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					LAW notes
                  Violent Crime

   Note: The violent crimes included are rape, robbery,
    aggravated and simple assault, and homicide.
   manslaughter – accidental death due to
    negligence (lazily careless)
   aggravated assault – attempting to cause
    serious bodily injury
   malice - A desire or INTENT to harm others or to
    see others suffer; extreme ill will or spite.
   premeditation – planned ahead of time
   jurisdiction – area in which a law enforcement
    body has the authority to act
             National Police
 The national law enforcement agency in
  the U.S. is the F.B.I. (Federal Bureau of
 The F.B.I. publishes a list of its Ten Most
  Wanted criminals
   Pictures and descriptions of the Most Wanted
    are posted in public buildings such as the
    Post Office
                 Terms 2
 deadly  force – police can use deadly force
  only to protect themselves and others
 booking – period when the suspect is
  photographed and fingerprinted
 arraignment – charges are read to the
  suspect in court and the suspect must
  enter a plea
 Not guilty – suspect claims they did not commit
  the crime
 Guilty – suspect admits to the crimes charged,
  usually for a lesser sentence
 No contest – suspect does not admit any wrong
  doing but accepts punishment in order to end
  the issue
 NOTE: In a verdict, not guilty does not
  necessarily mean innocent. It simply means that
  the prosecution did not prove guilt.
 Entrapment   – the defendant claims they
  were induced or persuaded to commit a
  crime by law enforcement
 Duress – acting because of coercion or a
  threat of immediate danger to life or
  personal safety
 Insanity – people who have a mental
  defect should not be convicted if they don’t
  know right from wrong
           Miranda rights
 “You   have the right to remain silent.
  Anything you say can and will be used
  against you in a court of law. You have the
  right to an attorney. If you cannot afford an
  attorney, one will be provided for you at
  interrogation time and at court.”
 All suspects must be read these rights before
          Right to Counsel
 The sixth amendment guarantees
 defendants the right to counsel (meaning
 an attorney). If they cannot afford an
 attorney, one is provided for them at no
 cost because it is their right to have one
 according to the U.S. Constitution.
                   Terms 3
 Plea bargain – agreeing to plead guilty in
  exchange for a lesser charge (or fewer charges)
  or for a lighter sentence
 burden of proof – the prosecution has the
  burden of proof. They must show evidence that
  the defendant is guilty. The defendant is
  innocent until proven guilty.
 reasonable doubt – the prosecution must prove
  the defendant has committed the crimes beyond
  a reasonable doubt. Reasonable doubt is where
  the jury believes that there is a good chance that
  the defendant did not commit the crime.
 The prosecution presents its case first.
 The judge acts as a referee.
 cross examination – After an attorney
  questions a witness the opposing attorney
  may ask questions in an effort to discredit
  the witness.
                   Terms 4
 perjury – lying under oath
 deliberation – when the jury privately discusses
  and decides the case
 sequester – when the jury is kept away from the
  public for the duration of the trial
 unanimous – all jurors are in agreement. A
  unanimous verdict is required in a criminal trial
  to find a defendant guilty.
 appeal – to take a case to a higher court for a
  rehearing. All convicted criminals have the right
  to appeal their conviction.
           Financial Results
 restitution– the lawbreaker is ordered to
  repay the victim for his or her loss or for
  harm done to him or her. (Usually civil).
 fine – a sum of money to be paid to the
  government by a person convicted of an
  offense. This may be in addition to or
  instead of prison or jail time (in a criminal
            Jail vs. Prison
 jails– usually house people temporarily
  before their trial or those convicted
  criminals who have a short sentence.
 prisons – house criminals who are
  particularly violent and those who have
  long prison terms.
           Getting out of jail
 probation  – a type of sentence which
  requires a person convicted of a crime to
  follow certain rules or conditions, often
  under the supervision of a probation
  officer. Usually an alternative to prison.
 parole – release of an offender from a
  correctional institution before they
  complete their sentence.
  Getting out of jail - continued
 house   arrest – a person is sentenced to
  wear a monitoring device and follow a set
  of rules issued by the court.
 work release – a person is sentenced to
  jail but permitted to leave to go to their job.

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