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Grampian Adult Lifestyle Survey 1998

VIEWS: 16 PAGES: 33

									Grampian Adult Lifestyle Survey 2002

   Contents                                                   Page

   1. Introduction                                             3
          1.1   Aims and Objectives of the Survey
          1.2   Survey Methods
          1.3   Response Rate
          1.4   Analysis



   2. General Health and Primary Care                          5

          2.1   General Health
          2.2   Weight
          2.3   Health Services - Opticians
          2.4   Health Services - Dental Health
          2.5   Health Professionals
          2.6   Health Changes
          2.7   Exposure to the Sun
          2.8   Women’s Health

   3. Food                                                     9

          3.1   Healthy Eating Score
          3.2   Healthy Eating Score by Sex
          3.3   Healthy Eating Score by Age Group
          3.4   Healthy Diet
          3.5   Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables
          3.6   Milk Consumption
          3.7   Type of Spread
          3.8   Making Changes
          3.9   Support and Advice to Improve Eating Habits



   4. Tobacco Smoking                                          15
          4.1   Passive Smoking
          4.2   Smoking Status
          4.3   Age Group
          4.4   Quantity of Cigarettes Smoked
          4.5   Reasons for Smoking
          4.6   Support to Stop Smoking




                                                                     1.
5. Alcohol                                                   18
       5.1   Frequency of Alcohol Consumption
       5.2   Alcohol Consumption in the Last Seven Days
       5.3   Alcohol Consumption Levels by Gender
       5.4   Factors that Would Help Reduce Alcohol Intake



6. Work/Sport/Leisure                                        23
       6.1 Daily Activity
       6.2 Regular Physical Activity
       6.3 Reasons Given for Wishing to be More Active



7. Drugs                                                     25
       7.1   Information
       7.2   Drug Misuse
       7.3   Types of Drugs Taken
       7.4   Reasons for Taking Drugs



8. Sexual Health                                             28
       8.1 Lifestyle Changes
       8.2 Sexually Transmitted Infection


9. Well-being                                                30
       9.1 Dealing with Problems
       9.2 Issues which cause Problems

Conclusion                                                   32

References                                                   32

Appendix                                                     33




                                                                  2.
1.   Introduction

     The 2002 Adult Lifestyle Survey was carried out by NHS Grampian to update the health
     and lifestyle information obtained from previous Grampian lifestyle surveys. Direct
     comparisons with the results of previous surveys will enable lifestyle changes to be
     monitored and will influence the development of policies and services to promote and
     improve health and to tackle health inequalities. In addition, these surveys provide the
     opportunity to collect new types of information relevant to health issues and
     developments within specific areas of Grampian. This report summarises the key
     findings from the 2002 survey.

1.1 Aims and Objectives of the Survey
     •   To measure the health-related behaviour, knowledge and attitudes of
         people in Grampian.
     •   To compare these results with the results of previous surveys.

     •   To monitor progress and/or establish baselines in relation to the national targets
                                                                          1
         outlined in White Paper on Health, Towards a Healthier Scotland.
     •   To provide information to inform the planning, monitoring and evaluation of health
         activities in Grampian.

     •   To identify areas where further research is needed.

1.2 Survey Methods
     The fourth Grampian Adult Lifestyle Survey was carried out between November and
     December 2002. The Community Health Index (CHI) was used to obtain a sample of
     adults, aged 16 to 74 years, living in Grampian at the time of the survey. A 2% stratified
     random sample was selected, giving 8116 individuals who were each sent a
     questionnaire. The sample was stratified by age group, sex and postcode sector in order
     to ensure that the sample mirrored the underlying distribution of the Grampian
     population.
     The self-completion postal questionnaire contained 65 questions on a range of topics
     including general health, food, tobacco, wellbeing, alcohol, drugs, physical activity, and
                                                                            2
     sexual health. The Scottish Needs Assessment Programme (SNAP) core questions,
     which is a list of recommended questions to be used by health boards for comparison
     purposes, were included in the questionnaire. The questionnaires were sent out in
     November 2002 with one reminder letter sent approximately three weeks later.
     In order to boost the response rate it was decided to re-send the questionnaire to those
     who had not responded, this was done in early January resulting in a better response
     rate.




                                                                                             3.
1.3 Response Rate
      Of the total number of questionnaires sent (8116), 225 were returned due to the
      intended recipient being unable to complete them. The total number of questionnaires
      returned was 4048, giving a response rate of 52.6%. The response rate was 5% better
      than in 1998 and justified the extra cost of re-sending the questionnaires, although still a
      little disappointing when compared to previous surveys. The size of the sample
      achieved, and the fact that bias was reduced by weighting the data, makes the survey a
      powerful and accurate statistical measure of people’s knowledge, behaviour and
      attitudes.

      Other health boards conducting similar lifestyle studies have reported a fall in response
      rates in recent years.

      There are several possible explanations for this lower level of response, the
      questionnaire has been modified since earlier studies in Grampian to include additional
      questions now used by all health boards in Scotland, the inclusion of drug misuse and
      more probing sexual health questions, and the increasing evidence of survey fatique
      among both public and professions. Many people returned blank questionnaires for this
      reason. Unfortunately there is no feasible alternative to surveys of this scale.

      The percentage of responses from men and women were 51.7% compared to 47.7%
      respectively, different from 1998 survey when it was greater for women, 53%, compared
      to 38% for men. There was little difference in the response rate with age with 49.9% for
      those aged 16-24 to 47.7% for those over 55 years. The percentage of responses from
      the three local areas were varied, Aberdeenshire, the greatest, with 47% , 39% for
      Aberdeen City with Moray having just a 14% response rate.

1.4   Analysis
      Responses have been weighted by sex and age group to ensure that these groups are
      correctly represented in the sample. Similar weighting criteria were also applied to the
      previous survey data to facilitate comparisons. All the figures reported in the following
      tables are based on weighted data.
      This report highlights the key findings. In addition the ongoing ability to access and
      re-analyse the raw data in-depth provides enormous opportunities to inform the work of
      NHS Grampian and partner organisations.




                                                                                                4.
2.    General Health and Primary Care

2.1 General Health
      28% of respondents felt that they were in very good health and a further 46% described
      their health as good. As would be expected, older people were more likely to express
      their health as average or poor when compared to younger age groups. Responses
      were similar for both males and females.

2.2   Weight
      Body mass index (BMI) is used as an indicator of obesity and is calculated by relating
                                                            2
      weight to height (BMI = weight in kg/ height in metres ). The following table indicates the
      BMI ranges associated with each category.

                                                                BMI
       Underweight                                              <20.0
       Acceptable weight                                      20.1-25.0
       Overweight                                             25.1-29.9
       Obese                                                    >29.9

      7.8% of respondents (9.7% of females and 6.0% of males) were of low BMI, 41% of
      acceptable BMI, 37% overweight and 15% obese. Being overweight or obese was more
      common in men than women. There were, however, 1.3% more women in the obese
      category and this was also more common in older age-groups for both sexes. It should
      be noted that height and weight were self reported.

      The percentage of respondents who were overweight has increased progressively since
      1994, from 45% to 58% in males and from 37% to 45% in females. This is in line with
      national trends.

                                       Respondents who are overweight or obese by gender
                                                   Years 1994,1998 and 2002
                                                         Percentages                         1994
                                  70                                                         1998
                                                         58                                  2002
                                  60
                                                  48
                                  50       45                                           45
                                                                                 41
                   Percentage




                                                                          37
                                  40

                                  30

                                  20

                                  10

                                  0
                                                 Male                          Female
                                1994              45                             37
                                1998              48                             41
                                2002              58                             45
                                                                Gender

      50.3% of men and 68.5% of women had tried to lose weight in the previous 12 months
      compared to 40% of men and 61% of women in the 1998 survey.

                                                                                                    5.
2.3   Health Services - Opticians

      Percent of those who had been to an optician:
                                Aberdeen City Aberdeenshire            Moray     Grampian
                                       %            %                   %           %

       Within last 12 months           32.3              30.8          28.0           30.9
       1-5 years ago                   54.6              56.7          60.0           56.2
       > 5 years ago                   13.0              12.6          12.1           12.9

2.4   Health Services - Dental Health
      80% of respondents said that they are registered with a dentist, of those 70% were NHS
      and 24% were private.

       Last visit to dentist         Aberdeen City      Aberdeenshire         Moray          Grampian
                                          %                  %                 %                %

       In last 12 months                  67.4                  71.5           71.3            69.8
       1-5 years ago                      19.9                  16.6           14.9            17.6
       More than 5 years ago              10.9                  10.8           12.7            11.1
       Never                              1.8                    1.1           1.1              1.4

      The recommended frequency for dental check-ups is a minimum of every 12 months,
      regardless of the number of natural teeth remaining - 69.8% of respondents met this
      target. Respondents from Aberdeen City were least likely to meet this target (67.4%).

 2.5 Health Professionals
      Respondents were asked if they had had contact with any of the following health
      professionals in the last 12 months. Responses were as follows:

       Contact with health          Grampian 2002        Grampian 1998        Grampian 1994
       professional                      %                    %                    %
       GP                               74.9                 74.6                 61.8
       Nurse (GP Practice)              39.5                 39.3                 18.6
       Hospital/Clinic Staff            35.3                 36.9                 24.2
       Pharmacist                       35.7                 32.0                   -
       Health Visitor                    5.1                 8.7                   4.7
       Health Promotion Staff            4.8                 6.6                   2.3
       Midwife                           3.8                 6.2                   3.1
       District Nurse                    4.3                 4.2                   2.3

      Results suggest that since 1994 there has been an increase in the percentage of
      respondents who have had contact with all listed health professionals. Since 1998 there
      appears to be less contact with the health visitor and health promotion staff but more
      contact with their pharmacist. Contact with their GP and hospital/clinic based staff has
      remained similar since 1998 when there was a noticeable increase in contact with these
      professionals since 1994.

                                                                                                6.
      In general, contact with health professionals was greater for older respondents. Those
      under 35 years of age had more contact with health visitors and midwives.

      Contact with health professionals was similar for each of the three Grampian areas with
      the noticeable exception that respondents from Aberdeen City were more likely to have
      had contact with their pharmacist 39.3%. This compared to 32.6% of respondents from
      Moray and 33.8% of those from Aberdeenshire. Aberdeen City were also more likely to
      be in contact with hospital/clinic based staff than the other two areas.

      Females were more likely than males to have contact with each type of health
      professional. Results are shown below:

       Contact with health                     Males               Females
       professional                              %                    %
       GP                                       68.9                 81.1
       Hospital/clinic staff                    30.9                 40.1
       Pharmacist                               30.2                 41.7
       Nurse (GP Practice)                      29.4                 50.2
       Health promotion staff                   4.9                  4.7
       Health visitor                           1.7                  8.8
       District nurse                           3.7                  4.9
       Midwife                                  0.1                  8.0

2.6   Health Changes
      When asked what lifestyle changes respondents had made during the last 12 months
      responses were as follows:

       Lifestyle changes                        Grampian           Grampian    Grampian
                                                 2002 %             1998 %      1994 %
                                        Male     Female    Total     Total       Total
       Drink less alcohol               35.4      31.2     33.4      33.4        18.9
       Changed to a healthier diet      57.7      73.8     65.5      66.1        45.9
       Take more exercise               62.3      75.4     68.7      69.4        62.5
       Lose weight                      50.3      68.5     59.3      59.8        44.8
       Relax more often                 55.9      64.4     60.0      60.8        56.3

      Results suggest that there has been little change since 1998 when there was an
      increase in the percentage of people making lifestyle changes.
      Females were more likely than males to have made lifestyle changes in the last year,
      although more males than females (35% and 31% respectively) said they had tried to
      cut down their alcohol intake.




                                                                                           7.
       Lifestyle Changes                  Aberdeen       Aberdeenshire       Moray     Grampian
                                            City              %               %           %
                                             %

       Drink less alcohol                    36.0              30.0           37.6        33.4
       Changed to a healthier diet           66.1              64.5           69.6        65.5
       Take more exercise                    69.1              67.6           71.2        68.7
       Lose weight                           69.4              58.8           62.9        59.3
       Relax more often                      60.6              58.5           62.5        60.3

      Respondents from Aberdeenshire were least likely to have made lifestyle changes in the
      year prior to the survey while those from Moray were the most likely.

2.7   Exposure to the Sun
      Respondents were asked to supply information on various aspects of sunbathing; 2.3%
      of respondents said that during the last 12 months they had been badly sunburned with
      redness or soreness of the skin which lasted for at least one or two days. A further 21%
      said that they had experienced mild sunburn compared with 15% in 1998.
      The percentage of respondents who had suffered from sunburn was highest among the
      younger age ranges and lowest for those aged 65-74 years.

       Age Range          % who had been badly or mildly
                          sunburned in the last 12 months

       16-24                             34.8
       25-34                             28.2
       35-44                             25.7
       45-54                             24.1
       55-64                             11.9
       65-74                             8.0
       All ages                          23.4

      9.5% of respondents always use a sun block of factor 15 or more in the UK and a further
      41.7% said that they sometimes do. However, when abroad, 51% always use a
      sunscreen of at least factor 15 and 26% sometimes do. These figures are similar to
      those in the 1998 survey.


2.8 Women’s Health

      3.7% (143) of repondents had had a baby in the year prior to the survey. Of these
      women 65.4% (i.e. 92 women) had breastfed their babies. Of the 92, 45.9% did so for
      at least 6 weeks. Dietary targets for Scotland for the year 2005 suggest that the
      proportion of women breast feeding their babies for the first 6 weeks of life should be
      more than 50%. Results show that Grampian still has a little way to go to meet this
      target.




                                                                                            8.
3.   Food
     In Scotland there are two main problems related to eating habits: over-eating and not
     eating a balanced diet. Diet is implicated in many health problems such as coronary
     heart disease, cerebrovascular disease (stroke), non-insulin dependent diabetes,
     cancers, hypertension and dental caries. Therefore, a healthy diet will help people to
                                                                         3
     avoid illness and stay in good health. The Scottish Diet Action Plan suggests that we
     should reduce consumption of saturated and animal fats, salt and sugar and increase
     consumption of fruit, vegetables and dietary fibre.

3.1 Healthy Eating Score
     The questionnaire collected information on the frequency of consumption of a variety of
     foods from each of the different food groups. In order to interpret the information
     obtained, a healthy eating score was calculated. This score had been developed
     previously by Lanarkshire Health Board and has been widely used.
     Ten foods were chosen: five healthy (fruit, vegetables, potatoes, rice/pasta and
     wholemeal bread) and five less healthy (chips, other fried food, crisps,
     cakes/scones/sweets/pastries and meat-filled pies, sausage rolls etc.). The scoring
     method was applied as follows:


      Food                                                         Score

                                               0           1          2              3
      Per day
      Fruit                                 < 1 piece   1 piece    2 pieces   3 or more pieces
      Vegetables                            < 1 piece   1 piece    2 pieces   3 or more pieces

      Per week
      Potatoes                              < 1 day     1-2 days   3-5 days      6-7 days
      Rice/Pasta/other grains               < 1 day     1-2 days   3-5 days      6-7 days
      Wholemeal bread                       < 1 day     1-2 days   3-5 days      6-7 days
      Chips                                 6-7 days    3-5 days   1-2 days      < 1 day
      Other fried foods                     6-7 days    3-5 days   1-2 days      < 1 day
      Cakes/scones/sweet pastries           6-7 days    3-5 days   1-2 days      < 1 day
      Meat filled pies/ sausage rolls etc   6-7 days    3-5 days   1-2 days      < 1 day
      Crisps/other savoury snacks           6-7 days    3-5 days   1-2 days      < 1 day

     Where the respondent had failed to indicate a response, they were allocated the median
     value for that food. This resulted in a score between 0 and 30, where a score of 30
     represented the healthiest diet. Respondents were classified into three categories
     according to their score. Category 1 represents the least healthy diet and 3 the
     healthiest diet.




                                                                                            9.
     Score                             Category

     0-16                              1= Least Healthy
     17-20                             2=Intermediate
     21-30                             3=Most Healthy


3.2 Healthy Eating Scores by Sex

                                            Males                   Females                        All respondents
                                              %                        %                                   %
     Least Healthy                           38.5                     22.5                                30.5
     Intermediate                            35.2                     33.7                                34.5
     Most Healthy                            26.3                     43.8                                35.0

    Results indicate a significant difference between sexes, with men tending to eat less
    healthily than women. Since 1998, the percentages eating the most healthy diet have
    declined in both men (from 29.3% to 26.3%) and women (from 50.7% to 43.8%).

3.3 Healthy Eating Scores by Age Group

                                                     Healthy Eating Scores by Age-group
                                                                 Percentages


                                       100%


                                        80%
                   Percentages




                                        60%                                                                  Most Healthy
                                                                                                             Intermediate
                                        40%                                                                  Least Healthy

                                        20%


                                          0%
                                                 16-24   25-34   35-44     45-54   55-64    65-74    Total

                                 Most Healthy    20.7    33.9    36.4       41.6     42.9   32.7      35

                                 Intermediate    34.1    36.5    36.1       33.3     33     32.4     34.5

                                 Least Healthy   45.1    29.6    27.5       25.1     24.1   34.9     30.5

                                                                         Age-group




    Results indicate progressive changes over the age groups. Increasing percentages eat
    the most healthy diet up to age group 55-64 (42.9%), but there is a decline by 65-74
    (32.7%).

    Single adults (i.e. those never married) (43%) and divorced people (36%) appear to
    have the worst diet – the highest ‘least healthy‘ diet scores. Respondents who were
    married (40%), cohabiiting (34%) or widowed (33%) had the healthiest diets.




                                                                                                                             10.
    There was a clear link between level of education and the type of diet consumed.
    Respondents who had a university or college degree or some other professional
    qualification had the healthiest diet.

                                          Other                      Secondary
                       University/    professional/                school – other         No
                        college         technical       Highers    qualifications   qualifications   Total
                                      qualification
                           %               %              %                %              %           %
     Least Healthy        16.3            25.6           32.2          39.4             46.3         30.4
     Intermediate         34.2            36.0           31.8          36.4             31.7         34.5
     Most Healthy         49.5            38.4           36.1          24.2             22.0         35.1

3.4 Healthy Diet
    The percentage of respondents who thought they had a healthy diet was tabulated
    against the diet category based on the healthy eating score.
    Do you feel you have a healthy diet?

                               Yes                No            Not sure        Total
                                %                 %                %             %
     Least Healthy             17.1              54.5             44.0          30.2
     Intermediate              35.0              32.3             35.4          34.6
     Most Healthy              47.9              13.2             20.7          35.3

    17% of respondents who felt that they had a healthy diet had their diet assessed as
    ‘least healthy’. In contrast 13% did not feel that they had a healthy diet although their
    diet was categorised as ‘most healthy’.
    Females were more likely to feel that they have a healthy diet, as were those in the older
    age groups

3.5 Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables
    Percentage of respondents consuming the following portions daily:

     Portions                  Fruit / Veg
                                   %
     None                         5.7
     One                          5.7
     Two                          13.2
     Three                        13.3
     Four                         17.6
     Five                         15.2
     More than five               29.3

    The national target for daily fruit/vegetable consumption states that men and women
    should eat at least five portions of fruit/vegetables each day.


                                                                                               11.
    Results show that people are eating more vegetables and fruit and that 44.5% of
    respondents are meeting the target. At present, respondents consume on average 4
    pieces of fruit and vegetables each day. In 1998 this figure was reported as 3 pieces.
    Since 1994 the average pieces of fruit and vegetables eaten by males and females has
    shown a significant increase.
    Females consume more fruit and vegetables than men, consuming an average of 4.3
    portions each day compared to 3.6 for men. In 1998 females consumed an average of
    3.4 portions of fruit and vegetables and males an average of 2.6.


                                Consumption of Fruit and Vegetables by Gender and Year Portions


                            5                                                          4.3

                            4                        3.6
                                                                               3.4
                                                                                                  1994
              Portions




                            3                 2.6                       2.5
                                       2.1                                                        1998
                            2
                                                                                                  2002
                            1

                            0
                                             Male                             Female
                         1994                 2.1                              2.5
                         1998                 2.6                              3.4
                         2002                 3.6                              4.3
                                                             Gender




    67% of respondents said that they eat breakfast between five and seven days a week.
    This percentage steadily increased by age group from 54.7% for 16-24 year olds to
    81.2% among 65-74 year olds. Females were more likely to eat breakfast 5-7 days than
    males (72% v 62%).

3.6 Milk Consumption
    Respondents were asked which type of milk they consume - responses were as follows:


                                                      Males                   Females
                                                        %                        %
     Full cream milk                                   24.4                     15.5
     Semi-skimmed milk                                 66.1                     68.7
     Skimmed milk                                      6.6                      12.0
     Other                                             0.7                      2.5




                                                                                                         12.
    Percentage of respondents aged 16-64 years who consume the following type of
    milk:

                                Aberdeen City     Aberdeenshire        Moray       Grampian
                                     %                 %                %             %
     Full cream milk                 16.5              22.0             21.5          19.9
     Semi-skimmed milk               69.5              66.9             64.5          67.4
     Skimmed milk                    10.8               8.0              9.4          9.3
     Other                           0.6                1.0              1.7          1.0

    The national target set to be achieved by the year 2001 indicates that 85% of women
    and 70% of men should consume semi skimmed or skimmed milk. At the time of this
    survey 80% of women and 72% of men were drinking semi-skimmed or skimmed milk.
    These results are similar to 1998, but considerably better than in 1994 (73% women and
    63% men). Results are similar for all three local authority areas.

3.7 Type of Spread
    43.6% of respondents use a low fat spread compared with 44% in 1998 and 28% in
    1994. More females (44.8%) than males (42.5%) used low fat spread and the
    percentage of respondents using a low fat spread increased with age.
    There was little difference in responses across the three Grampian areas.

3.8 Making Changes
    39.5% of men and 47% of women have changed their diet in the last year. Of these
    98.9% said they had tried to eat more oil-rich fish (percentages are based only on those
    who said that they had made changes.)




                                                                                         13.
3.9 Support and Advice to Improve Eating Habits
    Respondents were asked to indicate how helpful each of the following would be to them
    if they wanted to change their eating habits. Responses were as follows:

                                                Very Helpful    Helpful    Not Helpful
                                                     %            %            %
     Healthy food at affordable prices              55.3         36.2          8.5

     Encouragement & support from                   43.9         44.8          11.3
     family & friends

     Wider availability of ‘healthy food’           38.8         50.0          11.3

     More information on food labels                36.1         44.9          19.0

     Advice and support from GP/                    27.7         52.6          19.7
     dietician/Health Promotions/
     Health Visitor

     A booklet giving advice and practical          27.0         54.8          18.2
     tips

     Demonstrations on buying & cooking             22.3         44.3          33.5
     healthy food

     Information in the media                       17.5         55.6          26.9

     A self help group                              14.3         34.1          51.6

     Encouragement & support at work                13.1         44.6          42.3


    Healthy food at affordable prices was viewed as the most important single factor which
    could help respondents to make positive changes to their eating habits.




                                                                                         14.
4.    Tobacco Smoking

4.1 Passive Smoking
      8% of respondents said that they spend most of their day in the company of people who
      smoke. A further 27% spend some of their day where people smoke. The remaining
      64% reported seldom being in places where people smoke. This compares with 60% in
      1998 and means there are fewer people spending time inhaling other people’s tobacco
      smoke.

4.2   Smoking Status
      Respondents were asked which of the following statements relating to smoking best
      describes them. Responses were as follows:


                                                                       Males          Females            Total
                                                                         %               %                %
      Never smoked/tried once or twice                                  49.6            57.6             53.5
      Given up smoking                                                      23.9           20.6           22.3
      Smoke some days                                                       6.4            4.2             5.3
      Smoke every day                                                       20.1           17.7           18.9


      Results indicate that 26.5% of males and 21.9% of females smoke. There have been
      small decreases in both male and female smokers since 1998 (3.4% for both genders).


4.3   Age Group
      The results showed differences in smoking according to age. People in the younger age
      groups were more likely to smoke than those in older age groups.

                                           Percentage currently smoking some or every day
                                                       Age-group and gender

                                                                                                         Male
                              40
                                                                                                         Female
                              30
          Percentage




                              20

                              10

                               0
                                   16-24       25-34      35-44         45-54      55-64         65-74
                       Male        32.1         33.7       23           23.8        24           19.8

                       Female      26.8         19.9       21.8         23.4       20.8          16.7
                                                                Age-group




                                                                                                                  15.
      The results, for males, were similar in all three local authority areas. However Aberdeen
      City is at least 3% higher for female smokers than the other two local areas.

                                Aberdeen City             Aberdeenshire              Moray        Grampian
                                     %                         %                       %             %
 Males                              26.8                      26.0                    26.3          26.4
 Females                                24.1                       19.9              21.0            21.7
 All respondents                        25.5                       23.0              23.7            24.1



4.4   Quantity of Cigarettes Smoked
      23.4% of smokers are currently smoking more than 20 cigarettes per day. This is a
      2.4% decrease since the 1998 survey. More now smoke only up to 9 cigarettes per day
      (40.7% compared with 28.1% in 1998).


                                  Quantity of cigarettes smoked 1998 and 2001

                           50
                           40
            Percentage




                           30                                                                     1998
                           20                                                                     2002
                           10
                            0
                                Up to 9        10 to 14      15-19           20-39   40 or more
                         1998    28.1           23.9          22.1           23.9       1.9
                         2002    40.7           28.3           7.6           22.7       0.7
                                                           Quantity smoked




      The difference between the quantities of cigarettes smoked between males and females
      was significant, with analysis indicating that 28.1% of male smokers smoked 20 or more
      cigarettes each day compared to 19% of females. This represents a 5% decrease for
      males and a 0.6% increase for females since 1998.




                                                                                                             16.
4.5 Reasons for Smoking
      Respondents were given a list of statements and asked to indicate which of the following
      reasons for smoking applied to them. The results were similar to 1998.
                                                 2002           1998          1994
      Reason for smoking
                                                  %              %             %
      Calms nerves and helps relaxation          67.9           66.7          80.8
      Enjoy the taste                            30.3           29.6          58.8
      Relieves boredom                           37.8           35.1          55.2
      Helps concentration                        17.4           21.1          41.6
      Dependent on smoking                       42.7            44            -
      Friends smoke                              14.0           15.5          26.1
      Smoking gives confidence                    5.9            8.3          15.7


      42.3% of respondents who smoke had tried to stop smoking in the 12 months prior to
      the survey. Responses varied with age group: the 16-24 year olds were most likely to
      have tried to give up smoking in the last 12 months (55.6%) and those aged 45-54 were
      least likely (30.3%).

4.6   Support to Stop Smoking
      The following table shows the top six responses that would be helpful if they wished to
      stop smoking:
                                                                     Very         Important
                                                                  Important           %
                                                                      %
      Will-power                                                     88.0            8.6
      Encouragement and support from family and friends                55.6          27.2
      Pregnancy                                                        51.2          16.1
      Nicotine Replacement Therapy                                     35.0          32.4
      Advice from your doctor or health care worker                    25.4          39.2
      Restrictions on smoking at work                                  29.5          27.0


      Will-power was viewed as the most important factor in stopping smoking, followed by
      encouragement and support from family and friends. A stop smoking group (16.8%),
      Zyban (13.2%) and telephone helplines (6.8%) were among the least important factors
      for those wishing support.

      73% of male smokers and 78% of female smokers would like to stop smoking
      45% of those who smoked felt that smoking should not be allowed in public places.
      This question was not asked of non-smokers.


                                                                                            17.
5.   Alcohol
5.1 Frequency of Alcohol Consumption


                                                         Male               Female      All respondents
                                                          %                   %                 %
      Never drink                                        10.0                17.2              13.6
      Drink < 1/month                                    9.4                     18.2        13.8
      Drink monthly but not weekly                       14.8                    18.6        16.7
      Drink at week-ends                                 19.5                    16.5        18.0
      Drink 1-2 days a week                              15.6                    12.3        14.0
      Drink 3-5 days a week                              21.3                    13.1        17.2
      Drink 6-7 days a week                              9.5                     4.0          6.7



                               Frequency of alcohol consumption


                                                          Never drink
                                                             14%

                              Drink weekly                        Drink <
                                  37%                             1/month
                                                                    14%



                                                                Drink monthly
                                                                but not weekly
                                        Drink at week-               17%
                                             ends
                                             18%



     Results indicate differences in the frequency of alcohol consumption between males and
     females. It is clear from the table that male respondents drink alcohol more frequently
     than female respondents. 66% of males usually drink at least once a week compared to
     only 46% of females.
     Survey results also indicated that respondents from Aberdeen City drank more, weekly
     and at weekends, than either Aberdeenshire or Moray, 58.3% compared to 55.1% and
     54% respectively. As in the 1998 survey respondents from Moray drank the least.

     Frequency of alcohol consumption also varied with age. Respondents in the younger
     age groups drank more frequently than those in the older age groups.

     More respondents now drink at least weekly than in 1998, 1994 and 1990.




                                                                                                    18.
                                                               2002             1998       1994           1990
                                                                %                %          %              %
     Never drink/given up                                      13.6             11.4       13.7           18.0
     Drink < 1/month                                           13.8              15.7      19.1           14.0
     Drink monthly but not weekly                              16.7              21.2      23.7           18.0
     Drink at week-ends**                                      18.0                   -     -               -
     Drink 1-2 days a week                                     14.0              28.3      27.5           39.0
     Drink 3-5 days a week                                     17.2              16.4      12.0           11.0*
     Drink 6-7 days a week                                      6.7                  6.8   4.0
       * This figure from the 1990 survey represents Drink alcohol 3-7 days a week
      **Category, drink at week-ends, included in 2002 survey only


5.2 Alcohol Consumption in the Last Seven Days
    71% of respondents had had an alcoholic drink in the seven days prior to the survey
    (77% of males and 65.% of females).
    Respondents who had consumed alcohol in the seven days prior to the survey were
    asked to indicate from a table the number of various types of alcoholic drinks they had
    consumed. The quantities of alcohol consumed were converted to units using the
    following criteria:

     Measure                   Description                                                      Strength

     1 pint                    Normal strength beer/lager/stout/cider (e.g.                     2 units
                               McEwan’s lager, heavy)

     Bottle                    Lager eg. Bud, Becks, Stella Artios                              1.5 units

     1 pint/1 can              Extra strong beer/lager/cider (e.g. Tennant’s                    4 units
                               super lager)

     1 measure                 Spirits (e.g. gin, vodka)                                        1 unit

     1 measure                 Martini/sherry                                                   1 unit

     1 medium glass            Glass of table wine                                              1 unit
     1 large glass                                                                              2 units

     Bottle                    Flavoured alcoholic beverages, eg. smirnoff ice,                 1.5 units
                               bacardi breezer, wkd




                                                                                                                19.
The Royal College of Physicians and the British Medical Association currently
recommend the following as ‘sensible drinking’:

       • not more than 21 units of alcohol per week for men
       • not more than 14 units of alcohol per week for women
       • one to two alcohol-free days during the week

Where people are drinking near the maximum sensible limit, it is preferable that this
should be spread throughout the week.

Categories used for weekly units consumed:

                                          Males                Females

 Safe                                  Up to 21 units        Up to 14 units
 Hazardous                                 22-49                 15-34
 Dangerous                              50 or over            35 and over

Units of alcohol were calculated, and respondents categorised, depending on their levels
of consumption. Results were then compared with those obtained from previous
surveys. As the method for recording the level and frequency of alcohol consumption is
more accurate than in previous surveys, it is possible that the previous levels and
frequency of alcohol consumption were under-reported.

                                            Percent of respondents who drink weekly*
                                            and percent who are exceeding safe limits
                                60                                              55.9

                                                               51.5

                                50                                                               Drink weekly
                                            43.5
                                                                                                 Exceeding
                                40                                                               safe limits
  Percentage




                                30
                                                                           20               20
                                20
                                                        11

                                10

                                  0
                                              1994               1998             2002
               Drink weekly                    43.5               51.5             55.9
               Exceeding safe limits               11                 20               20
                                                                 Year
*includes week-end drinng




The percentage of respondents drinking at least weekly has increased since the 1994
survey as has the percentages exceeding safe limits.




                                                                                                                20.
5.3          Alcohol Consumption levels by gender

                              2002                  1998                  1994                  1990
                               %                     %                     %                     %
                       M       F   Total      M      F   Total       M     F   Total       M     F   Total
      None             23     36    29        23    36    29         14   26    20         12   22    17
      Safe             51     51      51      51     52      52      68    70     69       68   74        71
      Hazardous        20     11      16      20     11      16      15     4     10       17   4         10
      Dangerous         5      2       4      6      1       4       3     0.3     1       3    0.4       1

                                                                                       1
              The Government’s White Paper on Health, Towards a Healthier Scotland , set national
              targets, for 16-64 year olds, to be achieved by 2010, for the percentages exceeding
              weekly safe limits, of 29% for men and 11% for women.
              At the time of this survey these targets were already being met by men in Grampian
              (25.6%) but not by women (12.8%). As in previous surveys results indicate that male
              respondents who drink alcohol are more likely to have consumed more than the
              recommended levels of alcohol.
              Levels of alcohol consumption varied between each of the three local authority areas.
              22.8% of respondents from Aberdeen City drank more than the recommended levels of
              alcohol compared to 17.8% of those from Moray and 17.1% of respondents from
              Aberdeenshire.

              13.5% of respondents who did not feel that the amount of alcohol they drank was
              harmful to their health were actually drinking to a hazardous level, and a further 1.4%
              were drinking to a dangerous level.

              20% of respondents had tried to cut down on their level of alcohol consumption in the
              year prior to the survey.




                                                                                                    21.
5.4 Factors That Would Help Reduce Alcohol Intake
    Respondents were given a list of factors and were asked to indicate if they would find
    any of them helpful if they wanted to reduce the amount of alcohol they consumed.
    Responses were as follows:

                                                                      %
     Less stressful life                                             64.7
     Encouragement and support from family and friends               60.7
     More recreational/sports facilities at reasonable prices        54.1
     A booklet offering advice and practical tips                    43.8
     Information from Health Promotions                              39.8
     Advice from a doctor or health care worker                      37.7
     Encouragement and support at work                               22.6
     Advice from Alcoholic advisory group                            21.4




                                                                                       22.
6.   Work/Sport/Leisure
6.1 Daily Activity
     Respondents were asked to indicate how active they are in a normal day.

                                                  Males           Females          Grampian
                                                   %                %             Respondents
                                                                                       %
     In light activity (eg sitting at a desk)      40.3            39.0               39.7
     In moderate activity (eg on you feet)         38.7            57.0                 47.6
     In heavy activity (eg heavy lifting)          21.0             4.0                 12.7


     There were noticeable differences between the sexes, with males more active than
     females. Since the 1998 survey, 6% more males and 11% more females spend their
     time in light activity with corresponding reductions in moderate activity.
     Results varied by local authority area and age group. Respondents living in Aberdeen
     City were least active, while those living in Moray were most active.

                                  Aberdeen City      Aberdeenshire              Moray
                                       %                  %                       %
      In light activity               47.0               36.0                    30.7
      In moderate activity            43.9               48.8                    55.9
      In heavy activity                9.1               15.2                    13.4

6.2 Regular Physical Activity
     Regular physical activity means accumulating 30 minutes of moderate activity on most
     days of the week – it does not have to be 30 minutes all at once.

                                                                                            All
                                                          Males       Females
                                                                                        respondents
                                                           %            %
                                                                                             %
     I am not regularly physically active and do
                                                           8.0            6.8               7.4
     not intend to be in the next 6 months

     I am not regularly physically active but I            9.6            11.3             10.5
     intend to be in the next 6 months

     I do some physical activity but less than            22.6            26.8             24.7
     described at the start of the question

     I am regularly physically active but only             4.3            6.8               5.6
     began in the last 6 months

     I am regularly physically active and have            55.4            48.3             51.9
     been for longer than 6 months


                                                                                               23.
      Overall, 57.5% of respondents described themselves as regularly active and a further
      24.7% did some physical activity. This is a 12.5% increase of Grampian respondents
      taking regular physical activity since the 1998 survey. Males were more likely than
      females to be physically active.
                                                                                  1
      The Government’s White Paper on Health, Towards a Healthier Scotland , has set a
      new national target for the proportion of men and women aged 16-64 taking 30 minutes
      of moderate activity on 5 or more occasions each week – 50% of men and 40% of
      women to be taking 30 minutes each day moderate activity by 2005 and 60% of men
      and 50% of women to be taking 30 minutes each day moderate activity by 2010. At the
      time of this survey the 2005 target is already being met by both males and females and
      the 2010 target is being met by females while males are only 0.7% off their target.

6.3   Reasons Given for Wishing to be More Physically Active
      All respondents were asked if they would consider taking more exercise for any of the
      reasons listed. Among both sexes, desires to improve health or feel fitter/healthier were
      the main reason given for considering taking more exercise.

                                                                                           All
                                                      Males           Females
                                                                                      respondents
                                                       %                %
                                                                                           %
      To improve health                                93.5             96.5              95.0
      To feel fitter/healthier                         92.8             95.7              94.3
      To prevent disease or ill health                 90.0             93.1              91.5
      To help you relax                                84.2             88.3              86.2
      To enjoy yourself                                77.5             80.9              79.1
      To lose weight                                   64.9             80.8              72.9
      To look better                                   55.5             75.3              65.3

      Younger respondents were more likely than older ones to state that they would consider
      taking more exercise to feel fitter/healthier, look better and/or for enjoyment. Those in
      the middle age range were more likely than younger and older respondents to mention
      prevention of disease and ill-health, weight loss and relaxation as potential motivating
      factors. Older respondents were more likely to exercise to improve health, feel fitter or
      help them relax.

      Lack of spare time at evenings and weekends was stated as the main reason which
      prevented respondents from being more physically active (55.9%), next was the fact
      they felt they took enough exercise, 34.2%, lack of money and not knowing what’s on
      were next at approximately 27%. Least problem was lack of transport.




                                                                                            24.
7.    Drugs
      Lifestyle surveys conducted in Grampian prior to 1998 did not include questions on
                                                                     4
      drugs. However during 1995 a separate survey of drug misuse was carried out in
      Grampian among adults aged 16-44 years. Where comparisons are possible, the 1998
      and 2002 lifestyle data has been re-analysed with the same age group to allow
      comparisons with this 1995 Grampian Drug Survey.

7.1 Information
      Respondents were aked where they obtained most of their information about drugs

                                                           %
       TV Programmes/campaigns                            84.9
       Newspapers                                         64.1
       Leaflets                                           33.4
       Friends/family                                     30.1
       Radio programmes                                   21.9
       Health Promotions                                  19.7
       GP/health worker                                    9.3
       The Internet                                        8.0

      As in the 1998 survey the four most popular sources of information were TV programes,
      newspapers, leaflets and family/friends.


7.2   Drug Misuse
      21.6% of all respondents said that they had taken drugs. This figure varied by area.
      Results indicate that Aberdeen City has a higher perdentage of respondents who have
      tried drugs.


                                   Percentage who have taken drugs
                                                 %
       Aberdeen City                            25.6

       Aberdeenshire                               18.4
       Moray                                       21.5

       Grampian                                    21.6



      Percentages also varied by sex and age group. Males were significantly more likely to
      have taken drugs than females (26.9% v 16.3%).




                                                                                        25.
           Percentage who had taken drugs by age group:

                            Males          Females             All respondents
                             %                %                        %
            16-24           46.4             32.1                     39.6
            25-34           44.9             30.9                     38.0
            35-44           29.4             13.6                     21.5
            45-54           18.6             10.2                     14.5
            55-64            5.6             4.3                      5.0
            65-74            1.4             1.5                      1.5

           The 1995 survey indicated that 72.2% of respondents aged 16-44 years had never used
           drugs. This figure has fallen to 67.8% in 2002.

   7.3 Types of Drugs Taken
           Respondents who had never taken drugs were not required to complete any further
           questions and percentages given in the following tables are based only on the
           respondents who had taken drugs.
           Respondents were asked to give information on the types of drugs they had used and
           also how often these drugs are taken. This was done by asking respondents to
           complete the table shown below. In order to ensure that the information provided was
           accurate, a ‘dummy’ variable was included in the list. Those who claimed to have taken
           the dummy variable were excluded from further analysis.

                                                                                 % of all
                       Never  Tried Stopped Take <   Take    Take % of users
                                                                              respondents
                       taken once or taking 1/month monthly weekly who have
                                                                                who have
                              twice                                taken drug
                                                                               tried drugs
                         %      %      %       %      %       %        %
                                                                                    %
Cannabis                2.7    44.2   33.7    2.3     3.7    13.5     97.3         13.3
Amphetamines            54.8     29.0      14.2      1.1       0.2      0.6       45.2          6.3
Magic mushrooms         72.4     20.9      6.2       0.2       0.4       -        27.6          3.5
Ecstasy                 68.4     15.6      11.4      3.3       0.9      0.3       31.6          4.4
Temazepam               90.7      6.0      2.2       0.3       0.2      0.6        9.3          1.3
Poppers                 68.7     27.2      3.2       0.3       0.3      0.2       31.3          4.2
Solvents                88.8      8.7      2.6         -        -        -        29.1          1.6
Other painkillers       93.3      3.0      2.2         -       0.2      1.3        6.7          0.9


           Of those reporting ever taking drugs, 97.3% had tried cannabis, 45.2% had tried
           amphetamines, 27.6% had tried magic mushrooms and 31.6% and 31.3% had tried
           ecstasy and poppers respectively.
           Only 2.0% of respondents who had tried drugs reported they had ever injected drugs
           (0.426% of all respondents).



                                                                                              26.
7.4 Reasons for Taking Drugs
    The following reasons were given for taking drugs:


                                       Percentage who took drugs for this reason
     To be sociable                                         56.4
     Enjoy effect                                           53.7
     To relax                                               50.5
     Relieve boredom                                        28.1
     Forget worries                                         26.0
     Depressed/Anxious                                      17.7
     When lonely                                            11.3
     Dependant on drugs                                      4.6

    Over half of drug takers said that they enjoy the effect drugs have on them, or take them
    to be sociable, or to help them relax.




                                                                                          27.
8.    Sexual Health

8.1   Lifestyle Changes
      15.9% of respondents claim to have changed their lifestyle in some way because of
      concerns about becoming infected with a sexually transmitted disease including HIV.
      Percentages varied by age group, indicating that younger people were more likely to
      have changed their lifestyle. There are differences between areas, with 19.8% in
      Aberdeen City having made changes compared to 13.5% in Moray and 13.1% in
      Aberdeenshire.

                             Percentage who have made
                           changes to their sexual lifestyle
       16-24                            27.3
       25-34                            28.0
       35-44                            16.1
       45-54                             9.1
       55-64                             4.5
       65-74                             2.4

       Grampian                         15.9

       Lifestyle changes made are shown in the table below


                                                 Percentage who have made the
                                                       following changes

       Having only one partner                                 60.1
       Use condoms with new partner                            40.3
       Find out more about a person before                     25.9
       having sex
       Having fewer partners                                   17.3

       Not having sex                                          12.9
       Avoid some sexual practices                             9.5




                                                                                      28.
8.2 Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    12.4% of respondents always use a condom when they have sexual intercourse
    compared to 59.6% who never use condoms. Of those who never use a condom 92%
    said this was because they had a long-term partner.

    Respondents were asked to agree or disagree with the following statements in order to
    assess their levels of knowledge:

     Percentage who gave correct answer:
                                     Aberdeen        Aberdeen      Moray      Grampian
                                       City            Shire
                                         %              %            %            %
    Sexually transmitted
    infections can be    True          79.1             72.2        76.1         75.6
    passed on to an
    unborn baby

    Herpes virus (cold
    sore) on the lip can    True          64.7          63.6        65.9         64.4
    be transferred to the
    genital area

    Sexually transmitted
    infections can cause    True          86.2          83.5        83.6         84.7
    infertility

    Some forms of the
    wart virus can cause    True          46.9          42.6        43.0         44.4
    cancer of the cervix


    There has been a significant increase in knowledge of sexually transmitted infections
    since the 1998 survey, most categories having a 10% increase in correct answers with
    an approximate 20% increase in knowledge that sexually transmitted infections can
    cause infertility, across the three local authority areas.

    When asked where they would go for advice on sexual health, 92% said their GP with
    57.8% saying the Family Planning Clinic whilst 32% said they would try the Internet.




                                                                                        29.
 9. Well-Being
     Respondents were asked to indicate how they felt about the following:

                                           Very/Quite            Mixed           Very/Quite
                                             Happy              Feelings          Unhappy
                                               %                   %                 %
 Your physical wellbeing                      63.4                29.1              7.4
 Your mental/emotional wellbeing               69.1               23.3               7.6
 Your overall quality of life                  75.5               18.8               5.7
 Your current standard of living               81.6               14.2               4.2
 Your confidence in the future                 64.8               29.4               5.8

     Overall most respondents were happy with their lives, although some had mixed feelings
     and a few were unhappy.

9.1 Dealing with Problems
     As an indication of how best to promote mental health among people living in Grampian,
     a range of possible activities was provided which might help to deal with problems or
     stress. Respondents were asked to identify any activities they undertake.

                                                        Males        Females         All
                                                         %             %        respondents
                                                                                     %
 Try to work out a solution                              83.7            86.4       85.0
 Try to see the problem in a different light             70.9            74.6       72.9
 Talk to someone about the problem                       60.0            72.1       66.0
 Get more information about the problem                  56.0            56.9       56.4
 Listen to music                                         59.1            63.1       61.1
 Work harder                                             50.1            47.6       48.9
 Read                                                    32.5            54.3       43.2
 Stay away from others, keeping your feelings            46.8            45.8       46.3
 to yourself
 Spend more time being sociable going out                33.6            41.0       37.2
 with family and friends
 Do something creative                                   16.0            23.0       19.4
 Ignore the problem                                      16.9            12.0       14.5

 High percentages of respondents try to find a solution to their problems, try to see them in
 a different light or talk to someone about the problem. There were some differences in
 responses given by males and females, for example females were more likely to read (54%)
 than males (33%).




                                                                                           30.
9.2   Issues which cause problems in your life

      Respondents were asked which issues caused problems in their life.

                                                       Males      Females       All respondents
                                                         %           %                  %
       Stress                                           50.4        53.6               51.8
       Being overworked                                 32.9        28.7               30.8
       The health of others                             29.0        38.8               33.8
       Your health                                      27.0        29.2               28.1
       Family                                           20.0        34.3               27.1
       Job insecurity                                   18.1        10.4               14.3
       Relationships at work                            16.3        15.7               16.0
       Loneliness                                       13.4        21.9               17.6
       Your standard of living                          12.9        9.8                11.4
       Your housing condition                           9.5         8.7                 9.1
       Lack of community facilities in the area         8.7         8.3                 8.5
       Trying to find a job                             9.0         7.5                 8.2
       Being unemployed                                 9.0         5.1                 7.1
       Being bullied                                    1.9         4.5                 3.2
       Violence                                         4.5         3.2                 3.9
       Sexual abuse in childhood                        1.2         3.5                 2.4

      There were some differences between responses from males and females. Females
      were more likely to say that the health of others, family and loneliness cause problems in
      their life. Males were more likely to indicate that job insecurity, being overworked, trying
      to find a job and being unemployed cause them problems in life.
      Of respondents who said stress caused problems in their life, 40.4% said this stress was
      at work and 16.8% said it was at home, however, there was a 19% decrease, since
      1998, of those respondents who said they suffered stress at work.




                                                                                               31.
      Conclusion
       The results of this survey are generally encouraging, especially in the areas of fruit and
       vegetables eaten, smoking, exercise and awareness of sexually transmitted diseases.
       These improvements demonstrate the benefits of working collaboratively with our
       partners in the NHS, local authorities, communities and industry to focus our efforts on
       issues identified within previous surveys. There are, however, a number of areas of
       concern including the trend in overweight and obesity, fewer eating healthy diets and
       increased exposure to sunburn.

       These results enable us to monitor progress when compared with earlier data and will
       also provide baseline information for future evaluation of health promotion initiatives.

       The on-going ability to access and reanalyse the raw data in depth provides enormous
       opportunities to inform the work of NHS Grampian and partner organisations.




1
    Working Together for a healthier Scotland: a consultation document. Scottish Executive Feb 1998
2
    Scottish Needs Assessment Programme (Scottish forum for Public Health Medicine)
3
    Eating for Health, a diet action plan for Scotland, 1996
4
    Grampian Drug Survey, Grampian Health Board, 1995




                                                                                                  32.
        Appendix
                                                                                                      1
       National targets outlined in the White Paper on Health, Towards a Healthier Scotland , are
       detailed below.

Headline Targets for Scotland
                       Indicator                              Target
Coronary Heart Disease Age standardised mortality rate        Reduce by 50% between 1995 and 2010: ie from
                       from CHD in people under 75            143 to 72 deaths per 100,000 population.
                       years
Cancer                 Age standardised mortality rate        Reduce by 20% between 1995 and 2010: ie from
                       from all cancers in people under       188 to 150 deaths per 100,000 population.
                       75 years
Smoking                Smoking among young people          Reduce smoking among young people from 14%
                       (12-15 year olds)                   to 12% between 1995 and 2005 and to 11% by
                                                           2010.
                         Proportion of women who smoke Reduce the proportion of women who smoke
                         during pregnancy                  during pregnancy from 29% to 23% between 1995
                                                           and 2005 and to 20% by 2010.
Alcohol Misuse           Prevalence of men and women Reduce incidence of adults exceeding weekly
                         aged 16-64 exceeding weekly limits:
                         limits of 21 and 14 units of - from 33% to 31% for men between 1995 and
                         alcohol                           2005 and to 29% by 2010.
                                                           - from 13% to 12% for women between 1995 and
                                                           2005 and to 11% by 2010.
Teenage Pregnancy        Pregnancy rate among 13-15 Reduce by 20% between 1995 and 2010.
                         year olds
Dental Health            Proportion of 5 year olds with no 60% of 5 year olds to have no experience of dental
                         experience of dental disease      disease by 2010.

Second Rank Targets
Diet                     See Scottish Diet Action Plan        Retain targets for 2005 in Scottish Diet Action
                                                              Plan.
Smoking                  Rate of smoking among adults         Reduce rate of smoking from an average of 35%
                         (aged 16-64) in all social classes   to 33% between 1995 and 2005 and to an average
                                                              of 31% by 2010.
Alcohol Misuse           Frequency and level of young         Reduce frequency and level of drinking from 20%
                         people (12-15) drinking              of 12-15 year olds to 18% between 1995 and 2005
                                                              and to 16% by 2010.
Physical Activity        Proportion of 11-15 year olds        Increase proportion from 32% in 1994 to 40% in
                         taking vigorous exercise 4 times     2005 and to 50% in 2010.
                         or more weekly
                         Proportion of men and women          50% of men and 40% of women to be taking 30
                         aged 16-64 taking 30 minutes of      minutes of moderate activity on 5 or more
                         moderate activity on 5 or more       occasions each week by 2005 and 60% and 50%,
                         occasions each week                  respectively, by 2010.
Cerebrovascular          Age standardised mortality rate      Reduce by 50% from 1995 level by 2010.
Disease                  from this disease in people
                         under 75 years
Dental Health            Proportion of 45-54 year olds        Less than 5% of 45- 54 year olds to have no
                         with no natural teeth                natural teeth by 2010.



                                                                                                          33.

								
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