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					        Collaborative Applications
                Prasun Dewan
             Department of Computer Science
             University of North Carolina
             CB 3175 Sitterson Hall
             Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3175

             dewan@cs.unc.edu
             http:/www.cs.unc.edu/~dewan



Dewan                                         1
                       Definition
                       Collaborative
                       Application



                 I/O                    I/O

                           Coupling
        User 1                            User 2
                          Potentially
                          Real-Time
Dewan                                              2
Traditional Collaborative Applications
         File                   Mail                   Talk



save                     send                  hi             hi
                 load              receive     hello          hello


User 1          User 2   User 1    User 2     User 1          User 2

  Implicit Comm.          Explicit Comm.       Implicit Comm.
  Artifact-based          Private Messages     Session-based
  Polling                 Auto Notification    Auto Notification
  Asynchronous
   Dewan                  Asynchronous         Synchronous3
Novel Collaborative Applications
        File++        Mail++            Talk++

Talk + File        File + Mail         Talk + Mail

Implicit Comm.   Artifact-based      Session-based
Artifact-based   Private Messages    Explicit Messages
Session-based
Synchronous
                         File + Mail + Talk
                 Implicit & Explicit Comm.
                 Artifact-based
                 Session-based
                 Synchronous & Asynchronous
Dewan                                                4
                 Talk++
•   Talk++
•   Mail++
•   File++
•   Talk +   Mail
•   Talk +   File
•   Mail +   File
•   Talk +   Mail + File



Dewan                      5
        Talk Screen Division
                      • Screen gets divided
                        among two users.
                      • Each portion shows
                        history of user‟s input.
                      • Each user‟s input seen
                        incrementally.
                      • N-Users?




Dewan                                       6
 Semi-Synchronous N-User Talk
                • A single history shared
                  by all users
                • User‟s input not seen
                  incrementally.
                • Concurrent unseen
                  typing can lead to history
                  misinterpretation
                   • User does not know if
                     newly shown text was
                     entered concurrently



Dewan                                     7
             Horizontal Time Line
        Horizontal time line in Flow Chat (Vronay, Smith et al. 99),




• Users see concurrent input.                        • Long conversations will
• Time line of committed text                          not fit.
  for third party                                    • Incremental input of
• Textless box created for                             users in other threads of
  uncommitted text                                     conversations distracting
Dewan                                                                        8
                      Vertical Time Line


                                              • Comic-book
                                                metaphor
                                              • Incremental
                                                input not shown
                                                – empty balloon
                                                created
                                              • Does not work
Vertical time line in Freeway (Vronay 2002)     for large # users


    Dewan                                                    9
                     Threaded Chat



•  Scales to large # users & supports long conversations
•  New message response to clicked message.
•  Incremental input not shown, but empty box created
•  Chronological order not shown
    • New items gradually fade to grey.
• Fewer messages, balanced participation, but users less comfortable and
   same task performance.
                                                     Threaded Chat (Smith,
    • Overhead of responding to message?             Cadiz et al. 2000)
        • Associate default thread with message
• Designed for N-users, and synchronous/asynchronous
Dewan                                                                    10
    • Not as useful for 2 person or pure synchronous communication
  Babble Persistent Sessions and Involvement Degree


                                                          • User List
 dewan                                  CSCW Demo
                                                          • Involvement
  wu                                                        Degree
                                        Faculty Retreat
sherman                                                   • Topic List
                                          Comp 14         • Current
omojokun                                                    messages

                  From: PD
                                                          • Persistent
           Is the grading sheet ready                       sessions
                                                          • Social topics
                 From: Omojokun                             synchronous
                  About to post it.                       • Work topics
                                                            asynchronous
            Bradner et al „99
   Dewan                                                          11
                  MUDs: Textual Virtual Reality
         John                           Mary    (Wizard)
Say Hi everyone                John has entered the room (hear footsteps)
You say, “Hi everyone”         John says, “Hi everyone”
Emote smiles
You smile                      John smiles

Whisper “Boring” to Joe        Look John
You whisper, “Boring” to Joe   John‟s textual description
@who                           Move John to public place
Name         Connect   Idle    Change John‟s description
             Time      Time
                               Disallow John whisper
                               Disallow John from this room
        More natural?
     Dewan
                               Make John a wizard                12
           Line of Site Graphical VR
                                                 • MUD place
                                                   represented as 3-D
                                                   space
                                                 • Users represented as
                                                   avatars in 3-D space.
                                                 • Line of site
                                                   communication
                                                 • Move avatars close to
                                                   users of interest.
                                                 • Can express emotions

Avatars in V-Chat (Smith, Farnham et al. 2000)


  Dewan                                                             13
  DIVE: Aura-based Graphical VR
                                         • Avatar interaction
                                            • With another user
                                              enables
                                              communication
         Session                   Aura
                                            • With app enables
                                              sharing.
                                   User 2
                                         • Transitive
                      User 3
                                         • Multiple auras
                                            • Podium - perception
         Application                          and communication.
                                              Determine whether
User 4                      User 1            can speak into/hear the
                                              speaker.
                                            • Table – perception
                                              and distribution.
                                              Determine if
           Fahlen, Stahl et al „93            distributed document
 Dewan                                                        14
                                              is shared or private.
    MASSIVE: Aura and Nimbus
                                             Aura
                  Nimbus
                                            User 1
                                  User 2

                                           • Speaker‟s aura must
                                             intersect listener‟s
                                             nimbus
                                           • User 2 can hear User 1
        Greenhalgh & Benford 95


Dewan                                                           15
    MASSIVE: Aura and Nimbus
                                            Nimbus
                           Aura
                                            User 1
                                  User 2

                                           • Speaker‟s aura must
                                             intersect listener‟s
                                             nimbus
                                           • User 1cannot hear user 2
        Greenhalgh & Benford 95


Dewan                                                           16
             Elvin CofeeBiff: Textual Remote VR
# of people in coffee        Scrolling user list.
        room



                                             Can get notified
                                                when # >
                                            threshold (party!)




    Dewan                                                   17
Video Walls: Video-based Remote VR

 Camera &                                           Camera &




                                 Screen & Speaker
              Screen & Speaker
 Microphone                                         Microphone




   Room 1                                           Room 2




  Dewan                                                      18
                     Two Remote Rooms

                                                             • Goal: spontaneous
                                                               collaboration
                                                             • 3 Kitchens
                                                               connected
                                                             • See CNN to
                                                               attract attention
                                                             • Moderately useful
                                                             • N rooms?
Display of two remote kitchens, local image, and video to attract
attention (Jancke, Venolia et al. 2001)

      Dewan                                                                19
             Media Space

                                             Map




        Room 2                   Room 4



                 • Selecting a room starts
                   video conference with
                   user
Dewan            • Can be abrupt                   20
                       Office Walker
                                       • Each office has
                                         virtual
                                         neighbors
                                       • Clicking on
                                         office places
                                         caller in virtual
                                         hallway
                                       • Neighbors can
                                         see small image.
                                       • User can
                                         approach to
                                         create bigger
                                         image.
                                       • Office worker,
Interaction Model (Obata, Sazaki 98)     neighbors,
                                         visitors can
                                         initiate talk.
   Dewan                                            21
                     Two Remote Rooms

                                                             • Media
                                                               space/Office
                                                               Walker intended
                                                               for 1-1
                                                             • Connected
                                                               Kitchens can be
                                                               used for 1-N
                                                             • Speaker focus?
Display of two remote kitchens, local image, and video to attract
attention (Jancke, Venolia et al. 2001)

      Dewan                                                               22
                 Overview + Speaker
                                          • Omni-directional set of
                                            cameras to create
                                            overview image.
                                          • Shot of current speaker
                                            sent separately.
                                          • Speaker can be selected
                                            manually by buttons.
                                          • Auto detection
                                              – Speaker‟s voice
                                                received by his
                                                microphone first.
                                              – Audio triangulation can
                                                be used when each
                                                speaker does not have
Overview, speaker and persons selection         microphone.
buttons (Rui, Gupta et al. 2001)          • Custom zooming?
  Dewan
                                              – on non speaker or23
                                                speaker?
                   3-D Telepresence

                               • Multiple cameras
                                 used to create 3-D
                                 Model of Room
                               • Remote site can
                                 navigate in this
                                 model
                                  – With or without
                                    tracking
                                  – Can focus on
                                    speaking person
                                  – Or patient!
UNC Office of the Future
  Dewan                                           24
 Gesture Cam: Remote Surrogate

                     • Can determine which objects
                       to look at
                         – As in office of the future
                     • Can point to specific objects
                         – As in Clearboard




        Figure originally appears in [30]

Dewan                                                   25
        Gesture Cam: Architecture




                             Figure Originally appears
                             in [30]
Dewan                                          26
        Colab. PsyBench




Dewan                     27
        PsyBench




Dewan              28
        Psy Bench Architecture




Dewan                            29
        In Touch




Dewan              30
        In Touch Architecture




Dewan                           31
        Merging Graphical VR and
             TelePresence?




Dewan                              32
    Mixed reality: Internet Foyer
                      • Physical Foyer
                          – Public visiting place
                      • Virtual foyer
                          – 3-D image
                            visualization of web
                            pages with avatars
                          – Clicking on page
                            opens the page shows
                            2-d images of people
                            browsing it.
                      • Mixed reality
                          – Physical foyer has
                            video wall to 3-D
                            visualization and
                            avatars
        Benford „95       – Virtual foyer has video
Dewan                                             33
                            of physical foyer
    TELEP: Presentation to large # users
         Lecture Site                                                     Remote Site




                                                            Scrollable              Speaker Slide Video
                                                             remote                  video
                                                          audience view
Question      Video           Picture
                                    Text Comm.                                      • Questions seldom
 & Vote               Text                                                            asked
 Status              Descrip.                                                       • Local audience not
   Display at lecture (left) and remote site (right) (Jancke, Grudin et al. 2000)     seen remotely
       Dewan                                                                                        34
             Video Production Lecture for
                               • Same screen
                                                                   lecture and audience
                                                                   view
                                                               •   Switch to speaking
                                                                   audience member as
                                                                   soon as tracked
                                                               •   If no one tracked,
                                                                   show overview
                                                               •   If lecturer speaking,
                                                                   occasionally show
                                                                   random audience
                                                                   member
                                                               •   A shot should be
                                                                   shown for a max and
                                                                   min time.
                                                               •   Always show person
Figure 4: Cameras and their placement (Liu, Rui et al. 2001)       from the same side.
                                                               •   Two consecutive
   Dewan                                                                              35
                                                                   shots should be very
                                                                   different
        Video vs. App. Sharing
                  • Screen shot can be shared through
                    video broadcast or app sharing
                  • App sharing cheaper, with better
                    fidelity.
                  • Allows collaborative input.
                      – E.g. multiple presenters
                  • Integrating with video for non-
                    computer objects?




Dewan                                                 36
TeamWorkstation: Integrated Desktop
     & Computer Awareness
                              • Each user has
                                personal and
                                shared
                                computer
                              • Shared
                                computer can
                                provide
                                various
                 (Ishii 90)
                                overlays
  Dewan                                  37
                TELE-SCREEN




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                         38
                TELE-DESK




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                       39
                SCREEN-OVERLAY




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                            40
                DESK-OVERLAY




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                          41
                SCREEN & DESK OVERLAY




Editing paper
 xxxx yyyyy




Dewan                                   42
                COMPUTER SHARING
                          • Computer shared
                            by capturing and
                            distributing video
                            to the monitor
                          • Keystrokes also
                            captured and
                            distributed by
Editing paper
                            hardware.
                          • Everything
 xxxx yyyyy




                            overlaid is video
                          • No software
                            needed
Dewan                                            43
        SUMMARY OF MODES




               (Ishii 90)
Dewan                       44
        Awareness of Collaborator

                      • Must look away
                        from work area to
                        see collaborators‟
                        image.
                      • Do not know what
                        object the
                        collaborator is
                        gazing at.
                      • Overlay Video?
Dewan                                        45
Clearboard: Collaborator Awareness




Figure available from http://ishii.www.media.mit.edu/people/ishii/CB.html.


 Dewan                                                                  46
   Clearboard: Drafter Mirror



                                        •   Coupling two non
                                            electronic
                                            whiteboards.
                                        •   Half-slivered mirror
                                        •   Fluorescent marker
                                        •   See two hand images
                                              • One captured
                                                 directly
                                              • One reflected
                                        •   Polarized film and
                                            filter on each camera
Dewan                                       prevents feedback47
        Figure first appeared in [26]       between screen pairs
             Clearboard: Architecture




                                •   Mirror image transmitted when LCD
                                    screen in transparent mode.
                                •   Video projected when in scattering
Figure first appeared in [26]       mode.
   Dewan                        •   Digitizer pen used to track user input.
                                                                  48
   Two Gaze Awareness Problem
• Object of interest: Do we know what object
  on the screen the collaborator is looking at.
    – Clearboard and Facetop address this.
• Person of interest: Do we know which one
  of many collaborators a person is
  addressing
    – Hydra, MAJIC address this

Dewan                                         49
        Hydra: Gaze Awareness

                                     • Images too small to
                                       give good user
                                       experience




           Figure originally appears in [5].

Dewan                                                50
MAJIC: Real-Life with Seamless
      User Boundaries
                                            • Similar idea in office
                                              of the future
                                               – From talking
                                                  head to large
                                                  (projected
                                                  images)
                                               – Gives more of a
                                                  feeling of being
                                                  there
                                               – Solving different
        Figure originally appears in [36]         problems
Dewan                                                         51
        Talk: Being there vs. beyond
• Being there                       • Beyond being there
    – “Real-time” communication        – Teleporting to room
    – Peripheral awareness             – Whispering not noticed by those not
         • Footsteps, hallway            included
    –   Moods                          – Aura and nimbus customizable
    –   Aura                           – Anonymity, Presence Control
    –   Nimbus                         – Multitasking
    –   Video                          – Involvement degree and
                                         conversation status
    –   Remote view control
                                       – Talk history
    –   Remote pointing
                                       – Threads & structuring conversations
    –   Haptics
                                       – Computer controls
    –   Human access control
                                       – Asynchronous collaboration
    –   Podium, sharing documents
Dewan   in a table                                                  52
                 Anonymity
• In theory participants can be more bold
• In an experiment perceived status did no harm
  (Davis, Zaner 2002)




Dewan                                             53
                Presence Control
• Presence                     • TELEP Presence Options
    – Location                    – Video, photo, text

    – In-use computers         • Users liked not sending
                                 video
    – Activities
        • Computer and other
                               • Collaborator is often
                                 required to poll for
                                 presence in meeting
                                 (Mark, Grudin ‟99)
                               • Moral: presence status?


Dewan                                                      54
                   Multitasking
• Reduced commitment to meeting and less engaged
  (Mark, Grudin et al. 99).
• But may be willing to attend more meetings!
    – TELEP: Teachers more willing to cover elementary
      stuff knowing advanced students can tune out (S. A.
      White, A. Gupta et al. 2000)




Dewan                                                       55
                    Meeting video browsing
 Jump back/next controls:
 Seek video backward or                                        Elapsed time indicator
 forward by fixed increments or
 to the prev/next entry in an                                  Table of contents: Opens
 index. Jump intervals are                                     separate dialog with textual listings
 selected from drop-down list                                  of significant points in the video.
 (shown below) activated by                                    Contains “seek” feature allowing
 clicking down-pointing arrows.                                user to seek to points in the video.
 List varies based on indices                                  Index entries are also indicated on
 available.                                                    the Timeline seek bar.

                                                               Personal notes button: Opens
                                                               separate dialog with user-generated
                                                               personal notes index. Contains
                                                               "seek" feature allowing user to seek
                                                               to the points in video. Notes index
                                                               entries also indicated on Timeline
                                                               seek bar.
 Basic Controls: Play, pause,
 fast-forward, timeline seek bar
                                                               Timeline Markers: Indicate
 with thumb, skip-to-beginning,
                                                               placement of entries for TOC, shot
 skip-to-end. No rewind feature
                                                               boundaries, and personal notes.
 was available.

 Pause removal: Toggles                                        Timeline zoom: Zoom in and zoom
 between the selection of the
                                                               out.
 pause-removed video and the
 original video.
                                                               Shot boundary frames: Index of
 Time compression: Allows the                                  video. Shot is an unbroken
 adjustment of playback speed                                  sequence of frames recorded from a
 from 50% to 250% in 10%                                       single camera. Shot boundaries are
 increments. 100% is normal                                    generated from a detection algorithm
 speed.                                                        that identifies such transitions
                                                               between shots and records their
 Duration: Displays the length of                              location into an index. Current shot
 the video taking into account the                             is highlighted as video plays (when
 combined setting of                                           sync box is checked). User can
 Pause-removal and Time                                        seek to selected part of video by
 compression controls.                                         clicking on shot.


Dewan                                                                                                  56
                                     (Li, Gupta et al. 2000)
                 Video Processing:
• Pauses in speech and         • Application of
  associated video removed.
                                 pause/removal, rime
• Time compress without
                                 compression
  changing pitch
                                  – Sports video &
• Table of contents generated
                                    Lectures
  manually.
                                  – Upto 147 % playback
• Shot boundaries generated by
                                    speed
  detecting transitions
                                  – Not TV dramas!
• Bookmark and annotate
• Jump to next/previous        • Shot boundaries
   – Bookmark                     – Sports programs (high
   – Shot Boundary                  variation in content)
   – Slide transition             – Not lectures
   – Time boundary             (Li, Gupta et al. 2000)
   Dewan                                                    57
           Automatic Slide Summaries
• Allocate time at                     • Both techniques found
  beginning proportional to              equally good and
  slide time                             acceptable.
   – Slide time proportional to        • Not as good as author-
     slide importance
                                         generated summaries
   – Important things explained
     at beginning
• Include higher-pitch
  information
   – Pitch increases when
     excited

                                  (He, Sanocki et al. 1999)
   Dewan                                                      58
Other Slide-based Summarization
           Techniques
                                       • High information
• Slides only                            density
• Slides + text transcript               – All three methods as
  of audio                                 good as author-
• Slides + text transcript                 generated A/V
                                           summaries
  + points in text
  summary highlighted                  • Low information
                                         density
                                         – Highlighted text as
                                           good as author-
                                           generated A/V
Dewan      (He, Sanocki et al. 2000)       summaries              59
            Chat History Issues
• People hardly use          • Snap-back scrolling
  history.                      – In Flow Chat
• Hard to scroll back           – Scrolling takes us back
                                  in time
  and forth.
                                – Releasing scrollbar
    – Designed for passive
                                  returns to present
      text
                                – Can be used for any
    – Chat is active text
                                  history-based tool
      being changed under
      you.

Dewan                                                   60
            Elvin Ticker-Tape History with TimeOut
                                                            Fitzptarick et al‟ 99




colab:vibhor: merging of vector works       colab:pd: Great! Give demo sometime.




            User Name              Group                  Timeout

            pd                      colab                   5 mins.


                        Great! Give demo sometime.


    Dewan                                                                    61
             Scripted Collaboration
                                         • Computer acts as
                                           moderator
                                            – Determines issues
                                              discussed and
                                              allocated time
                                         • After using it rules
                                           enforced manually.




        (Farnham, Chesley et al. 2000)
Dewan                                                     62
    rIBIS: Real-time Structured Issue
               Resolution
*I: Which processor should be used         Resolved issue
      ?P: Processor A                      Unresolved position
             AS: Fast                      Argument Supporting
      *P: Processor B                      Current position
             AS: Cheap, already in use
     -P: Processor C                       Rejected position
             AS: Cheap & fast
               AO: Will not be available   Argument objecting
                    in time


   Dewan
           Rein & Ellis „91                                   63
       Implicit structure for status




• Messages automatically classified into comments, questions, responses.
   • Based on presence of ?
   • Statistics shown about them.



                                                     Threaded Chat (Smith,
                                                     Cadiz et al. 2000)

    Dewan                                                                    64
CLARE: Structured Discussion + Process Model
  • Structured discussion a la IBIS (RESRA -
    Representation Schema of Research Artifacts)
      –    paper is source
      –    addressing some problem
      –    about which a claim can be made
      –    supported by evidence
      –    generated by research methods
      –    defining concepts
  • Process model (SECAI )
       –   Summarization (Privately create RESRA)
       –   Evaluation (Private critique it)
       –   Comparison (Publicly compare them)
       –   Argumentation (Publicly critique them)
       –
   Dewan   Integrate (The various RESRAs)           65
                                  RESRA




Dewan
  Figure   originally appears in [39]     66
             SECAI




        Figure originally appears in [39]
Dewan                                       67
                      Mail++

        •   Talk++
        •   Mail++
        •   File++
        •   Talk +   Mail
        •   Talk +   File
        •   Mail +   File
        •   Talk +   Mail + File


Dewan                              68
(Venolia, Dabbish et al.)
                            Threaded Email




     • Messages shown chronologically
                                          •   Groups messages, gives context
     • Special lines created to show
                                          •   Useful after vacation
        parent-child relationship
                                          •   Thread-based commands
     • Messages grouped by day – today,        – Delete thread
        yesterday
       Dewan                                   – Forward messages and   69
                                                 subscriptions
        Prioritizing mail messages




  (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)




Dewan                                70
         Prioritizing mail messages

        • Automatically prioritize mail
          messages based on
          – organizational relationship to
            sender
          – proximity of send time to key times
            for sender
          – message length and body
          – how long message waiting


Dewan
           (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)            71
        Messages to mobile device
   • Goal: cause minimal disruption.
   • If user not active > T & message
     priority > P
        – Send to mobile device
   • P function of
        – Whether user in meeting.
           • Determined from calendar
        – Other factors.
   • Replace
        – “Not active > T” with
                                        (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)
Dewan
        – “Likely to be away > T”                                     72
        Messages to mobile device




                       (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)
Dewan                                                73
                   Presence Forecast
• Determine when mobile user is likely to return
  to office and remain there for some time
  – e.g. probability of user returning within 15 minutes
    and remaining for 30 minutes
• Based on
  – activity with desktop
  – patterns of past behavior
          • aggregate
          • lunch, morning, afternoon, evening, night behavior
  – how long user has been away
  Dewan                                                          74
                                               Presence Forecast
                                     p(Client activity within 15 min. | time away, time of day)
Probability of return within 15min




                                                                           Lunch
                                                                                                Night


                                                                           All
                                                                                           Afternoon




                                                                                             Morning
                                                                                 Evening



Dewan
                                                                 Time away (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)
                                                                                                  75
        SMART OOF




              (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)
Dewan                                       76
        SMART OOF




              (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)
Dewan                                       77
              SMART OOF


   • SMOOF: Smart out of office
     message
   • If message priority is > threshold
     send presence estimate




                            (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)
Dewan                                                     78
                  Time Wave

    • Office Presence forecast
        – Updated continuously based on how
          long user has been away




                                  (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)

Dewan                                                    79
        Time Wave




                (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)

Dewan                                  80
                  Time Wave

    • Email review forecast
        – Updated continuously based on
          prev. email history




                                   (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)

Dewan                                                     81
Dewan   82
                   Time Wave

    • Cost of interruption forecast,
      associated with
        – time of day, free period




                                     (Horvitz, Koch et al. 2002)

Dewan                                                       83
Dewan   84
   Coordinate Multi Device System
• Track user activity on multiple devices
• Forecast which devices accessible
• Useful because
  – devices may imply location
  – caller knows to send email or call mobile phone
  – capabilities required by caller may be device
    specific
          • certain devices allow video conferencing



  Dewan                                                85
                         Other forecasts
• Based on user activity, data, and input can
  determine
  – whether a person will attend a meeting
          •   calendar
          •   meeting duration
          •   running vs. one-time meeting
          •   invitation specific or to group




  Dewan                                         86
  Information Lens: Typed Messages
 Type: Exam
 Change Notice                        Messages
 Subject:
        ….
                          Notices                    Requests
 Semi-structured
 typed messages

 Notices               Room     Exam           Exam        Class
                       Change   Change         Change      Absence
 Joe Absence
                       Notice   Notice         Request     Request
 14 Exam
                                    Type Hierarchy
 Change
Type-based filtering                    Malone „87
    Dewan                                                       87
 Coordinator: Structured Conversation
              Request (response, completion, alert dates)
              Acknowledge
              Agree
 Customer     Interim-Report/Cancel/New-Promise              Producer
              Report-Completion
              Satisfaction

Automation of
      form fields                   Request          Agree
      alerts, reminders       Customer                        Producer
      status information
                                    Satisfaction      Complete
     Dewan        Flores et al 88                                88
                      Action Workflow
                                             Schedule Interview
Status By
Candidate                                Director            Manager
Workflow Step                        2
                                                  3
                          1              4
                              Manage      Manager
           Director
                                   Review
                       10            7         5
                                          6
                      9
                                8                                 Technical
Director                                      Manager
                      Manager                                     Directors

 Declare Assessment                               Submit Evaluation Form
   Dewan                        Medina Mora „92                       89
ATOMICMAIL: Computational Mail

                    Data           Program



Lisp-based PL                           display/animate graphics
Single Directory Accessed               gather data and mail
File Creation Limited
Mail Messages Limited
                               Mail Receiver

                  Borenstein „92

   Dewan                                                     90
                 File++

•   Talk++
•   Mail++
•   File++
•   Mail +   File
•   Talk +   Mail
•   Talk +   File
•   Talk +   Mail + File



Dewan                      91
        State of the art file system
•   Access control
•   Locking
•   Versioning
•   Disconnected access
    – Hoarding
        • “caching” data needed in disconnected access
    – Directory merging on connection
        • Adds composed
        • Deletes cancel.
• File granularity
    – Programmer-defined merge procedure
• Local area network
Dewan                                                    92
         Application-level Support
• Disconnected access and merging of
   –    Calendars
   –    Address book
   –    Word
   –    Powerpoint
   –    Not Excel.




Dewan                                  93
Lotus Notes: P2P Database Replication
“Replica”                      “Replica”
                                           source determines
               rep. schedule                    read access
                                                delete replication
                                                old data replication
                                                replication schedule

                                           destination determines
                                                 write access
           Table & record-                       type replication
           based merging                         record replication
                                                 ACL rep.
                                                 rep. param. rep.
                                                 immediate rep.
   Dewan                                                      94
             Groove Workspace
• Groove workspace
    – Wide-area replicated storage
        • Like Lotus Notes but with a file-system like UI
    – Replicas merged on connection time
        • As in Lotus Notes
    – Intuitive access control based on making and
      accepting invitations.



Dewan                                                       95
           Chronicle: Fine-grained
            Spreadsheet Versions
• Named Range
    –   Unit of naming, storage, versioning
    –   Rectangular cell block
    –   Range name
    –   User-defined annotation
    –   User id
    –   Date
• Compose named ranges
    – Sally‟s expense data + Joe‟s sales data
• Try different alternatives of named range
    – Sally‟s expense forecast
    – Joe‟s expense forecast
• Ranges can be browsed, mailed
•Dewan
   Concurrent editing of named range automatically creates versions   96
              Mail + File

•   Talk++
•   Mail++
•   File++
•   Mail +   File
•   Talk +   Mail
•   Talk +   File
•   Talk +   Mail + File



Dewan                       97
             Mail + File
• Version system ala multiple mail
  copies.
• Editing sent file
    – before mail receipt
    – after mail receipt
    – allows users to have own file name
      spaces, easy access control
• Sending access permissions via mai
    – a la groove invitations
• Sending same file to a group of
  users
    – creates a single copy of file on
Dewan                                       98
      accessible shared (sharepoint) site
   POLITeam: Shared Workflow
          Documents
• Workflow
    – Structured mailing of documents.
• Breaking workflow
    – Received document can be shared with others




Dewan                                               99
                   News
• Like file, logically centralized information
  shared among multiple users.
• As in mail, users view/modify information
  by receiving/sending/responding to
  messages.



Dewan                                            100
         News: Shared Mailboxes
User 1            Message 1             User 1
                  Message 2
User 2                                  User 2

           Send               Receive


User N                                  User N

                  Message M




Dewan                                            101
Scaleable Modifiable Information
•   Wide area shared information.
•   Scales to the whole world.
•   Cannot build such a file system.
•   How can we build News?
    – Loose consistency as in Notes and Groove!



Dewan                                             102
         News: Scaleable Architecture
                               News
                               Server
          read news                                  News
          post news                                  Client
News                  News              News
Client                Server            Server
                                                     News
                                                     Client
                                          exchange
                               News       news
                               Server
   eventual delivery of
   immutable messages
   in possibly different
   order
  Dewan                                                 103
          Message/News Filtering

• Agent-based                  • Rating-based
    –   Newsgroup                – Moderator
    –   Discussion Thread        – Known Reviewers
    –   Urgent Message           – Anonymous Similar
    –   Sender Cost                Reviewers
    –   Contents of Messages
        (Data Mining)



Dewan                                           104
   Group Lens: Aggregate-based Filtering

• Multiple (arbitrary) people rate message
• Rating combined into one aggregate number specific to reade
• Correlation coefficient - CAB:

   –    Sum (i = 1 to n) ((Ai - Amean)* (Bi - Bmean))
   –    ---------------------------------------------
   –    Sqrt ( (Sum (i = 1 to n) (Ai - Amean)**2) * Sum (i = 1 to n) (Bi - Bmean)**2)


• Given set S of rating users, aggregate:
   –   Sum (i = 1 to n) (Bi - Bmean)*CABi
   –   --------------------------------------   + Amean
   –   Sum (I = 1 to n) CABi


       Dewan                                                              105
         News: Scaleable Architecture
                               News
                               Server
          read news                                  News
          post news                                  Client
News                  News              News
Client                Server            Server
                                                     News
                                                     Client
                                          exchange
                               News       news
                               Server
   How should this
   architecture be
   modified?

  Dewan                                                 106
          Group Lens Architecture

                    News
                    Server

   post news
   read news                     post rating
                                      read rating

        Modified   send rating       Better
        News
        News                         Bit
        Client
        Client     get rating        Bureau



Dewan                                               107
   Getting Ratings & Other Apps
• Incentive to review?
• Implicit review
    – Track amt of read time
• Other apps
    – Books
        • Buying is strong endorsement
    – Movies
    – People?
        • Multi-dimensional
        • I like his reliability but you care about his creativity
Dewan                                                           108
        Adding Agent-based Filters
• Spell checker
    – Rating inversely based on % misspelled words
• Included messages
    – Rating inversely based on % included text
• Length
    – Rating inversely based on message length
• Agent is another user giving ratings!
    – Can find correlation with an agent
Dewan                                             109
                   Adding Filters

                     News            read news       Filterbot
                     Server                          (Rating
                                                     Agent)
   post news
   read news                      post rating
                                       read rating
                                                      send rating
        Modified    send rating       Better
        News
        News                          Bit
        Client
        Client      get rating        Bureau

                        Only filterbots
                      agreeing with user
Dewan                                                        110
                       used in ratings!
        Adding Filters
                   Sarwar, Konstan et al 98




Dewan                                         111
Evaluating Aggregation-based Filtering
 • Coverage
    – Measures % of time predictions are available before an
      item is rated by user
          • Based on a minimum # of ratings available from sufficiently
            close neighbors

 • Decision Support Accuracy
    – Probability random “good” item rejected by system
    – Probability random “bad” item accepted by system
    – Good vs bad
       • 4,5 vs 1,2,3


  Dewan                                                                   112
                 Experiments
            Coverage, Decision Making Accuracy

                 No          Spell   Include   Length
                 Filterbot
general          40, 69      43, 67 46, 70     44, 67
perl.misc        7, 65       42, 74 13, 64     13, 68
linux.announce   14, 66      46, 68 20, 61     48, 70
food.recipes     22, 61      71, 66 27, 66     42, 56
rec.humor        15, 46      50, 80 50, 72     16, 71
Dewan                                               113
        Experiment Conclusions
• Net.general                  • Spell helps
   – Filters hardly helped
                               • Included messages
• Perl.misc
   – Spell helps a lot            – Must be right amount
   – Others help somewhat      • Length useful in
                                 announcements
• Linux.Announce
   – Length and spell help
• Recipes
   – Spell checking helps
• Humor
    – All factors but length
Dewan help                                             114
              Annotated Files
• Discussions are like news
    – Shared among n users
    – Author name evident
• They are associated with shared objects
• UI for adding discussions
    – Hypermedia vs. columnar UI


Dewan                                       115
           PREP: Zero-Cost Hyperlinks
           Main text   Alice‟s    Benu‟s     Chou‟s
                       comments   comments   comments



Para 1




Para 2


   Dewan                                                116
 Quilt: Writeable Typed Hypermedia
Artifact =                                  In SharePoint now
Document +
Colab. Info.
                    Revisions                          Creation time
                    Suggestions
Document            Public comments
                    Private messages                   Creator
                    Other

          Logging                         Triggers
Machine Level (Insert-Char) User- Alert significant changes
Level (Reorganized Section 2)               Colab Styles
                                  Author modifies owned section
          Roles                   Co-author modifies all
Reader < Commenter < Co-Author Designated editor modifies all
   Dewan                                                         117
                    Fish. Kraut et al „88
          Annotation Granularity
• Whole document                      • Parts of document
    – Links to threaded                      – Anchors to part of the
      discussion about it.                     document.
    – Good for making broad                  – Difficult to implement
      comments                               – Do not require
        • preferred by readers                 reproducing document
    – Directly transferred                     part being commented.
      from hard copies                       – Good for detailed
                                               comments.
                                                • In theory at least.
Dewan             (Brush, Bargeron et al.)                              118
Office 2000 Variable Granularity
          Annotations




 Dewan   (Cadiz, Gupta et al. 2000)   119
               Office 2000 Study
• Specification Drafts          • Users do not make
  rather than Completed           high-level comments
  Documents                         – Author would not get it
• Ten month period.             • Or nitpicky ones such
                                  as spelling, language
• 20 annotations per                – Other readers not
  person.                             interested in them.
• Large fraction stopped        • Use other channels
  after first annotation          when immediate
   – Orphan annotations           communication
     losing context a reason      required
                                        – Cannot assume
                                           notification
  Dewan          (Cadiz, Gupta et al. 2000)subscription     120
                   Orphan Annotations
• Arise when fragment to                • Users liked it when the
  which anchored is deleted.              differences between
• Office 2000 attaches them               old and matched text
  to the whole document.                  was small but not
   – Not ideal if no longer
     relevant
                                          large.
• More sophisticated                        – Did not work well all
  algorithm:                                  the time
   – Save deleted fragment.             • Could match
   – Find new matching                    keywords instead of
     fragment
                                          whole text.
       • Cut words from back and
         front and do match.            • Could do an intelligent
       • Stop when < 15 chars to
         avoid false positive.
                                          diff as in PREP
     Dewan
                                            – Neuwirth, Chandok 92 121
               Brush, Bargeron et al 2001
            Live Annotations?
• Nitpicky comments entered as edits.
   – Special annotation right and view like read
     right and view in Office
• Shown as a track change.
• User can accept the underlying script.
• Akin to calendar invitations
   – Email desired changes to shared artifact
• Dual:
    – Automatically email/notify actual changes to
Dewan shared artifact                                122
         Automatic Notifications
The following change(s) happened to the
document http://product/overview/index.htm:
        Event:   Discussion items were inserted
                 or modified in the document
        By:      rsmith
        Time:    7/28/99 11:01:04 AM

        Event:   Discussion items were inserted
                 or modified in the document
        By:      ajones
        Time:    7/28/99 12:09:27 PM
Click here to stop receiving this notification.




                         • Content not given
                         • Changer does not know
                           if manual email needed
Dewan                                               123
           Descriptive Notifications

        This is an automatic notification. More information...
        Click here to update your notification settings.
        The changes that just occurred are:
        On http://server/Notify.htm

        colinb added a reply to a comment by duncanbb on
        9/12/2001 3:20 PM
                             • Actual comment given.
                             • Link to thread.
                             • Commenter knows
                               subscriptions.
Dewan                                                            124
          Mercury: Automatic In-Place
                 Notification
module A                               Module B

export T                               import T

type T = char
         String                        v: T = „a‟

              Edit T   Buffered                     Asynchronous
                                                    Error notification
                       Notifications
                                           User 2
     User 1




  Dewan                                                      125
        Subscription Mechanism




Dewan        (Cadiz, Gupta et al. 2000)   126
        Subscription Specifications

        • Enrique: Whenever any document is created inform
          him about it.
        • Alice & Benu: Whenever any document is created
          inform them about it.
        • Alice & Benu: When any document they own is
          modified, send them an event
        • Chou & Dimitri: When any circulation document they
          have processed changes stations, send this event to
          them



Dewan                                                     127
  GroupDesk: Automatic Customizable
       Awareness Notification
Relation Classes      Object Classes               Event Classes

 WorksOn                 Object                    Modification
               can
               establish          can raise
 Editor                  Document                  Comment Added



                   Relations: Editor                Interest
                   Events: Modification             Context
                   Interested Users: Alice, Benu

     Dewan                                                     128
                            Event Semantics
• Interest context associated             • Example 2:
  with object classes                        – Object Class:
• Relations implicitly                         CirculationDocument
  defined by system                          – Interest Context
   – Currently active user.                     • Relation: HasProcessed
                                                • Event: ChangesStation
   – Document creator
                                                • Users: Chou, Dimitri
• When an event occurs on
                                          • Example 2:
  object:
                                             – Object Class: Document
   – For each interest context:
                                             – Interest Context
       • If event is subclass of
         specified event field                  • Relation: *
             – Send event to all                • Event: Created
               interested users who             • Users: Enrique
               have the specified
               relation with the object      – Inherited by
                                               CirculationDocument
     Dewan                                                                 129
Disruption caused by notifications
  • Czerwinski, Cutrell et al 2000
  • For complex tasks
     – No problems
  • For simple tasks
     – Performance went down
  • Automatic prioritization useful
  • Polling vs. notifications?
      – Grudin 94: Managers who with staff polled
        calendar continuously found notifications
  Dewan
        nuisance                                    130
                   Side Show




                                                             (b) Ti
(a) Subscribe by dragging ticket to Sideshow                 The to
Dewan                     (Cadiz, Venolia et al. 02)   131
                       Side Show




  (b) Ticket displays number of annotations and replies.
  The tooltip window shows details when a user mouses over the ticket


Dewan                           (Cadiz, Venolia et al. 02)        132
        SideShow & Peripheral
             Awareness
• Three level of awareness
    – In sideshow sidebar
    – In document from where ticket is moved.
    – By hovering on sidebar
• Can be used for any information source
    – Person
    – Weather map
    – Web page
Dewan                                           133
              Side Show:
                Person
              Aawareness




Dewan   (Cadiz, Venolia et al. 02)   134
Dewan   135
Dewan   136
Dewan   137
Dewan   138
Dewan   139
              Talk + File
        Talk++
        Mail++
        File++
        Talk + File
        Talk + Mail
        Mail + File
        Talk + Mail + File
Dewan                        140
  RTCAL: Real-Time Artifact Sharing
    Topic, Participants          Topic, Participants        Awareness
    Chair, Controller            Chair, Controller
    Proposal: 10am               Proposal: 10am
           Vote: Yes                    Vote: No

             Public Appts             Public Appts

             Private Appts

             Public Appts             Public Appts
                                              Conference   join, leave
Application                  Application      Control      get floor,
Commands                     Commands         Commands     release floor,
                                                           terminate
      Regular User                         Chair
     Dewan                                                       141
              Scroll Wars
• User scrolling to see some pvt appointment
  causes “scroll wars”




Dewan                                      142
   GROVE: Access-Controlled Views
User and State Awareness            Fine-grained Access Control
No Concurrency Control                    public, shared, private
Incremental Sharing                       read, write rights
Independent Scrolling

   Outline Title                              Outline Title         1.Readab
   1. Readable and writeable item             and writeable item           1.
   1.1 Also readable and writeable            Also readable and writeable 2. A
   *.Shared readable and writeable            Shared Item            *.*
   * .* Shared readable                       Different shared item

User 2       User 3        User 4         User 1        User 3      User 4


                User 1                                  User 2
     Dewan                                                          143
         Cognoter (Stefik et al ‟85)
• Groove – cannot scroll independently
• Keep pvt and public information in separate
  windows.
   – Drag and drop or commit to make public a la IM
   – Now scroll wars only occur in public window
   – Ability to scroll together or separately
         • Can also change scrolling mode in Groove
• Process model in shared window
    –   Brainstorming – add items (ideas) to shared window
    –   Organizing – collect ideas into alternatives
    –   Evaluation – discuss and delete alternatives
    –
Dewan   Analogous to SEPIA process model.                    144
    Aspects Concurrency Control
  • Groove – user working independently must
    manually enforce CC
  • Free for all
        – Paragraph-level locking
        – Adjacent bar gives lock status
           • Black for locker, grey for others
  • Medium mediation
        – A pen passing mechanism ala Groove/NetMeeting
  • Full mediation
        – Moderator passes pen
        – Conference starter is moderator
Dewan                                                     145
        Interactive Lock Probelms
• Overhead in locking & unlocking
    – If explicit commands needed
    – GroupDraw – selecting/unselecting 
      lock/unlock
• May forget to unlock



Dewan                                       146
CES: Delayed Commitment & Tickle
              Locks
                                                    Tickle Locks
Distributed           Central Host
                                                    (Timed out)
Document                  Document
Nodes                     Root


Implicit
Commit         Text Node             Text Node
Del/CR to      Owner User 1          Owner User 2
unlock items
                 Host 1                Host 2



   Dewan                                                    147
               Locking Delay
• Might need to go to remote site to
  determine if lock available
    – Assuming lock information is not replicated
    – Replication requires addressing consistency
      problems




Dewan                                               148
      GroupDraw: Virtual Gestures &
            Optimistic Locks
                                       Optimistic Locking
Coupled Graphical Objects
                                       Implicit Locking/Unlocking
Uncoupled Scrollbars & Palettes
Multiuser Scrollbar & Gestalt Viewer   Fine-grained CC & AC




              User 1                            User 2
     Dewan                                                 149
        Independent Drawing Modes
• GroupDraw allows users to select drawing
  mode independently
• What happens in single display groupware?
• Pebbles
    – Mobile computer as input device
    – Shared screen is output device


Dewan                                     150
Pebbles: Single-Display Groupware
User Identifier                  Telepointer


                  *
                             +




              Drawing Mode

Dewan                                          151
               Ensemble
• GroupDraw and Pebbles: pointer exported
  to all.
• Ensemble: selectively import and export
  telepointers.
• Implicit Session Management: editing same
  file puts users in same session.
• Locked objects: changes not broadcast.

Dewan                                     152
        Talk + Mail + File

•   Talk++
•   Mail++
•   File++
•   Talk +   Mail
•   Talk +   File
•   Mail +   File
•   Talk +   Mail + File

Dewan                        153
        IRI: Distance Learning
             Environment




         Figure available at http://www.cs.odu.edu/~tele/iri.
Dewan                                                           154