislative framework. This would
      include a review of best practice (Malaysia and Singapore are good starting points)
      and an assessment of international compatibility requirements
     The development of a set of principles for cyber-law in a country (these should be
      harmonised across CLMV). These principles would address matters such as tax
      neutrality and the recognition of electronic documents)
     Descriptions of legal drafting guidance in the areas of:
           Telecommunications law
           Financial law
           Privacy legislation
           Digital signatures
           Cyber crimes
     The development of a plan to build these laws.
Out of scope
The following aspects are not within the scope of the ICT Legislation project:
     The drafting of bills, scheduling of parliamentary time nor anything else relating to
      the process on passing bills into law
     The design or implementation of any policy associated with the other Priority
      Sectors identified by the Phnom Penh Workshop. Specifically the ICT Legislation
      Plan will not address consumer protection or intellectual property law. It will,
      however, make representation to the groups who are responsible for those areas.
4.3.6      Critical success factors
A critical success factor (CSF) may be defined as something which must go right if
something is to succeed. Conversely, if the CSF is not present then the associated
activity will almost certainly fail.
The following CSFs have been identified for this project:




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     The plan must be attractive to the private sector: private sector support – both
      nationally and globally – will be critical. Clearly the legislative framework in a
      country will be seen as an enabler of realising business opportunity
     There must be political commitment at the highest level (that is, the Head of State
      or Head of Government)…implementation of the plan will depend upon some
      reallocation of resources and this will require senior political decision making
     The plan must be attractive to donor agencies to secure the funding necessary
      particularly for subsequent implementation
     The judiciary should closely involved in the drafting and intent of thelaws and their
      advice on practicality should be taken seriously
     Consistency with UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Law)
      thinking and other widely accepted international fora
     The plan must be capable of implementation. In this case drafting and the process
      of passing a bill is time-consuming and resource-intensive. Building a plan that
      moves in small but clear steps will be key to success
4.3.7      Assumptions
This plan is based on the following assumptions:
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment of IAI Programme (during Leader
      Commitment Summit in Brunei – which includes CLMV) remains in force
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment to the e-ASEAN Framework Agreement
      remains in place
     The plan will be endorsed by the “plus 3” group of countries (Japan, Korea, China)
     The regulation will be compatible to WPO, WTO, UN requirement
4.3.8      Risks
This section lists a few of the major risks to the project. A detailed risk plan should be
constructed when the ICT Legislation Project in each country is under way.
Major risk                   Impact                        Mitigation
Loss of commitment of        Inability to mobilise         Ensure that the reasons
politicians/senior           resource                      behind the need for the
bureaucrats                  Lower global perception       ICT Legislation Project are
                                                           explained and ensure that
                                                           the political, economic and
                                                           social benefits are clearly
                                                           described.
Lack of understanding of     Inability to gain             Develop a clear and
politicians/senior           commitment                    focussed communications


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Major risk                   Impact                       Mitigation
bureaucrats, the judiciary                                plan which contains a set
and the legal profession                                  of key messages targeted
                                                          at particular groups of
                                                          people.
                                                          Understand why
                                                          politicians/senior
                                                          bureaucrats may have
                                                          objections to the ICT
                                                          Legislation and develop
                                                          counter-examples and
                                                          arguments
Change in government         Earlier work and resources   Focus on the basic issues
policy                       may be wasted                that are likely to be
                                                          common across policy
                                                          change
Inability to acquire         Inability to develop         Tailor the work to fit
necessary resources          workable                     reasonable resource
                             recommendations              expectations
                             Inability to implement
The scope of the plan        Inability to implement       Be very clear about the
becomes too large for                                     boundaries of the project
effective management                                      at the outset. Scale the
                                                          project back to fit within
                                                          available resourcing


4.3.9      Responsible Ministry
It is proposed that the country’s Attorney-General’s Department (or equivalent) should be
responsible for this Project. The Prime Minister’s Office (or equivalent) would also need
to take a very special interest.
4.3.10     Sustainability
The Vientiane Formulation Workshop called for sustainable projects. Sustainability for
this Project will be achieved through the establishment of a clear Project Management
Structure acting under the coordination of the National ICT Enhancement Programme
(which is described in Section 5).
4.3.11     Budget
The resources required to complete the project are a combination of international
consultants and country specific experts. The following table summarised the estimated


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          cost to acquire those resources as well as the associated travel and accommodation costs.
          Where this is a high-level project proposal, the estimate needs to be refined when
          developing the next level of the plan.


          Principal Task            W/M        Year 1             Year 2          Year 3     Total Total Cost Total Cost
                                   Rate or                                                   W/M      per        for
                                  Unit Cost W/M    Cost        W/M     Cost     W/M     Cost        Country    CLMV

1.0 Contracted personnel           $12,000 18.75   $225,000     4.50 $54,000     0.00      $0 23.25    $279,000 $1,116,000
    (International Consultants)
2.0 Local experts personnel         $3,000 22.00    $66,000     3.75 $11,250     0.00      $0 25.75     $77,250   $309,000
    (CLMV)
3.0 Equipment                               0.00          $0    0.00       $0    0.00      $0   0.00         $0        $0

4.0 Supplies and services                   0.00    $59,901     0.00       $0    0.00      $0   0.00    $59,901   $239,605

5.0 Travel and DSA                          0.00   $203,575     0.00 $39,188     0.00      $0   0.00   $242,763   $971,050
    (Consultant & CLMV
    Resources)
                    Sub-Total              40.75   $554,476     8.25 $104,438    0.00      $0 49.00    $658,914 $2,635,655




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4.3.12              Management arrangements
The Management Arrangements are key to the success of this Project to ensure soundness
of design, quality outputs and sustainable outcomes. The structure illustrated here was
agreed at the Vientiane Formulation Workshop and describes the relationship between
                      ASEAN Leaders
                                                      existing ASEAN political and
                                                      executive committees.           This
                                                      subsection should be read in
    ASEAN Foreign                    ASEAN Economic
       Ministers                         Ministers    conjunction with Section 5 which
    ASEAN Standing                    Senior Economic
                                                      describes a general structure for the
        Committee                                 Officials
                                                                   successful management of projects.
                               ASEAN                               We have recommended in Section
       IAI T askforce        Secretariat
                              IAI Office                           5 that the ASEAN Secretariat
                                                                   should develop awareness and
    CLMV Coordination
       Committee
                                                  e-AW G           training modules on project
                                                                   management to assist countries in
the implementation of the Projects.
Each country’s ICT Legislation Project will have its own in-country Steering Committee.
The Steering Committee will be chaired by a suitably senior public servant appointed by
the Head of Government. Its role will be to:
        Ensure that national needs are met
        Ensure that the Plan will be attractive to donor agencies and other stakeholders
        Advise and guide the project team in the development of the plan
        Liaise with other CLMV countries on their progress and ideas
        Accept the ICT Legislation
        Maintain linkages with the IAI task force and the e-ASEAN Working Group
4.3.13 Managing short term achievements in a long term
context
The outputs envisaged by ICT Legislation Project are extensive and will entail long-term
and sustained changes. National policy development may look ahead 20 years or more.
Planning to achieve that policy is often broken down into shorter planning cycles – so we
often hear or read of Five Year Plans. The planing cycle for a given initiative is best set
by the country in the context of its own requirements. The illustration below shows a
view of policy development.


                  Period 1            Period 2                                         Period n

    3 – 6 years                Review and                     Review and
                               revise plan                    revise plan

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We anticipate that during the development of the vision, statement of direction and
planning phase for each of the projects that we will generate “quick wins”. In Section 3
we have defined a “quick win” as a project which will deliver benefits quickly and which
is expected to carry manageable or low risk. A quick win project need not be big – in
fact, small projects are often better – but they can demonstrate early progress and as a
result help gain support for the main Project. These quick wins will assist in the short
term implementation of policy bringing forward the benefits of the policies concerned.
We expect that the ASEAN6 countries will be an excellent source of quick win ideas.
4.3.14     Deliverables
While the major deliverable will be the Cyber Law Plan, there are also a number of other
sub-deliverables or outputs. These outputs may be added to by countries but should be
considered as a minimum set.
          Output                                 Success criteria
3.3       A cyber-law vision                     A paper which describes the national
                                                 vision for the ICT legislative
                                                 framework.
                                                 There should be supporting
                                                 documentation relating to best practice
                                                 and international considerations
3.5       Cyber law Principles                   A set of general principles that will
                                                 inform the subsequent development of
                                                 the cyber-laws. These principles
                                                 might include financial and tax
                                                 transaction neutrality, admission of
                                                 electronic documents, equal access to
                                                 the Internet
3.6       Descriptions of the following:         Each of these descriptions will cover
                                                 the basic requirements of the
                   Telecommunication Law
                                                 subsequent legislation. Each
                   Financial Transaction        description will be a paper which will
              Law                                act as the briefing document for
                   Privacy Protection Law       drafters.

                   Digital Signature Law        The descriptions should cover:

                   Cyber Crime Law                    The scope of the law
                                                       The intent of the law
                                                       The general principles that

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          Output                             Success criteria
                                                  should apply
                                                     The main topics that should be
                                                  covered including any specific
                                                  requirements




3.7       An ICT Legislation Plan            A document which describes priorities
                                             and dependencies between legal
                                             requirements.
                                             The plan will also identify resource
                                             requirements and give a schedule for
                                             achieving results.



4.3.15     Measures of success
The following would be measures of success for the ICT Legislation Plan project:
     The Head of State or Head Government has publicly committed to the reform
     Funding has been made available
     CLMV ICT Coordination Committee has endorsed each country’s plan
     There is evidence of widespread support for the plan – from the privates sector, the
      public and politicians
     The regulatory framework has attracted positive comment
4.3.16     Linkages to other programs
The Programme Proposal to create a ICT Legislation is linked to each of the other four
ICT Programme Proposals. The ICT Legislation Plan creates the framework in which the
four other Projects do their work.
In the diagrams below the other Programme Proposals are illustrated as blue diamonds as
follows:
           1
                            1: Telecommunication Frameworks

           2
                            2: National ICT Development Master Plan

           3
                            3: ICT Legislation



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                 4
                                           4: National ICT Master Plans on HRD

                 5
                                           5: e-Government
There is a separate section in this paper about the integration of the ICT Programme
Proposals.
4.3.17           Principal tasks
The diagram below illustrated the main tasks that need to be achieved to develop the ICT
Legislation. The diagram is an easy-to-understand representation of the inter-
relationships between the main tasks.

                                                                                        e-ASEAN
                 5
                                                                                        readiness
                                                                                       assessment
            4
                                                                                                           Monitor
     2                                                                                                     progress
                                                                                       Define
 1                       3.4 Review                                                   measures
                        international
                                                               3.6.1 Describe                                Adjust
                        compatibility                     telecommunications law                              plan
          3.3 Develop                                     3.6.2 Describe financial
           cyber-law                                          transactions law
                                                                                             3.7 Publish
             vision
                                                                                             cyber-law
                                                           3.6.3 Describe privacy
                                        3.5 Develop                                              plan
                                                               protection law
                                         cyber-law
         3.2 Review                      principles          3.6.4 Describe digital
           existing                                              signatures law
         legislation
                                                             3.6.5 Describe cyber-
                                                                                             3.8 Inform
                                                                   crime law
                                                                                              broader
         3.1 Review                                                                          legislative
         world’s best                                                                          agenda
          practice




Sitting outside the main tasks is a set of tasks relating to measurement.
        Define Measurements: Detailed project specific measurement units (e.g.
         teledensity, internet penetration, etc), to be defined during the development process.
         The ASEAN e-Readiness Assessment will be a good source.
        Monitor Progress: Monitor the progress against the targeted measures.
        Adjust Plan: As with any other plan, there is a need to refine and adjust to
         incorporate the conditions and constrains found during the implementation and its
         alignment with the targeted measures. This should be conducted in an iterative
         manner.
It will be necessary for the responsible Ministry to establish a mechanism for
measurement and to implement that mechanism.



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Adoption of the evolutionary approach
The tasks required are based around the evolutionary approach described in section 3.
The following are the three main tasks associated with the approach:
          3.3 Develop Cyber-Law vision
          3.5 Develop Cyber-Law Principles
          3.6 Develop the Laws, which includes telecommunication, financial transaction,
          privacy protection, digital signature and cyber crime laws.
4.3.18       Task Descriptions
3.1 Review world’s best practice
In order to accelerate the development of the cyber law principles and eventually the
development of the cyber law itself, reviewing the world’s best practice would be very
important. In particular the available cyber laws from within other ASEAN countries,
such as Singapore and Malaysia, will be useful.
3.2 Review existing legislation
Reviewing existing national legislation for all relevant aspects, such as Tax, Commercial
Law, Payment, Publication, Cultural and Social aspects.
3.3 Develop Cyber-Law vision
Build a cyber law vision which sets out a reform programme in simple terms that can be
easily communicated to others.
3.4 Review International compatibility
In developing the cyber law principles it is necessary to consider matters of international
expectations and compatibility.
3.5 Develop Cyber-Law Principles
Based in the Cyber Law vision, develop a set of principles which take account of world’s
best practice and international expectations. The principles would probably include no
double taxation, on-line/off-line neutrality, no unreasonable burdens on industry, equal
access for all, and transparency
3.6 Describe each of the new laws
This activity involves the following tasks:
          3.6.1 Describe telecommunications law
          3.6.2 Describe financial transaction law
          3.6.3 Describe privacy protection law
          3.6.4 Describe digital signature law



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          3.6.5 Describe Cyber-crime law
3.7 Publish Cyber-Law plan
A plan needs to be assembled that lays out a programme of work to be undertaken to
implement the new legislative framework.
3.8 Inform broader legislative agenda
A paper should be produced which describes the need for change in legislation that is
related to ICT but is not exclusively ICT. This paper would address consumer protection
(codes of practice), freedom of information, taxation and customs, copyright and
intellectual property protection, and acceptability of evidence.
4.3.19         Implementation
The project will take approximately 320 days to complete with 8 associated main tasks.
Project plan is listed in Annex C.

4.4 National Action Plan for ICT HRD (ETF/02/004)
4.4.1          Agreed scope
                                                                                              Category   Completion    Ref.
 No            Program Outputs to be covered by the Programme Proposals
                                                                                                           Period     Number

      Incorporation and / or upgrading of curricula for national educational institutions [
  1                                                                                            PRG          2004      (3.3.a.2)
      High priority];
  2   TOT programs for professional educators of CLMV [ High priority];                        PRG          2004      (3.3.a.3)
      Awareness program for government employees, senior policy makers, legislators,
  3   and top decision makers/leaders in alignment with ASEAN initiatives in areas of e-       PRG          2004      (3.3.a.4)
      government and e-commerce [High priority];
      Incentives for private sectors that conduct community-training programs by offering
  4                                                                                             PLC         2004      (3.3.a.5)
      the time of their skilled resources on a voluntary basis [ High priority];
      Plan to mobilize external expert resources for educational and vocational training
  5                                                                                            PRG          2004      (3.3.a.6)
      centres in CLMV [ High priority];

  6   Scholarship program on ICT for CLMV [ High priority];                                    PRG          2004      (3.3.a.7)

      Incentives and measures to encourage the participation of community associations
  7                                                                                             PLC         2004      (3.3.a.8)
      in capacity building programs;




4.4.2          Objective
To describe how an ICT literate and skilled society will be built through harnessing
resources from education, the private sector, the community and government.
4.4.3          Description
Background
The ICT revolution is changing nearly every aspect of the lives of nearly every person in
every country in the world. In particular it is changing and will continue to change the
working lives of people whether their work is in the primary industries or in other

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industries. All industries rely increasingly on information and increasingly on
knowledge. What the World Bank refers to as the “knowledge revolution” provides an
opportunity to foster greater competitiveness, new economic growth, better access to
basic services and greater empowerment of local communities.
Taking advantage of the knowledge revolution requires not only and information
infrastructure – it also needs people with motivation, skills and capability to use
technology to get information to convert into knowledge. A critical component of the
ICT revolution is, therefore, human resource development (HRD). Today’s economy
values not only capital and labour but also information and knowledge.
In Manila in 2000 the ASEAN Labour Ministers adopted vision and mission statements
in relation to HRD. They agreed that they would…
“promote and foster regional cooperation and collaboration in HRD and skills
upgrading so that capacities in ASEAN could be strengthened to achieve sustained
economic growth and social progress.”
HRD is effected in two places…in educational institutions and the workplace. ICT
awareness, training and education must address both academic and vocational needs. All
ASEAN countries – including CLMV – have educational policies and programmes, as
well as vocational schemes in place. What the ICT revolution does is to add a new
dimension to the way those schemes operate and to affect the content of the schemes.
For schools, colleges and universities one challenge is both to introduce computer science
as a discipline in its own right as well teaching the ability to use technology to do non-
technical subjects. Educational institutions can also take advantage of new learning
technologies such as distance learning or e-learning. But there is an underlying need to
improve the facility of teachers with technology. Experience shows that children adopt
and adapt to technology relatively easily while older people struggle.
In the workplace there is a need to ensure that workers can adapt to technological
innovation in the workforce. Jobs that were paper based are now increasingly electronic
and this requires skills in computer literacy.
Finally there is a need to establish a recognition – or certification – system that formally
recognises skills that have been acquired by people – whether academically or
vocationally – after education or training. That recognition should be valid outside the
country that owns the system. Formal skills recognition is particularly important in times
of structural change in the labour market including economic downturns.
The role of the private sector in the development and execution of education, training and
recognition is critical. There is a need to involve industry in formal for a to ensure that
government training schemes are properly targeted at market needs.




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In the e-Readiness Assessment for the ASEAN countries done by IBM in 2001, one of
the critical factors to the development of an information economy is human capability.
The results of that assessment are reproduced below.




Source: e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment, 2001
At the Design Workshop, CLMV countries identified training, standard ICT curriculum,
Scholarship program, Distance learning, and Certification Programs as their needs to be
able to reach their desired state of ICT HRD.
Assessment of frame of reference
The design workshop used a construct or process called a business box to analyse the
work to be done build the National ICT HRD Action Plans.




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The business box looks at the current position and the desired position. A summary of
these positions is given in the illustration.




More details of these positions for each of the CLMV countries is given in the tables that
follow.
The business box process then examines barriers and enablers.         A “barrier” is an
environmental circumstance over which a country has no or limited control and which
may tend to have a negative effect. An example might be the global economy when it is
in recession. An “enabler” is a positive force but again one over which a country no or
limited control – here an example might be other countries’ experience with ICT
development or the willingness of donor countries to fund ICT related activities. Barriers
and enablers are also listed below. Barriers are important because they help identify
risks.
The process then looks at the way in which progress from the initial to the desired state
may be measured – this assists in the identification of measures of success.
After these parameters have been explored the process turns to the identification of the
activities needed to change from the initial to the desired state.




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Summary of countries’ initial and desired positions
Initial position                        Desired position
Cambodia
 Project Sponsored by e-ASEAN task      Seminars, awareness trainings
  force & Japan: Distance Learning       Develop ICT skill trainings
 Three schools have implemented         ICT Education down to Primary,
  SchoolNET in Phnom Penh                 Secondary Educational Level
 Awareness Seminars                     Upgrade the use of Computers for
 Four year Computer Science Programs     educators, policymakers
  in Universities                        Send people for IT Training
                                         Need of resource for IT equipment
                                         Provide Internet Link and to
                                          University
                                         Increase the capacity building of ICT
                                         Upgrade IT Curriculum for Secondary,
                                          Vocational training centre and Tertiary
                                          Level
                                         Mobilize external expert resource for
                                          educational and vocational training
                                          centres
                                         Scholarship program on ICT
                                         Bilateral recognition of ICT
                                          Technicians or graduates
                                         Promote ICT trainings in Private
                                          Sectors
                                         Bilateral Cooperation with developed
                                          countries in HRD development
                                          (seminars/trainings)
                                         Develop local skilled ICT Technician
                                          for local centre
Laos
 Establish Information System within    Provide ICT for all Teacher Training


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Initial position                        Desired position
   Ministry of education for data          Colleges, Vocational and Technical
   collection & analysis:                  Colleges and Tertiary Level
                                         Teachers, Professors, Students from
   Administration & Statistics
                                           upper Secondary to Tertiary must
     (Information on students, schools,
                                           access to ICT
     personnel curriculum, etc). It is
                                         External assistance in funding and
     called EMIS (Education MIS)
                                           training ICT
 Link National University & Provincial  ICT Curriculum for secondary and
  education Services through education     vocational Training Centre, Teacher
  Information System                       Training Colleges and Tertiary Level
 Facilitate distance learning through   Increase Number of ICT Professional
   establishing Internet & Intranet  Establishment of Computer Training
   system in three Phases:                 Centre for:
   Establish Internet System for          Pre-Skill Training and
     Ministry of Education, University,    Skill Level Training of Government
     Teacher Training College and             Officials
     Vocational and Technical College
                                         Train the Trainer for ICT
   Assistance on Academic Strategy      Establish ICT Lab
     from Foreign Expertise              Connect many schools to Internet
   Mass-Media Phase – to provide          (SchoolNet Project)
     distance education via e-learning   ICT Park
     technology
Myanmar
 Improve PC penetration in Schools         Implement special 4 year education
                                             plan from 2002 to 2003
 Establish university/College Computer
  Science Countrywide                       In Collaboration with Private IT
                                             Organizations
 Establish e-electronic education
  program, over 200 learning centres all    Train more skilled IT technician
  over Myanmar, Over 100 still under        TOT programme
  testing.
                                            Each 4 year plan and establish 30
 Establish ICT park, (Telephone,            years education plan
  computers, training) with Japanese
  Aid                                       Provide Internet Access to Universities
 Establish e-learning, using VSAT, 40      Establish MOE WAN for all
  Universities (Degree College and           universities (degree college and
  College) and Rural Schools                 college)
 Internet and e-mail facilities at         Encourage Computer Training School
                                             in Private Sector


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Initial position                             Desired position
   Universities                               Increase more multimedia class rooms
                                               in rural areas
 Cooperation in public & private
  sectors                                     Increase e-education by VSAT, data
                                               broadcasting in the whole country
 Knowledge through Informal
  education                                   ICT networking in Education
 Establish e-research centre in all          Using VSAT facilities, video
  Universities (Degree College and             conference, e-exam and Colleges &
  College)                                     Universities networking
 Already a member of AUN (ASEAN              Certification Programme
  University Network)                         E-Resource centre will be more
                                               established for distance education
                                              IT Industry should be developed
Vietnam
 ICT HRD is a Priority area for  Additional training – 50,000 IT
National ICT Master Plan                 specialists, among these, 25,000 are
 Plans for 2001 & 2005                  high qualified personnel and
    Strengthen the training quality for professional programmers with
      IT professionals & applications    English proficiency for Software
                                         Industry
    IT Teaching in schools
                                              Upgrade Curriculum at the
      IT application for teaching and
                                               Universities and Colleges
       learning method
                                              Training the Trainer
      IT application for Education of
       management                             IT Teaching at all city schools and
                                               some of the rural schools
      Build education network
       (University and School access          Standardized Curriculum
       Internet)                              ICT Training Centre with Certificates
                                              Scholarships
                                              University Network
                                              Internet Access for 100% Universities,
                                               70% Upper Secondary Schools, 50%
                                               Lower Secondary Schools
                                              First Steps for applications of IT for
                                               Innovation of teaching and learning
                                               methods


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Initial position                            Desired position
                                             Create educational statistical database
                                              for education management system


4.4.4       Barriers and enablers
Barriers
     Limited Resources: skilled people, money, physical: this is a major barrier all over
      the world.
     Lack of commitment from senior politicians and bureaucrats: commitment from
      senior people in government will be essential to successfully developing a workable
      and acceptable National Action Plan for ICT HRD. Education is generally a high
      government spender and it is perhaps easy for politicians to take a view that
      additional expenditure cannot be justified
     Change of government policies: governments change their policies for a number of
      reasons. This can throw carefully laid plans into disarray
     Scope: Feasibility of addressing everything: the scope to be covered for ICT HRD
      is huge, it may not be feasible to address everything.
Enablers·
     e-ASEAN framework: the e-ASEAN framework is a clear policy enabler which
      provides countries with an excellent incentive to act. The statements made by the
      Labour Ministers in Manila in 2000 are important enablers
     Expert assistance/experience: there is expert assistance available to exist both
      within and outside the region although it tends to be fragmented
     Politicians’ commitment: because politicians are generally focused on jobs and the
      economy, ICT skills development is generally an area of commitment.
     Public awareness: the public is acutely aware of the Internet and what it might do;
      that awareness is a driver for change and will raise the demand for better training
      and facilities.
4.4.5       Scope
In scope
The following areas are considered to be within the scope of the National Action Plan for
ICT HRD project:
 The development of a national ICT Education Policy
 A delivery strategy for ICT education to address vocational training, to update
  national curriculum, and to design an ICT ToT program.


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 The design of an ICT Certification Body
 The establishment of an ICT Scholarship Program
Out of scope
The following areas are not within the scope of the National Action Plan for ICT HRD
project:
    The implementation of the ICT Education Policy
    The establishment of the ICT Certification Body
    The delivery of training courses (other than those associated with quick wins).
4.4.6      Critical success factors
A critical success factor (CSF) may be defined as something which must go right if
something is to succeed. Conversely, if the CSF is not present then the associated
activity will almost certainly fail.
     There must be political commitment at the highest level (that is, the Head of State
      or Head of Government)…implementation of the plan will depend upon some
      reallocation of resources and this will require senior political decision making
     The plan must be attractive to donor agencies to secure the funding necessary
      particularly for subsequent implementation
     Acceptance by CLMV – each of the countries must endorse one another’s National
      ICT Master Plans. Regional (that is CLMV) integration is the aim of the IAI…ICT
      planning must be a foundation stone for that integration
     The plan must be supported by the private sector and they must be involved in its
      construction.
     The linkage to economic development (part of the engine of economic growth)
      must be apparent. It must be clear from the National ICT Master Plan that
      enhanced economic activity will be forthcoming.
     The plan must be capable of implementation. For example, an theoretically
      excellent plan which required more resource than could reasonably be found would
      not work and could not be accepted.
4.4.7      Assumptions
This plan is based on the following assumptions:
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment of IAI Programme (during Leader
      Commitment Summit in Brunei – which includes CLMV) remains in force
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment to the e-ASEAN Framework Agreement
      remains in place
     The plan will be endorsed by the “plus 3” group of countries (Japan, Korea, China)


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4.4.8       Risks
This section lists a few of the major risks to the project. A detailed risk plan should be
constructed when the National Action Plan for ICT HRD project in each country is under
way.
Major risk                      Impact                       Mitigation
Loss of commitment of           Inability to mobilise        Ensure that the reasons
politicians/senior              resource                     behind the need for the
bureaucrats                     Loss of economic             National Action Plan for
                                opportunity                  ICT HRD are explained
                                                             and ensure that the
                                                             economic benefits are
                                                             clearly described.
Lack of understanding of        Inability to gain            Develop a clear and
politicians/senior              commitment                   focussed communications
bureaucrats                                                  plan which contains a set
                                                             of key messages targeted
                                                             at particular groups of
                                                             people.
                                                             Understand why
                                                             politicians/senior
                                                             bureaucrats may have
                                                             objections to the National
                                                             Action Plan for ICT HRD
                                                             and develop counter-
                                                             examples and arguments
Change in government            Earlier work and resources   Focus on the basic issues
policy                          may be wasted                that are likely to be
                                                             common across policy
                                                             change
Inability to acquire            Inability to develop         Tailor the work to fit
necessary resources             workable                     reasonable resource
                                recommendations              expectations
                                Inability to implement
The scope of the plan           Inability to implement       Be very clear about the
becomes too large for                                        boundaries of the project
effective management                                         at the outset. Scale the
                                                             project back to fit within
                                                             available resourcing
It is too hard to involve the   The results of the Project   Look at the market sector
                                will not be relevant to      by sector and differentiate

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Major risk                  Impact                      Mitigation
private sector              market needs                between larger and smaller
                                                        firms and consider how
                                                        individuals are segmented.
                                                        Target private sector
                                                        involvement around their
                                                        needs in their market


4.4.9      Responsible Ministry
It is proposed that the country’s Ministry of Education (or equivalent) should be
responsible for this Project. Other Ministries – especially the Ministry of Industrial
Development (or equivalent) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (or equivalent)
– would be closely involved. Ministries’ interests will be represented on the Project
Steering Committee.
4.4.10     Sustainability
The Vientiane Formulation Workshop called for sustainable projects. Sustainability for
this Project will be achieved through the establishment of a clear Project Management
Structure acting under the coordination of the National ICT Enhancement Programme
(which is described in Section 5).




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             4.4.11         Budget
             The resources required to complete the project are a combination of international
             consultants and country specific experts. The following table summarises the estimated
             cost to acquire these resources as well as the associated travel and accommodation costs.
             This is a high level assessment of costs and the estimate will needs to be refined when
             developing the next level of the plan.


          Principal Task              W/M        Year 1               Year 2          Year 3        Total Total Cost Total Cost
                                     Rate or                                                        W/M      per        for
                                    Unit Cost W/M    Cost          W/M     Cost     W/M     Cost           Country    CLMV
1.0 Contracted personnel             $12,000 29.50      $354,000    0.00       $0    0.00      $0 29.50     $354,000 $1,416,000
    (International Consultants)
2.0 Local experts personnel           $3,000 44.00      $132,000    0.00       $0    0.00      $0 44.00     $132,000    $528,000
    (CLMV)
3.0 Equipment                                   0.00         $0     0.00       $0    0.00      $0    0.00         $0         $0

4.0 Supplies and services                       0.00     $84,947    0.00       $0    0.00      $0    0.00    $84,947    $339,788

5.0 Travel and DSA                              0.00    $363,470    0.00       $0    0.00      $0    0.00   $363,470 $1,453,880
    (Consultant & CLMV
    Resources)
                    Sub-Total                 73.50     $934,417    0.00       $0    0.00      $0 73.50     $934,417 $3,737,668




             4.4.12         Management arrangements
             The Management Arrangements are key to the success of this Project to ensure soundness
             of design, quality outputs and sustainable outcomes. The structure illustrated here was
                                  ASEAN Leaders
                                                                  agreed at the Vientiane Formulation
                                                                  Workshop and describes the
                ASEAN Foreign                    ASEAN Economic
                                                                  relationship      between   existing
                   Ministers                         Ministers    ASEAN political and executive
                ASEAN Standing                    Senior Economic
                                                                  committees. This subsection should
                  Committee                           Officials   be read in conjunction with Section
                                      ASEAN
                                                                  5 which describes a general
                 IAI T askforce      Secretariat                  structure for the
                                           IAI Office
                                                                successful management of projects.
                CLMV Coordination                               We have recommended in Section 5
                                                   e-AW G
                   Committee
                                                                that the ASEAN Secretariat should
             develop awareness and training modules on project management to assist countries in the
             implementation of the Projects.



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Each countries’ National Action Plan for ICT HRD Project will have its own in-country
Steering Committee. The Steering Committee will be chaired by a suitably senior public
servant appointed by the Head of Government. Its role will be to:
        Ensure that national needs are met
        Ensure that the Plan will be attractive to donor agencies and other stakeholders
        Advise and guide the project team in the development of the plan
        Liaise with other CLMV countries on their progress and ideas
        Accept the National Action Plan for ICT HRD
        Maintain linkages with the IAI task force and the e-ASEAN Working Group
4.4.13 Managing short term achievements in a long term
context
The outputs envisaged by National Action Plan for ICT HRD Project Plan are extensive
and will entail long-term and sustained changes. National policy development may look
ahead 20 years or more. Planning to achieve that policy is often broken down into
shorter planning cycles – so we often hear or read of Five Year Plans. The planing cycle
for a given initiative is best set by the country in the context of its own requirements.
The illustration below shows a view of policy development.


                  Period 1          Period 2                                    Period n

    3 – 6 years                Review and                Review and
                               revise plan               revise plan


We anticipate that during the development of the vision, statement of direction and
planning phase for each of the projects that we will generate “quick wins”. In Section 3
we have defined a “quick win” as a project which will deliver benefits quickly and which
is expected to carry manageable or low risk. A quick win project need not be big – in
fact, small projects are often better – but they can demonstrate early progress and as a
result help gain support for the main Project. These quick wins will assist in the short
term implementation of policy bringing forward the benefits of the policies concerned.
We expect that the ASEAN6 countries will be an excellent source of quick win ideas.




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4.4.14        Deliverables
While the major deliverable will be the National Action Plan for ICT HRD itself, there
are also a number of other sub-deliverables or outputs. These outputs may be added to by
countries but should be considered as a minimum set.
          Output                                Success criteria
1.1       ICT Education Policy                  A clear ICT Education Policy and
                                                legislation that is aligned with National
          To describe the principles under
                                                ICT Master Plan
          which ICT Education Policy and
          legislation.
1.2       ICT Certification Body                The establishment of an independent
                                                body that will issue the certification of
                                                ICT
                                                The regulatory body may not
                                                necessarily be staffed at the end of the
                                                project but it will have been announced
                                                and legislation drafted to put it into
                                                effect
1.3       Scholarship Program Design            A clear statement of intent for
                                                Scholarship Program
1.4       Private Sector Partnership            A strong participation of private sectors
1.5       Updated national ICT curriculum       An implementable national ICT
                                                curriculum that support the future needs
                                                of the ICT resources
1.6       ICT vocational training scheme        A clear statement of intent for ICT
          Design                                vocational training scheme
1.7       ToT program Design                    A clear statement of intent for ToT
                                                program


4.4.15        Measures of success
The following would be measures of success for the National Action Plan for ICT HRD
Project:
     The Head of State or Head Government has publicly committed to carry out ICT
      HRD. This would probably be a component of a general statement on national ICT
      development


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     Funding has been made available
     The CLMV ICT Coordination Committee has endorsed each countries’ plan
     There is evidence of widespread support for the plan – from the private sector, the
      public and politicians and particularly from education policy makers, teachers and
      education administrators
     The ICT education delivery strategy receives favourable national and international
      comment
4.4.16     Linkages to other programs
The Programme Proposal to create a ICT HRD is linked to each of the other four ICT
Programme Proposals. The ICT HRD Plan creates the framework in which the four other
Projects do their work.
In the diagrams below the other Programme Proposals are illustrated as blue diamonds as
follows:
           1
                            1: Telecommunication Frameworks

           2
                            2: National ICT Development Master Plan

           3
                            3: ICT Legislation

           4
                            4: National ICT Master Plans on HRD

           5
                            5: e-Government


There is a separate section (Section 6) in this paper about the integration of the ICT
Programme Proposals.




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4.4.17            Principal tasks
The diagram below illustrated the main tasks that need to be achieved to develop the

                                                                          Define
                                                                         measures
                                             4.2 Develop                                                             e-ASEAN
    Programme 2
                                            ICT Education                                                            readiness
                                                Vision                                                              assessment
                                                                                    4.6 Design ICT
                                                                                      Scholarship
                   4.1 Review                                                         Programme
                  National ICT                        4.4 Determine                                            Monitor
                   Education                        Education Delivery                                         progress
                     Needs                               Strategy


                        4.3 Establish ICT
                                                                                      4.5 Build Private
    2                     Certification
                                                                                     Sector Partnership           Adjust
                              Body
                                                                                                                   plan
                                                      4.7 Build ICT
                                                     Education Policy


                      Programme 2                                                           3

National Action Plan for ICT HRD. The diagram is an easy-to-understand


Sitting outside the main tasks is a set of tasks relating to measurement.
       Define Measurements: Detailed project specific measurement units (e.g.
        teledensity, internet penetration, etc), to be defined during the development process.
        The ASEAN e-Readiness Assessment will be a good source.
       Monitor Progress: Monitor the progress against the targeted measures.
       Adjust Plan: As with any other plan, there is a need to refine and adjust to
        incorporate the conditions and constrains found during the implementation and its
        alignment with the targeted measures. This should be conducted in an iterative
        manner.
It will be necessary for the responsible Ministry to establish a mechanism for
measurement and to implement that mechanism.
Adoption of the evolutionary approach
The tasks required are based around the evolutionary approach described in section 3.
The following are the three main tasks associated with the approach:
        4.1       Develop ICT Education Vision
        4.4       Determine Education Delivery Strategies, and 4.6 Design ICT Scholarship
                  Programme – an early task from 4,4 should be a statement of direction
        4.7       Build ICT Education Policy

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One of the activities is worth looking at in more detail, which is 4.4 Determine Education
Delivery Strategies
4.4.18            Task Descriptions
4.1 Review National ICT Education Needs
This activity looks at the country’s overall ICT education needs. This assessment will
need to made in the light of the work that is done on the National ICT Development
Master Plan.
4.2 Develop ICT Education Vision
The National ICT Education Vision will describe a vision for the development of national
ICT skills to meet national ICT development needs and describe how that development
will be achieved through academic and vocational training.
4.3 Establish ICT Certification Body
This task will establish a certification body which will – as part of the plan – develop an
ICT certification process which will be globally recognised.
4.4 Determine Education Delivery Strategies
The main tasks required to describe the education delivery strategy are illustrated below.
These tasks are considered also as developing the statement of direction:




                           4.4.1 Define
                                                       4.4.2 U pdate
    2                          ICT
                                                         national
                            vocational
                                                        curriculum
                             training
                                                          for ICT
                             scheme
 Programme 2



          4.2
                                             4.4.3
                                          Design ICT
                                             T OT
    Programme 2                            Program




Each of the tasks within 4.4 will undertake similar steps, which are:
       Review existing vocational arrangements, national curriculum or ICT ToT program
       Analyse the gap between the vision and the current position
       Review world’s best practice
       Describe possible options for delivery of vocation training, a revised national
        curriculum and a TOT program


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     Select the desired option for each of the delivery of vocation training, a revised
      national curriculum and a TOT program
     Describe the new/revised ICT vocational training scheme, the revised national
      curriculum for ICT and the new/revised ICT ToT Program
4.5 Build Private Sector Partnership
This task will involve the private sector. This may be done in a number of ways but at
this stage in the planning process we envisage that a national consultation body would be
set up with representatives from national and international companies.
4.6 Design ICT Scholarship Programme
This activity would develop – and acquire finding for – a national ICT scholarship
programme.
4.7 Build ICT Education Policy
This task would build the detail of the national ICT education policy describing what will
be achieved by when and what the benefits will be.
Quick wins
We note that the Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs has written to the Secretary-General of
ASEAN proposing three ICT HRD programs:
(a)   Training the trainer course
(b)   Instructional design course
(c)   Multimedia system development course
These courses could be considered as quick wins for this Project. We recommend that
the ASEAN Secretariat work through the IAI initiative to develop these proposals further.
4.4.19     Implementation
The project will take approximately 265 days to complete with 7 associated main tasks.
Project plan is listed in Annex C.




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4.5 e-Government (EFT/02/005)
4.5.1          Agreed scope
                                                                                              Category   Completion    Ref.
 No            Program Outputs to be covered by the Programme Proposals
                                                                                                           Period     Number

      E-Government Strategic Plan with a roadmap for each government agency to
  1   ensure alignment of ICT development in the Public Sector for each CLMV country [          PLC         2003      (3.4.a.1)
      High priority]
      Adoption of a government-wide technology architecture and related infrastructure to
  2   ensure security and privacy, interaction between all IT applications, and flexibility     PLC         2004      (3.4.a.2)
      and modularity, for CLMV wide [ High priority]

  3   Intranet development for all government institutions [ High priority]                    PRG          2004      (3.4.a.4)

      E-government promotion initiatives by selecting one or two high profile applications
  4                                                                                             PLC         2004      (3.4.a.5)
      such as school registration [ High priority]
      Policies to encourage the growth of e-government as a means of achieving a critical
      mass of on-line content and encourage governments to provide widely available
  5                                                                                             PLC         2004      (3.5.a.1)
      Free of Charge (FOC) access to state-owned information and local content through
      community access points in post-offices, district offices, schools) [ High priority]
      Measures to accelerate standardization of national character codes for international
  6                                                                                             PLC         2004      (3.5.a.2)
      adoption [ High priority]




4.5.2          Objective
To facilitate digital economic development through a programme designed to make it
easier for companies, citizens and other organisations to do business with the government
and to reduce the cost of government while improving quality of service.
4.5.3          Description
Background
Spurred by widespread adoption of the Internet and ever increasing advances in
technology, the information age is in full bloom. Information and communication
technologies are quickly replacing mechanization as the “production engine” for
economic growth. Where physical assets and scale once reigned, organizational skills and
innovative applications of technology are now the profitable enablers. Doing business in
the industrial age involved face-to-face – or at least voice-to-voice – contact; today,
electronic business has helped eliminate barriers of time and place.
Despite the tumultuous changes all around them, governments are still obligated to
perform the same core functions – develop policies, provide services and manage
regulatory compliance – across all customer segments. But, how those responsibilities are
accomplished should reflect the new environment created by the information age.
Industrial age decision-making, recognized as rather lengthy, hierarchical and
introspective, must become more transparent, participatory and real-time.
This is e-Government. We may define e-Government in the following…



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“e-Government takes advantage of the possibilities offered by the intersection of society
and technology to enhance economic activity and to improve the lives of citizens”
Achieving e-Government depends upon four cornerstones:
 Customer centricity – this is about understand what services people want and
  providing them. There are groups distinct groups to be catered for:
          Citizens (G2C)
          Businesses (G2B)
          Government (G2G)
          Employees (G2E)
 A knowledge focus – this is about being concerned with what is known rather than just
  in what data there is. It is about developing a public service that derives knowledge
  from data rather than simply producing reports.
 Cross government integration – this is the G2G space. It is about improving
  connections between Ministries or Departments and about connecting different levels
  of government.
 Collaboration with the private sector – this is about engaging the private sector to look
  for new ways of carrying out programmes to ease funding pressures.
e-Government will deliver several benefits. It will help…
 Reduce costs and increase revenue – eliminate redundant, non-value added activities
  and assets, lower costs for managing the organization and offer value added services
 Improve customer service – provide more efficient/convenient hassle free service
  and support, develop personalized & customized services and improve service
  offerings/ expand public service portfolio
 Enhance organisational effectiveness – improve process/organization/technology
  inter-operability, align strategies across departments/functions, enhance employee
  productivity and skills
 Improve operational efficiency – streamline processes and improve the management,
  analysis and usage of data
 Enable economic growth – create new employment opportunities, attract
  investments, develop workforce, enable businesses/ease the burden of interactions and
  compete effectively with other governments for scarce resources
 Facilitate effective decision making –improve decision making process, provide
  more informed decision making and reduce fraud & enhance audit/ compliance
  capability
 Enhance citizen participation by encouraging citizen communication, providing
  relevant content and educating citizens


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 Redefine community interactions – enable electronic communication, provide a
  scalable platform for growth, improve security; privacy of personal information,
  enable business to business interactions
In 2001 IBM undertook an e-Readiness Assessment for the 10 ASEAN countries. This
assessment looked at the degree to which each of the ASEAN countries were equipped to
take advantage of the benefits offered by e-Government. The picture below illustrated
the relative preparedness of the 10 ASEAN countries for e-Government.
Source: e-ASEAN Readiness Assessment, 2001




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Assessment of frame of reference
The design workshop used a construct or process called a business box to analyse the
work to be done build the e-Government Plans.
The business box looks at the current position and the desired position. A summary of
these positions is given in the illustration.




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More details of these positions for each of the CLMV countries is given in the tables that
follow.
The business box process then examines barriers and enablers.         A “barrier” is an
environmental circumstance over which a country has no or limited control and which
may tend to have a negative effect. An example might be the global economy when it is
in recession. An “enabler” is a positive force but again one over which a country no or
limited control – here an example might be other countries’ experience with ICT
development or the willingness of donor countries to fund ICT related activities. Barriers
and enablers are also listed below. Barriers are important because they help identify
risks.
The process then looks at the way in which progress from the initial to the desired state
may be measured – this assists in the identification of measures of success.
After these parameters have been explored the process turns to the identification of the
activities needed to change from the initial to the desired state.
Summary of countries’ initial and desired positions
Initial position                            Desired position
Cambodia
 Interest from South Korea for giving       Complete Standardization of
  Loan                                        Cambodian Characters in Computers
 Looking at the study across all            Develop Local content for government
  Ministries: Prime Minister Office           and Public use
  (PMO)                                      Complete Cyber Laws
 Khmer Language/Character - >               Streamline Network interaction
  Microsoft; Constitution mandate this        between ministries
  as the everyday language
                                             Provide Network Communication
 Ministry of Telecommunication runs          accessibility to provincial levels and/or
  an ISP                                      district / communal levels
 Ministry of Commerce/Foreign               Create consolidated government portal
  Affairs/PMO all focused on e-               for public services
  government
                                             Support training of officials in
 Most Website for Ministries are not         Administration Management
  integrated together; There is no
  consolidated portal for the government     Create curriculum for the Royal
                                              School of Administration in the
 Tourism is important                        application / importance of e-
 City of Phnom Penh has its own              government
  website                                    Promote “Procurement process” in e-
 There are several projects being            government


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Initial position                              Desired position
   implemented, such as Vehicle/Land           Work on Election System and
   registration, ID, Immigration at the         Immigration system as high profit
   Ministry of Interior, electronic             project
   registration for electoral voters           Decentralize central “Hub” down to
                                                provincial level
                                               Create a state-owned information
                                                through community access points in
                                                post-offices, district offices, and
                                                school
                                               Establish Head Quarter for Server link
                                                system to link to all their ministries,
                                                provincial offices and universities
                                               Encourage the e-government from
                                                Central levels to district levels
                                               Develop Internet for all educational
                                                institutions through Tertiary,
                                                Secondary and Primary Level
Laos
 e-Government initiative – Prime              Provide Scholarship for ICT Staff in
  Minister Office                               each Ministry and Provinces
 Intranet project: Pilot Project: Science,    External Technical Assistance and
  Technology and Environment Agency,            Fund
  Ministry of Education & Ministry of          Inter Exchange between ISPs
  Foreign Affairs
                                               Encourage Electronic Exchange
 LANs in each Ministry and for                 between Government department and
  government                                    Ministries
 Projects:                                    Establishment of Database
      Tax & Custom computerization             Management System for Government
    Personnel Information Management  Develop local contents
     System                            Standards character set
    MOJ: Law information system aid
                                       ICT Trainings for Government
      Committee for Investment:                    Officers
       Coordination and Management             All Ministries, Organizations, Public
       System                                   and Private Sectors should access ICT
 3 or 4 Ministries have websites, MIC          in 2005
  – Ministry of Information and Culture,

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Initial position                            Desired position
   Ministry of Trade and Tourism,            Establish ICT Centre in each
   National Assembly, Foreign Affairs         Provinces for training courses
 Lao character set                          Training of Trainers in each Ministry
                                              and Province
 3 ISPs (2 of them are Private)


Myanmar
 Initial Stages of e-Government        Government encourages PC
                                         penetration in all Offices
 Issue with domain name (.mm) already
  used/registered                       Individual LAN Network in Ministries
 Government encourage PC penetration        Some Ministries start using
  in government offices; increase             computerized system
  systems use                                Myanmar Website are updating
 Ministry to ministry e-mail linkage         everyday in Internet
  and leased lines                           E-mail and X.25 Leased Circuits are
 Intranet for Ministries                     widely used
 Myanmar Posts and                          ICT Park already launched which will
  Telecommunications is only ISP              be providing centralized Data
                                              Networking system
 National Character Code -- own
  programs                                   Establish on-line public services and
                                              information
 International registered (Unicode) –
  Microsoft (a little ahead of Cambodia)     Preparing to be linked with ASEAN
                                              network & ASEAN Internet Exchange
 Government website
                                             Encourage the Private Computer
 Immigration, customs, census are well
                                              Companies to prepare the country
  computerized
                                              information and contents in Internet
 Plans to improve on-line access             concerning Market Economy and
      ASEAN network: Japan funding           Resources
       but delayed                           By using Electronic Media for all
      Website – various                      government concerned/purpose

 Standardization – e-National Task          Set up the high speed Data Network
  Force                                       within each ministries and different
                                              remote District and townships for
 e-Banking: District and township:           administration purpose
  centralized administration –
  Broadband data network (iPSTAR) <          That Data network should be by
  3 month (first in Asia)                     Broadband Satellite Network with


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Initial position                            Desired position
 e-learning launched and nearly whole        High Technology (iPStar 2003)
   country covered                           Link with AUN (ASEAN University
                                              Network)
                                             Develop the Standardization in all
                                              fields, which will be done by the
                                              standardization committee that has
                                              already been established
                                             e-Government is successfully applied,
                                              and date will be around 2005
                                             One shop services for government data
Vietnam
 Prime Minister has approved project        Networking, Interaction between
  for administration management               Government Agencies
  computerization                            One stop service process for
 Establish Steering Committee, and           transactions with Government
  they must approved the project              (Simplification of Administration)
  proposal, which is developed by each       Security and Privacy for Government
  Ministry
                                              Network
 Approved Unicode for Vietnamese            Access to On-line content
  Character with effect from 1/7/2002
  must use this G2G                          On-line public services, Information
 Plan to connect Ministries: CPNET ->       Application through network:
  & 61 provincial committees                         Taxation System
 LANs within Ministries -> Upgrading                Custom Office
  government network, Website, e-mail,
  some public services over the network              Business Application and
                                                      Certification
 10 ISPs
                                                     Real Estate Management
                                             Launch all public services in some big
                                              city (HCMC, Hanoi) on-line
                                             All Government institutions can access
                                              the Internet and Government Network
                                             By 2005:
                                                     LAN for all Ministries and
                                                      Provincial Committee



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Initial position                           Desired position
                                              Good Support for Application using
                                                Unicode Character Set for
                                                Vietnamese
                                            People access to various Government
                                             Offices through Community access
                                             centres in rural and remote areas


4.5.4       Barriers and enablers
Barriers
     Lack of understanding from senior politicians and bureaucrats: commitment from
      senior people in government will be essential to successfully embarking on e-
      Government transformation
     Change of government policies: governments change their policies for a number of
      reasons. This can throw carefully laid plans into disarray
     Limited resources: people, money, physical: this is a major barrier all over the
      world and even more so for CLMV.
     Public perception – privacy, security: public perception needs to be managed. In
      the e-Government area the public may be very sensitive to their information being
      manipulated without their being fully informed
     Feasibility of addressing everything: e-Government is a wide-ranging matter…it
      may not be feasible to address everything.
Enablers·
     e-ASEAN framework: the e-ASEAN framework is a clear policy enabler which
      provides countries with an excellent incentive to act – e-Government is a
      component of that framework
     Expert assistance/experience: there is expert assistance available to exist both
      within and outside the region
     Best practice: there is a growing body of experience so that best practice can be
      used as a yardstick
     Politicians’ commitment: because e-Government is closely related to public
      perception politicians generally take a great interest in it
     Public awareness: the public is acutely aware of the Internet and what it might
      do…that awareness is a driver for change. The private sector’s use of the Internet
      is setting the pace for government



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4.5.5        Scope
In scope
The following activities are within the scope of the e-Government Plan Project:
 The establishment of an e-Government Office – probably within the Prime Minister’s
  Office – which is led by an “e-Government Czar3”
 A description of the role of Government Ministry CIOs in the e-Government context
 A blueprint for a government Intranet
 A blueprint for a government to government (G2G) architecture
 The identification of legislative constraints
 A description of a service delivery strategy which explains how the Internet will be
  used as a delivery channel
 A plan which describes how and when e-Government will be implemented
Out of scope
The following activities are out of scope of the e-Government Plan Project:
 Any legislative change
 The implementation of the e-Government Project Plan.
4.5.6        Critical success factors
A critical success factor (CSF) may be defined as something which must go right if
something is to succeed. Conversely, if the CSF is not present then the associated
activity will almost certainly fail.
The following CSFs have been identified for this project:
     The plan must be attractive to the private sector: private sector support both
      because they will be a main linkage to the economic development benefit sand
      because they may be a source of funding and skills
     There must be political commitment at the highest level (that is, the Head of State
      or Head of Government). Successful e-Governments (eg Singapore and the UK)
      have had very clear political sponsorship
     The plan must attractive to donor agencies to secure the funding necessary
      particularly for subsequent implementation
     Acceptance by CLMV – there is much opportunity for sharing in the e-Government
      space. For example, while the legislation around business registration may be
      similar, there is a single underlying system

3
       This is the US term – the UK use the term “e-envoy”. In the US the position is part of the Office
of Management and Budget. In the UK the position is part of the Cabinet Office.

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     All Ministries at both the political and the senior bureaucratic levels must support
      the plan.
     The service offered through e-Government must be the services that people want.
     The plan must be capable of implementation. For example, a theoretically
      excellent plan which required more resource than could reasonably be found would
      not work and could not be accepted.
4.5.7      Assumptions
This plan is based on the following assumptions:
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment of IAI Programme (during Leader
      Commitment Summit in Brunei – which includes CLMV) remains in force
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment to the e-ASEAN Framework Agreement
      remains in place
     The plan will be endorsed by the “plus 3” group of countries (Japan, Korea, China)
4.5.8      Risks
This section lists a few of the major risks to the project. A detailed risk plan should be
constructed when the e-Government Plan Project in each country is under way.
Major risk                   Impact                        Mitigation
Loss of commitment of        Inability to mobilise         Ensure that the benefits of
politicians/senior           resource                      e-government are clearly
bureaucrats                  Increasing cost of            described. The statement
                             government service            of direction will be crucial
                             delivery                      in this regard.
                             Failure to meet public
                             expectations
                             Lowered global perception
Lack of understanding of     Inability to gain             Develop a clear and
politicians/senior           commitment                    focussed communications
bureaucrats                                                plan which contains a set
                                                           of key messages targeted
                                                           at particular groups of
                                                           people.
                                                           Spend time with senior
                                                           bureaucrats explaining the
                                                           benefits
Change in government         Earlier work and resources    Focus on the basic issues
policy                       may be wasted                 that are likely to be
                                                           common across policy

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Major risk                     Impact                        Mitigation
                                                             change
                                                             Adopt a modular design so
                                                             that components can be
                                                             reviewed or redesigned to
                                                             fit with changes
Inability to acquire           Inability to develop          Tailor the work to fit
necessary resources            workable                      reasonable resource
                               recommendations               expectations
                               Inability to implement
On-line services are not       Benefits do not materialise   Ensure that new on-line
used                                                         services are services that
                                                             customers want. Check
                                                             this through focus groups.
                                                             Ensure that services are
                                                             easy to use and that access
                                                             to services is convenient.
The public are apathetic or    Inability to implement        Develop a communication
opposed                                                      programme using suitable
                                                             media – radio, television,
                                                             advertising
Businesses are not             Failure to achieve            Ensure that businesses’
engaged or enthusiastic        economic benefit              needs are met – ask them
                                                             what they want
                                                             Target communication at
                                                             businesses
The scope of the plan          Inability to implement        Be very clear about the
becomes too large for                                        boundaries of the project
effective management                                         at the outset. Scale the
                                                             project back to fit within
                                                             available resourcing


4.5.9      Responsible Ministry
It is proposed that the country’s Prime Minister’s Office (or equivalent) should be
responsible for this Project. All other Ministries would be closely involved and their
interests would be represented on the Project Steering Committee.




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          4.5.10       Sustainability
          The Vientiane Formulation Workshop called for sustainable projects. Sustainability for
          this Project will be achieved through the establishment of a clear Project Management
          Structure acting under the coordination of the National ICT Enhancement Programme
          (which is described in Section 5).
          4.5.11       Budget
          The resources required to complete the project are a combination of international
          consultants and country specific experts. The following table summarises the estimated
          cost to acquire these resources as well as the associated travel and accommodation costs.
          This is a high level assessment of costs and the estimate will needs to be refined when
          developing the next level of the plan.


          Principal Task            W/M        Year 1             Year 2          Year 3     Total Total Cost Total Cost
                                   Rate or                                                   W/M      per        for
                                  Unit Cost W/M    Cost        W/M     Cost     W/M     Cost        Country    CLMV
1.0 Contracted personnel           $12,000 34.13   $409,500     0.00       $0    0.00      $0 34.13    $409,500 $1,638,000
    (International Consultants)
2.0 Local experts personnel         $3,000 35.25   $105,750     0.00       $0    0.00      $0 35.25    $105,750   $423,000
    (CLMV)
3.0 Equipment                                0.0          $0    0.00       $0    0.00      $0   0.00         $0        $0

4.0 Supplies and services                    0.0    $86,372     0.00       $0    0.00      $0   0.00    $86,372   $345,489

5.0 Travel and DSA                           0.0   $348,473     0.00       $0    0.00      $0   0.00   $348,473 $1,393,890
    (Consultant & CLMV
    Resources)
                    Sub-Total              69.38   $950,095     0.00       $0    0.00      $0 69.38    $950,095 $3,800,379




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4.5.12              Management arrangements
The Management Arrangements are key to the success of this Project to ensure soundness
of design, quality outputs and sustainable outcomes. The structure illustrated here was
                     ASEAN Leaders
                                                     agreed at the Vientiane Formulation
                                                     Workshop and describes the
   ASEAN Foreign                    ASEAN Economic
                                                     relationship      between   existing
      Ministers                         Ministers    ASEAN political and executive
   ASEAN Standing                    Senior Economic
                                                     committees. This subsection should
     Committee                           Officials   be read in conjunction with Section
                         ASEAN
                                                     5 which describes a general
    IAI T askforce      Secretariat                  structure for the
                             IAI Office
                                                   successful management of projects.
  CLMV Coordination
     Committee
                                      e-AW G       We have recommended in Section 5
                                                   that the ASEAN Secretariat should
develop awareness and training modules on project management to assist countries in the
implementation of the Projects.
Each country’s e-Government Plan Project will have its own in-country Steering
Committee. The Steering Committee will be chaired by a suitably senior public servant
appointed by the Head of Government. Its role will be to:
        Ensure that national needs are met
        Ensure that the Plan will be attractive to donor agencies and other stakeholders
        Advise and guide the project team in the development of the plan
        Liaise with other CLMV countries on their progress and ideas
        Accept the National ICT Master Plan
        Maintain linkages with the IAI task force and the e-ASEAN Working Group
4.5.13 Managing short term achievements in a long term
context
The outputs envisaged by the e-Government Plan Project are extensive and will entail
long-term and sustained changes. National policy development may look ahead 20 years
or more. Planning to achieve that policy is often broken down into shorter planning
cycles – so we often hear or read of Five Year Plans. The planing cycle for a given
initiative is best set by the country in the context of its own requirements. The
illustration below shows a view of policy development.


                  Period 1                Period 2                               Period n

    3 – 6 years                 Review and                     Review and
                                revise plan                    revise plan



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We anticipate that during the development of the vision, statement of direction and
planning phase for each of the projects that we will generate “quick wins”. In Section 3
we have defined a “quick win” as a project which will deliver benefits quickly and which
is expected to carry manageable or low risk. A quick win project need not be big – in
fact, small projects are often better – but they can demonstrate early progress and as a
result help gain support for the main Project. These quick wins will assist in the short
term implementation of policy bringing forward the benefits of the policies concerned.
We expect that the ASEAN6 countries will be an excellent source of quick win ideas.
4.5.14      Deliverables
While the major deliverable will be the e-Government Plan itself, there are also a number
of other sub-deliverables or outputs. These outputs may be added to by countries but
should be considered as a minimum set.
          Output                                  Success criteria
5.1       An e-Government organisation            A description of who is responsible
                                                  for e-Government implementation
                                                  A description of the roles of Ministry
                                                  CIOs in the context of e-Government
5.2       A whole of government technical         A blueprint for a technical
          architecture blueprint                  architecture which is practical,
                                                  affordable and flexible and which
                                                  takes into account connectivity and
                                                  geographic constraints
5.3       Government on-line security and         Policies and legislation that is aligned
          privacy policies                        with the e-Government Vision
5.4       Legislative constraints                 A clear statement of legislative issues
                                                  relating to e-Government. The
                                                  statement should be usable by those
                                                  responsible for drafting new
                                                  legislation or for political decision to
                                                  be made about the desirability of
                                                  change
5.5       A service delivery strategy             A statement about which government
                                                  transactions might eventually be
                                                  delivered over the Internet compared
                                                  with other means (government
                                                  offices, call centres). Should be easy


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          Output                                 Success criteria
                                                 for someone to determine whether a
                                                 given transaction will ever be on-line.
5.6       An e-Government Plan                   A plan which describes all the things
                                                 that need to be done to effect e-
                                                 Government transformation
5.7       A Government Intranet design           A clear statement of intent for an
                                                 Government Intranet (G2E)


4.5.15      Measures of success
The following may be measures of success for the e-Government Plan project:
     The Head of State or Head Government has publicly committed to the reform
     The e-Government Czar is in place
     Ministry CIOs are committed to implement the whole of government technical
      architecture
     Funding has been made available
     CLMV ICT Coordination Committee has endorsed each countries’ plan
     There is evidence of widespread support for the plan – from the privates sector, the
      public and politicians




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4.5.16         Linkages to other programs
The Programme Proposal to create an e-Government Plan is linked to each of the other
four ICT Programme Proposals. The e-Government Plan creates the framework in which
the four other Projects do their work.
In the diagrams below the other Programme Proposals are illustrated as blue diamonds as
follows:


               1
                                1: Telecommunication Frameworks

               2
                                2: National ICT Development Master Plan

               3
                                3: ICT Legislation

               4
                                4: National ICT Master Plans on HRD

               5
                                5: e-Government


There is a separate section in this paper about the integration of the ICT Programme
Proposals.
4.5.17         Principal tasks
The principal tasks of the e-Government Plan are illustrated below.

                                                                      3
          1                      5.1 Co-ordinate                                                 e-ASEAN
                                 e-Government                                                    readiness
                                      policy                                                    assessment
                                                                                  Define
              5.2 Describe                                                       measures
                  G2G                                        5.4 Review
              architecture                                    legislative
                                    5.6 Develop              constraints                       Monitor
                                   e-Government                                                progress
                                        Plan
           5.7 Design                                               5.5 Determine
          government                                               service delivery
            intranet                                                   strategy               Adjust
                                                                                               plan
                                   5.3 Develop security
                                  and privacy policies for
                                   government-on-line
                   1                                                        3




Sitting outside the main tasks is a set of tasks relating to measurement.



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     Define Measurements: Detailed project specific measurement units (e.g.
      teledensity, internet penetration, etc), to be defined during the development process.
      The ASEAN e-Readiness Assessment will be a good source.
     Monitor Progress: Monitor the progress against the targeted measures.
     Adjust Plan: As with any other plan, there is a need to refine and adjust to
      incorporate the conditions and constrains found during the implementation and its
      alignment with the targeted measures. This should be conducted in an iterative
      manner.
It will be necessary for the responsible Ministry to establish a mechanism for
measurement and to implement that mechanism.
Adoption of the evolutionary approach
The tasks required are based around the evolutionary approach described in section 3.
The following are the three main tasks associated with the approach:
          5.6.1 Develop e-Government Vision
          5.6.2 Develop e-Government Statement of Direction
          5.6.9 Produce e-Government Plan
4.5.18       Task Descriptions
Two of the tasks illustrated in the diagram above are worth looking at in more detail.
These are 5.5: Determine Service Delivery Strategy and 5.6: Build e-Government Plan.
5.1 Co-ordinate e-Government policy
This activity will establish an e-Government body whose responsibility will be the co-
ordination of e-Government activity within the country at all levels of government.
5.2 Describe G2G architecture
This task will build an architectural blueprint that will form the information and
communications technological platform for e-Government.
5.3 Develop security and privacy policies for government-on-line
This task will develop security and privacy policies for on-line government. It will be
informed by the development of appropriate legislation.
5.4 Review legislative constraints
This activity will review any legislative or regulatory impediments to the on-line delivery
of government services.




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5.5 Determine Service Delivery Strategy
This is a central element of e-Government strategic planning. The major source of cost
efficiencies from e-Government arise from moving people from an expensive channel –
such as a government office – to the Internet.
Being able to use the Internet has some challenges of its own – can people access the
Internet, is the portal well-designed, have the back-end processes been redesigned to take
advantage of on-line benefits.
In addition to these considerations the channel strategy must reflect the wishes of the
people who will use those channels. E-Government experience is littered with instances
of governments who thought they knew what people wanted and were then surprised to
find that they were wrong. There is no substitute for asking people.




                                                      5.5.1 Review
           5.5.2 Identify                               Existing
           N eeds for On-                               Delivery
            line Services                                Process
                                                                          5.6.5



                                       5.5.5 Define
                                        Priorities
             5.5.3 Identify                                     5.5.6
              Customer                                         Describe
               Grouping                                        Benefits

                                          5.5.4
                                        Describe
                                        Channels
                                        Strategy




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5.6: Build e-Government Plan
There are several activities in the construction of the e-Government plan. These are
illustrated below. Several points are worth making:

                        1


    5.6.1 Develop                  5.6.2 Develop
    e-Government                   e-Government
        Vision                      Statement of
                                      Direction
                                                                         5.6.3 Build
                                                                      Communication
                                                                      Plan (G2G, G2B)
            5.6.4 Develop                                                                 5.6.6 Develop
            awareness &                         5.6.5                                     Government
             training for                     Develop         5.5.5                           on-line
           public servants                    roadmap                                        charter
                (G2G)

                                                                 5.6.9 Produce
                             5.6.8 Identify
                                                    5.2          e-Government
                             & implement                                                 5.6.7 Define
                                                                      Plan
                              quick wins                                                  criteria for
                                                                                        local industry
                                                                                         involvement

                                                                 5.1       5.3    5.4




5.6.1 Develop e-Government Vision – this activity will describe a vision for e-
Government.
5.6.2 Develop e-Government Statement of Direction – this activity will flesh out the
vision by describing in more detail the objectives of the e-Government plan.
5.6.3 Build Communication Plan (G2G, G2B) – this activity will build a plan that will
assist in the communication of the vision and statement of direction to business, other
levels of government and civil servants.
5.6.4 Develop awareness & training for public servants – this activity is crucial. Public
servants will often resist the changes associated with e-Government. Awareness training
is a way of over-coming resistance
5.6.5 Develop roadmap – the roadmap is the e-Government blueprint. It will describe the
major projects within the e-Government programme.
5.6.6 Develop Government on-line charter – this document would reassure citizens that
they would get the same service on the Internet as through another channel
5.6.7 Define criteria for local industry involvement – local industry development in
building e-Government solutions will be important. This activity will outline policy for
the use of local industry.
5.6.8 Identify & implement quick wins – finding small things that can be done quickly is
good for morale and provides useful justification when looking for resources.


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5.6.9 Produce e-Government Plan – the e-Government Plan will tie together all the
outputs from the above activities.
5.7 Design government intranet
The e-Government intranet will describe the G2E communications platform. It will build
on the G2G architectural blueprint to describe what services will be put in place to assist
civil servants help citizens better.
4.5.19     Implementation
The project will take approximately 260 days to complete with 7 associated main tasks.
Project plan is listed in Annex C.




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5 Integration considerations
5.1 IAI and the ICT Sector
The IAI Workplan for CLMV is focusing on four priority areas:
     infrastructure development which is related to transport and energy networks
     human resource development which about increasing human resource capacity
     information and communication technology which is about reducing the digital
      divide through the exploitation of new technology
     promoting regional economic integration which is about enhancing integration into
      ASEAN.
While it makes practical sense to asses and analyse these four areas separately, they are
interconnected as the diagram below illustrates.




5.2 Connections within the ICT Sector
In addition to connections and inter-relationships between the four priority areas of the
IAI Work Plan, there are also connections and inter-relationships between the 5
Programme Proposals within the ICT Sector priority area, and their associated projects.
These relationships are evident from the analysis of the individual projects which shows
activities in each either depending upon another for input or being depended upon by
another.
The table below expands upon these inter-relationships. It is important to note two
things:
(a)   that the 5 projects cannot be viewed in isolation
(b)   that the 5 projects cannot be implemented in a strict sequence.



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       When we add to these two points the interconnections with the other three IAI
       priority areas, it is clear that the management of the ICT Sector priority area is a
       complex undertaking requiring difficult decisions about priority.

                                 Telecommunications




                                                                                                                                 National Action Plan
                                                                     National ICT Master
      This




                                                                                                      ICT Legislation




                                                                                                                                                                      e-Government
                                                                                                                                     for ICT HRD
      depends                         framework
      upon this for




                                                                            Plan
      input



 Telecommunications                                        The plan cannot be                                                                               e-Government
 framework                                                 fully implemented                                                                                depends upon a
                                                           without the                                                                                      reliable,
                                                           telecommunications                                                                               comprehensive and
                                                           framework                                                                                        affordable tele-
                                                                                                                                                            communications
                                                                                                                                                            capability
 National ICT Master    Requires ICT Vision,                                               Requires policy imput        Requires skills                     e-Government
 Plan                   ICT SOD and                                                        to determine areas of        projections to develop              depends upon the
                        Connectivity policy                                                ICT legislative reform       effective HRD                       vision and policies
                                                                                                                        development plans                   contained in the
                                                                                                                                                            National ICT Master
                                                                                                                                                            Plan

 ICT Legislation        Requires knowledge of New ICT legislation will                                                  The implementation of e-Government
                        existing legislation and form the basis for e-                                                  the HRD development depends upon privacy
                        depends upon new         commerce growth                                                        plan may require some legislation
                        telecommunications                                                                              legislative change
                        legislation to succeed


 National Action Plan                                      Implenting the National
 for ICT HRD                                               ICT Master Plan will
                                                           depend upon having
                                                           the right skills in place




 e-Government                                              e-Government is a                                            e-Government may be
                                                           major driver of ICT take-                                    a major way of
                                                           up by businesses and                                         reaching people who
                                                           citizens                                                     are targets for re-
                                                                                                                        skilling




Without careful analysis it would be hard to make decisions about sequencing. We need
to be able to run all 5 projects in parallel but to get the advantages of doing then in
sequence. We have proposed an evolutionary approach to the development of each
project. Essentially this means that each project is based upon a three step cycle:
(a)       develop a vision – the vision is like a picture. It captures something in a few words
          or pages. It doesn’t contain everything but it does describe something to aim at.
(b)       develop a statement of direction (SOD) – the SOD is like a play about the subject
          of the picture. It contains more detail that the picture and it fleshes out key scenes.
          But it still does not contain all the detail.


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(c)    develop the plan – the plan is like the book about the play and the picture – it
       contains all the detail.
This approach means that the vision statements for each of the 5 projects can be
interleaved with the SODs. So the vision for ICT HRD development can start as the
SOD for the National Master Plan proceeds.

5.3 A plan for integration

                                      Q3 2002 Q4 2002 Q1 2003 Q2 2003 Q3 2003 Q4 2003 Q1 2004 Q2 2004




                                                                                                  May




                                                                                                                                                                          May
                                            Aug




                                                              Nov




                                                                                                                    Aug




                                                                                                                                      Nov
                                                                                      Mar




                                                                                                                                                              Mar
                                                                    Dec




                                                                                                                                            Dec
                                                                                            Apr




                                                                                                                                                                    Apr
                                                  Sep




                                                                                Feb




                                                                                                                          Sep




                                                                                                                                                        Feb
                                                        Oct




                                                                                                                                Oct
                                                                                                        Jun




                                                                                                                                                                                Jun
                                                                          Jan




                                                                                                                                                  Jan
                                      Jul




                                                                                                              Jul
 1 Telecommunications framework
   National Telecomm Vision
   National Telecomm SOD
   Establish regulatory body
   National Telecomm Plan
 2 National ICT Master Plan
   Establish national body
   National ICT vision
   National ICT SOD
   National ICT Plan
 3 ICT Legislation
   Cyber law vision
   Cyber law principles
   Cyber law descriptions
   Cyber law plan
 4 National Action Plan for ICT HRD
   ICT HRD Vision
   ICT HRD SOD
   ICT education delivery strategy
   ICT education policy
 5 e-Government
   e-Government vision
   e-Government SOD
   e-Government architecture
   e-Government Plan
In the chart below we show how the 5 ICT projects might be co-ordinated.


5.4 Core skills requirements
Two core skills will be needed by the CLMV governments as they proceed with the 5
plans. These skills are project management and programme management.
5.4.1         Project management
Project management is a management discipline by which a parcel of work is brought to
a successful conclusion. A project has a fixed and defined set of deliverables and these
are to be produced within a specific time and budget using a certain level of resources
(both people and physical things).
Successful project management depends upon some clear structures and processes.



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Project management structures
From a structural point of view achieving a successful project depends upon:
    (a)    a project sponsor: this is a senior person in the organisation for whom the
           work of the project is performed. He or she is responsible for ensuring that
           the project gets the resources and facilities it needs and for resolving conflict
           within the larger organisation.
    (b)    A project manager: there can be only one project manager although he or she
           may have sub-project managers reporting to him or her. The project manager
           is responsible for producing the project deliverables within the time and the
           budget and to the quality required.
    (c)    A Project Steering Committee: the Project Manager will report to the Project
           Steering Committee at regular intervals. Normally reporting is monthly. The
           Steering Committee will accept the report and/or provide advice to the project
           manager on the conduct of the project. The Steering Committee is the body
           that accepts or rejects the deliverables. It is normally chaired by the Project
           Sponsor.
           We have described the need for a Steering Committee in each of the 5 ICT
           projects and shown how that Steering Committee would relate to the ASEAN
           committee structure. Within country the Steering Committee must also relate
           to some other committee (in the case of the National ICT Master Plan
           Development Project we recommend that the Steering Committee reports
           through the Project Sponsor to the Cabinet).
    (d)    Assurance Groups: two other groups may be useful. The first is a User
           Assurance Group and the second is a Technical Advisory Group.
                User Assurance Group: the User Assurance Group is a set of people
                 who would be expected to use the results of the particular project. For
                 the National Action Plan for HRD ICT the User Assurance Group
                 might consist of senior education administrators who would be
                 expected to assist in the implementation of the Action Plan. The
                 objective is to ensure that the output will be beneficial to the people
                 who need to use it.
                Technical Advisory Group: the Technical Advisory Group is a group
                 of people who advise on the technical (or business) feasibility of the
                 proposed deliverables. For example, in establishing the regulatory
                 regime within the Telecommunications Framework Project the
                 Technical Advisory Group would provide advice to the Project
                 Manager on whether a particular structure could be expected to work.




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           The User Assurance and Technical Advisory Groups may, in certain
           circumstances be combined.

                                                           Political authority


                                          Project                     Political accountability
                                                                                                           Representation
                                         sponsor                                                           from Ministries
                                                               Steering
                                                              Committee
                                                                                           Guidance and
                               Monthly reports
                                                                                           acceptance of deliverables


              User Assurance                                                                              Technical Advisory
               Committee              Useability advice                           Technical advice           Committee


                                                           Project Manager


                                         Project            Risk          Monthly         Deliver-
                                          plan            register        report           ables




Project management processes
The Project Steering Committee should expect that the Project Manager has paid
attention to a number of key areas:
(a)   Project planning: the Project Manager should maintain and up-to-date schedule of
      activities at all times. This should be presented at Steering Committee Meetings.
(b)   Quality assurance: there needs to be a process to ensure that what is produced is
      what was expected. This means that all deliverables must be described at the outset
      of the Project and their description should be accepted by the Steering Committee
(c)   Risk management: The Project Manager should maintain a register or list of risks
      together with brief assessments of the impact of each risk and the mitigation
      strategy that he or she has in place to address that risk
(d)   Procurement: Where there is a need to procure services or products, that
      procurement must be handled and accounted for in a proper manner.
(e)   Financial management: The Project Manager should report to the Steering
      Committee on the state of the project finances.
5.4.2      Programme management
Programme management is the discipline by which multiple projects are managed. A
programme such as the IAI ICT Programme consists of a number of inter-related
projects. In an ideal world these projects would happen sequentially – one after the other.


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In practice, however, there is no time for this and the projects must proceed in parallel.
But there are interdependencies.
The role of a programme manager is to understand the dependencies and to manage the
inter-connections between projects. The programme manager may make judgements
about the management of individual projects.
The IAI ICT Programme needs a similar same structure to that described for a project. In
the next section we describe how each country should structure the management of its
IAI ICT Programme. This will assist in defining the role of the National ICT Body that
will be established as a result of Project 2 (National ICT Plan).

5.5 National ICT Enhancement Programmes
In order to assist in the effective programme and project management of the 5 projects,
we recommend that the programme and project management structures are integrated to
improve coordination and reduce overlap.
The ICT programme projects should be managed collectively as a single programme. We
refer to this programme as the National ICT Enhancement Programme. We describe how
this program should be managed in the next section.
The purpose of the National ICT Enhancement Programme should be…
“to co-ordinate the national ICT development projects, to manage dependencies between
them and to ensure that all the projects deliver their stated outputs as required by the
National ICT Enhancement Programme Plan”
We have drafted, at Annex A an Initiation Document for the National ICT Enhancement
Programme.




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5.6 Managing integration
Structure
The Management Arrangements are key to the success of this Project to ensure soundness
of design, quality outputs and sustainable outcomes. The structure illustrated here was
agreed at the Vientiane Formulation Workshop and describes the relationship between
existing ASEAN political and executive committees.
                                          ASEAN Leaders



                 ASEAN Foreign                                          ASEAN Economic
                   Ministers                                               Ministers

                 ASEAN Standing                                         Senior Economic
                   Committee                                                Officials

                                                            ASEAN
                  IAI T askforce                          Secretariat
                                                           IAI Office

                                   Programme Assistance
                                         Capability


                CLMV Coordination
                                                                            e-AW G
                   Committee

The Design Workshop in Jakarta concluded that coordination at the sub-regional level
was important to ensure success. Rather than have separate coordinating bodies at each
level it is recommended that a single body – called the CLMV Coordinating Committee –
be established to co-ordinate the countries’ individual National ICT Enhancement
Programmes. The relationship between the CLMV Coordinating Committee is shown
above.
The principal objective of the CLMV Coordinating Committee is to enable the CLMV
sub-region to take charge of the programmes and changes needed to narrow the gap with
the other ASEAN countries.
The IAI initiative is an initiative that was derived from the ASEAN Foreign Ministers.
The reporting line for the CLMV Coordinating Committee must, therefore, be kept
through that line.


Support and sustainability
We also recommend that the ASEAN Secretariat – through the IAI Office – establish a
Programme Assistance Capability to enable the effective coordination and execution of
the countries’ individual National ICT Enhancement Programmes. We describe the role
of the Programme Assistance Capability in Annex B.




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Terms of Reference
The Terms of Reference of the CLMV Coordinating Committee was agreed at the
Vientiane Formulation Workshop to include:
     The receipt of reports from C, L, M and V
     The identification of overlaps and lessons learned
     The provision of assistance to C, L, M and V to remove duplication and of advice
      on overcoming difficulties
     Tasking the Programme Assistance Capability
     Reporting to IAI Taskforce and co-ordinate with the EAWG activites.
It is recommended that these Terms of Reference are reviewed and agreed by the IAI
Taskforce.


Membership
The Vientiane Formulation Workshop also considered membership of the CLMV
Coordinating Committee and concluded that the following membership was appropriate:
     4 CLMV EAWG Members
     ASEAN6 representatives (who could be EAWG Country Coordinators or EAWG
      members)
     4 CLMV National Program Managers
     4 other CLMV representatives (who could be EAWG country coordinators)
     2 ASEAN Secretariat representatives
     Donor Agency representatives


Chairmanship
It is proposed that the Chairman should be from one of the CLMV countries and that the
chair should rotate through the countries alphabetically starting with Cambodia. The
term of the chair should be from the start of one meeting to immediately before the start
of the next meeting.


5.6.2      Location of meetings
The CLMV Coordination Committee should meet in the country of the Chairman.




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         Frequency of meetings
         The CLMV ICT Coordination Committee should meet quarterly for two days or as
         determined by the current and subsequent chairman in consultation with the ASEAN
         Secretariat IAI Office.


         Estimated costs
         This gives an annual requirement of:
         Item              Quantity           Cost        Total         Comments
         Airfares          12 CLMV            $ 700       $8,400        Assumes 3 people from the host
                                                                        country do not need to travel
                           6 ASEAN6           $700        $4,200
                           2 Secretariat      $700        $1,400
         Per diem          40                 $150        $6,000
         Meeting           1                  $3,500 $3,500             Assume conference facilities and a
         facility                                                       dinner
                                                          $23,500       Cost per meeting
                                                          $94,000       Cost per year


         5.7 Costing the integration project
         The table below summarises the costs for contracted personnel (international consultants)
         of all five projects in the second and third columns.
                                              Separate                                     Integrated

                                   C,L,M,V each Total               CLMV          C,L,M,V each Programme        Total
                                                                    (Common                    Assistance
                                                                    tasks)                     Capability
Telecommunications framework       $981,000       $3,924,000        $500,000      $500,000       $200,000       $2,700,000

National ICT Master Plan           $550,500       $2,202,000        $400,000      $150,000       $150,000       $1,150,000

ICT Legislation                    $279,000       $1,116,000        $140,000      $140,000       $100,000       $800,000

National Action Plan for ICT       $354,000       $1,416,000        $225,000      $130,000       $120,000       $865,000
HRD
e-Government                       $409,500       $1,638,000        $270,000      $130,000       $200,000       $990,000

                                                  $10,296,000       $1,535,000    $1,050,000     $770,000       $6,505,000

                                                                    Potential savings from coordination         $3,791,000



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This shows a total cost of acquiring international consultants across the four countries of
$10,296,000. There is, however, the opportunity for considerable savings by ensuring the
CLMV Coordinating Committee, working with the Programme Assistance Capability,
works to remove duplication. We estimate that $3,791,000 could be saved by identifying
a set of common tasks (see column 4). This means that the expenditure per county would
be $1,050,000 (ie. a total of $4,200,000) with a common requirement of $1,535,000. In
addition there would be a need to fund the Programme Assistance Capability to the order
of $770,000.

5.8 Skills development
A review of both the costings for the individual Project Descriptions and the Integration
Project shows that there is considerable reliance on international expertise. While this is
clearly necessary and useful for many aspects of the proposed activities we recommend
that the CLMV Coordinating Committee, on the advice of the Programme Assistance
Capability, continually looks for ways of effecting skills transfer to grow capability
within the sub-region.

5.9 Integration options
There are three options for the way in which the CLMV ICT Coordination Committee
could look at integration:
5.9.1      Option 1: Single program
Under this option the CLMV ICT Coordination Committee would ask that there be
developed a single plan for each of the 5 projects. This single plan would then be
implemented by the four countries.
The advantage of this option would be that there would be a single and consistent plan
and approach. The disadvantage of this approach is that it would be difficult to take
account of individual national factors without revising the plan. On balance, we think
that it would not be possible to make this approach work because national considerations
are so important.
5.9.2      Option 2: Coordinated support
In this option we recognise the desire expressed by the Jakarta Design Workshop to co-
ordinate activities between the four countries while recognising national differences in
circumstances and aspirations. In order to assist the CLMV ICT Coordination
Committee the ASEAN Secretariat would establish a programme assistance capability.
The role of the programme assistance capability is to advise on programme structures,
resourcing, planning, risk management and to advise on the content of the proposed
plans. The disadvantage of this approach is that the programme assistance capability
would not be country specific. The advantage is that the programme assistance capability


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would be common to all countries and would be a practical way of leveraging
experiences and lessons learned as well as facilitating access to world’s best practice.
We recommend this approach.         We have suggested how this capability might be
constructed at Annex B.
5.9.3      Option 3: Individual programs
A third option is to allow the four countries to develop their plans separately. The role of
the CLMV ICT Coordination Committee would then be as a forum for exchange and
would have no standing capacity to provide assistance.
The disadvantage of this is that there is a danger that the countries’ directions would
diverge which would not be in accord with the views of the Jakarta Design Workshop.
There might be a marginal benefit in that the countries could move slightly more quickly
although we think that without a solid ideas exchange mechanism initial progress would
slow down over time.




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5.9.4       Summary of benefits
                             1                            2                     3                          4                     5
                   Telecommunications         National ICT Master         ICT Legislation       National Action Plan       e-Government
                        framework                       Plan                                         for ICT HRD
e-Society         Significant impact         It is through the         New ICT legislation     The National Action      e-Government will
                  through improved           National ICT Master       will offer people the   Plan for ICT HRD will    enable government and
                  connection of people       Plan that people will     protection that they    describe how people      people to come closer
                  both by phone and the      learn of new              and their families need can take advantage of    together through better
                  Internet. This will lead   opportunities and see     as the ICT revolution the ICT revolution to      exchange of
                  to an enhanced sense       that there are new        bites and more          enhance their working    information. This will
                  of community and the       ways of doing things.     business is transacted lives and their quality   lead to benefits to
                  increased social           The National ICT          electronically.         of life.                 people as they get
                  exchange will lead to      Master Plan will be the                                                    better and quicker
                  new economic               first step in removing                                                     services and to
                  opportunities.             the mystery of ICT for                                                     government in being
                                             many people.                                                               able to reach people
                                                                                                                        more effectively and
                                                                                                                        efficiently.




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                         1                       2                    3                         4                       5
              Telecommunications National ICT Master            ICT Legislation       National Action Plan        e-Government
                   framework                   Plan                                       for ICT HRD
e-Commerce   An improved             The National ICT        Revised ICT             The National Action      e-Government
             telecommunications      Master Plan will set    legislation will enable Plan for ICT HRD will    initiatives will enhance
             framework - which       the scene for the       e-commerce              lay the foundation for   the ability of business
             will include a          expansion of e-         transactions to take    increased ICT skills.    to do business through
             new/revised regulatory commerce. It will be a   place with the          This will enable local   better and quicker
             regime - will assist    clear statement that    knowledge that they     investment in new ICT    registration and
             business and better     will D6                 are safe and secure and ventures and attract     licensing processes,
             enable e-commerce                               that the privacy of     overseas companies to    easier reporting
             through more attractive                         information is          take advantage of the    requirements and
             pricing structures.                             protected. The Cyber- new skills.                improved taxation
                                                             law plan will improve                            processes.
                                                             investor confidence
                                                             and lead to enhance
                                                             economic prospects.




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                           1                          2                      3                           4                     5
                Telecommunications         National ICT Master         ICT Legislation        National Action Plan       e-Government
                     framework                      Plan                                          for ICT HRD
e-Government   Bringing a universal       The National ICT          One of the factors in Improved skills levels      e-Government is
               telecommunications         Master Plan will          the attractiveness of e- and facility with ICT    recognised throughout
               infrastructure to people   describe how e-           Government is whether will enhance the desire     the world as a key
               and enabling phone         Government and e-         people feel their        of and opportunity for   component of
               and Internet               commerce will interact    privacy is protected - people to contribute to    government reform.
               connections will offer     in an ICT society.        particularly in the area their communities.       The e-Government
               government the chance      This will spur the        of health records. The Enhanced community         plan will describe how:
               to improve its             efforts of politicians    ICT Legislation Plan interaction can lead to      (a) service delivery
               connection with            and senior                will allay these fears more effective and         will improve
               citizens.                  administrators to         and make the way         efficient government.    (b) the cost-
                                          improve access to         clear for rapid progress                          effectiveness of
                                          government services       on e-Government.                                  government will be
                                          and to look for ways of                                                     enhanced
                                          reducing the cost of                                                        (c) economic activity
                                          government                                                                  will be assisted




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                             1                       2                      3                          4                       5
                  Telecommunications     National ICT Master          ICT Legislation      National Action Plan          e-Government
                       framework                   Plan                                        for ICT HRD
Infrastructure   The                    The National ICT           The Cyber-law Plan     If the overall national    Government is part of
                 Telecommunications     Master Plan will state     will clarify the       infrastructure is          the fabric of the nation.
                 Framework is the       the requirements for       government's intent to regarded as national       Along with business,
                 fundamental            national infrastructure.   lay a legal framework capability then people      government needs to
                 component in           It will also related ICT   for information        are a critical             reform itself to adapt
                 establishing the       development to the         infrastructure         component. The             to new methods and
                 national Information   need for physical          development.           National Action Plan       techniques and the
                 Infrastructure which   infrastructure. A                                 for ICT HRD will           changing expectations
                 will be needed as an   primary benefit of this                           describe how skills and    of people. The e-
                 engine for economic    plan will be improved                             capacity will be           Government plan will
                 growth.                investor confidence                               increased to add to the    describe the
                                        and resulting in                                  national infrastructure.   government
                                        enhanced economic                                                            infrastructure
                                        prospects.                                                                   requirements and
                                                                                                                     provide a basis for
                                                                                                                     planning for
                                                                                                                     government reform.




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                               1                          2                        3                     4                      5
                    Telecommunications         National ICT Master         ICT Legislation    National Action Plan        e-Government
                         framework                      Plan                                      for ICT HRD
Liberalising Trade The                        National ICT Master The Cyber-Law Plan         The improved skills       More open access to
                   Telecommunications         Plan will lay the        will describe a new   and capacity forseen      government and
                   Framework will             framework within         ICT legislative       by the National Action    improved transparency
                   describe whether and       which the liberalisation framework within      Plan for ICT HRD will     of government
                   how privitisation of the   of ICT trade will be     which trade           lead to enhance           processes will b ean
                   telecommunications         managed.                 liberalisation can    knowledge economic        example to businesses
                   industry will take                                  proceed under         prospects. This will be   and will encourage
                   place. This will enable                             management of the     a key component in        them to open up their
                   the continuing                                      government.           trade liberalisation.     own processes and
                   liberalisation of the                                                                               encourage them to take
                   telecommunications                                                                                  advantage of the
                   market with                                                                                         economic prospects of
                   consequent flow-on                                                                                  trade liberalisation.
                   benefits to the
                   knowledge and
                   software industries.




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6 Country considerations
6.1 Getting started
The purpose of this section is to provide advice to each CLMV country on how to get
started with their National ICT Enhancement Programme.
It was clear from the Design Workshop held in Jakarta that each country has made
progress in the ICT economic development arena. No country is starting with a clean
sheet of paper and it is important to build on the valuable work that has already been
done.
The diagram below suggests how to get started.

            P2                   P4
      Assess national      Review present
       requirements           position


                                                                                P6
              P1                   P5
                                                                          Start Project 2
            Appoint        Modify template
          responsible      for Project 2 to                                             2.1.1 Establish ICT
                                                         2.2.2 Statement of
            Minister         suit country                                                  coordination
                                                              Direction
                                                                                             structure



            P3                                                                 P7
     Assess AS EAN IAI                                                  Develop National
         goals and                                                      ICT Enhancement
     recommendations                                                       Programme



The following activities are illustrated in the diagram:
P1     Appoint responsible Minister – it will be necessary to appoint a responsible
       Minister. The Minister should act as the sponsor for the National ICT
       Enhancement Programme. Once the Minister is appointed it will be clear which
       Ministry is to be responsible. We expect that the responsible Ministry would be the
       Prime Minister’s Office, Posts and Telecommunications, Science and Technology
       or Industry. It is important that other Ministries recognise the leadership of which
       ever Ministry is made responsible.
P2     Assess national requirements – understanding overall national requirements will be
       important in determining where best the leadership should sit.
P3     Assess ASEAN IAI goals and recommendations – there will be a number of
       ASEAN recommendations and policies which should be taken account of.



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P4    Review present position – before starting detailed planning work it will be
      necessary to review the current position prevailing within the country. Some of this
      assessment is given in the Project Descriptions in this document.
P5    Modify template for Project 2 – based on the above the responsible Ministry should
      modify the template for Project 2 and build a detailed country plan
      We suggest that the individual country plans are discussed at a meeting of the
      CLMV ICT Coordination Committee.
P6    Start Project 2 – Once the plan for Project 2 is agreed work can begin. The
      approach to Project 2 should be consistent with the evolutionary approach. After
      the activity 2.2.2:Statement of Direction it should be possible to begin work on the
      National ICT Enhancement Programme (see P7) following which activity
      2.1.1:Establish ICT co-ordination structure can be started.
P7    Develop National ICT Enhancement Programme – the National ICT Enhancement
      Programme as described in the previous section should then be constructed. This
      program becomes the responsibility of the ICT National Body.

6.2 Establishing a national programme structure
The National ICT Enhancement Programme structure should then have the following
characteristics:
(a)   there will be a Minister responsible for the National ICT Enhancement Programme
      as a whole
(b)   there will be a Minister responsible for each of the 5 program projects
(c)   there will be a National ICT Enhancement Programme Steering Committee and a
      National ICT Enhancement Programme Manager. The Programme Manager will
      be in the Ministry responsible for the National ICT Master Plan
(d)   the National ICT Enhancement Programme Steering Committee will be responsible
      to the Cabinet
(e)   each of the 5 projects will have a Project Steering Committee. The Programme
      Manager will sit on each of these Steering Committees
(f)   each of the 5 Projects will have a named Project Manager
(g)   the Programme Manager will ensure that representation to the CLMV ICT
      Coordination Committee is appropriate and will liaise with ASEAN over the use of
      the programme assistance capability.

6.3 Managing the changes brought by ICT
ICT brings about sometimes dramatic changes in the way that people live their lives and
do their work. This change needs to be managed at two levels.


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(a)   Within the community as a whole people need to be aware that although ICT can
      automate existing jobs and processes it also generates new opportunities. The
      activity “2.5 Do awareness and communication” in Project 2 (National ICT
      Development Master Plan) will be key to reassuring people that change need not be
      bad. This process of change will be a long and hard process and will require
      patience and commitment from the responsible Ministry
(b)   The change to e-Government involves more than simply automating existing
      services. It also means reviewing and revising current government processes and
      this can lead to a fear of job loss. Activity “5.6.4 Develop awareness and training
      for public servants (G2G)” in Project 5 (e-Government) is designed to reassure civil
      servants that the changes will not if necessity lead to job reductions. Indeed, most
      governments have an endless demand for service provision and e-Government is a
      way of delivering more services with the same resources.

6.4 Providing support
We now describe how the CLMV ICT Coordination Committee will support the
individual countries’ National ICT Enhancement Programmes.




As we have recommended above, each country will embark upon its own National ICT
Enhancement Programme. These programmes will be supported by the CLMV
Coordinating Committee. As described in the previous Section, the CLMV Coordinating


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Committee will meet quarterly – or as decided by its members – to assist the CLMV
countries to learn from one another’s experience and to remove duplication.




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Annex A: National ICT Enhancement Programme
In this Annex we describe in outline the shape of the National ICT Enhancement
Programme described in the main body of the paper.
Objective
To ensure that the 5 National IAI ICT Sector Projects are coordinated effectively and
efficiently and are implemented successfully and economically.
Description
This programme is designed to ensure that there is a management mechanism in place to
resolve conflict between the 5 National IAI ICT Sector Projects. Such conflict resolution
may require the reallocation of resource or the re-sequencing of activities or any other
action that the Programme Manager sees fit to undertake.
Scope
In scope
 All activities associated directly with the 5 National IAI ICT Sector Projects.
 Communication and consultation with affected parties to resolve areas of difficulty
  and/or conflict.
 Reporting to the National ICT Enhancement Programme Steering Committee.
 Maintaining a programme plan and communicating that to the 5 National IAI ICT
  Sector Project Managers
Out of scope
 Managing any one of the 5 National IAI ICT Sector Projects
Critical success factors
 National IAI ICT Sector Project Managers acquire the resource they need to deliver
  their projects
 The National IAI ICT Sector Project Managers are properly equipped to do their jobs
 Support for the National ICT Enhancement Programme is maintained
 CLMV Programme Assistance is used effectively
 Continuous monitoring of expectations of the Programme Sponsor and the Project
  Sponsors
Assumptions
This plan is based on the following assumptions:

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     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment of IAI Programme (during Leader
      Commitment Summit in Brunei – which includes CLMV) remains in force
     The ASEAN Leaders’ Commitment to the e-ASEAN Framework Agreement
      remains in place
     The Programme will be endorsed by the “plus 3” group of countries (Japan, Korea,
      China)
     There is real commitment to the Programme in-country
Risks
This section lists a few of the major risks to the Programme. A detailed risk plan should
be constructed when the National ICT Enhancement Programme is under way.
Major risk                   Impact                       Mitigation
Loss of commitment of        National ICT Projects will   Ensure that the Steering
politicians/senior           falter                       Committee is fully briefed
bureaucrats                                               on all planning and
                                                          management matters
Change in government         Earlier work and resources   Construct a Programme
policy                       may be wasted                Plan that is modular so that
                                                          components can be re-used
                                                          or discarded independent
                                                          of policy
Inability to acquire         Inability to develop         Tailor the work to fit
necessary resources          workable                     reasonable resource
                             recommendations              expectations
                             Inability to implement       Continually review
                                                          progress and scope of
                                                          Projects to ensure they are
                                                          satisfactory
The scope becomes too        Inability to implement       Be very clear about the
large for effective          Loss of quality              boundaries of projects at
management                                                the outset.
                                                          Scale projects back to fit
                                                          within available resourcing


Budget
Internal resources to include the Programme Manager (not costed here).



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Programme Assistance as required within any guidelines developed for draw down (see
Annex B).
Management arrangements
The following will be required:
 A Programme Sponsor: this should be a Minister appointed by the Prime Minister. He
  or she will be responsible for ensuring that the Programme Manager gets the necessary
  resources and facilities it needs and for resolving conflict within the larger
  organisation.
 A Programme Manager: who is responsible for producing the project deliverables
  within the time and the budget and to the quality required.
 A Programme Steering Committee: the Programme Manager will report to the Project
  Steering Committee at regular intervals. Normally reporting is monthly. The Steering
  Committee will accept the report and/or provide advice to the project manager on the
  conduct of the project. The Steering Committee is the body that accepts or rejects the
  deliverables. It is normally chaired by the Project Sponsor.
 Membership of the Steering Committee will be determined by the Programme Sponsor
 The Programme Manager will be ex officio a member of the 5 Project Steering
  Committees.
Deliverables
The main deliverables include:
 A monthly report to the Steering Committee
 A Programme Plan
 Timely deliverables from the 5 National ICT Projects
Measures of success
Measure of success will include:
 The continued commitment of the Programme Sponsor
 Continued support from other stakeholders
 Well-managed National ICT Projects in terms of quality and timeliness of their
  deliverables
 High quality resource on all Projects
Principal activities
The principal activities are:


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 Ensuring that the Programme Sponsor is kept up to date on all matters
 Reporting to the Programme Steering Committee
 Communicating progress to other stakeholders
 Advising and guiding National ICT Project Managers
 Monitoring Programme risks through the maintenance of a risk register
 Ensuring the National ICT Projects are properly resourced
 Assuring the quality of Project deliverables
 Maintaining an overall Programme schedule




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Annex B: Programme assistance capability
In this Annex we provide more detail on the provision of programme assistance
capability.

Purpose
The purpose of the Programme Assistance Capability is to provide support to the CLMV
countries as they progress their National ICT Enhancement Programmes. It will also
provide assistance to the CLMV ICT Coordination Committee.

Scope
This capability will be most useful if it used to assist in the execution of asks rather than
in simply providing advice. We expect that the provision of papers and other intellectual
input will be useful but the value of a consultant is often in their ability to act as a third
party in resolving issues, running workshops and making recommendations.
Coordination
The role of the CLMV ICT Coordination Committee is described in the main body of this
report. In order to carry out its role effectively it will need executive assistance in
coordinating the work of the individual countries.
The Programme Assistance Capability will be a resource to the CLMV ICT Coordination
Committee particularly in ensuring that there is productive cross-fertilisation. The
Programme Assistance Capability should especially look for areas of commonality where
resources (especially money) can be managed more effectively.
Advice
As the countries progress with their National ICT Enhancement Programmes they may
require advice on specific issues. That advice will be more valuable if it already has
some experience of similar issues both with the CLMV countries and elsewhere in the
world.
We expect that countries will need assistance with specific activities as they progress and
the role of the Programme Assistance Capability will be to provide skilled resource to
tackle well-defined tasks.

Resourcing
The precise level of co-ordination will need to be determined in due course.
The skills required will include:
(a)   general consultancy skills including facilitation skills, organisational and change
      management skills, e-Government


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(b)   technical architectural skills
(c)   programme and project management skills
(d)   telecommunications industry skills
(e)   education policy and provision skills
(f)   legal skills
We expect that a capability of 5 or 6 full time consultants might be necessary.

Measurement
The Programme Assistance Capability cannot be directly responsible for the achievement
of in-country activities – that must remain the responsibility of the country concerned.
Nevertheless the capability should undertake specific work against specific deliverables.
The ASEAN Secretariat will consult with a given country to agree tasking notices for the
Programme Assistance Capability.
Measurement will be based on two areas:
(a)   the capability will be viewed against the degree of progress of the ICT Programme
      as a whole
(b)   the quality of output of the assignments carried out.
The ASEAN Secretariat will take the advice of the CLMV ICT Coordination Committee
in assessing the value of the Programme Assistance Capability.

Mechanism
The Programme Assistance Capability will be managed by the ASEAN Secretariat.
We recommend that access to a pool of resource is put in place. A procedure will be
defined by which countries can call upon that resource for assistance.




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Annex C: Project Plans
Telecommunications Framework




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National ICT Master Plan




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ICT Legislation




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National Action Plan for ICT HRD




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e-Government




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         Annex D: ICT Sector Programme Areas
Programme Area                     Programme Objective                                  Programme Outputs
Networking Infrastructure          Minimize internet access prices and                  Telecommunication policy frameworks including licensing, tariff, interconnection,
                                   encourage innovation in pricing                      standardization, frequency spectrum management, quality of services and
The term networking is
                                   schemes by developing a                              consumer protection4[High priority];
used in preference to
                                   telecommunication regulatory
telecommunication
                                   framework that increases regional and
because it captures both                                                                WTO Basic Telecom Agreement / ITA Agreement signed [ High priority];
                                   international connectivity and supports
the linkages of
                                   full and open competition in
individuals, community,
                                   telecommunication and internet
organizations, locations                                                                Establishment of an independent regulatory body at the national level. The
                                   services;
and systems and the                                                                     independent regulator should have powers that cover at least pricing,
flow of information,                                                                    interconnection, international accounting rates and USO, and a customer focused
transactions and                   Development of networking                            mandate that clearly separates the regulatory and operational functions [ High
communications over                infrastructure and services. There                   priority];
these links. Networking            should be a bias towards liberal
covers all forms of                licensing of network operators and,
communication (voice,              particularly, service operators; and
data and video) for all
purposes (business,
personal, educational,             Regulatory support to increase
governmental,                      coverage of marginal areas.
entertainments, etc).


         4
             Telecommunication Backbone Project under the ADB-GMS Plan includes a comprehensive telecommunication sector policy study which would recommend crucial reform measures
              to foster growth of the sector.




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Programme Area   Programme Objective                 Programme Outputs


                                                     Study on existing regulatory frameworks to identify policy impediments that
                                                     require re-examination [High priority];


                                                     Policies to increase accessibility of rural areas with concrete implementation
                                                     measures, including the establishment of the Universal Service Fund and schemes
                                                     for ISP/ASP business;


                                                     Coordinated programme for increased sub regional, regional and international
                                                     connectivity to enable interoperability of systems and applications across ASEAN
                                                     and globally; and


                                                     National strategic plans for affordable pricing mechanism of internet access
                                                     services for underserved and other priority groups such as educational institutions
                                                     and underserved areas. For example with flat local call charge and tiered pricing
                                                     ISP charges.




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Programme Area                     Programme Objective                                  Programme Outputs
Policy and legal                   Create an enabling environment and                  National ICT Development Master Plans consistent with the e-ASEAN Framework
Framework                          legal framework for development of                  Agreement [ High priority] 5;
                                   ICT in CLMV;

                                                                                       Policy measures to update and reinforce Intellectual property definition, protection
                                                                                       and compliance, to encourage international and local businesses to develop locally
                                                                                       relevant application and content. Key international intellectual property
                                                                                       instruments: Protocol to the Berne Convention; the Trade Related Aspects of
                                                                                       Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS); the WIPO Copyright Treaty; and the WIPO
                                                                                       Performance and Phonograms Treaty [High priority];


                                                                                       Legislations which include regulations on web contract, digital signatures,
                                                                                       encryption security and legal validity of digital information measures conforming
                                                                                       to e-ASEAN measures such as Common Reference Framework for Legal
                                                                                       Infrastructure, Certification of Interoperability framework, Electronic Payments
                                                                                       and Clearance framework etc [ High priority];




         5
             ADB approved RETA programme (USD700K) in November 2001 for Telecommunications Sector Policy and Capacity Building which includes the preparation for a comprehensive
              Telco policy legislation guideline and development of a country specific Telco sector reform program.




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Programme Area   Programme Objective                 Programme Outputs


                                                     Legislations to cover regulations and enforcement against cyber crimes, hacking,
                                                     denial of service and other cyber crimes, without imposing unreasonable burdens
                                                     on the industry, and unnecessary infringements on users’ privacy rights [ High
                                                     priority];


                                                     Policies on e-commerce taxation and legislation issues ensuring neutrality between
                                                     online and offline transactions, consistency with international standards and across
                                                     tax jurisdictions to avoid double taxation, minimum compliance cost, transparency,
                                                     predictability, and simplicity; and compatibility with developing international work
                                                     by groups such as the OECD [ High priority];


                                                     Comprehensive awareness campaign programme on ICT for government officials,
                                                     legislators, educators and key stakeholders;


                                                     Policies to establish intra-government information sharing and disclosure
                                                     measures to the public;


                                                     Measures to develop and support SME participation in ICT development,
                                                     applications and e-commerce.




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Programme Area                    Programme Objective                                      Programme Outputs


                                  Strengthen institutional capacity for                    Establishment of national ICT body with a cabinet level representation, responsible
                                  ICT development in CLMV; and                             for the development and implementation of a National ICT Master Plan; and


                                                                                           Establishment of IT centres of excellence in CLMV.


                                  Improve connectivity and increase                        Policies and measures to allow multiple technologies to compete for
                                  access to facilitate timely, broad,                      communication networks, services and access terminals, such as VoIP [ High
                                  affordable and sustainable development                   priority] ;
                                  of ICT.

                                                                                           Measures to promote awareness on the cost-effectiveness of various technologies
                                                                                           for use in diverse situations in developing countries [ High priority];


                                                                                           Establishment of public and community ICT access points as key means such as
                                                                                           post offices, elementary schools, Internet cafés 6 or community multimedia centres
                                                                                           [ High priority];




       6
           Internet cafés help increase access for the public to ICT services. It however may be easily abused or misused by the users. The development of internet cafés may therefore be
             associated with appropriate measures to mitigate social vices that may be caused by the abuse or misuse of internet cafés.




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Programme Area                      Programme Objective                                    Programme Outputs




                                                                                           National and / or sub-regional Internet backbones, Internet Exchanges and Content
                                                                                           Delivery Networks;


                                                                                           A common approach for CLMV, in accordance with national e-Strategies and on
                                                                                           the basis of existing best practices, to promote universal access for rural and
                                                                                           underserved areas;


                                                                                           R&D programme on development and adaptation of cost-effective technologies
                                                                                           suitable for conditions of CLMV; and


                                                                                           High speed national academic network to link national universities with regional
                                                                                           universities as appropriate.


Capacity building and e-            Strengthen capacity of educational                     National master plans for ICT human resource development in the CLMV covering
Society                             institutions, small business enterprises,              all the key stakeholders as part of the national ICT Strategies [ High priority] 7;
                                    ICT workers, policy makers and


          7
              ADB approved RETA programme which includes a plan for a short, medium and long term HRD plan to upgrade technical, operational, managerial and planning capacity in the
               respective telecommunication ministries, regulators and government service operators.




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Programme Area   Programme Objective                  Programme Outputs
                 regulators on ICT related issues.    Incorporation and / or upgrading of curricula for national educational institutions [
                                                      High priority];


                                                      TOT programs for professional educators of CLMV [ High priority];


                                                      Awareness programme for government employees, senior policy makers,
                                                      legislators, and top decision makers/leaders in alignment with ASEAN initiatives in
                                                      areas of e-government and e-commerce [ High priority];


                                                      Incentives for private sectors that conduct community-training programs by
                                                      offering the time of their skilled resources on a voluntary basis [ High priority];


                                                      Plan to mobilize external expert resources for educational and vocational training
                                                      centres in CLMV [ High priority];


                                                      Scholarship programme on ICT for CLMV [ High priority];


                                                      Incentives and measures to encourage the participation of community associations
                                                      in capacity building programs;




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Programme Area   Programme Objective                 Programme Outputs
                                                     Policies to stimulate R&D in the private sector in partnership with universities and
                                                     public institutions;


                                                      Networks for training and R&D between ICT industry and ICT educational
                                                     institutions;


                                                      Distance-learning education programme with ICT as an essential part of the
                                                     curricula and learning tools;


                                                         Programme for addressing specific capability gaps in the administration; and


                                                         Specific training programme to facilitate development of e-commerce enablers.




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Programme Area              Programme Objective                    Programme Outputs
E-Government as             Incorporate and utilize e-Government   E-Government Strategic Plan with a roadmap for each government agency to
catalyst for ICT national   system to increase the efficiency of   ensure alignment of ICT development in the Public Sector for each CLMV country
development.                government processes as well as        [ High priority];
                            increasing the delivery of on-line
                            public services and information.
                                                                   Adoption of a government-wide technology architecture and related infrastructure
                                                                   to ensure security and privacy, interaction between all IT applications, and
                                                                   flexibility and modularity, for CLMV wide [ High priority];


                                                                   Incentives provision for online submission of government documents [ High
                                                                   priority];


                                                                   Intranet development for all government institutions [ High priority];




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Programme Area         Programme Objective                     Programme Outputs


                                                               E-government promotion initiatives by selecting one or two high profile
                                                               applications such as school registration [ High priority];


                                                               Establishment of national focal points for sharing of resources, expertise, R&D and
                                                               best practices to support and participate in the development of an ASEAN Institute
                                                               for e-Government; and


                                                               Adoption of e-procurement for efficiency and national development thereby
                                                               encouraging the private sector to adopt e-commerce in order to deal with the
                                                               government.


Local content and      Develop strategic plan for targeted     Policies to encourage the growth of e-government as a means of achieving a critical
Application creation   skills training and development         mass of on-line content and encourage governments to provide widely available
                       programme in the national educational   Free of Charge (FOC) access to state-owned information and local content through
                       transformation plan.                    community access points in post-offices, district offices, schools) [ High priority];


                                                               Measures to accelerate standardization of national character codes for international
                                                               adoption [ High priority];


                                                               Programme to actively participate in existing content fora in the region [ High




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Programme Area   Programme Objective                 Programme Outputs
                                                     priority];


                                                     Programme to encourage development of local web translators in CLMV [ High
                                                     priority];


                                                     National content fora to identify needs and create new content development;


                                                     Policies to encourage networking of bodies, which acquire, adapt and distribute
                                                     content on a non-commercial basis;


                                                     Customs procedures enhancement through the use of ICT across the CLMV;


                                                     Strategic action plan for the support and adoption of Open Source Computing
                                                     Technologies for skills development across CLMV; and


                                                     Incentives to encourage development of local content applications.




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Programme Area         Programme Objective                        Programme Outputs




Participation in e-    Facilitate the participation of CLMV       Establishment of Internet Point of Presence in CLMV through implementation of
ASEAN pilot projects   individually or collectively in selected   Project “ASEAN Regional Internet Exchange” (ARIX);
                       e-ASEAN pilot projects that can
                       stimulate the development of ICT in
                       CLMV, especially projects that are         Establishment of interoperable frameworks for digital signatures and secure
                       developed in partnership with private-     messaging in CLMV through implementation of Project “ Certification Authority
                       sector investors.                          Forum”;


                                                                  Adopt and facilitate the implementation of the ASEAN e-Farmers project to allow
                                                                  farmers/producers to have access to market information and to the market itself
                                                                  through the e-Farmers e-Hub marketplace; and


                                                                  Measures to encourage CLMV to participate in e-ASEAN school net project




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